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Preview: Nature Medicine - Issue - nature.com science feeds

Nature Medicine - Issue - nature.com science feeds



Nature Medicine is the premier journal for biomedical research. Respected internationally for the quality of its papers on areas ranging from infectious disease to cancer and neurodegeneration, Nature Medicine aims to bridge the gap between basic research



 



Railroading at the FDA

2016-11-08

The US Food and Drug Administration approved a muscular-dystrophy drug against the scientific advice of its own staff and advisors. Despite leadership's attempts to downplay the controversy, doubts now surround standards for accelerated approval.












Correction

2016-11-08










Increasing the neurological-disease toolbox using iPSC-derived microglia

2016-11-08

A new study presents a protocol to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into microglia that closely resemble their in vivo counterparts. These cells offer an exciting new tool for learning more about the role of microglia in disease.



Caspase-2 and tau—a toxic partnership?

2016-11-08

Misfolded and hyperphosphorylated forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau are thought to be responsible for some degree of neurodegeneration. The demonstration of a novel toxic cleavage of tau by caspase-2 opens up new therapeutic avenues.



Improving treatment of liver metastases by targeting nonangiogenic mechanisms

2016-11-08

A recent study confirms an association between vessel co-option and resistance to bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA) antibody, in patients with liver metastases. The authors suggest a combined therapeutic strategy that reduces co-option in mice.



Innate immune signaling and stem cell renewal in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

2016-11-08

Aberrant injury responses in the distal lung likely underpin the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). A recent study shows that defective Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated hyaluronan binding impairs alveolar type 2 cell renewal, which may contribute to a dysregulated lung-injury response in IPF.



Mental health horizons

2016-11-08

From organoids to population-level studies, mental health research has begun to crack long-standing mysteries. Longitudinal investigations into brain and cognitive development among adolescents, such as the forthcoming 10,000-person ABCD project, will help to mature the field.



The implications of the shared genetics of psychiatric disorders

2016-10-26

Recent studies have led to the identification of genetic loci that are shared between psychiatric disorders. Here O’Donovan and Owen argue that it is unlikely that risk alleles exist that are singular to any one such disorder.



The promises and challenges of human brain organoids as models of neuropsychiatric disease

2016-10-26

Psychiatric disorders are difficult to model owing to their inherent complexity and heterogeneity. This Perspective focuses on the use of 3D brain organoids in modeling these disorders, considering both their advantages and their limitations.



Developmental timing and critical windows for the treatment of psychiatric disorders

2016-10-26

The developmental trajectories of neuropsychiatric disorders suggest that early life events might contribute substantially to disease. Here the author discusses the potential to treat within these critical time windows of development to alter disease course.



Re-evaluating the link between neuropsychiatric disorders and dysregulated adult neurogenesis

2016-10-26

Recent evidence indicates that one of the underlying mechanisms in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders is dysregulated dentate gyrus neurogenesis. Here the authors present evidence supporting this hypothesis and suggest therapeutic avenues.



The search for imaging biomarkers in psychiatric disorders

2016-10-26

Abi-Dargham and Horga discuss the challenges of developing and standardizing brain-imaging technologies to aid with the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders.



Fetal brain lesions after subcutaneous inoculation of Zika virus in a pregnant nonhuman primate

2016-09-12

New animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection are imperative to accelerating efforts to treat or prevent disease in humans. Adams Waldorf et al. now report that ZIKV infection of a pregnant female pigtailed macaque caused brain lesions in the developing fetus, suggesting that this model may be useful for understanding ZIKV-associated congenital abnormalities in humans.



Determinants of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody induction

2016-09-26

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) develop in a minority of HIV-infected individuals. Analyzing data from more than 4,000 infected individuals, Alexandra Trkola and colleagues identify viral, host and disease factors associated with the development of bNAbs that may inform future vaccine design.



Caspase-2 cleavage of tau reversibly impairs memory

2016-10-10

Caspase-2-mediated cleavage of tau is shown to generate a fibrillation-resistant truncation product (Δtau314) that contributes to the missorting of tau into dendritic spines, synaptic dysfunction, neurodegeneration and cognitive impairments in mice.



Translocation and dissemination of commensal bacteria in post-stroke infection

2016-10-03

In humans and rodent models, commensal gut bacteria contribute to post-stroke infection. Experimental stroke in rodents causes gut barrier dysfunction and permeability, enabling translocation and dissemination of host gut microbiota.



Hyaluronan and TLR4 promote surfactant-protein-C-positive alveolar progenitor cell renewal and prevent severe pulmonary fibrosis in mice

2016-10-03

Reduced hyaluronan–TLR4 signaling in a stem cell population of the lung contributes to a lack of renewal of these cells and promotes fibrosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.



Vessel co-option mediates resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy in liver metastases

2016-10-17

Poor responses of liver metastases to the anti-angiogenic agent bevacizumab in patients with colorectal and breast cancer correlate with tumor co-option of pre-existing blood vessels, a mechanism of tumor resistance that might be targeted by the inhibition of cancer cell motility.



PIM1 kinase regulates cell death, tumor growth and chemotherapy response in triple-negative breast cancer

2016-10-24

In triple-negative breast cancer, the kinase PIM1, which is highly expressed, functions through the transcription factor c-MYC to promote tumor cell survival and growth.



Recurrent MET fusion genes represent a drug target in pediatric glioblastoma

2016-10-17

Whole-genome sequencing identified recurrent fusions involving the MET oncogene, and MET inhibitors suppressed tumor growth in mouse models and in a human patient.



PIM1 kinase inhibition as a targeted therapy against triple-negative breast tumors with elevated MYC expression

2016-10-24

In triple-negative breast cancer, the PIM1 kinase is highly expressed, acts to promote tumor cell survival and growth, and increases MYC transcriptional activity.



Dietary zinc alters the microbiota and decreases resistance to Clostridium difficile infection

2016-09-26

Dietary zinc supplements are in common use, but their effect on infection is unclear. New findings now show that excess dietary zinc reduces the diversity of the gut microbiota and increases the susceptibility of antibiotic-treated mice to Clostridium difficile infection.



Dual effects of carbon monoxide on pericytes and neurogenesis in traumatic brain injury

2016-09-26

In a mouse model of traumatic brain injury, treatment with a carbon-monoxide-releasing molecule is shown to reduce pericyte cell death and promote neurogenesis, leading to an amelioration of neurological deficits.



Classification and characterization of microsatellite instability across 18 cancer types

2016-10-03

Systematic analysis of more than 5,900 human tumor exomes yields a new genomic classifier of microsatellite instability and insight into its prevalence and biological implications.



Microenvironment-dependent growth of preneoplastic and malignant plasma cells in humanized mice

2016-10-10

In a new mouse model of multiple myeloma, mice expressing the human versions of six proteins important for hematopoietic function were able to support the growth of primary human multiple myeloma xenografts, including both preneoplastic and malignant plasma cells.



Efficient derivation of microglia-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells

2016-09-26

A protocol is developed to enable the differentiation of microglial-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells, which are shown to resemble primary human microglia, integrate into 3D neuronal cultures, and perform phagocytic and injury-response functions.