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Measuring Musculoskeletal Pain in Infants, Children, and Adolescents.
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Measuring Musculoskeletal Pain in Infants, Children, and Adolescents.

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2017 Sep 16;:1-45

Authors: Michaleff ZA, Kamper SJ, Stinson JN, Hestbaek L, Williams CM, Campbell P, Dunn KM

Synopsis Accurate, reliable, and timely assessment of pain is critical for effective management of musculoskeletal pain conditions. The assessment of pain in infants, children, and adolescents with and without cognitive impairment can be particularly challenging for clinicians for a number of reasons, including factors related to: the consultation (eg, heterogeneous patient population, time constraints), the clinician (eg, awareness / knowledge of available pain scales), standardised assessment scales (eg, availability, psychometric properties, and application of each scale) the patient (eg, developmental stage, ability to communicate), and the context in which the interaction takes place (eg, familiarity with the setting and physiological and psychological state). As a result, pain is frequently not assessed or measured during the consultation, and in many instances, is underestimated and undertreated in this population. The purpose of this paper is to provide clinicians with an overview of scales that can be used to measure pain in infants, children, and adolescents. Specifically, the paper reviews the various approaches to measure pain intensity, identifies factors that can influence the pain experience, expression, and assessment in infants, children, and adolescents, provides age appropriate suggestions for measuring pain intensity in patients with and without cognitive impairment, and identifies ways to assess the impact of pain using multidimensional pain scales. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 16 Sep 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7469.

PMID: 28918691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]