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Science News - Mathematics, Economics, Archaeology, Fossils



Phys.org provides the latest news on science, fossils, archaeology, chemistry, mathematics, biology and science technology.



 



Third Roman temple in Silchester may have been part of emperor's vanity project

Wed, 22 Nov 2017 08:49:07 EST

A Roman temple uncovered in a Hampshire farmyard by University of Reading archaeologists may be the first building of its kind in Britain to be dated back to the reign of Emperor Nero.



Standardised tests are culturally biased against rural students

Wed, 22 Nov 2017 08:10:04 EST

It is generally reported that rural students are up to one and a half years behind their metropolitan peers in the National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) and Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests. They are also less likely to complete year 12, and half as likely to go to university.



Sexual assault worse for those who don't attend college

Wed, 22 Nov 2017 07:00:05 EST

One in four women in the United States will experience forced intercourse by the time they're 44, and the risk is greater for women who have attended little or no college compared to those who attend four or more years of college.



Declines in population don't always reflect quality of life, according to sociologist

Wed, 22 Nov 2017 06:40:02 EST

You can still live large in a small town.



More needs to be done to ensure 24-hour working is not the new norm

Wed, 22 Nov 2017 03:24:34 EST

Employers should do more to ensure employees do not feel pressured into working outside of their contractual hours and offer more support regarding how they work flexibly, a new study in the International Journal of Management Reviews reports.



How to cut your lawn for grasshoppers

Wed, 22 Nov 2017 02:07:02 EST

Picture a grasshopper landing randomly on a lawn of fixed area. If it then jumps a certain distance in a random direction, what shape should the lawn be to maximise the chance that the grasshopper stays on the lawn after jumping?



New tool can help job searchers better position themselves in market

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 14:32:57 EST

With the decline of manufacturing, the U.S. economy has increasingly shifted toward knowledge-based production: industries focused on implementing new ideas surrounding technology, product design, machine learning, and other areas as their source of revenue. In this new economy, it can be challenging to evaluate the skillset of an individual, as combinations of various skills are important. For example, a software developer with design skills may be more valuable than a software developer with Russian translation skills.



Archeologists find Roman shipwrecks off Egypt's north coast

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 11:00:42 EST

Egypt says archaeologists have discovered three sunken shipwrecks dating back more than 2,000 years to Roman times off the coast of the city of Alexandria.



What does it mean for the husband when his wife keeps her own surname?

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 10:34:53 EST

When a woman chooses not to take her husband's surname after marriage, people perceive her husband as being higher in traits related to femininity and lower in traits related to masculinity. He is also perceived as having less power in the relationship. This is according to a study led by Rachael Robnett of the University of Nevada in the US. The research is published in Springer's journal Sex Roles and is the first to examine whether people's perceptions of a man's personality vary depending on whether his wife adopts his surname or retains her own.



Greater government responsiveness is paramount to maintaining stable societies

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 10:33:09 EST

The Brexit is the perfect example of a time-delayed event. It will happen, if at all, only several years after the referendum vote. Dynamical systems with time delays, like societies making political decisions, have attracted considerable attention from physicists specialised in complex systems.



Ancient barley took high road to China

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 09:10:36 EST

First domesticated 10,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East, wheat and barley took vastly different routes to China, with barley switching from a winter to both a winter and summer crop during a thousand-year detour along the southern Tibetan Plateau, suggests new research from Washington University in St. Louis.



Wall carvings in Saudi Arabia appear to offer earliest depiction of dogs

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 09:00:02 EST

(Phys.org)—A combined team of researchers from Max Planck University and the Saudi Commission for Tourism & National Heritage has documented what might be the oldest depictions of dogs by human beings. In their paper published in the Journal of Anthropological Archaeology , the team describes the wall engravings and the means by which they attempted to date them.



Researchers study importance of nongame entertainment in minor league baseball

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 08:33:37 EST

Recent research by a Pennsylvania College of Technology faculty member shows the importance of nongame entertainment in drawing fans to minor league baseball games.



Researcher shows how racially based tools to separate science students persist

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 08:24:30 EST

The recent U.S. Next Generation Science Standards seek to address long-standing problems of some populations of students being underserved and not receiving the same quality education as their peers. The standards refute deficit-oriented views about the capabilities of students from historically underserved groups. However, the standards also divide students in ways that threaten to exacerbate unequal education, according to a University of Kansas researcher.



New book shows existence of transgender people isn't a recent phenomenon

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 08:12:25 EST

Thanks to recent highly politicized, highly publicized pushes to ban transgender people from serving in the military and using the public restroom that matches their gender identity, it may seem like transgender issues have suddenly sprung up out of nowhere.



Myth of the genius solitary scientist is dangerous

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 08:10:32 EST

Picture a scientist. Seriously, right now. I'm not going to discuss the nature of the person that you have in your mind (although I am going to guess: White? Male? Crazy hair? That's not surprising, but another topic entirely). I'm more curious about what they are doing.



What is the impact of 'impact investing'?

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 08:09:28 EST

The financial returns from "impact investing" are on par with mainstream investments, according to a recent report. Impact investing aims to generate a social or environmental return (such as affordable housing or a reduction in greenhouse emissions) as well as a financial one.



Evacuating a nuclear disaster areas is often a waste of time and money, says study

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 08:09:09 EST

Over 110,000 people were moved from their homes following the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan in March 2011. Another 50,000 left of their own will, and 85,000 had still not returned four-and-a-half years later.



6,000-year-old monument offers a tantalising glimpse of Britain's neolithic civilisation

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 07:54:50 EST

This summer, the University of Reading Archaeology Field School excavated one of the most extraordinary sites we have ever had the pleasure of investigating. The site is an Early Neolithic long barrow known as "Cat's Brain" and is likely to date to around 3,800BC. It lies in the heart of the lush Vale of Pewsey in Wiltshire, UK, halfway between the iconic monuments of Stonehenge and Avebury.



Poorer communities need empowering in order to become more resilient to natural disasters

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 06:48:54 EST

People in poor urban areas are the least likely to be able to rebuild their lives after a natural disaster, and need support in order to become more sustainable, according to research from the University of Nottingham.



Thanksgiving tribe reclaims language lost to colonization

Tue, 21 Nov 2017 02:01:15 EST

The Massachusetts tribe whose ancestors shared a Thanksgiving meal with the Pilgrims nearly 400 years ago is reclaiming its long-lost language, one schoolchild at a time.



Why rural coal families are less likely to divorce

Mon, 20 Nov 2017 15:48:10 EST

Rural coal-mining families show resilience against divorce when faced with the economic downturns common in the industry, a new study suggests.



Researchers design survey to tap students' motivation in STEM

Mon, 20 Nov 2017 15:42:34 EST

Researchers at Portland State University are learning more about undergraduates' experience in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) classes and sharing a set of survey questions that will help researchers and educators at other universities do the same.



Ancient fish scales and vertebrate teeth share an embryonic origin

Mon, 20 Nov 2017 15:00:03 EST

In biology, one long-running debate has teeth: whether ancient fish scales moved into the mouth with the origin of jaws, or if the tooth had its own evolutionary inception.



Materialists collect Facebook friends and spend more time on social media

Mon, 20 Nov 2017 12:51:36 EST

If you're materialistic, you're likely to use Facebook more frequently and intensely. A new paper in Heliyon reveals that materialistic people see and treat their Facebook friends as "digital objects," and have significantly more friends than people who are less interested in possessions. It also shows that materialists have a greater need to compare themselves with others on Facebook.



How emotional and economic abuse go hand-in-hand

Mon, 20 Nov 2017 09:00:37 EST

People who have been in an abusive relationship often don't realise it until they've left it, so looking at the data on past relationships is the best way of getting a picture of how bad it can be. We find that emotional and economic abuse in relationships are often intertwined. People who insult and shame their partners will often also try to control their income and assets.



Hundreds of fossil tree specimens belong to a single species

Mon, 20 Nov 2017 08:02:58 EST

Paleobotanist Menno Booi discovered that 250 previously described fossil tree species are objectively not distinguishable and belong to only one single species.



When women have access to family planning, income rises and poverty drops

Mon, 20 Nov 2017 06:46:38 EST

When women were able to take control of planning how many children they would have, their futures—and that of their children's—looked a little brighter.



A sub-desert savannah spread across Madrid 14 million years ago

Mon, 20 Nov 2017 05:44:44 EST

The Central Iberian Peninsula was characterised by an arid savanna during the middle Miocene, according to a study led by the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM) comparing mammal populations from different localities in Africa and South Asia with those that inhabited the Iberian central area 14 million years ago.



10 African Americans named Rhodes scholars, most ever

Mon, 20 Nov 2017 03:30:42 EST

The latest group of U.S. Rhodes scholars includes 10 African Americans—the most ever in a single Rhodes class—as well as a transgender man and four students from colleges that had never had received the honor before.