2017-04-10Activation of the IRE1α-mediated stress response pathway in adipose tissue macrophages suppresses M2 polarization.
2017-04-26Astrocyte-shed extracellular vesicles provide long-distance messages to promote peripheral immune responses following brain injury.
2017-04-26Haemocytes in Drosophila melanogaster facilitate antiviral immunity by amplifying and systemically disseminating RNA interference-mediated responses via exosome-like vesicles. Moreover, they allow for immune memory, akin to adaptive immune responses in mammals.
2017-04-19Microbial metabolites can protect mice from diabetes by decreasing the frequency of autoreactive T cells and promoting the frequency of regulatory T cells.
2017-04-03Linda Sherman describes a 1991 study by Hans-Georg Rammensee and colleagues that defines allele-specific motifs required for the binding of peptides to MHC molecules.
2017-04-26Oncostatin M promotes intestinal inflammation and can predict responsiveness to anti-TNF therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.
2017-04-03Immune tolerance hinders the potentially destructive responses of lymphocytes to host tissues. Tolerance is regulated at the stage of immature B cell development (central tolerance) by clonal deletion, involving apoptosis, and by receptor editing, which reprogrammes the specificity of B cells through secondary recombination of
2017-03-20In the thymus, diverse populations of thymic epithelial cells (TECs), including cortical and medullary TECs and their subpopulations, have distinct roles in coordinating the development and repertoire selection of functionally competent and self-tolerant T cells. Here, we review the expanding diversity in TEC subpopulations in
2017-03-20Macrophages represent a key cellular component of the liver, and are essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis and ensuring rapid responses to hepatic injury. Our understanding of liver macrophages has been revolutionized by the delineation of heterogeneous subsets of these cells. Kupffer cells are a self-sustaining,
2017-03-27Major advances in mononuclear phagocyte biology have been made but key questions pertinent to their roles in health and disease remain, including in the visual system. One problem concerns how dendritic cells can trigger immune responses from certain tightly regulated immune- privileged sites of the
2017-02-06More than 50 years ago, cells were observed to die during insect development via a process that was named 'programmed cell death'. Later, a similar cell death process was found to occur in humans, and the process was renamed 'apoptosis'. In the 1990s, a number