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Preview: The Thermal Connection

The Thermal Connection

Resource center for thermal engineers. Created by K&K Associates at

Published: Fri, 28 May 2010 19:17:30 -0600

Last Build Date: Sat, 28 May 2011 19:20:00 -0600


THERMAL PORTAL - Resources for the Thermal Engineer

Sat, 28 May 2011 19:14:31 -0600

K&K Associates has updated their website to make it even easier for thermal engineers to find what they need to do their job.

Yet another engineering App for the iPhone and iPad

Wed, 25 May 2011 14:41:48 -0600

MVK Enterprises is on a roll with another engineering App. This one deals with thermo-physical properties of over 1300 materials. Included are: Density, Specific Heat, and Thermal Conductivity.

Engineering App for the iPad

Wed, 18 May 2011 16:32:49 -0600

There are very few engineering apps for the iPhone and iPad. There are even fewer that are worth your time to download. Gear1-Convection is definitely worth the time. Better yet, it is FREE. It is a visual application designed for touch-based interaction. Unlike traditional calculators, input using slider controls gives instant feedback to changing parameters. This provides an instant sensitivity analysis.

Soil Temperature versus Depth

Sun, 18 May 2014 16:30:30 -0600

Maryland Temperature Logs: Temperature logs obtained by Virginia Tech in Maryland for the DOE Geothermal Program.

Forced Air Cooling at High Altitude

Wed, 11 May 2011 16:29:46 -0600

This memo discusses the efficiency change of the forced air cooling process when the site is located at 5,000 m above sea level.

Thermoelectric Cooler Temperature Control

Tue, 28 Apr 2009 10:29:42 -0600

Thermoelectric coolers (TECs) employ the Peltier effect, acting as small, solid-state heat pumps. The TECs are ideally suited to a wide variety of applications where space limitations and reliability are paramount. The TECs operate on DC current and may be used for heating and cooling by simply reversing the direction of the DC current.


Mon, 27 Apr 2009 15:26:45 -0600

This paper reviews the nature of the thermal models used to compute and monitor the temperature rise for the thermal protection of motors, transformers, overhead lines, and cables.

Pipeline Thermal Models

Tue, 21 Apr 2009 10:22:58 -0600

Heat flow and frictional heating often have a major impact on the hydraulics of a pipeline.


Wed, 8 Apr 2009 10:33:56 -0600

This manual contains criteria and methods for calculating the depths of freeze and thaw in soils,with consideration of the effects of other adjacent materials, for the design of military facilities in seasonal frost, arctic and subarctic regions.


Tue, 7 Apr 2009 09:31:34 -0600

The design, construction and maintenance of utility systems are all affected by the special environmental conditions found in the Arctic and Subarctic. The purpose of this manual is to provide criteria and guidance for the design of buildings in arctic and subarctic regions.

Heat Pipe Based Solutions

Wed, 28 Jan 2009 19:27:51 -0700

A heat pipe is an efficient heat transfer device commonly used for cooling an electronic component. A heat pipe is essentially closed, evacuated tube lined with a porous structure called "wick structure" (for CCI by screen wick). The wick is saturated with a proper amount of working fluid (for CCI by pure water).

SARCON Thermal Interface Materials

Wed, 21 Jan 2009 12:52:57 -0700

More power and light weight. In the past, these two characteristics in electronics were mutually exclusive. Now, micro-electronics are just that, and in addition, need thermal interface materials to further complement these objectives.

New Aerospace Technology, 'Aerogel,' the Highest Insulating Material in Existence, Now Available to the Building Industry

Thu, 15 Jan 2009 11:30:04 -0700

Taking the newly discovered Aerogel insulation technology developed by NASA, which is the highest insulating material in existence, Thermablok(TM) developed an amazing product that may soon become a requirement in the building industry. Aerogel, also referred to as "frozen smoke," has been difficult to adapt to most uses because of its fragility.

Thermally stable Mykroy/Mycalex glass/mica ceramic

Mon, 5 Jan 2009 11:10:01 -0700

Mykroy does not burn nor outgas. It provides dimensional stability at temperatures ranging from -400°F to 1600°F. With its low thermal conductivity and high dielectric strength, Mykroy is one of the best thermal and electrical insulation materials. Mykroy material is available in machinable grades suitable for processing with standard carbide tooling and in moldable grades that require no post firing.

AIAA -Spacecraft Thermal Control 1 Mar - 31 Aug 2009 Correspondent Courses

Wed, 31 Dec 2008 13:25:12 -0700

This course is concerned with spacecraft thermal control. The basic elements of thermal control systems are discussed. Analytical and numerical techniques which support the thermal design of spacecraft are developed. A disk is provided with numerous thermal equations programmed using Microsoft Excel.

High temperature woven insulation

Sat, 27 Dec 2008 16:44:11 -0700

Silco Shield ® is designed to protect hoses and cables from the hazards of high heat and occasional flame. It protects continuously to 260°C/500°F and will withstand a molten splash at 1200°C/2200°F. Made of woven fiberglass yarns in a flexible substrate, it is then coated with a high grade silicone rubber.

Cree® XLamp® LEDXThermal Management

Thu, 18 Dec 2008 10:56:53 -0700

The majority of LED failure mechanisms are temperature-dependent. Elevated junction temperatures cause light output reduction and accelerated chip degradation. The maximum junction temperature for each product line is specified in the product data sheet. Junction temperature is primarily affected by three parameters: -Ambient temperature of the LED’s immediate surroundings -Thermal path between the LED junction and ambient conditions -Power dissipated by the LED

LED Thermal Management

Thu, 18 Dec 2008 10:54:20 -0700

The key to a successful design starts with the transfer of LED heat. Each custom LED lighting design involves the concept of efficiently transferring as much heat as possible away from LED PN junction. The process begins within the LED lamp, where thermal energy released into an integrated slug can potentially exit the light emitting diode.

Solutions for hot situations

Wed, 17 Dec 2008 13:51:52 -0700

3M™ Nextel™ Ceramic Textiles and Composites provide innovative solutions in industries from aerospace to petroleum refining to metal processing. The outstanding thermal protection provided by Nextel™ Fabrics, Tapes and Sleevings allows engineers and manufacturers to handle high temperature applications up to 2500°F (1371°C).

Pipeline Thermal Models

Tue, 16 Dec 2008 13:51:03 -0700

Heat flow and frictional heating often have a major impact on the hydraulics of a pipeline.


Tue, 16 Dec 2008 11:50:19 -0700

A comprehensive IEEE standard gives the thermal model for overhead transmission lines. The heat balance equation includes converted and radiated heat loss and solar gain, as well as total conductor thermal capacity and watt loss.

Need a custom thermal application

Sun, 14 Dec 2008 15:25:48 -0700

Do you have a proprietary system or process that requires ever changing thermal analysis by engineers who are not thermal experts. K&K Associates can build you a thermal analysis application, with simplified input that is customized to your needs. We can do this in short order and for a fraction of the cost of normal software development. How? By leveraging the software components we have already developed and checked out. These same components underlie our TAK 2000 and PCAnalyze applications.

Building Thermal Control

Fri, 12 Dec 2008 11:29:37 -0700

The control of heat flow within and through buildings is important to ensure comfort, health, and productivity. Controlling heat flow is of course required to save energy and reduce the environmental impacts of this energy use. Insulations are basic tools for controlling heat flow, but thermal bridging must be understood to limit heat loss through conductive materials and elements in the building enclosure. Tutorial on Physics and Basics.

CUSTOM High Temperature Stainless Steel Heat Shields

Sat, 6 Dec 2008 11:27:09 -0700

The stainless steel "embossed honeycomb" Heat Shield has an outstanding oval track and road course performance record. Comprised of two layers of a lightweight embossed 309 or 316 stainless steel, with a sandwiched layer of insulating, ceramic non-woven.

Sandia microshutter arrays aboard small NASA satellites

Fri, 5 Dec 2008 12:01:42 -0700

Satellite designers pay special attention to electronics temperatures. If circuit boards get too hot, they can fail. If batteries get too cold, they can degrade faster or perform intermittently.

Sheldahl's Thermal Control Coatings on Flexible Substrates

Thu, 4 Dec 2008 12:11:38 -0700

Since the 1960's Sheldahl has been at the forefront of research into and production of thin film coatings on flexible substrates. This technology has led to development of high performance substrates for our customers. The combination of thin, conductive coatings on flexible substrates has proven especially valuable in audio markets where these products have been used in microphones and loudspeakers. Vacuum deposited copper on PET and PEN provides a cost effective substrate for RFID and smart card applications.

Thermal control of electronics: Perspectives and prospects

Thu, 13 Nov 2008 12:04:41 -0700

One of the most prominent industrial applications of heat transfer science and engineering has been electronics thermal control. Driven by the relentless increase in spatial density of microelectronic devices, integrated circuit chip powers have risen by a factor of 100 over the past twenty years, with a somewhat smaller increase in heat flux. The traditional approaches using natural convection and forced-air cooling are becoming less viable as power levels increase. This paper provides a high-level overview of the thermal management problem from the perspective of a practitioner, as well as speculation on the prospects for electronics thermal engineering in years to come. (Artical and Presentation available for download)

First results of the IRAM 30-m telescope improved thermal control system

Wed, 15 Oct 2008 12:03:41 -0700

The structure of the 30-m telescope is made of steel and the design aimed from the beginning at the minimisation of its thermal deformations. For this purpose the antenna steel structure is covered with thermal insulation. In addition, the Reflector Backup Structure (BUS) is equipped with an active cooling/heating thermal control system (TCS) maintaining the temperature homogeneity of the BUS within 1 K.

A very in-depth look at the SPOT 4 Thermal control system

Sat, 4 Oct 2008 11:59:33 -0700

- The purpose of thermal control, - Requirements, - Thermal constraints related to SPOT 4's orbit, - The thermal environment in orbit, - The satellite's thermal balance, - Internal thermal control arrangement

U.Va. Engineers Aim to Solve 'Burning' Computer Problem

Wed, 24 Sep 2008 11:53:19 -0700

If you've balanced a laptop computer on your lap lately, you probably noticed a burning sensation. That's because ever-increasing processing speeds are creating more and more heat, which has to go somewhere — in this case, into your lap. Two researchers at the University of Virginia's School of Engineering and Applied Science aim to lay the scientific groundwork that will solve the problem using nanoelectronics, considered the essential science for powering the next generation of computers.

K&K Associates now provides consulting services

Wed, 16 Jul 2008 13:13:54 -0600

If you are new to thermal modeling or are just swamped, K&K can help. Contact us at

Thermal Pads vs. Thermal Grease

Mon, 14 Jul 2008 13:09:42 -0600

This document compares the different materials used as a thermal interface between the processor and the heatsink.

Tempilabel and Thermax Irreversible Temperature Labels

Wed, 9 Jul 2008 22:01:13 -0600

Tempilabel and Thermax are the ideal solution to monitor and verify temperature specific operations such as climate conditions during storage and transit. They feature adhesive backing allowing them to be affixed to any surface quickly and easily.

SARCON Thermal Interface Materials

Wed, 2 Jul 2008 15:04:09 -0600

More power and light weight. In the past, these two characteristics in electronics were mutually exclusive. Now, micro-electronics are just that, and in addition, need thermal interface materials to further complement these objectives.

5th European Thermal Sciences Conference EUROTHERM 2008

Sun, 30 Mar 2008 14:57:39 -0600

The aim of this Eurotherm Conference is to promote and foster European cooperation in thermal sciences and heat transfer by bringing together scientists and engineers working in: natural, forced and mixed convection; conduction; radiation; combustion; thermodynamic processes; heat exchange systems; two-phase flows;

Embedded Thermoelectric Cooling

Wed, 26 Mar 2008 16:57:37 -0600

Thin film thermoelectric devices offer a fundamentally new operating regime for integrated, active cooling solutions and localized thermal management, yet the assembly methodology used to implement these devices is fully compatible with existing surface mount approaches.

Thermal Control Louvers

Thu, 20 Mar 2008 06:34:54 -0600

Thermal louvers have gained a wide acceptance in the Aerospace industry as highly-efficient devices for controlling the temperature of a satellite.

Thermistors - THERMal resISTORS

Tue, 18 Mar 2008 20:11:10 -0600

A thermistor is a thermally sensitive resistor that exhibits a change in electrical resistance with a change in its temperature. The resistance is measured by passing a small, measured direct current (dc) through it and measuring the voltage drop produced.

A Programmable Heater Control Circuit for Spacecraft

Mon, 17 Mar 2008 21:22:43 -0600

The effort was to develop a small, integrated hybrid circuit that captured the advantages of both central digital controllers and local autonomous control systems. The advantages of this design include solid state design, use of control instrumentation as data available to the central data system, reprogramming capability of the local microprocessor during the spacecraft mission, if required, and the elimination of significant spacecraft wiring,

PCAnalyze was Announced a Winner at the Spacecraft Thermal Control Workshop, held at The Aerospace Corporation.

Sun, 16 Mar 2008 11:41:47 -0600

The objective of this annual workshop(held on March 11-13, 2008) is to provide the aerospace community a forum to share information relative to new technology developments and lessons learned in spacecraft thermal control. Ball Aerospace highlighted new efficiencies in their analysis of printed wiring boards by the using PCAnalyze, version 2. On average, their analysis and documentation time was reduced from over 40 hours to just 16 hours!

Insulated Coaxial Pipe for deepwater pipelines is cost effective.

Sat, 15 Mar 2008 16:19:45 -0600

If the two contacting surface are separated by a screen wire or mesh at the pipe and liner interface, then a higher thermal interface resistance will result, which will significantly increase the resistance to thermal transport characteristics.

Current and Future Techniques for Spacecraft Thermal Control

Sat, 15 Mar 2008 12:13:13 -0600

The need for a Thermal Control System (TCS) is dictated by the technological/functional limitations and reliability requirements of all equipment used onboard a spacecraft and, in the case of manned missions, by the need to provide the crew with a suitable living/working environment.

Electronic Components and Technology Conference

Sat, 15 Mar 2008 10:37:56 -0600

The premier international packaging, components, and microelectronic systems technology conference, the Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) strives to offer our attendees an outstanding array of packaging technology information.

ITherm 2008, May 28 - 31, 2008 in Orlando, Florida, USA

Sat, 15 Mar 2008 10:35:42 -0600

An iinternational conference for scientific and engineering exploration of thermal, thermomechanical and emerging technology issues associated with electronic devices, packages and systems.

Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop

Thu, 13 Mar 2008 18:26:07 -0600

TFAWS is a Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop designed to help the thermal and fluids analysts of the government, industry, and academia. For novice analysts, it is an introduction to the tools that can be used to perform their duties. For the experienced analysts, it allows them to keep up-to-date with the latest technologies and gives them a forum for presenting their accomplishments in the field.

Northrop Grumman selects SprayCool chassis for Air Force sigint program

Thu, 13 Mar 2008 18:24:27 -0600

SprayCool enclosures are designed to provide a conditioned and controlled environment for COTS electronics under the most difficult use cases in the most compact, lightest weight package.

PCAnalyze reduced analysis and documentation time from 40+ to 16 hours per board!

Wed, 12 Mar 2008 19:44:16 -0600

says Ball Aerospace at the March "Spacecraft Thermal Control Workshop" held at The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA

High Capacity Phase Change Heat Sinks

Tue, 11 Mar 2008 18:56:07 -0600

Phase change heat sinks are filled with a phase change material (PCM) and rely on its latent heat of melting for thermal storage. ESLI uses a unique high thermal conductivity fiber core materials to achieve fast and uniform melting of the PCM material in any orientation or in low gravity.

Thermal Management & Technology Symposium

Tue, 11 Mar 2008 17:46:37 -0600

highlighting the latest advancements in thermal technology for product design, system development and process management, will be held September 25-26 in Austin, Texas.

Aerogel is the lightest and lowest-density solid known to exist. It

Thu, 6 Mar 2008 17:01:18 -0700

It is typically 50-99.5% air, yet can hold (theoretically) 500 to 4,000 times its weight in applied force. Aerogel's superlow density makes it useful as a lightweight structural material, and its superhigh internal surface area makes it a superinsulating solid material.

Therm-O-Disc Expands MICROTEMP® Thermal Cutoff Calibrations

Thu, 6 Mar 2008 14:59:42 -0700

Therm-O-Disc, Inc. ( the introduction of a multiple series of new temperature calibrations to add to Therm-O-Disc’s existing line of MICROTEMP® thermal cutoffs.

Thermal FAQ, Volume 2

Sat, 1 Mar 2008 15:00:22 -0700

Everything you ever wanted to know about "thermal" N through Z

Thermal FAQ, Volume 1

Fri, 29 Feb 2008 14:59:02 -0700

Everything you ever wanted to know about "thermal" A through M

Thermal Control Louvers

Fri, 15 Feb 2008 08:55:15 -0700

Thermal louvers have gained a wide acceptance in the Aerospace industry as highly-efficient devices for controlling the temperature of a satellite.