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Preview: PHYSorg.com: Cancer News

Cancer News - Health News, Medicine News, Cancer



Phys.org provides the latest news on cancer, health, medicines, cancer treatments, cancer research, cancer studies and types of cancer.



 



Precision cancer therapy effective in both children and adults

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 17:52:03 EST

Three quarters of patients, both adults and children, with a variety of advanced cancers occurring in different sites of the body responded to larotrectinib, a novel therapy that targets a specific genetic mutation. Results of this multisite phase 1/2 trial have been published in the New England Journal of Medicine on February 22, 2018. Unlike most cancer therapies, this oral treatment is based on the genetic traits of the tumor and not the organ where the cancer originated.



Drug successfully targets cancers with tumor-specific gene mutations

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 17:50:36 EST

Pediatric and adult cancers with one of three fusion genes responds well to a new drug, larotrectinib, according to a study published today in the New England Journal of Medicine. The drug is designed to target a specific tumor gene mutation known as tropomyosin receptor kinases (TRK) that can occur in various tumor types.



Kinase inhibitor larotrectinib shows durable anti-tumor abilities

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 17:00:01 EST

Three simultaneous safety and efficacy studies of the drug larotrectinib reported an overall response rate of 75 percent for patients ages four months to 76 years with 17 different cancer diagnoses. All patients had tumors with tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) fusions, gene mutations that switch on TRK genes, allowing cancer growth. The studies indicate larotrectinib as a potentially powerful new treatment approach for the approximately 5,000 patients with these forms of cancer.



New therapeutic gel shows promise against cancerous tumors

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 14:00:06 EST

Scientists at the UNC School of Medicine and NC State have created an injectable gel-like scaffold that can hold combination chemo-immunotherapeutic drugs and deliver them locally to tumors in a sequential manner. The results in animal models so far suggest this approach could one day ramp up therapeutic benefits for patients bearing tumors or after removal of the primary tumors.



Five novel genetic changes linked to pancreatic cancer risk

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 10:27:12 EST

In what is believed to be the largest pancreatic cancer genome-wide association study to date, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and the National Cancer Institute, and collaborators from over 80 other institutions worldwide discovered changes to five new regions in the human genome that may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer.



Patients with advanced cancer may be less competent to make decisions than doctors think

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 09:09:44 EST

Patients with terminal cancer face difficult decisions. What treatment options support their goals? When is it reasonable to discontinue care? A study published in the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry shows that these patients may be less competent to make these decisions than their doctors think.



New technique predicts gene resistance to cancer treatments

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 08:40:10 EST

Yale School of Public Health researchers have developed a new method to predict likely resistance paths to cancer therapeutics, and a methodology to apply it to one of the most frequent cancer-causing genes.



Research could change how doctors treat leukemia and other cancers fed by fat

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 08:18:01 EST

Obesity and cancer risk have a mysterious relationship, with obesity increasing the risk for 13 types of cancer. For some cancers—including pediatric cancers—obesity affects survival rates, which are lower for people who are obese.



'Local environment' plays key role in breast cancer progression

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 08:00:02 EST

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women—one in eight (12.4 percent) in the U.S. will be diagnosed with it. Invasive breast cancer is dangerous for two reasons: It can aggressively spread to other organs in the body, and it is likely to recur. While treatable in the early stages via surgery or chemotherapy, as the disease progresses, the chances of recovery decrease exponentially.



How advanced imaging technologies will prevent unnecessary breast tissue biopsies

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 06:31:18 EST

Enhancing the diagnosis of breast cancer is the goal of a research team at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg. The scientists have combined an advanced method of diffusion-weighted MR imaging with intelligent image analysis methods to detect malignant changes in tissues. This method may prevent many control biopsies following suspicious findings from mammography screenings. This advancement holds promise for substantial improvements in the diagnosis of breast cancer.



Similarities found in cancer initiation in kidney, liver, stomach, pancreas

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 06:00:02 EST

Recent research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis demonstrated that mature cells in the stomach sometimes revert back to behaving like rapidly dividing stem cells. Now, the researchers have found that this process may be universal; no matter the organ, when tissue responds to certain types of injury, mature cells seem to get younger and begin dividing rapidly, creating scenarios that can lead to cancer.



Genes activated in metastasis also drive the first stages of tumour growth

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 05:55:42 EST

In spite of the difference between the cell functions responsible for giving rise to a tumour and that give rise to metastasis, studies at IRB Barcelona using the fly Drosophila melanogaster reveal that some genes can drive both phenomena.



Nitrate in drinking water increases the risk of colorectal cancer

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 05:14:07 EST

Nitrate in groundwater and drinking water, which primarily comes from fertilisers used in the agricultural production, has not only been subject to decades of environmental awareness—it has also been suspected of increasing the risk of cancer. The largest epidemiological study ever carried out in this area now shows that there is a correlation—also when the amount of nitrate in the drinking water is far below the current drinking water standard. The results have just been published in the scientific journal International Journal of Cancer.



Cancer pioneer employs physics to approach cancer in last research article

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 03:04:00 EST

In the cover article of Tuesday's issue of Oncotarget, James Frost, MD, PhD, Kenneth Pienta, MD, and the late Donald Coffey, Ph.D., use a theory of physical and biophysical symmetry to derive a new conceptualization of cancer. Co-author Dr. Coffey, ex-deputy director of the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and Professor of Urology, died before this paper was published at 85.



Study shows age doesn't affect survival in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma after HCT

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 03:02:29 EST

Results from a retrospective study of 1,629 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) showed that survival at 4 years following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for patients age 65 years and older is comparable to patients age 55 to 64 years. The study demonstrates that age alone should not be a determinant when considering HCT for patients with NHL. The study results will be presented in an oral session at the BMT Tandem Meetings on Saturday, February 24.



Study weighs risks and benefits of phase I trials in pediatric cancer

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 14:00:05 EST

On average, 1 in 10 children who enroll in pediatric phase I cancer trials are improved after the trial, and 1 in 50 die from drug-related complications, according to a new systematic review and meta-analysis published this week in PLOS Medicine by Jonathan Kimmelman from McGill University, Canada, and colleagues.



Scientists tackle the aberrant epigenetic programming underlying childhood cancers

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 10:04:48 EST

Several childhood cancer cell types show features of immature neural cells, and there is evidence suggesting that these tumors may arise from neural crest stem cells that underwent abnormal changes during embryonic development. One such cancer is Ewing sarcoma. Although combinatorial treatment protocols encompassing chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy have improved outcomes, many patients still suffer from a poor prognosis.



Architecture of cellular control center mTORC2 elucidated

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 09:48:16 EST

The protein complex mTORC2 controls cellular lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Researchers from the Biozentrum of the University of Basel and the ETH Zurich have now succeeded in deciphering the 3-D structure of this important protein complex. The results have recently been published in eLife.



Survivors of blood or marrow transplantation are likely to experience cognitive impairment

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 09:24:05 EST

Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation recipients are at a significantly higher risk of cognitive impairment in the years post-transplantation, according to a study published in Journal of Clinical Oncology.



Genetic test identifies 'high risk' lymphatic cancer patients

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 09:22:49 EST

Around 1,500 people in Denmark are diagnosed with lymphatic cancer each year. A small sub-group (70 to 80 people) develop a rare and aggressive type of lymphatic cancer, known as mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).



Researchers discover novel mechanism linking changes in mitochondria to cancer cell death

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 07:42:40 EST

To stop the spread of cancer, cancer cells must die. Unfortunately, many types of cancer cells seem to use innate mechanisms that block cancer cell death, therefore allowing the cancer to metastasize. While seeking to further understand cancer cell death, researchers at the University of Notre Dame discovered that the activation of a specific enzyme may help suppress the spread of tumors.



MRI technique differentiates benign breast lesions from malignancies

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:01 EST

An MRI breast imaging technique that requires no contrast agent, combined with sophisticated data analysis, could reduce the number of unnecessary breast biopsies, according to a new study appearing online in the journal Radiology.



Treatment-free remission of chronic myeloid leukemia is possible following second-line nilotinib

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 17:00:02 EST

Treatment-free remission seems to be achievable in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who have achieved sustained deep molecular response (DMR) after discontinuation of second-line nilotinib therapy. Results from a Phase 2, open-label study are published in Annals of Internal Medicine.



Evaluating quality of life after kidney cancer treatments

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 08:20:51 EST

Patients with an advanced form of kidney cancer had similar quality of life outcomes taking a drug called cabozantinib as those who received the standard treatment, everolimus, according to a new Northwestern Medicine study. The findings were published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.



Ras protein's role in spreading cancer

Sun, 18 Feb 2018 13:12:16 EST

Protein systems, such as Ras, make up the complex signaling pathways that control whether a cell divides or, in some cases, becomes cancerous and metastasizes into other regions of the body. For example, 98 percent of pancreatic cancers show Ras protein mutations.



Follow-up lacking for teen, young adult cancer survivors

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 18:30:01 EST

(HealthDay)—Many adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors are not receiving adequate follow-up care, according to a study presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology's annual Cancer Survivorship Symposium, held from Feb. 16 to 17 in Orlando, Fla.



'Liquid biopsy' can help predict outcomes in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 11:52:53 EST

A clinically relevant "liquid biopsy" test can be used to profile cancer genomes from blood and predict survival outcomes for patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), according to new research published by a multi-institutional team of researchers with The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center—Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James), the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard.



The same test, regardless of cancer type

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 09:50:01 EST

Researchers at the Institute for Cancer Genetics and Informatics at Oslo University Hospital (OUS), have developed a method that can assess the seriousness of a patient's cancer and what treatment is required.



Rapid radiation therapy minimizes treatment time, improves quality of life

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 08:01:00 EST

Faster isn't always better, but in the case of radiation therapy for some cancers, accelerating radiation courses can help patients get on the road to recovery sooner.



Researchers find a pathway that leads to resistance of aggressive brain tumor treatment

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 06:32:52 EST

Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most common and deadly brain tumors. Despite the initial responsiveness to state-of-the-art therapies, tumors virtually always become resistant and eventually recur. Researchers at Dartmouth's Norris Cotton Cancer Center, led by Damian A. Almiron Bonnin, MD-Ph.D. candidate of the Mark Israel laboratory, are devising strategies to prevent brain tumors from becoming resistant to anti-tumor drug treatment.