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Dietary Selenium Deficiency or Excess Reduces Sperm Quality and Testicular mRNA Abundance of Nuclear Glutathione Peroxidase 4 in Rats.
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Dietary Selenium Deficiency or Excess Reduces Sperm Quality and Testicular mRNA Abundance of Nuclear Glutathione Peroxidase 4 in Rats.

J Nutr. 2017 Aug 16;:

Authors: Zhou JC, Zheng S, Mo J, Liang X, Xu Y, Zhang H, Gong C, Liu XL, Lei XG

Abstract
Background: Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) 4 and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) are abundant, and several variants are expressed in the testis.Objective: We determined the effects of dietary selenium deficiency or excess on sperm quality and expressions of GPX4 and SELENOP variants in rat testis and liver.Methods: After weaning, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a Se-deficient basal diet (BD) for 5 wk until they were 9 wk old [mean ± SEM body weight (BW) = 256 ± 5 g]. They were then fed the BD diet alone (deficient) or with 0.25 (adequate), 3 (excess), or 5 (excess) mg Se/kg for 4 wk. Testis, liver, blood, and semen were collected to assay for selenoprotein mRNA and protein abundances, selenium concentration, GPX activity, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine concentration, and sperm quality.Results: Dietary selenium supplementations elevated (P < 0.05) tissue selenium concentrations and GPX activities. Compared with those fed BD + 0.25 mg Se/kg, rats fed BD showed lower (P < 0.05) BW gain (86%) and sperm density (57%) but higher (P < 0.05) plasma 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine concentrations (189%), and nonprogressive sperm motility (4.4-fold). Likewise, rats fed BD + 5 mg Se/kg had (P = 0.06) lower BW gain and higher (1.9-fold) sperm deformity rates than those in the selenium-adequate group. Compared with the selenium-adequate group, dietary selenium deficiency (BD) or excess (BD + 3 or 5 mg Se/kg) resulted in 45-77% lower (P < 0.05) nuclear Gpx4 (nGpx4) mRNA abundance in the testis. Rats fed BD had lower (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of 2 Selenop variants in both testis and liver than those in the other groups. Testicular SELENOP was 155-170% higher (P < 0.05) in rats fed BD + 5 mg Se/kg and hepatic c/mGPX4 was 13-15% lower (P < 0.05) in rats fed BD than in the other groups.Conclusions: The mRNA abundance of rat testicular nGPX4 responded to dietary selenium concentrations in similar ways to sperm parameters and may be used as a sensitive marker to assess appropriate Se status for male function.

PMID: 28814533 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Developmental Process and Early Phases of Implementation for the US Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research National Nutrition Research Roadmap 2016-2021.
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Developmental Process and Early Phases of Implementation for the US Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research National Nutrition Research Roadmap 2016-2021.

J Nutr. 2017 Aug 16;:

Authors: Fleischhacker SE, Ballard RM, Starke-Reed PE, Galuska DA, Neuhouser ML

Abstract
The Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research (ICHNR) is charged with improving the planning, coordination, and communication among federal agencies engaged in nutrition research and with facilitating the development and updating of plans for federal research programs to meet current and future domestic and international needs for nutrition. The ICHNR is co-chaired by the USDA Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics and Chief Scientist and the US Department of Health and Human Services Assistant Secretary for Health and is made up of >10 departments and agencies. Once the ICHNR was reassembled after a 10-y hiatus, the ICHNR recognized a need for a written roadmap to identify critical human nutrition research gaps and opportunities. This commentary provides an overview of the process the ICHNR undertook to develop a first-of-its-kind National Nutrition Research Roadmap, which was publicly released on 4 March 2016. The primary audience for the Roadmap is federal science agency leaders, along with relevant program and policy staff who rely on federally supported human nutrition research, in addition to the broader scientific community. The Roadmap is framed around the following 3 questions: 1) How can we better understand and define eating patterns to improve and sustain health? 2) What can be done to help people choose healthy eating patterns? 3) How can we develop and engage innovative methods and systems to accelerate discoveries in human nutrition? Within these 3 questions, 11 topical areas were identified on the basis of the following criteria: population impact, feasibility given current technological capacities, and emerging scientific opportunities. This commentary highlights initial federal and some professional research society efforts to address the Roadmap's research and resource priorities. We conclude by noting examples of early collaborations and partnerships to move human nutrition research forward in the 21st century.

PMID: 28814532 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Have a Low Response Rate to Vitamin D Supplementation.
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Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Have a Low Response Rate to Vitamin D Supplementation.

J Nutr. 2017 Aug 16;:

Authors: Dasarathy J, Varghese R, Feldman A, Khiyami A, McCullough AJ, Dasarathy S

Abstract
Background: Hypovitaminosis D is associated with an increased severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but reports on the response to cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation are conflicting.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if standard vitamin D3 supplementation is effective in NAFLD with hypovitaminosis D.Methods: Sixty-five well-characterized adults [age (mean ± SD): 51.6 ± 12.3 y] with biopsy-proven NAFLD were screened. Forty-two patients (the ratio of men to women was 13:29) had hypovitaminosis D (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <30 ng/mL). An observational study was performed in NAFLD patients with hypovitaminosis D treated with 2000 IU cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) daily for 6 mo per clinical practice. Plasma 25(OH)D, hepatic and metabolic panels, and metabolic syndrome components were assessed before and after cholecalciferol supplementation. Body composition was measured by using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The primary outcome measure was plasma 25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mL at the end of the study. Secondary outcomes included change in serum transaminases, fasting plasma glucose, and insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Chi-square, Student's t tests, correlation coefficient, and multivariate analysis were performed.Results: Twenty-six (61.9%) patients had nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and 16 (38.1%) had hepatic steatosis. After 6 mo of cholecalciferol supplementation, plasma 25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mL was observed in 16 subjects (38.1%; responders) whereas the remaining 26 patients (61.9%) were nonresponders with plasma 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL. Significantly fewer (P < 0.01) patients with NASH were responders (4 of 26, 15.4%) than those with hepatic steatosis (12 of 16, 75%). Baseline fasting serum alanine aminotransferase, plasma glucose, and HOMA-IR were similar in the responders and nonresponders, but the NASH score on the liver biopsy was lower (16.5%) in the responders (P < 0.001). Nonresponders had a higher fat mass (10.5%) and lower fat-free mass (10.4%) than responders did. End-of-treatment alanine aminotransferase and HOMA-IR improved only in responders. The baseline HOMA-IR and histological NASH score were independent predictors of nonresponse to cholecalciferol supplementation.Conclusions: Daily supplementation with 2000 IU cholecalciferol for 6 mo did not correct hypovitaminosis D in the majority of patients with NASH. Further studies are needed to determine if higher doses are effective. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as 13-00153.

PMID: 28814531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




A High-Fat Diet Decreases Bone Mass in Growing Mice with Systemic Chronic Inflammation Induced by Low-Dose, Slow-Release Lipopolysaccharide Pellets.
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A High-Fat Diet Decreases Bone Mass in Growing Mice with Systemic Chronic Inflammation Induced by Low-Dose, Slow-Release Lipopolysaccharide Pellets.

J Nutr. 2017 Aug 16;:

Authors: Cao JJ, Gregoire BR, Shen CL

Abstract
Background: Chronic inflammation is associated with increased bone resorption and is linked to osteopenia, or low bone mass. Obesity is also associated with low-grade chronic upregulation of inflammatory cytokines.Objective: This study investigated the effect of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity on bone structure changes in growing mice with existing systemic chronic inflammation induced by low-dose, slow-release lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Methods: Forty-eight 6-wk-old female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (n = 12/group) in a 2 × 2 factorial design-control (placebo) or LPS treatment (1.5 μg/d)-and consumed either a normal-fat (NF, 10% of energy as fat) or an HF (45% of energy as fat) diet ad libitum for 13 wk. Bone structure, serum biomarkers of bone turnover, and osteoclast differentiation were measured.Results: No alterations were observed in final body weights, fat mass, or lean mass in response to LPS treatment. LPS treatment increased serum concentration of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, a bone resorption marker) and bone marrow osteoclast differentiation and decreased femoral and lumbar vertebral bone volume (BV):total volume (TV) by 25% and 24%, respectively, compared with the placebo. Mice fed the HF diet had greater body weight at the end of the study (P < 0.01) due to increased fat mass (P < 0.01) than did mice fed the NF diet. The HF diet increased serum TRAP concentration, bone marrow osteoclast differentiation, and expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β and interleukin 6 in adipose tissue. Compared with the NF diet, the HF diet decreased BV:TV by 10% and 8% at femur and lumbar vertebrae, respectively, and the HF diet was detrimental to femoral and lumbar vertebral bone structure with decreased trabecular number and increased trabecular separation and structure model index.Conclusion: Results suggest that HF diets and systemic chronic inflammation have independent negative effects on bone structure in mice.

PMID: 28814530 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]