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Nature Medicine



A biomedical research journal devoted to publishing the latest and most exciting advances in biomedical research for scientists and physicians.



 



A prescription for cancer diagnostics

2017-07-11

Cancer research has made great strides in identifying effective therapies for treating advanced-stage tumors. The next challenge is moving the battle to earlier stages of disease.



Battling the biology of opioid addiction

2017-07-11

Deaths from drug overdose are rising worldwide, in part owing to the growing epidemic of opioid addiction. Efforts to combat opioid addiction will benefit from stronger collaboration between preclinical researchers who are studying addiction and those studying chronic pain.









Correction

2017-07-11




An unexpected role for bile acid synthesis in adaptation to low temperature

2017-07-11

Enhanced conversion of dietary cholesterol to bile acids through the alternative pathway leads to cold-associated, metabolically beneficial changes in the intestinal microbiome and to elevated bile acid levels that contribute to adaptive thermogenesis.



A mouse model of renal cell carcinoma

2017-07-11

A mouse model with combined renal epithelium-specific deletion of Vhl, Trp53 and Rb1 that develops clear-cell renal cell carcinoma provides a research tool for investigating the mechanisms that drive this cancer, and for evaluating the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents.



Insulin action and resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes

2017-07-11

In this Perspective, Michael Czech presents evidence for whether hyperinsulinemia occurs before insulin resistance upon overfeeding or high-fat diet feeding, or whether insulin resistance causes hyperinsulinemia, thus attempting to delineate the relationship between hyperinsulinemia, obesity and insulin resistance.



Elimination of large tumors in mice by mRNA-encoded bispecific antibodies

2017-06-12

Bispecific antibodies that connect T cells with tumor cells can be delivered in the form of in vitro–transcribed pharmacologically optimized mRNA; when injected into mice, these mRNA-encoded antibodies reject large established tumors as efficiently as the corresponding recombinant antibody protein.



Interaction of reactive astrocytes with type I collagen induces astrocytic scar formation through the integrin–N-cadherin pathway after spinal cord injury

2017-06-19

In a mouse model of spinal cord injury, reactive astrogliosis is found to be context dependent and reversible. Blockade of type I collagen–reactive astrocyte interactions prevents astrocyte scar formation and facilitates functional recovery after injury.



Thermoneutral housing exacerbates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice and allows for sex-independent disease modeling

2017-06-12

Current mouse models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are limited, making identification and preclinical testing of new treatments challenging. Housing mice at thermoneutrality leads to less stress, a stronger immune response and better modeling of this condition.



Cold-induced conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in mice shapes the gut microbiome and promotes adaptive thermogenesis

2017-06-12

During cold stimulation, cholesterol is converted to bile acids in an alternative pathway. The bile acids then alter the microbiota, which in turn promotes more heat generation.



Metformin alters the gut microbiome of individuals with treatment-naive type 2 diabetes, contributing to the therapeutic effects of the drug

2017-05-22

A randomized clinical trial reveals that the antidiabetic effects of metformin are at least partially due to beneficial changes in the microbiota.



Gut microbiome and serum metabolome alterations in obesity and after weight-loss intervention

2017-06-19

Composition of gut bacteria and serum metabolites in young, obese individuals is partially restored following weight loss surgery, including Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which decreases serum glutamate levels and fat mass gain in mice.



Combined mutation in Vhl, Trp53 and Rb1 causes clear cell renal cell carcinoma in mice

2017-05-29

Through combined deletion of Vhl, Trp53 and Rb1 in renal epithelial cells, the authors develop a new mouse model of renal cell carcinoma that recapitulates the cellular and molecular features of a large proportion of human tumors. This model uncovers a role for primary-cilium-related genes in the development of the disease and provides a reliable platform for preclinical therapeutic studies.



Colonic organoids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells for modeling colorectal cancer and drug testing

2017-06-19

A protocol based on chemical modulation of WNT activity is used to efficiently generate colonic organoids that recapitulate the molecular features of human colon tissue. Colonic organoids generated from induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis provide an in vitro platform for disease modeling and preclinical drug testing.



Novel assay reveals a large, inducible, replication-competent HIV-1 reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells

2017-05-29

Sanyal et al. report a new and rapid assay for measuring replication-competent HIV-1 in CD4+ T cells.



ISDoT: in situ decellularization of tissues for high-resolution imaging and proteomic analysis of native extracellular matrix

2017-06-12

By surgically directing the vascular delivery of decellularization reagents, the in situ decellularization of desired organs or tissues in mice can be achieved, enabling detailed imaging and characterization of the intact extracellular matrix, including in the cancer metastatic niche.