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Nature Medicine - Issue - nature.com science feeds



Nature Medicine is the premier journal for biomedical research. Respected internationally for the quality of its papers on areas ranging from infectious disease to cancer and neurodegeneration, Nature Medicine aims to bridge the gap between basic research



 



Take science off the stand

2017-03-07

The scientific process relies on people's willingness to publish data-driven findings. Turning to the legal system to adjudicate the merit of evidence-based assertions in the scientific literature leads us down a dangerous path.






Correction

2017-03-07







Opioids: keeping the good, eliminating the bad

2017-01-30

Two new studies show that mechanisms mediating the opioid side effects of tolerance, hyperalgesia and physical dependence are mediated spinally and can be dissociated from analgesia. These side effects can be selectively targeted by clinically available drugs without affecting their pain-relieving effects.



The shape of the microbiome in early life

2017-03-07

A recent study shows that microbial-community structure and function substantially expand and diversify in all body sites from birth to age 4–6 weeks. It then resembles microbiota from its corresponding maternal body site, independently of the infant's mode of delivery or other prenatal factors.



Taking inventory of metastasis effectors

2017-03-07

In a recent study in mice, researchers combined tumor barcoding with unbiased genomic analysis and identified Cd109 as a hub gene involved in metastatic progression. They show that pharmacological inhibition of its downstream effectors JAK1 and STAT3 curtails metastatic growth.



α5 nicotinic receptors link smoking to schizophrenia

2017-03-07

A new study shows that nicotinic receptors activate a particular type of interneuron in the prefrontal cortex. Deficits in this relationship give rise to behavioral abnormalities similar to those associated with schizophrenia, which can be ameliorated by nicotine.



An emerging role for neutrophil extracellular traps in noninfectious disease

2017-03-07

Kubes and Fassl discuss the role of NETosis in sterile inflammation and disease, and propose windows of opportunity for therapeutic targeting of NETs.



α-Lipoic acid treatment prevents cystine urolithiasis in a mouse model of cystinuria

2017-02-06

Excess urinary cystine can lead to painful stone formation. There is no current effective treatment, but here Pankaj Kapahi, Marshall Stoller and colleagues have found that α-lipoic acid can prevent or even reverse formation of these stones in a mouse model.



Molecular definition of a metastatic lung cancer state reveals a targetable CD109–Janus kinase–Stat axis

2017-02-13

In vivo screening of pro-metastatic factors in a genetically engineered mouse model of lung cancer uncovered the CD109–JAK–STAT3 axis as a key contributor of metastatic dissemination of lung cancer cells. Activation of this pathway predicts poor outcome in patients with cancer, and its pharmacological inhibition dramatically reduces the metastatic ability of tumor cells, suggesting that it might be an effective intervention in patients.



The creatine kinase pathway is a metabolic vulnerability in EVI1-positive acute myeloid leukemia

2017-02-13

Transcriptomic and metabolic profiling reveals that the creatine kinase pathway is essential for growth of acute myeloid leukemias expressing the transcription factor EVI1.



Maturation of the infant microbiome community structure and function across multiple body sites and in relation to mode of delivery

2017-01-23

Whole-genome shotgun sequencing and sequencing of the gene encoding the 16S rRNA in samples from a variety of body sites in a large cohort of mothers and their infants reveals that, during the 6 weeks after birth, changes in the composition and function of the microbiome are driven by body site but not by the mode of delivery.



Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction can restore antiviral activity of exhausted HBV-specific CD8 T cells in chronic hepatitis B

2017-02-06

Carlo Ferrari and colleagues reveal that hepatitis B virus (HBV) specific CD8 T cells from individuals with chronic HBV infections have extensive mitochondrial dysfunction that contributes to impaired antiviral activity but can be targeted with antioxidants.



JNK1 negatively controls antifungal innate immunity by suppressing CD23 expression

2017-01-23

Xin Lin and colleagues report that JNK1 negatively regulates immune responses against Candida albicans infection by inhibiting CD23 expression and subsequent nitric oxide production, which mediate antifungal resistance in JNK1-deficient mice.



Nicotine reverses hypofrontality in animal models of addiction and schizophrenia

2017-01-23

In transgenic mouse models of neuropsychiatric disease, loss of nicotinic cholinergic signaling in cortical inhibitory interneurons causes neurocognitive behavioral deficits and reduced neuronal activity in prefrontal circuits. Chronic administration of nicotine can restore this cortical hypofrontality phenotype.



Blocking microglial pannexin-1 channels alleviates morphine withdrawal in rodents

2017-01-30

The release of ATP from spinal microglia via pannexin-1 channels is required for withdrawal symptoms after termination of chronic opioid treatment in rodents, and pharmacological blockade of pannexin-1 channels reduces the severity of withdrawal without affecting opiate analgesia.



Sirtuin 1 regulates cardiac electrical activity by deacetylating the cardiac sodium channel

2017-02-13

Intracellular trafficking of the voltage-gated cardiac Na+ channel Nav1.5 is regulated by lysine deacetylation mediated by Sirt1, thereby affecting sodium current and cardiac electrical activity.



A distinct innate lymphoid cell population regulates tumor-associated T cells

2017-02-06

A previously uncharacterized population of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the tumor microenvironment limits T cell expansion and cytokine production, and associates with early recurrence in patients with cancer. Depletion of this regulatory immunosuppressive cell population overcomes this effect, suggesting important implications for cancer immunotherapy.



Whole-genome single-cell copy number profiling from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples

2017-02-06

A method enabling copy-number analysis of single cells from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples is described, validated and applied to analyze samples of synchronous ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive breast carcinoma.



DNA methylation heterogeneity defines a disease spectrum in Ewing sarcoma

2017-01-30

DNA methylation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses uncover an epigenetic disease spectrum in Ewing sarcoma. These characteristic epigenome patterns correlate with state of differentiation and disease aggressiveness, and pave the way for the development of biomarkers.