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Yogurt and Diabetes: Overview of Recent Observational Studies.
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Yogurt and Diabetes: Overview of Recent Observational Studies.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1452S-1461S

Authors: Salas-Salvadó J, Guasch-Ferré M, Díaz-López A, Babio N

Abstract
The effects of dairy consumption on the prevention of type 2 diabetes remain controversial and depend on the dairy subtype. Yogurt intake has received special attention because its association with health benefits is more consistent than that of other types of dairy products. In the present article, we review those observational studies that evaluated the association between yogurt consumption and type 2 diabetes. We also discuss the possible mechanisms involved in these associations. We found that 13 prospective studies evaluated the association between yogurt intake and type 2 diabetes, most of which showed an inverse association between the frequency of yogurt consumption and the risk of diabetes. In addition to the scientific evidence accumulated from individual prospective studies, several meta-analyses have shown that yogurt consumption has a potential role in diabetes prevention. The most recent analysis shows a 14% lower risk of type 2 diabetes when yogurt consumption was 80-125 g/d compared with no yogurt consumption. The intake of fermented dairy products, especially yogurt, has been inversely associated with variables of glucose metabolism. Yogurt may have probiotic effects that could modulate glucose metabolism. We conclude that yogurt consumption, in the context of a healthy dietary pattern, may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in healthy and older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Large-scale intervention studies and randomized clinical trials are warranted to determine if yogurt consumption has beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes.

PMID: 28615384 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Factors Influencing the Gut Microbiota, Inflammation, and Type 2 Diabetes.
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Factors Influencing the Gut Microbiota, Inflammation, and Type 2 Diabetes.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1468S-1475S

Authors: Wen L, Duffy A

Abstract
The gut microbiota is a complex community of bacteria residing in the intestine. Animal models have demonstrated that several factors contribute to and can significantly alter the composition of the gut microbiota, including genetics; the mode of delivery at birth; the method of infant feeding; the use of medications, especially antibiotics; and the diet. There may exist a gut microbiota signature that promotes intestinal inflammation and subsequent systemic low-grade inflammation, which in turn promotes the development of type 2 diabetes. There are preliminary studies that suggest that the consumption of probiotic bacteria such as those found in yogurt and other fermented milk products can beneficially alter the composition of the gut microbiome, which in turn changes the host metabolism. Obesity, insulin resistance, fatty liver disease, and low-grade peripheral inflammation are more prevalent in patients with low α diversity in the gut microbiome than they are in patients with high α diversity. Fermented milk products, such as yogurt, deliver a large number of lactic acid bacteria to the gastrointestinal tract. They may modify the intestinal environment, including inhibiting lipopolysaccharide production and increasing the tight junctions of gut epithelia cells.

PMID: 28615382 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Yogurt Is a Low-Glycemic Index Food.
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Yogurt Is a Low-Glycemic Index Food.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1462S-1467S

Authors: Wolever TM

Abstract
High yogurt intake is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although several mechanisms could explain this association, this paper addresses the glycemic and insulinemic impact of yogurt. There is evidence that low-glycemic index (GI) and low-glycemic load (GL) diets are associated with a reduced risk of T2DM. The 93 GI values for yogurt in the University of Sydney's GI database have a mean ± SD of 34 ± 13, and 92% of the yogurts are low-GI (≤55). The 43 plain yogurts in the database have a lower GI than the 50 sweetened yogurts, 27 ± 11 compared with 41 ± 11 (P < 0.0001). This difference is not explained by sugar, per se, but rather by the higher protein-to-carbohydrate ratio in plain yogurt. Although yogurt has a low GI, its insulinemic index (II) is higher than its GI. High insulin responses may be deleterious because hyperinsulinemia is associated with an increased risk of T2DM. Nevertheless, this may not be a concern for yogurt because, although its II is higher than its GI, the II of yogurt is within the range of II values for nondairy low-GI foods. In addition, mixed meals containing dairy protein elicit insulin responses similar to those elicited by mixed meals of similar composition containing nondairy protein. Because the GI of yogurt is lower than that of most other carbohydrate foods, exchanging yogurt for other protein and carbohydrate sources can reduce the GI and GL of the diet, and is in line with recommended dietary patterns, which include whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, fish, vegetable oils, and yogurt.

PMID: 28615381 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Yogurt Consumption as a Signature of a Healthy Diet and Lifestyle.
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Yogurt Consumption as a Signature of a Healthy Diet and Lifestyle.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1476S-1480S

Authors: Tremblay A, Panahi S

Abstract
Yogurt is considered to be a nutrient-dense food that significantly contributes to the intake of several nutrients, including calcium and protein. As described in this paper, yogurt consumers have a higher nutrient intake than do nonconsumers. Yogurt consumers are also characterized by healthier dietary habits than nonconsumers, which partly explains their reduced incidence of overweight and obesity. Recent studies also suggest that yogurt consumers exhibit healthier nonnutritional behaviors, such as reduced smoking and greater participation in physical activity, than do nonconsumers. Furthermore, when greenhouse gas emissions are used as an additional criterion to categorize foods, yogurt appears to be an eco-friendly food. Compared with that of other foods, the carbon footprint of yogurt production is low to moderate and may be included as part of a healthy and sustainable diet. Based on these factors, yogurt consumption may be the signature of a healthy diet and lifestyle.

PMID: 28615373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Is a Novel Molecular Mechanism Linking Folate Availability and Cell Function.
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Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Is a Novel Molecular Mechanism Linking Folate Availability and Cell Function.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1237-1242

Authors: Silva E, Rosario FJ, Powell TL, Jansson T

Abstract
Folate deficiency has been linked to a wide range of disorders, including cancer, neural tube defects, and fetal growth restriction. Folate regulates cellular function mediated by its involvement in the synthesis of nucleotides, which are needed for DNA synthesis, and its function as a methyl donor, which is critical for DNA methylation. Here we review current data showing that folate sensing by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) constitutes a novel and distinct pathway by which folate modulates cell functions such as nutrient transport, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial respiration. The mTOR signaling pathway responds to growth factors and changes in nutrient availability to control cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism. mTOR exists in 2 complexes, mTOR complex (mTORC) 1 and mTORC2, which have distinct upstream regulators and downstream targets. Folate deficiency in pregnant mice caused a marked inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling in multiple maternal and fetal tissues, downregulation of placental amino acid transporters, and fetal growth restriction. In addition, folate deficiency in primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells resulted in inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling and decreased the activity of key amino acid transporters. Folate sensing by mTOR in PHT cells is independent of the accumulation of homocysteine and requires the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT; solute carrier 46A1). Furthermore, mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate trophoblast folate uptake by modulating the cell surface expression of folate receptor α and the reduced folate carrier. These findings, which provide a novel link between folate availability and cell function, growth, and proliferation, may have broad biological significance given the critical role of folate in normal cell function and the multiple diseases that have been associated with decreased or excessive folate availability. Low maternal folate concentrations are linked to restricted fetal growth, and we propose that the underlying mechanisms involve trophoblast mTOR folate sensing resulting in inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 and downregulation of placental amino acid transporters.

PMID: 28592519 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Zinc Supplementation Does Not Alter Indicators of Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in Black and White Female Adolescents.
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Zinc Supplementation Does Not Alter Indicators of Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in Black and White Female Adolescents.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1296-1300

Authors: Lobene AJ, Kindler JM, Jenkins NT, Pollock NK, Laing EM, Grider A, Lewis RD

Abstract
Background: Zinc is a micronutrient involved in the production of, and peripheral sensitivity to, pancreatic β cell-derived insulin. To our knowledge, the effect of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes, and potential risk of diabetes, in otherwise healthy children in the United States has not been investigated.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the influence of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes in black and white girls in the early stages of adolescence. A secondary objective was to determine relations between baseline zinc concentrations and insulin outcomes.Methods: Healthy black and white girls aged 9-11 y were randomly assigned to daily supplementation of zinc (9 mg elemental Zn/d; n = 75; blacks: n = 35) or placebo (n = 72; blacks: n = 32) for 4 wk. Fasting serum insulin, glucose, and C-peptide were assessed at baseline and at 4 wk. C-peptide and glucose values were used to calculate the computer model-derived homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). Changes in outcome measures were compared by using repeated-measures, mixed-model ANOVA.Results: Baseline plasma zinc was not correlated with C-peptide (r = -0.07), insulin (r = -0.06), or HOMA2-IR (r = -0.09) (all P > 0.05) after controlling for race and age. Treatment × time interactions for C-peptide and HOMA2-IR were not significant (both P > 0.05). Although the treatment × race × time interactions for C-peptide and HOMA2-IR were not significant (both P = 0.08), black girls who received the placebo experienced slight increases in C-peptide (15.7%) and HOMA2-IR (17.7%) (P = 0.06).Conclusions: Four weeks of zinc supplementation had no effect on insulin outcomes in healthy black and white early-adolescent girls, although C-peptide and HOMA2-IR tended to increase in black girls who received placebo. Additional trials that are appropriately powered should further explore the effect of zinc on markers of diabetes risk, and whether race affects this relation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01892098.

PMID: 28592518 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Consumption of Fish Is Not Associated with Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.
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Consumption of Fish Is Not Associated with Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1366-1373

Authors: Zamora-Ros R, Castañeda J, Rinaldi S, Cayssials V, Slimani N, Weiderpass E, Tsilidis KK, Boutron-Ruault MC, Overvad K, Eriksen AK, Tjønneland A, Kühn T, Katzke V, Boeing H, Trichopoulou A, La Vecchia C, Kotanidou A, Palli D, Grioni S, Mattiello A, Tumino R, Sciannameo V, Lund E, Merino S, Salamanca-Fernández E, Amiano P, Huerta JM, Barricarte A, Ericson U, Almquist M, Hennings J, Sandström M, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Peeters PH, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Schmidt JA, Cross AJ, Riboli E, Scalbert A, Romieu I, Agudo A, Franceschi S

Abstract
Background: Differentiated thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common endocrine cancer. Fish can be an important source of iodine and other micronutrients and contaminants that may affect the thyroid gland and TC risk.Objective: We prospectively evaluated the relations between the consumption of total fish and different fish types and shellfish and TC risk in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study.Methods: EPIC is a cohort of >500,000 men and women, mostly aged 35-70 y, who were recruited in 10 European countries. After a mean follow-up of 14 y, 748 primary differentiated TC cases were diagnosed; 666 were in women and 601 were papillary TC. Data on intakes of lean fish, fatty fish, fish products, and shellfish were collected by using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs adjusted for many potential confounders, including dietary and nondietary factors.Results: No significant association was observed between total fish consumption and differentiated TC risk for the highest compared with the lowest quartile (HR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.32; P-trend = 0.67). Likewise, no significant association was observed with the intake of any specific type of fish, fish product, or shellfish. No significant heterogeneity was found by TC subtype (papillary or follicular tumors), by sex, or between countries with low and high TC incidence.Conclusion: This large study shows that the intake of fish and shellfish was not associated with differentiated TC risk in Europe, a region in which iodine deficiency or excess is rare.

PMID: 28592517 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Maternal Night-Fasting Interval during Pregnancy Is Directly Associated with Neonatal Head Circumference and Adiposity in Girls but Not Boys.
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Maternal Night-Fasting Interval during Pregnancy Is Directly Associated with Neonatal Head Circumference and Adiposity in Girls but Not Boys.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1384-1391

Authors: Loy SL, Wee PH, Colega MT, Cheung YB, Aris IM, Chan JKY, Godfrey KM, Gluckman PD, Tan KH, Shek LP, Chong YS, Natarajan P, Müller-Riemenschneider F, Lek N, Rajadurai VS, Tint MT, Lee YS, Chong MF, Yap F

Abstract
Background: Synchrony between daily feeding-fasting signals and circadian rhythms has been shown to improve metabolic health in animals and adult humans, but the potential programming effect on fetal growth is unknown.Objective: We examined the associations of the maternal night-fasting interval during pregnancy with offspring birth size and adiposity.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of mother-offspring dyads within the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort. For 384 mothers aged 30.8 ± 4.8 y (mean ± SD), the night-fasting interval at 26-28 wk of gestation was determined from a 3-d food diary based on the average of the fasting duration at night (1900-0659). Offspring birth weight, length, and head circumference were measured and converted to weight-for-gestational age (GA), length-for-GA, and head circumference-for-GA z scores, respectively, by using local customized percentile charts. The percentage of neonatal total body fat (TBF) was derived by using a validated prediction equation. Multivariable general linear models, stratified by child sex, were performed.Results: The mean ± SD maternal night-fasting interval was 9.9 ± 1.3 h. In infant girls, each 1-h increase in the maternal night-fasting interval was associated with a 0.22-SD (95% CI: 0.05-, 0.40-SD; P = 0.013) increase in birth head circumference-for-GA and a 0.84% (95% CI: 0.19%, 1.49%; P = 0.012) increase in TBF at birth, after adjustment for confounders. In infant boys, no associations were observed between the maternal night-fasting interval and birth size or TBF.Conclusions: An increased maternal night-fasting interval in the late second trimester of pregnancy is associated with increased birth head circumference and TBF in girls but not boys. Our findings are in accordance with previous observations that suggest that there are sex-specific responses in fetal brain growth and adiposity, and raise the possibility of the maternal night-fasting interval as an underlying influence. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.

PMID: 28592516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Intragastric Lysine Lowers the Circulating Glucose and Insulin Responses to a Mixed-Nutrient Drink without Slowing Gastric Emptying in Healthy Adults.
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Intragastric Lysine Lowers the Circulating Glucose and Insulin Responses to a Mixed-Nutrient Drink without Slowing Gastric Emptying in Healthy Adults.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1275-1281

Authors: Ullrich SS, Fitzgerald PC, Nkamba I, Steinert RE, Horowitz M, Feinle-Bisset C

Abstract
Background: Lysine is reported to lower the glycemic response to oral glucose in humans and, albeit at high loads, to slow gastric emptying of glucose and decrease food intake in rats.Objective: We investigated the effects of intragastrically administered lysine on early (15 min) and later (60 min) blood glucose and insulin responses to and gastric emptying of a mixed-nutrient drink, and effects on subsequent energy intake.Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers (7 men and 5 women; mean ± SEM age: 24 ± 2 y) received intragastric infusions (200 mL) containing 5 or 10 g l-lysine or a control solution within 2 min on 3 different occasions in randomized order. Fifteen minutes later, participants consumed a mixed-nutrient drink (300 mL, 400 kcal, and 56 g carbohydrates) within 1 min. For the next hour (t = 0-60 min), we collected blood samples every 15 min (to measure blood glucose, plasma insulin, and plasma glucagon) and breath samples every 5 min (to measure gastric emptying via a (13)C-acetate breath test). We then quantified subjects' energy intake from a buffet-style meal (t = 60-90 min).Results: There were no differences between the 2 lysine treatments; hence, data were pooled for further analysis. Lysine did not affect blood glucose at 15 min or the blood glucose area under the curve from 0 to 60 min (AUC0-60min) but it decreased blood glucose at 60 min compared with the control solution (-9.1% ± 3.1%, P < 0.01). Similarly, the early insulin response and insulin AUC0-60min were not affected by lysine, but plasma insulin at 60 min was 20.9% ± 5.6% lower than after the control (P < 0.05). Plasma glucagon at both 15 min (20.7% ± 4.7%, P < 0.001) and 60 min (14.1% ± 5.4%, P < 0.05) and the glucagon AUC0-60min (P < 0.01) were greater after lysine than after the control. Lysine did not slow gastric emptying, and there was no effect on energy intake.Conclusion: In healthy adults, lysine slightly reduced the glycemic response to an oral mixed-macronutrient drink, an effect that was apparently independent of insulin or slowing of gastric emptying. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.orgau as 12614000837628.

PMID: 28592515 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




A Western Diet Pattern Is Associated with Higher Concentrations of Blood and Bone Lead among Middle-Aged and Elderly Men.
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A Western Diet Pattern Is Associated with Higher Concentrations of Blood and Bone Lead among Middle-Aged and Elderly Men.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1374-1383

Authors: Wang X, Ding N, Tucker KL, Weisskopf MG, Sparrow D, Hu H, Park SK

Abstract
Background: Little is known about the effects of overall dietary pattern on lead concentration.Objective: We examined the association of overall dietary patterns, derived from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, with bone and blood lead concentrations.Methods: These longitudinal analyses included mostly non-Hispanic white, middle-aged-to-elderly men from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Long-term lead exposures were measured as tibia and patella lead concentrations by using K-shell-X-ray fluorescence. Short-term lead exposures were measured as blood lead concentrations by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Dietary pattern scores were derived by using factor analysis. Linear mixed-effects models were utilized to predict blood lead concentrations among 983 men, aged 44-92 y at baseline, with a total of 3273 observations (during 1987-2008). We constructed linear regression models to determine the relations between dietary patterns and bone lead concentrations among 649 participants with an age range of 49-93 y.Results: Two major dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruit, legumes, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, and seafood; and a Western dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of processed meat, red meat, refined grains, high-fat dairy products, French fries, butter, and eggs. After adjusting for age, smoking status, body mass index, total energy intake, education, occupation, neighborhood-based education and income level, men in the highest tertile of the Western pattern score (compared with the lowest) had 0.91 μg/dL (95% CI: 0.41, 1.42 μg/dL) higher blood lead, 5.96 μg/g (95% CI: 1.76, 10.16 μg/g) higher patella lead, and 3.83 μg/g (95% CI: 0.97, 6.70 μg/g) higher tibia lead. No significant association was detected with the prudent dietary pattern in the adjusted model.Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Western diet is associated with a greater lead body burden among the middle-aged-to-elderly men. More studies are needed to examine the underlying mechanisms by which dietary patterns are associated with lead concentrations.

PMID: 28592514 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Iron, Zinc, Folate, and Vitamin B-12 Status Increased among Women and Children in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon, 1 Year after Introducing Fortified Wheat Flour.
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Iron, Zinc, Folate, and Vitamin B-12 Status Increased among Women and Children in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon, 1 Year after Introducing Fortified Wheat Flour.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1426-1436

Authors: Engle-Stone R, Nankap M, Ndjebayi AO, Allen LH, Shahab-Ferdows S, Hampel D, Killilea DW, Gimou MM, Houghton LA, Friedman A, Tarini A, Stamm RA, Brown KH

Abstract
Background: Few data are available on the effectiveness of large-scale food fortification programs.Objective: We assessed the impact of mandatory wheat flour fortification on micronutrient status in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon.Methods: We conducted representative surveys 2 y before and 1 y after the introduction of fortified wheat flour. In each survey, 10 households were selected within each of the same 30 clusters (n = ∼300 households). Indicators of inflammation, malaria, anemia, and micronutrient status [plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), zinc, folate, and vitamin B-12] were assessed among women aged 15-49 y and children 12-59 mo of age.Results: Wheat flour was consumed in the past 7 d by ≥90% of participants. Postfortification, mean total iron and zinc concentrations of flour samples were 46.2 and 73.6 mg/kg (target added amounts were 60 and 95 mg/kg, respectively). Maternal anemia prevalence was significantly lower postfortification (46.7% compared with 39.1%; adjusted P = 0.01), but mean hemoglobin concentrations and child anemia prevalence did not differ. For both women and children postfortification, mean plasma concentrations were greater for ferritin and lower for sTfR after adjustments for potential confounders. Mean plasma zinc concentrations were greater postfortification and the prevalence of low plasma zinc concentration in women after fortification (21%) was lower than before fortification (39%, P < 0.001); likewise in children, the prevalence postfortification (28%) was lower than prefortification (47%, P < 0.001). Mean plasma total folate concentrations were ∼250% greater postfortification among women (47 compared with 15 nmol/L) and children (56 compared with 20 nmol/L), and the prevalence of low plasma folate values was <1% after fortification in both population subgroups. In a nonrepresentative subset of plasma samples, folic acid was detected in 77% of women (73% of those fasting) and 93% of children. Mean plasma and breast-milk vitamin B-12 concentrations were >50% greater postfortification.Conclusion: Although the pre-post survey design limits causal inference, iron, zinc, folate, and vitamin B-12 status increased among women and children in urban Cameroon after mandatory wheat flour fortification.

PMID: 28592513 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Higher Maternal Protein Intake during Pregnancy Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood Concentrations of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-II, IGF Binding Protein 3, and Insulin, but Not IGF-I, in a Cohort of Women with High Protein Intake.
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Higher Maternal Protein Intake during Pregnancy Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood Concentrations of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-II, IGF Binding Protein 3, and Insulin, but Not IGF-I, in a Cohort of Women with High Protein Intake.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1392-1400

Authors: Switkowski KM, Jacques PF, Must A, Hivert MF, Fleisch A, Gillman MW, Rifas-Shiman S, Oken E

Abstract
Background: Prenatal exposure to dietary protein may program growth-regulating hormones, consequently influencing early-life growth patterns and later risk of associated chronic diseases. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis is of particular interest in this context given its influence on pre- and postnatal growth and its sensitivity to the early nutritional environment.Objective: Our objective was to examine associations of maternal protein intake during pregnancy with cord blood concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and insulin.Methods: We studied 938 mother-child pairs from early pregnancy through delivery in the Project Viva cohort. Using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking, parity, height, and gestational weight gain and for child sex, we examined associations of second-trimester maternal protein intake [grams per kilogram (weight before pregnancy) per day], as reported on a food frequency questionnaire, with IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and insulin concentrations in cord blood. We also examined how these associations may differ by child sex and parity.Results: Mothers were predominantly white (71%), college-educated (64%), and nonsmokers (67%). Mean ± SD protein intake was 1.35 ± 0.35 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) Each 1-SD increment in second-trimester protein intake corresponded to a change of -0.50 ng/mL (95% CI: -2.26, 1.26 ng/mL) in IGF-I and -0.91 μU/mL (95% CI: -1.45, -0.37 μU/mL) in insulin. Child sex and parity modified associations of maternal protein intake with IGF-II and IGFBP-3: protein intake was inversely associated with IGF-II in girls (P-interaction = 0.04) and multiparous mothers (P-interaction = 0.05), and with IGFBP-3 in multiparous mothers (P-interaction = 0.04).Conclusions: In a cohort of pregnant women with relatively high mean protein intakes, higher intake was associated with lower concentrations of growth-promoting hormones in cord blood, suggesting a pathway that may link higher protein intake to lower fetal growth. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02820402.

PMID: 28592512 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Unconditional Seasonal Cash Transfer Increases Intake of High-Nutritional-Value Foods in Young Burkinabe Children: Results of 24-Hour Dietary Recall Surveys within the Moderate Acute Malnutrition Out (MAM'Out) Randomized Controlled Trial.
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Unconditional Seasonal Cash Transfer Increases Intake of High-Nutritional-Value Foods in Young Burkinabe Children: Results of 24-Hour Dietary Recall Surveys within the Moderate Acute Malnutrition Out (MAM'Out) Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1418-1425

Authors: Tonguet-Papucci A, Houngbe F, Huybregts L, Ait-Aissa M, Altare C, Kolsteren P, Huneau JF

Abstract
Background: Cash transfer programs have the potential to improve dietary intake by improving accessibility to food. However, quantitative data on the impact of cash transfer programs on children's energy and nutrient intakes are lacking.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seasonal unconditional cash transfers on children's energy, micro- and macronutrient, and food group intakes during the lean season in Burkina Faso.Methods: Within the framework of the MAM'Out (Moderate Acute Malnutrition Out) cluster-randomized controlled trial, two 24-h dietary recall surveys were conducted in July and August 2014. Daily energy and macro- and micronutrient intakes, breastfeeding practices, and food group consumption were analyzed for 322 children aged 14-27 mo from an intervention group (benefiting from unconditional cash transfer during the lean season in 2013 and 2014) and a control group by using mixed linear, logistic, and Poisson regression models or a γ-generalized linear model with log-link. A dietary diversity score was calculated on the basis of 7 food groups.Results: Unconditional cash transfers during the lean season improved the diets of rural children through a higher consumption of eggs (11.3 ± 1.55 compared with 3.25 ± 0.79 g; P < 0.001), fat (20.6 ± 0.80 compared with 16.5 ± 0.89 g; P < 0.01), and vitamin B-12 (0.40 ± 0.02 compared with 0.34 ± 0.02 mg; P < 0.001) compared with controls and higher proportions of children consuming dairy products (OR: 4.14; 95% CI: 1.48, 11.6; P < 0.05), flesh foods (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.18, 3.70; P < 0.05), and iron-rich or iron-fortified foods (OR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.20, 4.13; P < 0.05). No difference was found in energy intake between the 2 groups. The minimum dietary diversity of two-thirds of the children who benefited from cash transfers was adequate compared with only one-third in the control group (P < 0.001).Conclusions: Unconditional seasonal cash transfer increases intakes of high-nutritional-value foods in Burkinabe children aged 14-27 mo. As such, their use can be recommended in actions addressing children's dietary intake during the lean season. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01866124.

PMID: 28566529 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Vegetables and Mixed Dishes Are Top Contributors to Phylloquinone Intake in US Adults: Data from the 2011-2012 NHANES.
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Vegetables and Mixed Dishes Are Top Contributors to Phylloquinone Intake in US Adults: Data from the 2011-2012 NHANES.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1308-1313

Authors: Harshman SG, Finnan EG, Barger KJ, Bailey RL, Haytowitz DB, Gilhooly CH, Booth SL

Abstract
Background: Phylloquinone is the most abundant form of vitamin K in US diets. Green vegetables are considered the predominant dietary source of phylloquinone. As our food supply diversifies and expands, the food groups that contribute to phylloquinone intake are also changing, which may change absolute intakes. Thus, it is important to identify the contributors to dietary vitamin K estimates to guide recommendations on intakes and food sources.Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate 1) the amount of phylloquinone consumed in the diet of US adults, 2) to estimate the contribution of different food groups to phylloquinone intake in individuals with a high or low vegetable intake (≥2 or <2 cups vegetables/d), and 3) to characterize the contribution of different mixed dishes to phylloquinone intake.Methods: Usual phylloquinone intake was determined from NHANES 2011-2012 (≥20 y old; 2092 men and 2214 women) and the National Cancer Institute Method by utilizing a complex, stratified, multistage probability-cluster sampling design.Results: On average, 43.0% of men and 62.5% of women met the adequate intake (120 and 90 μg/d, respectively) for phylloquinone, with the lowest self-reported intakes noted among men, especially in the older age groups (51-70 and ≥71 y). Vegetables were the highest contributor to phylloquinone intake, contributing 60.0% in the high-vegetable-intake group and 36.1% in the low-vegetable-intake group. Mixed dishes were the second-highest contributor to phylloquinone intake, contributing 16.0% in the high-vegetable-intake group and 28.0% in the low-vegetable-intake group.Conclusion: Self-reported phylloquinone intakes from updated food composition data applied to NHANES 2011-2012 reveal that fewer men than women are meeting the current adequate intake. Application of current food composition data confirms that vegetables continue to be the primary dietary source of phylloquinone in the US diet. However, mixed dishes and convenience foods have emerged as previously unrecognized but important contributors to phylloquinone intake in the United States, which challenges the assumption that phylloquinone intake is a marker of a healthy diet. These findings emphasize the need for the expansion of food composition databases that consider how mixed dishes are compiled and defined.

PMID: 28566528 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Interactions between 5-Lipoxygenase Polymorphisms and Adipose Tissue Contents of Arachidonic and Eicosapentaenoic Acids Do Not Affect Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Middle-Aged Men and Women in a Danish Case-Cohort Study.
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Interactions between 5-Lipoxygenase Polymorphisms and Adipose Tissue Contents of Arachidonic and Eicosapentaenoic Acids Do Not Affect Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Middle-Aged Men and Women in a Danish Case-Cohort Study.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1340-1347

Authors: Gammelmark A, Lundbye-Christensen S, Tjønneland A, Schmidt EB, Overvad K, Nielsen MS

Abstract
Background: The 5-lipoxygenase pathway has been linked to atherothrombotic disease, and a functional tandem repeat polymorphism in the arachidonate lipoxygenase-5 (ALOX-5) gene has been associated with the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Interestingly, 2 studies have reported an interaction between dietary intakes of the ALOX-5 substrates, arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and genotype.Objective: We investigated whether the interactions between the ALOX-5 tandem repeat polymorphism (rs59439148) and adipose tissue AA and EPA were associated with incident MI.Methods: In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study, we conducted a case-cohort study including 3089 participants with incident MI identified from national registries and a randomly selected subcohort of 3000 participants. Participants were men and women with a median age of 56 y at baseline and no previous history of cancer. Adipose tissue and blood samples were collected at baseline along with comprehensive questionnaires on lifestyle and demographic data. The ALOX-5 tandem repeat polymorphism was genotyped by multititer plate sequencing. Associations were analyzed by using Cox proportional hazards models.Results: We observed a higher risk of MI for homozygous carriers of the variant alleles in the fifth quintile of AA content than for the reference group with the lowest quintile of AA and carrying the wild-type allele (HR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.41, 6.44). In contrast, homozygotes for the variant alleles tended to have a higher risk of MI when comparing the lowest quintile of EPA content with the reference group with the highest quintile of EPA and carrying the wild-type allele (HR: 2.15; 95% CI: 0.91, 5.09; P = 0.08). Although our results suggested interactions between the polymorphism and adipose tissue AA and EPA, a quantitative evaluation of interaction by calculating the relative excess risk due to interactions was not significant.Conclusions: Adipose tissue EPA and AA and the ALOX-5 tandem repeat polymorphism did not significantly interact to affect the risk of MI. However, the results should be replicated in larger, heterogeneous populations.

PMID: 28566527 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Modeling Optimal Cutoffs for the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale in a Nationwide Representative Sample.
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Modeling Optimal Cutoffs for the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale in a Nationwide Representative Sample.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1356-1365

Authors: Interlenghi GS, Reichenheim ME, Segall-Corrêa AM, Pérez-Escamilla R, Moraes CL, Salles-Costa R

Abstract
Background: This is the second part of a model-based approach to examine the suitability of the current cutoffs applied to the raw score of the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale [Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar (EBIA)]. The approach allows identification of homogeneous groups who correspond to severity levels of food insecurity (FI) and, by extension, discriminant cutoffs able to accurately distinguish these groups.Objective: This study aims to examine whether the model-based approach for identifying optimal cutoffs first implemented in a local sample is replicated in a countrywide representative sample.Methods: Data were derived from the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey of 2013 (n = 116,543 households). Latent class factor analysis (LCFA) models from 2 to 5 classes were applied to the scale's items to identify the number of underlying FI latent classes. Next, identification of optimal cutoffs on the overall raw score was ascertained from these identified classes. Analyses were conducted in the aggregate data and by macroregions. Finally, model-based classifications (latent classes and groupings identified thereafter) were contrasted to the traditionally used classification.Results: LCFA identified 4 homogeneous groups with a very high degree of class separation (entropy = 0.934-0.975). The following cutoffs were identified in the aggregate data: between 1 and 2 (1/2), 5 and 6 (5/6), and 10 and 11 (10/11) in households with children and/or adolescents <18 y of age (score range: 0-14), and 1/2, between 4 and 5 (4/5), and between 6 and 7 (6/7) in adult-only households (range: 0-8). With minor variations, the same cutoffs were also identified in the macroregions. Although our findings confirm, in general, the classification currently used, the limit of 1/2 (compared with 0/1) for separating the milder from the baseline category emerged consistently in all analyses.Conclusions: Nationwide findings corroborate previous local evidence that households with an overall score of 1 are more akin to those scoring negative on all items. These results may contribute to guide experts' and policymakers' decisions on the most appropriate EBIA cutoffs.

PMID: 28566526 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Supplementation with RRR- or all-rac-α-Tocopherol Differentially Affects the α-Tocopherol Stereoisomer Profile in the Milk and Plasma of Lactating Women.
Related Articles Supplementation with RRR- or all-rac-α-Tocopherol Differentially Affects the α-Tocopherol Stereoisomer Profile in the Milk and Plasma of Lactating Women. J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1301-1307 Authors: Gaur S, Kuchan MJ, Lai CS, Jensen SK, Sherry CL Abstract Background: The naturally occurring α-tocopherol stereoisomer RRR-α-tocopherol is known to be more bioactive than synthetic α-tocopherol (all-rac-α-tocopherol). However, the influence of this difference on the α-tocopherol stereoisomer profile of human milk is not understood.Objective: We investigated whether supplemental RRR-α-tocopherol or all-rac-α-tocopherol differentially affected the distribution of α-tocopherol stereoisomers in milk and plasma from lactating women.Methods: Eighty-nine lactating women aged 19-40 y and with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) ≤30 were randomly assigned at 4-6 wk postpartum to receive a daily supplement containing 45.5 mg all-rac-α-tocopherol acetate (ARAC), 22.8 mg all-rac-α-tocopherol acetate + 20.1 mg RRR-α-tocopherol (MIX), or 40.2 mg RRR-α-tocopherol (RRR). Milk and plasma were analyzed for α-tocopherol structural isomers and α-tocopherol stereoisomers at baseline and after 6 wk supplementation with the use of chiral HPLC.Results: There were no significant treatment group or time-dependent changes in milk or plasma α, γ, or δ-tocopherol. RRR-α-tocopherol was the most abundant stereoisomer in both milk and plasma in each group. Supplementation changed both milk and plasma percentage RRR-α-tocopherol (RRR > MIX > ARAC) (P < 0.05) and percentage non-RRR-α-tocopherol (ARAC > MIX > RRR) (P < 0.05). In the RRR group, percentage RRR-α-tocopherol increased in milk (mean ± SEM: 78% ± 2.3% compared with 82% ± 1.7%) (P < 0.05) and plasma (mean ± SEM: 77% ± 1.8% compared with 87% ± 1%) (P < 0.05). In contrast, the percentage RRR-α-tocopherol decreased in the MIX and ARAC groups (MIX, P < 0.05; ARAC, P < 0.0001), and percentage non-RRR-α-tocopherol stereoisomers increased (MIX, P < 0.05; ARAC, P < 0.0001) commensurate with an accumulation of 2S-α-tocopherol stereoisomers (P < 0.05) in both milk and plasma. Milk and plasma RRR-α-tocopherol was positively correlated at baseline (r = 0.67; P < 0.0001) and 6 wk (r = 0.80; P < 0.0001).Conclusion: The α-tocopherol supplementation strategy differentially affected the α-tocopherol milk and plasma stereoisomer profile in lactating women. RRR-α-tocopherol increased milk and plasma percentage RRR-α-tocopherol, whereas all-rac-α-tocopherol acetate reduced these percentages. Because RRR-α-tocopherol is the most bioactive stereoisomer, investigating the impact of supplement-driven changes in the milk α-tocopherol stereoisomer profile on the α-tocopherol status of breastfed infants is warranted. PMID: 28566525 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] [...]



A Mediterranean Diet Reduces F2-Isoprostanes and Triglycerides among Older Australian Men and Women after 6 Months.
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A Mediterranean Diet Reduces F2-Isoprostanes and Triglycerides among Older Australian Men and Women after 6 Months.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1348-1355

Authors: Davis CR, Bryan J, Hodgson JM, Woodman R, Murphy KJ

Abstract
Background: Health benefits of a Mediterranean dietary pattern have been shown. However, there are few data on the effects of increased adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) in non-Mediterranean countries.Objective: We aimed to determine whether adherence to a MedDiet would result in changes in plasma lipids, glucose and insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) in an Australian population.Methods: The study was a 6-mo parallel, randomized, controlled dietary intervention trial. We recruited 166 participants aged ≥65 y. Participants were stratified on body mass index, sex, and age and assigned to receive either a MedDiet or a habitual diet (HabDiet). The primary outcome was cognitive function, reported elsewhere. As secondary outcomes, assessment of fasting total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol; triglycerides (TGs); glucose; insulin; hs-CRP; and F2-IsoPs was completed at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. The MedDiet group followed a prescribed diet containing 15-45 mL extra-virgin olive oil/d, abundant vegetables, fruit, nuts, legumes, and whole grains, as well as moderate fish, poultry, and dairy foods. Dietary intake was measured by 3-d weighed food records at baseline and at 2 and 4 mo. Results were analyzed by using linear mixed-effects models.Results: Compared with the HabDiet, the MedDiet resulted in lower TGs at 3 mo (mean difference: -0.15 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.23, -0.07 mmol/L; P < 0.001) and 6 mo (mean difference: -0.09 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.18, -0.01 mmol/L; P = 0.03) and lower F2-IsoPs at 3 mo (mean difference: -103.5 pmol/L; 95% CI: -154.2, -52.7 pmol/L; P < 0.001) and 6 mo (-65.4 pmol/L; 95% CI: -117.1, -13.7 pmol/L; P < 0.001). Lipoprotein, glucose and insulin, and hs-CRP concentrations were not significantly different between groups.Conclusion: A high adherence to a MedDiet for 6 mo resulted in a significant reduction in TGs and F2-IsoPs among older Australians. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as ACTRN12613000602729.

PMID: 28566524 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Gastric and Postgastric Processing of (13)C Markers Renders the (13)C Breath Test an Inappropriate Measurement Method for the Gastric Emptying of Lipid Emulsions in Healthy Adults.
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Gastric and Postgastric Processing of (13)C Markers Renders the (13)C Breath Test an Inappropriate Measurement Method for the Gastric Emptying of Lipid Emulsions in Healthy Adults.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1258-1266

Authors: Parker HL, Liu D, Curcic J, Ebert MO, Schwizer W, Fried M, Steingoetter A

Abstract
Background: Breath tests (BTs) present an alternative gastric-emptying (GE) measure. However, their efficacy in the measurement of the GE rate of lipid emulsions (LEs) is unknown.Objective: The objective of this work was to investigate the validity of (13)C BTs as a measure of fat GE rate in LEs.Methods: The lipophilic (13)C octanoate (OCC) BT marker was investigated for fat GE with the hydrophilic (13)C sodium acetate (ACC) and the triglyceride (13)C trioctanoin (TCC) markers as comparators. Data from 2 randomized studies were combined [50 healthy participants; 25 men, mean ± SD age: 23 ± 2.8 y; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.4 ± 1.7]. Each participant was given either an acid-stable LE (LE1) or an acid-unstable LE (LE4) at each visit. Twenty-three participants underwent simultaneous MRI. The effect of LEs on (13)CO2 excretion profiles was determined. The BT half-emptying times (BT T50) were validated with the MRI half-emptying time of the ingested fat volume (MRI T50).Results: The effect of LEs on (13)CO2 excretion depended on the properties of the (13)C marker. T50 for OCC was shorter by 98 min for LE1 than for LE4 (P < 0.001). Other markers showed either no LE dependency or a longer T50 for LE1 than for LE4. No difference in T50 between OCC and ACC was detected in LE1. In LE4, the T50 was longer by 154 min (P < 0.0001). There was some concordance between MRI T50 and OCC BT T50 for LE1 (rc = 0.7). No other marker showed any concordance with fat GE. (13)C-Nuclear magnetic resonance in vitro findings were compatible with changes in the kinetics of phase transfer of OCC dependent on its protonation state.Conclusions: The structure of fat present in the stomach affects (13)CO2 excretion. The chemical properties of the (13)C marker and their gastric and postgastric interaction with fat renders (13)CO2 excretion an inappropriate measure of LE emptying in healthy adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02226029 and NCT02602158.

PMID: 28566523 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Vitamin D Supplementation Trials Aimed at Reducing Mortality Have Much Higher Power When Focusing on People with Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations.
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Vitamin D Supplementation Trials Aimed at Reducing Mortality Have Much Higher Power When Focusing on People with Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1325-1333

Authors: Brenner H, Jansen L, Saum KU, Holleczek B, Schöttker B

Abstract
Background: Evidence of an inverse association between serum vitamin D and mortality from epidemiological studies has prompted efforts to reduce mortality by vitamin D supplementation, either in targeted interventions for people with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency, or in untargeted interventions regardless of baseline vitamin D status.Objective: We aimed to assess the expected impact of the 2 different approaches on effect sizes and power of intervention studies.Methods: Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured in 9579 participants aged 50-75 y in the German Epidemiologische Studie zu Chancen der Verhütung, Früherkennung und optimierten Therapie chronischer Erkrankungen in der älteren Bevölkerung (ESTHER) study who were followed for mortality for a median of 12.4 y. We estimated adjusted HRs of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer for defined increases in serum 25(OH)D by Cox regression, both across the full range of 25(OH)D concentrations and for those with vitamin D insufficiency [30 nmol/L ≤ 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L] or deficiency [25(OH)D <30 nmol/L] only, and we calculated the power of intervention studies achieving those effect sizes.Results: An inverse association between serum 25(OH)D and mortality was observed only for participants with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency and was strongest for the latter. Accordingly, the expected effects were much stronger and the expected power was much higher for interventions that targeted these groups than for untargeted interventions. For example, a targeted intervention study with 10,000 older adults (age 50-75 y) with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L that increases serum 25(OH)D concentrations by 20 nmol/L in the intervention group (n = 5000) would be expected to yield a 26% reduction of all-cause mortality that could be detected with 89% power within 5 y of follow-up compared with a 10% mortality reduction and 20% power in an untargeted intervention study of the same size.Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation trials aimed at reducing mortality in older adults have much higher power when focused on those with low serum 25(OH)D concentrations.

PMID: 28539415 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Moderately Elevated Homocysteine Does Not Contribute to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm in Mice.
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Moderately Elevated Homocysteine Does Not Contribute to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm in Mice.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1290-1295

Authors: Roohi J, Kang B, Bernard D, Bedja D, Dietz HC, Brody LC

Abstract
Background: Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is an attractive target for intervention because it is present in 5-7% of the population and can be reversed by diet. This approach presupposes that hyperhomocysteinemia is directly involved in the disease process. Epidemiologic studies have indicated that moderately elevated homocysteine may contribute to thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) dilatation and dissection in humans. In vitro, elevated homocysteine disrupts the structure and function of extracellular matrix components, suggesting that moderate hyperhomocysteinemia may contribute to the development and/or progression of TAA.Objective: We investigated moderately elevated homocysteine in the development and progression of TAA in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome (MFS) and in isogenic wild-type mice. The MFS mouse is a well-described model of a systemic connective tissue disorder characterized by thoracic aortic dilatation, dissection, and rupture. We used this model as a sensitized indicator system to examine the impact of homocysteine on the progression of TAA.Methods: Murine fibrillin 1 gene (Fbn1)(C1039G/+) MFS and C57BL/6J wild-type mice were fed a cobalamin-restricted diet to induce moderate hyperhomocysteinemia from weaning until the age of 32 wk. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid were measured and aortic root diameter assessed with the use of echocardiography in mice aged 3, 7, 15, and 32 wk.Results: Cobalamin-restricted mice exhibited significantly higher homocysteine (P < 0.0001) and methylmalonic acid (P < 0.0001) in the blood. For both strains, no significant difference in thoracic aortic diameter was observed in mice on the cobalamin-restricted diet compared with those on the control diet.Conclusions:Fbn1(C1039G/+) mice are a well-characterized model of progressive aortic root dilation. Hyperhomocysteinemia in the physiologic range did not induce abnormal aortic growth in wild-type mice and did not accelerate or otherwise influence aortic root growth and pathologic progression in mice with an underlying predisposition for aortic dilatation.

PMID: 28539414 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Unconditional Cash Transfers Do Not Prevent Children's Undernutrition in the Moderate Acute Malnutrition Out (MAM'Out) Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Rural Burkina Faso.
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Unconditional Cash Transfers Do Not Prevent Children's Undernutrition in the Moderate Acute Malnutrition Out (MAM'Out) Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Rural Burkina Faso.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1410-1417

Authors: Houngbe F, Tonguet-Papucci A, Altare C, Ait-Aissa M, Huneau JF, Huybregts L, Kolsteren P

Abstract
Background: Limited evidence is available on the impact that unconditional cash transfer (UCT) programs can have on child nutrition, particularly in West Africa, where child undernutrition is still a public health challenge.Objective: This study examined the impact of a multiannual, seasonal UCT program to reduce the occurrence of wasting (weight-for-height, midupper arm circumference), stunting (height-for-age), and morbidity among children <36 mo old in Tapoa Province, in the eastern region of Burkina Faso.Methods: The study was designed as a 2-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial, with 32 villages randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. The study population comprised households that were classified as poor or very poor according to household economy approach criteria and that had ≥1 child <1 y of age at inclusion. The intervention consisted of seasonal UCTs, provided monthly from July to November, over 2 y (2013 and 2014). A monthly allowance of 10,000 West African Financial Community of Africa francs (∼US$17) was given by mobile phone to mothers in participating households. Anthropometric measurements and morbidity were recorded on a quarterly basis.Results: We found no evidence that multiannual, seasonal UCTs reduced the cumulative incidence of wasting in young children [incidence rate ratio: 0.92 (95% CI: 0.64, 1.32); P = 0.66]. We observed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in children's anthropometric measurements and stunting between the 2 groups at the end point. However, children in the intervention group had a lower risk [21% (95% CI: 18.6%, 21.3%); P < 0.001] of self-reported respiratory tract infections than did children in the control group.Conclusions: We found that seasonal UCTs in the framework of safety nets did not result in a significant decrease in the incidence of acute malnutrition among children in Tapoa Province. Cash transfers combined with complementary interventions targeted to child nutrition and health should be investigated further. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01866124.

PMID: 28539413 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Newborn Body Composition.
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Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Newborn Body Composition.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1334-1339

Authors: Starling AP, Sauder KA, Kaar JL, Shapiro AL, Siega-Riz AM, Dabelea D

Abstract
Background: Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy may influence offspring growth and adiposity. Specific dietary patterns associated with newborn adiposity have not been identified.Objective: We aimed to identify patterns of maternal dietary intake associated with gestational weight gain (GWG) and fasting glucose during pregnancy and to evaluate whether adherence to these patterns is associated with newborn adiposity.Methods: In the Healthy Start prospective cohort, dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed via 24-h recalls. Reduced-rank regression identified dietary patterns predictive of GWG and fasting glucose. Associations between dietary patterns and newborn fat mass, fat-free mass, and adiposity were estimated by using linear regression models among 764 ethnically diverse mother-infant pairs.Results: Two dietary patterns were identified. Pattern 1, correlated with greater GWG (r = 0.22, P < 0.01), was characterized by a higher consumption of poultry, nuts, cheese, fruits, whole grains, added sugars, and solid fats. Greater adherence to pattern 1 (upper compared with lower tertile) predicted a greater newborn fat-free mass (61 g; 95% CI: 12, 110 g) but no difference in fat mass or adiposity. Pattern 2, correlated with greater maternal fasting glucose (r = 0.16, P < 0.01), was characterized by a higher consumption of eggs, starchy vegetables, solid fats, fruits, and nonwhole grains and a lower consumption of dairy foods, dark-green vegetables, and whole grains. Greater adherence to pattern 2 was associated with a greater newborn birth weight (80 g; 95% CI: 15, 145 g), fat mass (33 g; 95% CI: 8, 59 g), and adiposity (0.9%; 95% CI: 0.3%, 1.6%).Conclusions: Among pregnant women, adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by an intake of poultry, nuts, cheese, and whole grains was associated with greater GWG but not maternal fasting glucose or newborn adiposity. Adherence to a pattern characterized by an intake of eggs, starchy vegetables, and nonwhole grains was associated with higher maternal fasting glucose and greater newborn adiposity. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy may influence newborn body composition.

PMID: 28539412 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Zinc Supplementation, via GPR39, Upregulates PKCζ to Protect Intestinal Barrier Integrity in Caco-2 Cells Challenged by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.
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Zinc Supplementation, via GPR39, Upregulates PKCζ to Protect Intestinal Barrier Integrity in Caco-2 Cells Challenged by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1282-1289

Authors: Shao YX, Lei Z, Wolf PG, Gao Y, Guo YM, Zhang BK

Abstract
Background: Zinc has been shown to improve intestinal barrier function against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection, but the mechanisms involved in this process remain undefined.Objective: We aimed to explore the roles of G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)39 and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) in the regulation by zinc of intestinal barrier function.Methods: A Transwell Caco-2 monolayer was pretreated with 0, 50, or 100 μM Zn and then incubated with S. typhimurium for 0-6 h. Afterward, cells silenced by the small interfering RNA for GPR39 or PKCζ were pretreated with 100 μM Zn and incubated with S. typhimurium for 3 h. Finally, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), permeability, tight junction (TJ) proteins, and signaling molecules GPR39 and PKCζ were measured.Results: Compared with controls, S. typhimurium decreased TEER by 62.3-96.2% at 4-6 h (P < 0.001), increased (P < 0.001) permeability at 6 h, and downregulated (P < 0.05) TJ protein zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and occludin by 104-123%, as well as Toll-like receptor 2 and PKCζ by 35.1% and 75.2%, respectively. Compared with S. typhimurium-challenged cells, 50 and 100 μM Zn improved TEER by 26.3-60.9% at 4-6 h (P < 0.001) and decreased (P < 0.001) permeability and bacterial invasion at 6 h. A total of 100 μM Zn increased ZO-1, occludin, GPR39, and PKCζ 0.72- to 1.34-fold (P < 0.05); however, 50 μM Zn did not affect ZO-1 or occludin (P > 0.1). Silencing GPR39 decreased (P < 0.05) zinc-activated PKCζ and blocked (P < 0.05) the promotion of zinc on epithelial integrity. Furthermore, silencing PKCζ counteracted the protective effect of zinc on epithelial integrity but did not inhibit GPR39 (P = 0.138).Conclusion: We demonstrated that zinc upregulates PKCζ by activating GPR39 to enhance the abundance of ZO-1, thereby improving epithelial integrity in S. typhimurium-infected Caco-2 cells.

PMID: 28515165 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




mRNA Levels of Placental Iron and Zinc Transporter Genes Are Upregulated in Gambian Women with Low Iron and Zinc Status.
Related Articles mRNA Levels of Placental Iron and Zinc Transporter Genes Are Upregulated in Gambian Women with Low Iron and Zinc Status. J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1401-1409 Authors: Jobarteh ML, McArdle HJ, Holtrop G, Sise EA, Prentice AM, Moore SE Abstract Background: The role of the placenta in regulating micronutrient transport in response to maternal status is poorly understood.Objective: We investigated the effect of prenatal nutritional supplementation on the regulation of placental iron and zinc transport.Methods: In a randomized trial in rural Gambia [ENID (Early Nutrition and Immune Development)], pregnant women were allocated to 1 of 4 nutritional intervention arms: 1) iron and folic acid (FeFol) tablets (FeFol group); 2) multiple micronutrient (MMN) tablets (MMN group); 3) protein energy (PE) as a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS; PE group); and 4) PE and MMN (PE+MMN group) as LNS. All arms included iron (60 mg/d) and folic acid (400 μg/d). The MMN and PE+MMN arms included 30 mg supplemental Zn/d. In a subgroup of ∼300 mother-infant pairs, we measured maternal iron status, mRNA levels of genes encoding for placental iron and zinc transport proteins, and cord blood iron levels.Results: Maternal plasma iron concentration in late pregnancy was 45% and 78% lower in the PE and PE+MMN groups compared to the FeFol and MMN groups, respectively (P < 0.001). The mRNA levels of the placental iron uptake protein transferrin receptor 1 were 30-49% higher in the PE and PE+MMN arms than in the FeFol arm (P < 0.031), and also higher in the PE+MMN arm (29%; P = 0.042) than in the MMN arm. Ferritin in infant cord blood was 18-22% lower in the LNS groups (P < 0.024). Zinc supplementation in the MMN arm was associated with higher maternal plasma zinc concentrations (10% increase; P < 0.001) than in other intervention arms. mRNA levels for intracellular zinc-uptake proteins, in this case zrt, irt-like protein (ZIP) 4 and ZIP8, were 96-205% lower in the PE+MMN arm than in the intervention arms without added zinc (P < 0.025). Furthermore, mRNA expression of ZIP1 was 85% lower in the PE+MMN group than in the PE group (P = 0.003).Conclusion: In conditions of low maternal iron and in the absence of supplemental zinc, the placenta upregulates the gene expression of iron and zinc uptake proteins, presumably in order to meet fetal demands in the face of low maternal supply. The ENID trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN49285450. PMID: 28515164 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] [...]



Assessment of Nitric Oxide Production in Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-Like Episodes Syndrome with the Use of a Stable Isotope Tracer Infusion Technique.
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Assessment of Nitric Oxide Production in Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-Like Episodes Syndrome with the Use of a Stable Isotope Tracer Infusion Technique.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1251-1257

Authors: El-Hattab AW, Jahoor F

Abstract
Mitochondrial disorders result from dysfunctional mitochondria that are unable to generate sufficient energy to meet the needs of various organs. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is one of the most frequent maternally inherited mitochondrial disorders. There is growing evidence that nitric oxide (NO) deficiency occurs in MELAS syndrome and results in impaired blood perfusion that contributes significantly to several complications in this disease. NO is synthesized from arginine by NO synthase, which catalyzes the conversion of arginine to NO and citrulline. Citrulline can be recycled into arginine, and therefore, both arginine and citrulline support NO synthesis. The use of (15)N2-arginine and (13)C-,(2)H4-citrulline stable isotope infusion allows measuring arginine flux; citrulline flux; citrulline-to-arginine flux, which represents the de novo arginine synthesis rate; and arginine-to-citrulline flux, which represents the NO production rate. The objective of this review is to highlight the utility of this method in providing additional evidence for NO deficiency in MELAS syndrome, adding more insight into the potential mechanisms of NO deficiency in this syndrome, and allowing for the assessment of the effects of supplementation with the NO donors, arginine and citrulline, on improving NO production in MELAS syndrome.

PMID: 28515163 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Dietary Protein and the Health-Nutrition-Agriculture Connection in India.
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Dietary Protein and the Health-Nutrition-Agriculture Connection in India.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1243-1250

Authors: Minocha S, Thomas T, Kurpad AV

Abstract
The connection between the production, availability, and consumption of high-quality food is becoming very important in developing countries. The requirement of protein is linked to its quality, or its digestibility and ability to meet human indispensable amino acid requirements. This requirement is particularly relevant in India, where commonly consumed cereal-based diets and cereal-based food subsidy programs offer low-quality protein and therefore pose a risk of quality protein deficiency. The production of and access to sustainable sources of high-quality protein will be important parts of mitigating risks to human health. Although milk production has risen in India, its consumption by the poor remains low. On the other hand, leguminous grain production, which has greater climate resilience and soil improvement properties, has fallen, yet this can help resource-poor farmers increase their intake of quality food. Nonetheless, concerns about the nutritional quality of plant protein exist and may be more relevant in settings where environmental enteric dysfunction already affects nutrient absorption. With the use of nationally representative household protein consumption data in India, the percentage of the population at risk of quality protein deficiency was found to vary between 4% and 26% among different age groups and between the urban or rural sector. Mitigating these risks requires a greater intake of high-quality proteins, such as pulses and milk, and that food subsidy policies move beyond cereals and become more quality conscious.

PMID: 28515162 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Suboptimal Maternal Iodine Intake Is Associated with Impaired Child Neurodevelopment at 3 Years of Age in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.
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Suboptimal Maternal Iodine Intake Is Associated with Impaired Child Neurodevelopment at 3 Years of Age in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1314-1324

Authors: Abel MH, Caspersen IH, Meltzer HM, Haugen M, Brandlistuen RE, Aase H, Alexander J, Torheim LE, Brantsæter AL

Abstract
Background: Severe iodine deficiency in pregnancy has major effects on child neurodevelopment, but less is known about the potential consequences of mild-to-moderate deficiency and iodine supplement use.Objective: We explored the associations between maternal iodine intake and child neurodevelopment at 3 y of age and the potential impact of maternal intake of iodine from supplements on the same outcomes.Methods: This population-based prospective observational study included 48,297 mother-child pairs recruited during pregnancy from 2002 to 2008. Maternal iodine intake was calculated based on a validated food-frequency questionnaire answered during midpregnancy that covered mean intake since the beginning of pregnancy. Associations between iodine intake and maternal-reported child language and motor development and behavior problems were explored by multivariable regression analyses.Results: In 33,047 mother-child pairs, excluding iodine supplement users, maternal iodine intake was associated with child language delay (P = 0.024), externalizing and internalizing behavior problems (both P < 0.001), and fine motor skills (P = 0.002) but not gross motor skills or the risk of not walking unaided at 17 mo of age. In 74% of the participants who had an iodine intake <160 μg/d (Estimated Average Requirement), suboptimal iodine intake was estimated to account for ∼5% (95% CI: -5%, 14%) of the cases of language delay, 16% (95% CI: 0%, 21%) of the cases of externalizing behavior problems >1.5 SD, and 16% (95% CI: 10%, 21%) of the cases of internalizing behavior problems >1.5 SD. In 48,297 mother-child pairs, including iodine supplement users, we found no protective effects of supplemental iodine during pregnancy on neurodevelopment.Conclusions: Maternal iodine intake below the Estimated Average Requirement during pregnancy was associated with symptoms of child language delay, behavior problems, and reduced fine motor skills at 3 y of age. The results showed no evidence of a protective effect of iodine supplementation during pregnancy.

PMID: 28515161 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Replacement of Refined Starches and Added Sugars with Egg Protein and Unsaturated Fats Increases Insulin Sensitivity and Lowers Triglycerides in Overweight or Obese Adults with Elevated Triglycerides.
Related Articles Replacement of Refined Starches and Added Sugars with Egg Protein and Unsaturated Fats Increases Insulin Sensitivity and Lowers Triglycerides in Overweight or Obese Adults with Elevated Triglycerides. J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1267-1274 Authors: Maki KC, Palacios OM, Lindner E, Nieman KM, Bell M, Sorce J Abstract Background: Hypertriglyceridemia is a common condition in the United States and is often associated with other metabolic disturbances, including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and a predominance of small dense LDL particles.Objective: The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of a combination of egg protein (Epro) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) substituted for refined starches and added sugars on insulin sensitivity (primary outcome) and other cardiometabolic health markers in overweight or obese adults with elevated triglyceride (TG) concentrations.Methods: Subjects with elevated TG concentrations were given test foods prepared by using Epro powder (∼8% of energy) and vegetable oil (∼8% of energy; Epro and UFA condition) or test foods prepared by using refined starch and sugar (∼16% of energy; carbohydrate condition) in a randomized, double-blind, controlled-feeding, crossover trial (3 wk/condition, 2-wk washout). The Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (MISI), fasting lipids, and other cardiometabolic health markers were assessed at baseline and the end of each diet condition. Responses were compared by using repeated-measures ANCOVA.Results: Twenty-five participants [11 men, 14 women; mean ± SEM: age, 46.3 ± 2.4 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)), 31.8 ± 1.0] with a median (interquartile range limits) fasting serum TG concentration of 173 mg/dL (159, 228 mg/dL) completed the trial. The MISI value increased 18.1% ± 8.7% from baseline during the Epro and UFA condition and decreased 5.7% ± 6.2% from baseline during the carbohydrate condition (P < 0.001). The disposition index increased 23.8% ± 20.8% during the Epro and UFA condition compared with a decrease of 16.3% ± 18.8% during carbohydrate (P = 0.042) and LDL peak particle size increased 0.12 nm (-0.12, 0.28 nm) with Epro and UFA compared with a decrease of 0.15 nm (-0.33, 0.12 nm) with carbohydrate (P = 0.019). TG and VLDL cholesterol concentrations were lowered by 18.5% (-35.7%, -6.9%) and 18.6% (-34.8%, -7.4%), respectively, after the Epro and UFA condition and by 2.5% (-13.4%, 17.0%) and 3.6% (-12.5%, 16.2%), respectively, after the carbohydrate diet condition (P < 0.002).Conclusions: The replacement of refined carbohydrates with a combination of Epro and UFA increased the MISI value and altered several markers of cardiometabolic health in overweight or obese adults with elevated TG concentrations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02924558. PMID: 28515160 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] [...]



Intermittent Fasting Pretreatment Prevents Cognitive Impairment in a Rat Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion.
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Intermittent Fasting Pretreatment Prevents Cognitive Impairment in a Rat Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion.

J Nutr. 2017 Jul;147(7):1437-1445

Authors: Hu Y, Yang Y, Zhang M, Deng M, Zhang JJ

Abstract
Background: Whether intermittent fasting (IF) pretreatment can prevent vascular cognitive dysfunction remains unknown to our knowledge.Objective: We investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of IF pretreatment on cognitive dysfunction in a permanent 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) vascular dementia rat model.Methods: Male Wistar rats weighing 200 g were subjected to either IF or ad libitum feeding for 12 wk before 2VO surgery. Rats in the IF protocol underwent alternative-day feed deprivation (FD). Memory of the animals was assessed by using the Morris water maze (MWM) and the novel object recognition (NOR) test 6 wk after the surgery. After behavioral testing, malondialdehyde and glutathione concentrations, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, gene expression of antioxidative enzymes, inflammatory protein concentrations, and microglia density were determined in the hippocampus of rats.Results: 2-vessel occlusion operation ad libitum (2VO-AL) rats had significantly longer escape latencies on day 4 of the training phase and spent a lower percentage of time in the target quadrant (25% compared with 38% and 41%) in the MWM, and had lower discrimination ratios (47% compared with 65% and 67%) in the NOR test than 2-vessel operation and alternate-day feed deprivation (2VO-FD) and sham operation ad libitum (Sham-AL) rats, respectively (P < 0.05). This indicates that IF helps to prevent vascular cognitive deficits. 2VO-AL rats also had higher malondialdehyde (3.54 compared with 2.15 and 1.66 nmol/mg protein) and lower glutathione concentrations (53.25 compared with 66.41 and 91.71 nmol/mg protein), lower SOD activity (100.1 compared with 133.3 and 138.5 U/mg protein), lower gene expression of antioxidative enzymes, higher expression of inflammatory proteins, and higher microglia density in the hippocampus than 2VO-FD and Sham-AL rats, respectively (P < 0.05). This suggests that IF has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.Conclusions: IF pretreatment provided sustained neuroprotection in a rat model of vascular dementia. These effects were associated with reduced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.

PMID: 28515159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]