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Preview: Nature Reviews Immunology - Issue - nature.com science feeds

Nature Reviews Immunology





 



The theory of disappearing microbiota and the epidemics of chronic diseases

2017-07-27

In recent decades, the incidence of many apparently unrelated chronic diseases has markedly increased. Here, I theorize that losses of particular bacterial species of our ancestral microbiota have altered the context in which immunological, metabolic and cognitive development occur in early life, which results in



Early life immunology: Fetal DCs — born to be mild

2017-07-10

Fetal dendritic cells suppress pro-inflammatory T cell activity.



NK cell allorecognition

2017-05-30

Ashley Moffett describes a 1995 paper by Colonna and Samaridis that provided the stiumulus to understanding the link between NK cells and pre-eclampsia.



Haematopoiesis: Osteopontin skews lymphoid–myeloid balance

2017-07-10

Intracellular and secreted isoforms of osteopontin differentially regulate myeloid progenitors and differentiated lymphoid cells, respectively, through pro- and anti-apoptotic effects.



Type 2 immunity: Hero turns villain in fatty liver

2017-07-17

Obesity associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with pro-fibrotic type 2 immune responses



Asthma and allergy: Vitamin D primes neonatal immune system

2017-07-27

Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been linked to the development of childhood asthma, but most studies in this area have been observational. To directly examine how vitamin D status in pregnancy affects the neonatal immune system, Hornsby et al. analysed cord blood samples



Microbiota: Baby bugs can't stop the thugs...

2017-07-27

Newborns are highly susceptible to orally acquired bacterial infections and this is generally attributed to immaturity of their immune system. This study shows that another contributing factor is the neonatal microbiota, which is less effective in mediating colonization resistance. Kim et al. colonized adult



Innate immunity: Alarmins rewire innate immunity in newborns

2017-07-27

This study describes an important role for the endogenous alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 in protecting newborn infants from sepsis. Healthy newborns produce extremely high levels of S100 alarmins for the first five days of life; the authors found that these alarmins signal through TLR4 to



Tumour vaccines: Personal training by vaccination

2017-07-27

Two groups have shown that personalized, neoantigen-based tumour vaccines elicit effective T cell responses in patients with advanced melanoma, leading to favourable clinical outcomes. Combination with checkpoint blockade can be of additional benefit.



The unique immunological and microbial aspects of pregnancy

2017-06-19

The comparison of the immunological state of pregnancy to an immunosuppressed host–graft model continues to lead research and clinical practice to ill-defined approaches. This Review discusses recent evidence that supports the idea that immunological responses at the receptive maternal–fetal interface are not simply suppressed but



Immunological implications of pregnancy-induced microchimerism

2017-05-08

Immunological identity is traditionally defined by genetically encoded antigens, with equal maternal and paternal contributions as a result of Mendelian inheritance. However, vertically transferred maternal cells also persist in individuals at very low levels throughout postnatal development. Reciprocally, mothers are seeded during pregnancy with genetically



Unique aspects of the perinatal immune system

2017-06-19

The early stages of life are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, which is in part due to an ineffective immune system. In the context of infection, the immune system must be stimulated to provide efficient protection while avoiding insufficient or excessive activation. Yet, in



How nutrition and the maternal microbiota shape the neonatal immune system

2017-06-12

The mucosal surfaces of mammals are densely colonized with microorganisms that are commonly referred to as the commensal microbiota. It is believed that the fetus in utero is sterile and that colonization with microorganisms starts only after birth. Nevertheless, the unborn fetus is exposed



Early life factors that affect allergy development

2017-05-15

The incidence of allergic disease continues to rise in industrialized countries. The rapid increase in the incidence of allergic disease throughout the past half century suggests that recently altered environmental factors are driving allergy development. Accumulating evidence suggests that environmental experiences that occur during the