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Nature Reviews Immunology


Immunometabolism: Stress-induced macrophage polarization


Activation of the IRE1α-mediated stress response pathway in adipose tissue macrophages suppresses M2 polarization.

Neuroimmunology: Immune signals packaged in the brain


Astrocyte-shed extracellular vesicles provide long-distance messages to promote peripheral immune responses following brain injury.

Insect Immunity: Mechanism of adaptive immunity found in the fruitfly


Haemocytes in Drosophila melanogaster facilitate antiviral immunity by amplifying and systemically disseminating RNA interference-mediated responses via exosome-like vesicles. Moreover, they allow for immune memory, akin to adaptive immune responses in mammals.

Microbiota: Diet can protect against type 1 diabetes


Microbial metabolites can protect mice from diabetes by decreasing the frequency of autoreactive T cells and promoting the frequency of regulatory T cells.

Finding order in chaos


Linda Sherman describes a 1991 study by Hans-Georg Rammensee and colleagues that defines allele-specific motifs required for the binding of peptides to MHC molecules.

Cytokines: Oncostatin M – a new target in IBD?


Oncostatin M promotes intestinal inflammation and can predict responsiveness to anti-TNF therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

Mechanisms of central tolerance for B cells


Immune tolerance hinders the potentially destructive responses of lymphocytes to host tissues. Tolerance is regulated at the stage of immature B cell development (central tolerance) by clonal deletion, involving apoptosis, and by receptor editing, which reprogrammes the specificity of B cells through secondary recombination of

Generation of diversity in thymic epithelial cells


In the thymus, diverse populations of thymic epithelial cells (TECs), including cortical and medullary TECs and their subpopulations, have distinct roles in coordinating the development and repertoire selection of functionally competent and self-tolerant T cells. Here, we review the expanding diversity in TEC subpopulations in

Liver macrophages in tissue homeostasis and disease


Macrophages represent a key cellular component of the liver, and are essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis and ensuring rapid responses to hepatic injury. Our understanding of liver macrophages has been revolutionized by the delineation of heterogeneous subsets of these cells. Kupffer cells are a self-sustaining,

New insights into mononuclear phagocyte biology from the visual system


Major advances in mononuclear phagocyte biology have been made but key questions pertinent to their roles in health and disease remain, including in the visual system. One problem concerns how dendritic cells can trigger immune responses from certain tightly regulated immune- privileged sites of the

Programmed cell death and the immune system


More than 50 years ago, cells were observed to die during insect development via a process that was named 'programmed cell death'. Later, a similar cell death process was found to occur in humans, and the process was renamed 'apoptosis'. In the 1990s, a number