2017-03-27PD1 inhibits T cell activation by suppressing co-stimulation through CD28, and anti-PD1 therapy requires CD28 stimulation for therapeutic efficacy.
2017-03-27High-resolution proteomics analysis of human immune cells reveals new social networks and establishes a framework for future study of intercellular communication.
2017-03-20James Di Santo and colleagues identify a circulating multipotent precursor for human innate lymphoid cells.
2017-03-27Pregnant mice show weaker immune responses to pandemic strains of influenza virus than non-pregnant mice, and this leads to the emergence of more virulent strains of influenza.
2017-03-13Luke O'Neill describes a 2010 study by Connie Krawczyk, Ed Pearce and colleagues that introduced the Warburg effect to immunologists.
2017-03-27CD32a is a cell surface marker for HIV-infected latent CD4+ T cells.
2017-03-27During chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), T cells become exhausted, and their antiviral response is weakened. An article in Nature Medicine now shows that reducing mitochondrial dysfunction using mitochondrion-targeted antioxidants in CD8+ T cells from patients with chronic HBV infection
2017-03-06Throughout the past century, we have seen the emergence of a large number of multifactorial diseases, including inflammatory, autoimmune, metabolic, neoplastic and neurodegenerative diseases, many of which have been recently associated with intestinal dysbiosis — that is, compositional and functional alterations of the gut microbiome.
2017-02-13Endogenous glucocorticoids are crucial to various physiological processes, including metabolism, development and inflammation. Since 1948, synthetic glucocorticoids have been used to treat various immune-related disorders. The mechanisms that underlie the immunosuppressive properties of these hormones have been intensely scrutinized, and it is widely appreciated that
2017-03-13Traditionally, neutrophils have been acknowledged to be the first immune cells that are recruited to an inflamed tissue and have mainly been considered in the context of acute inflammation. By contrast, their importance during chronic inflammation has been studied in less depth. This Review aims
2017-03-13Dying cells have an important role in the initiation of CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity. The cross-presentation of antigens derived from dying cells enables dendritic cells to present exogenous tissue-restricted or tumour-restricted proteins on MHC class I molecules. Importantly, this pathway has been implicated