2017-01-06Changing political and funding landscapes in the US create an uncertain environment for biomedical research. The research community must insist that scientific policy follow from science, not political partisanship.
2017-01-06A recent study shows that pasteurization of Akkermansia muciniphila enhances the bacterium's ability to reduce fat mass and metabolic syndrome in mice with diet-induced obesity, and that Amuc_1100*, a thermostable outer-membrane protein of A. muciniphila, can reproduce these beneficial effects.
2017-01-06Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a circulating biomarker of inflammation. A recent study identifies immature myeloid cells in the bone marrow as a major cellular source of suPAR that contributes to kidney disease.
2017-01-06A new study shows that fasting induces the differentiation and elimination of some types of leukemia in mice, which implicates fasting or its mimetics as a novel strategy for the treatment of this disease.
2017-01-06A new study identifies four distinct 'biotypes' of depression on the basis of fMRI resting-state functional connectivity in a diverse sample of more than 1,000 individuals. The biotypes are diagnostic of depression and predict treatment response.
2017-01-06Gattinoni and colleagues discuss the emerging roles of this subset of long-lived memory T lymphocytes, and highlight ways in which these cells might be exploited to achieve therapeutic aims.
2016-12-05Using functional MRI in a large multisite sample of more that 1,000 patients, four distinct neurophysiological biotypes of depression are defined. These biotypes are used to develop diagnostic classifiers that distinguish patients with depression from controls in separate multisite validation and replication cohorts, and can predict patient responsiveness to therapy.
2016-11-28The thalamus-enriched microRNA miR-338-3p is depleted in mouse models of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and in humans with schizophrenia, leading to a late-onset dysfunction of auditory thalamocortical synaptic transmission, behavioral abnormalities and altered sensitivity to antipsychotics.
2016-11-21Organoids formed by combining pluripotent-stem-cell-derived human neural crest cells with pluripotent-stem-cell-derived intestinal tissue show functional interstitial cells of Cajal and undergo waves of contraction; these tissues reveal insights into the molecular defects characterizing Hirschsprung's disease.
2016-11-21A genome-wide CRISPR screen reveals that FZD5, but none of the other nine Frizzled receptors encoded in the human genome, is a therapeutic vulnerability of pancreatic and colorectal tumors bearing RNF43 mutations.
2016-12-12Proteasomal degradation of EZH2 in AML patients in response to therapy triggers the expression of stem cell markers and has been identified as an epigenetic pathway leading to acquired drug resistance. Treatments aimed to restore EZH2 expression in relapsed AML patients have shown clinical efficacy and constitute a viable approach to re-sensitize tumors to chemotherapy.
2016-12-12In leukemic mice, fasting reduces the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but not acute myeloid leukemia, via upregulation of leptin receptor expression and signaling in the leukemic cells.
2016-12-05The Wnt pathway inhibitor Dkk1, which is produced by bone marrow osteolineage cells, promotes hematopoietic recovery after radiation injury by both direct effects on hematopoietic cells and indirect effects on bone marrow endothelial cells.
2016-12-12Soluble uPAR is known to contribute to certain types of chronic kidney disease, and myeloid cells from the bone marrow have now been shown to be a key source of this factor.
2016-11-28Akkermansia muciniphila, a member of the gut microbiome, has been shown to improve metabolism in mice. Here it is reported that its pasteurization further improves this effect, and that one of its membrane proteins by itself has a similar benefit.
2016-11-21Copy-number alterations detected in circulating tumor cells at time of diagnosis predict chemosensitive versus chemorefractory responses; however, CTCs obtained after subsequent relapse bear a chemosensitive copy-number alteration profile, which suggests that different mechanisms drive initial and acquired chemoresistance.
2016-11-21By reducing the availability of extracellular L-cyst(e)ine, an engineered enzyme inhibits glutathione production and cripples antioxidant defenses of tumors in a variety of mouse models.
2016-12-05B cells protect against inflammation-associated preterm labor via IL-33-induced PIBF1 expression in mice, which suggests a therapy for this condition in humans.