Ambient UVB Dose and Sun Enjoyment Are Important Predictors of Vitamin D Status in an Older Population.
J Nutr. 2017 Mar 22;:
Authors: O'Sullivan F, Laird E, Kelly D, van Geffen J, van Weele M, McNulty H, Hoey L, Healy M, McCarroll K, Cunningham C, Casey M, Ward M, Strain JJ, Molloy AM, Zgaga L
Background: UVB-induced skin synthesis is considered the key source of vitamin D, yet exposure to UVB is poorly accounted for in epidemiological studies.Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration with accurately measured ambient UVB dose, sun enjoyment, supplements, and other factors.Methods: An all-Irish cohort of community-dwelling participants aged >60 y [median age: 73; 67% female; median 25(OH)D: 54.5 nmol/L] was used. Participants from this large, cross-sectional study completed a questionnaire to provide information on demographic factors and lifestyle (including supplement use and sun enjoyment). The Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service database was used to extract the daily ambient UVB dose at wavelengths that could induce vitamin D synthesis (D-UVB) over Ireland (latitude: 51°N-55°N). Blood sampling occurred throughout the year. Ambient exposure at the place of residence was calculated for each participant individually. Associations between determinants and serum 25(OH)D concentration were examined in a multivariate model. Random forest analysis was used to establish prediction models of vitamin D deficiency, and area under the curve (AUC) is shown.Results: In total, 5138 individuals were included. Median D-UVB was 63 mJ/cm(2), which varied between seasons and latitudes, despite the small latitude differential. Vitamin D supplementation (β = 27.7; P < 10 × 10(-10)), D-UVB (β = 1.58 per 1000 mJ/cm(2); P < 10 × 10(-10)), and sun enjoyment (β = 6.6; P < 0.001) were strongly positively associated with serum 25(OH)D. Those who avoided sunshine were largely at risk of deficiency (<40 nmol/L), whereas those who enjoyed sunshine tended to be vitamin D sufficient (≥50 nmol/L). D-UVB and sun enjoyment improved prediction of deficiency in non-supplement-taking individuals; the overall AUC improved by 3.5%.Conclusion: D-UVB and sun enjoyment are important predictors of vitamin D status, even in this elderly population at northern latitudes. Accurate estimation of ambient UVB can help to further clarify the role of other determinants of vitamin D status and inform sunshine recommendation guidelines.
PMID: 28331054 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Acetate Dose-Dependently Stimulates Milk Fat Synthesis in Lactating Dairy Cows.
J Nutr. 2017 Mar 22;:
Authors: Urrutia NL, Harvatine KJ
Background: Acetate is a short-chain fatty acid (FA) that is especially important to cows because it is the major substrate for de novo FA synthesis. However, the effect of acetate supply on mammary lipid synthesis is not clear.Objective: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increasing acetate supply on milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows.Methods: Six multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated design to investigate the effect of acetate supply on milk fat synthesis. Treatments were 0 (control), 5, 10, and 15 mol acetate/d continuously infused into the rumen for 4 d. Rumen short-chain FAs, plasma hormones and metabolites, milk fat concentration, and milk FA profile were analyzed on day 4 of each treatment. Polynomial contrasts were used to test the linear and quadratic effects of increasing acetate supply.Results: Acetate increased milk fat yield quadratically (P < 0.01) by 7%, 16%, and 14% and increased milk fat concentration linearly (P < 0.001) by 6%, 9%, and 11% for 5, 10, and 15 mol acetate/d, respectively, compared with the control treatment. Increased milk fat yield predominantly was due to a linear increase in 16-carbon FAs (P < 0.001) and a quadratic increase in de novo synthesized FAs (<16-carbon FAs; P < 0.01), indicating that there was stimulation of de novo synthesis pathways. Apparent transfer of acetate to milk fat was 33.4%, 36.2%, and 20.6% for 5, 10, and 15 mol/d, respectively. Acetate infusion linearly increased the relative concentration of rumen acetate (P < 0.001) before feeding, but not after feeding. Acetate linearly increased plasma ß-hydroxybutyric acid by 29%, 50%, and 78%, respectively, after feeding compared with the control treatment (P < 0.01).Conclusions: Increasing acetate supply to lactating cows increases milk fat synthesis, suggesting that nutritional strategies that increase ruminal acetate absorption would be expected to increase milk fat by increasing de novo FA synthesis.
PMID: 28331053 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]