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Preview: PHYSorg.com: Cancer News

Cancer News - Health News, Medicine News, Cancer



Phys.org provides the latest news on cancer, health, medicines, cancer treatments, cancer research, cancer studies and types of cancer.



 



Researchers use a molecular Trojan horse to deliver chemotherapeutic drug to cancer cells

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 12:35:13 EST

A research team at the University of California, Riverside has discovered a way for chemotherapy drug paclitaxel to target migrating, or circulating, cancer cells, which are responsible for the development of tumor metastases.



An under-the-radar immune cell shows potential in fight against cancer

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 10:13:29 EST

One of the rarest of immune cells, unknown to scientists a decade ago, might prove to be a potent weapon in stopping cancer from spreading in the body, according to new research from the University of British Columbia.



Lab-grown 'mini tumours' could personalise cancer treatment

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 08:07:03 EST

Testing cancer drugs on miniature replicas of a patient's tumour could help doctors tailor treatment, according to new research.



New strategy to target transcription factor STAT5 to combat leukaemia

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 05:53:03 EST

Acute myeloid leukaemia is the most common type of acute cancer of the blood and bone marrow in adults. AML progresses quickly and only 26 percent of the patients survive longer than five years as resistance against established treatments develops. The most common molecular cause is FLT3 mutations, which result in hyper-activation of STAT5. A research consortium now reports on an early preclinical effort targeting STAT5 that integrates well with existing therapies.



Study tracks evolutionary transition to destructive cancer

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 05:00:01 EST

Evolution describes how all living forms cope with challenges in their environment, as they struggle to persevere against formidable odds. Mutation and selective pressure—cornerstones of Darwin's theory—are the means by which organisms gain an advantageous foothold or pass into oblivion.



Almost all adolescents in an economically disadvantaged urban population exposed to tobacco smoke

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 02:12:45 EST

Ninety-four percent of adolescents ages 13 to 19 in an economically disadvantaged, largely minority population in San Francisco had measurable levels of a biomarker specific for exposure to tobacco smoke (NNAL).



Regardless of CV risks, cancer history impacts mortality

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 17:30:02 EST

(HealthDay)—Cancer history has an important impact on mortality independent of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), according to a study published online Feb. 12 in the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis.



Team develops new technology platform for cancer immunotherapy

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 16:09:44 EST

Johns Hopkins researchers have invented a new class of immunotherapeutic agents that are more effective at harnessing the power of the immune system to fight cancer. Their approach results in significant inhibition of tumor growth, even against cancers which do not respond to existing immunotherapies used in the clinic. In collaboration with Insilico Medicine, a Baltimore-based leader in artificial intelligence for drug discovery, the team reports their results this week in Nature Communications.



Cancer risk associated with key epigenetic changes occurring through normal aging process

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 12:22:25 EST

Some scientists have hypothesized that tumor-promoting changes in cells during cancer development—particularly an epigenetic change involving DNA methylation—arise from rogue cells escaping a natural cell deterioration process called senescence. Now, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center demonstrated that instead, tumor-associated epigenetic states evolve erratically during early stages of tumor development, eventually selecting for a subset of genes that undergo the most changes during normal aging and in early tumor development.



NEJM reports positive results for larotrectinib against TRK-fusion cancer

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 12:19:24 EST

In 2013, the labs of University of Colorado Cancer Center investigator Robert C. Doebele, MD, PhD, and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute investigator Pasi A. Jänne, MD, PhD reported in Nature Medicine the presence of TRK gene fusions as oncogenic drivers in patient samples of non-small cell lung cancer. Now five years later, the New England Journal of Medicine has published results of three early studies of the drug larotrectinib (formerly LOXO-101) to treat advanced-stage cancer patients whose tumors harbor these TRK fusion genes.



Putting black skin cancer to sleep—for good

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 10:12:33 EST

An international research team has succeeded in stopping the growth of malignant melanoma by reactivating a protective mechanism that prevents tumor cells from dividing. The team used chemical agents to block the enzymes responsible for erasing epigenetic marks at the DNA. This discovery has potential for use in future combination therapies.



Phase I clinical trial shows some promise for investigational drug for melanoma

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 10:06:54 EST

An investigational compound designed to block a hyperactive cell growth signal in advanced melanoma and other cancers has shown some promise in an early-stage clinical trial, researchers at the University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center and other institutions have reported.



Zika virus could help combat brain cancer

Thu, 22 Feb 2018 07:05:25 EST

Zika virus, known for causing microcephaly in babies by attacking the cells that give rise to the fetus's cerebral cortex, could be an alternative for treatment of glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumor in adults. This discovery was made by researchers at the University of Campinas's School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (FCF-UNICAMP) in São Paulo State, Brazil.



Precision cancer therapy effective in both children and adults

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 17:52:03 EST

Three quarters of patients, both adults and children, with a variety of advanced cancers occurring in different sites of the body responded to larotrectinib, a novel therapy that targets a specific genetic mutation. Results of this multisite phase 1/2 trial have been published in the New England Journal of Medicine on February 22, 2018. Unlike most cancer therapies, this oral treatment is based on the genetic traits of the tumor and not the organ where the cancer originated.



Drug successfully targets cancers with tumor-specific gene mutations

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 17:50:36 EST

Pediatric and adult cancers with one of three fusion genes responds well to a new drug, larotrectinib, according to a study published today in the New England Journal of Medicine. The drug is designed to target a specific tumor gene mutation known as tropomyosin receptor kinases (TRK) that can occur in various tumor types.



Kinase inhibitor larotrectinib shows durable anti-tumor abilities

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 17:00:01 EST

Three simultaneous safety and efficacy studies of the drug larotrectinib reported an overall response rate of 75 percent for patients ages four months to 76 years with 17 different cancer diagnoses. All patients had tumors with tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) fusions, gene mutations that switch on TRK genes, allowing cancer growth. The studies indicate larotrectinib as a potentially powerful new treatment approach for the approximately 5,000 patients with these forms of cancer.



New therapeutic gel shows promise against cancerous tumors

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 14:00:06 EST

Scientists at the UNC School of Medicine and NC State have created an injectable gel-like scaffold that can hold combination chemo-immunotherapeutic drugs and deliver them locally to tumors in a sequential manner. The results in animal models so far suggest this approach could one day ramp up therapeutic benefits for patients bearing tumors or after removal of the primary tumors.



Five novel genetic changes linked to pancreatic cancer risk

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 10:27:12 EST

In what is believed to be the largest pancreatic cancer genome-wide association study to date, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and the National Cancer Institute, and collaborators from over 80 other institutions worldwide discovered changes to five new regions in the human genome that may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer.



Patients with advanced cancer may be less competent to make decisions than doctors think

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 09:09:44 EST

Patients with terminal cancer face difficult decisions. What treatment options support their goals? When is it reasonable to discontinue care? A study published in the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry shows that these patients may be less competent to make these decisions than their doctors think.



New technique predicts gene resistance to cancer treatments

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 08:40:10 EST

Yale School of Public Health researchers have developed a new method to predict likely resistance paths to cancer therapeutics, and a methodology to apply it to one of the most frequent cancer-causing genes.



Research could change how doctors treat leukemia and other cancers fed by fat

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 08:18:01 EST

Obesity and cancer risk have a mysterious relationship, with obesity increasing the risk for 13 types of cancer. For some cancers—including pediatric cancers—obesity affects survival rates, which are lower for people who are obese.



'Local environment' plays key role in breast cancer progression

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 08:00:02 EST

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women—one in eight (12.4 percent) in the U.S. will be diagnosed with it. Invasive breast cancer is dangerous for two reasons: It can aggressively spread to other organs in the body, and it is likely to recur. While treatable in the early stages via surgery or chemotherapy, as the disease progresses, the chances of recovery decrease exponentially.



How advanced imaging technologies will prevent unnecessary breast tissue biopsies

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 06:31:18 EST

Enhancing the diagnosis of breast cancer is the goal of a research team at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg. The scientists have combined an advanced method of diffusion-weighted MR imaging with intelligent image analysis methods to detect malignant changes in tissues. This method may prevent many control biopsies following suspicious findings from mammography screenings. This advancement holds promise for substantial improvements in the diagnosis of breast cancer.



Similarities found in cancer initiation in kidney, liver, stomach, pancreas

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 06:00:02 EST

Recent research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis demonstrated that mature cells in the stomach sometimes revert back to behaving like rapidly dividing stem cells. Now, the researchers have found that this process may be universal; no matter the organ, when tissue responds to certain types of injury, mature cells seem to get younger and begin dividing rapidly, creating scenarios that can lead to cancer.



Genes activated in metastasis also drive the first stages of tumour growth

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 05:55:42 EST

In spite of the difference between the cell functions responsible for giving rise to a tumour and that give rise to metastasis, studies at IRB Barcelona using the fly Drosophila melanogaster reveal that some genes can drive both phenomena.



Nitrate in drinking water increases the risk of colorectal cancer

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 05:14:07 EST

Nitrate in groundwater and drinking water, which primarily comes from fertilisers used in the agricultural production, has not only been subject to decades of environmental awareness—it has also been suspected of increasing the risk of cancer. The largest epidemiological study ever carried out in this area now shows that there is a correlation—also when the amount of nitrate in the drinking water is far below the current drinking water standard. The results have just been published in the scientific journal International Journal of Cancer.



Cancer pioneer employs physics to approach cancer in last research article

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 03:04:00 EST

In the cover article of Tuesday's issue of Oncotarget, James Frost, MD, PhD, Kenneth Pienta, MD, and the late Donald Coffey, Ph.D., use a theory of physical and biophysical symmetry to derive a new conceptualization of cancer. Co-author Dr. Coffey, ex-deputy director of the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and Professor of Urology, died before this paper was published at 85.



Study shows age doesn't affect survival in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma after HCT

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 03:02:29 EST

Results from a retrospective study of 1,629 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) showed that survival at 4 years following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for patients age 65 years and older is comparable to patients age 55 to 64 years. The study demonstrates that age alone should not be a determinant when considering HCT for patients with NHL. The study results will be presented in an oral session at the BMT Tandem Meetings on Saturday, February 24.



Study weighs risks and benefits of phase I trials in pediatric cancer

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 14:00:05 EST

On average, 1 in 10 children who enroll in pediatric phase I cancer trials are improved after the trial, and 1 in 50 die from drug-related complications, according to a new systematic review and meta-analysis published this week in PLOS Medicine by Jonathan Kimmelman from McGill University, Canada, and colleagues.



Scientists tackle the aberrant epigenetic programming underlying childhood cancers

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 10:04:48 EST

Several childhood cancer cell types show features of immature neural cells, and there is evidence suggesting that these tumors may arise from neural crest stem cells that underwent abnormal changes during embryonic development. One such cancer is Ewing sarcoma. Although combinatorial treatment protocols encompassing chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy have improved outcomes, many patients still suffer from a poor prognosis.