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Ammonia Nitrogen Added to Diets Deficient in Dispensable Amino Acid Nitrogen Is Poorly Utilized for Urea Production in Growing Pigs.
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Ammonia Nitrogen Added to Diets Deficient in Dispensable Amino Acid Nitrogen Is Poorly Utilized for Urea Production in Growing Pigs.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct 11;:

Authors: Mansilla WD, Silva KE, Zhu CL, Nyachoti CM, Htoo JK, Cant JP, de Lange CF

Abstract
Background: Including ammonia in low-crude protein (CP) diets deficient in dispensable amino acid (DAAs) increases nitrogen retention in growing pigs.Objective: We investigated the absorption and metabolism of dietary ammonia nitrogen in the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver of pigs fed a diet deficient in DAA nitrogen.Methods: Eight pigs with an initial mean ± SD body weight (BW) of 26.5 ± 1.4 kg were surgically fitted with 4 catheters each (portal, hepatic and mesenteric veins, and carotid artery). The pigs were fed (2.8 × 191 kcal/kg BW(0.60)), for 7 d and every 8 h, a diet deficient in DAA nitrogen supplemented with increasing amounts of ammonia nitrogen (CP: 7.76%, 9.27%, and 10.77%; indispensable amino acid nitrogen:total nitrogen ratio: 0.71, 0.59, and 0.50 for control and low- and high-ammonia diets, respectively). The treatment sequence was based on a Latin square design with 3 consecutive periods. On the last day of each period, blood flows in the portal and hepatic veins were determined with a continuous infusion of ρ-amino hippuric acid into the mesenteric vein. Serial blood samples were taken to determine ammonia and urea nitrogen concentration. Net balances of ammonia and urea nitrogen were calculated for the PDV and liver.Results: Cumulative (8 h) ammonia nitrogen appearance in the portal vein increased (P ≤ 0.05) with ammonia intake (433, 958, and 1629 ± 60 mg ammonia nitrogen/meal for control and low- and high-ammonia diets, respectively). The cumulative hepatic uptake of ammonia nitrogen increased (P ≤ 0.05) with ammonia nitrogen supply. The cumulative urea nitrogen appearance in the hepatic vein tended to increase (P ≤ 0.10) only in high-ammonia treatment (-92.5, -59.4, and 209.7 ± 92 mg urea nitrogen/meal for control and low- and high-ammonia diets, respectively) and, relative to the control diet, represented -6.0% and 11% of ammonia nitrogen intake.Conclusion: Dietary ammonia nitrogen is poorly utilized for urea production across splanchnic organs when pigs are fed diets deficient in DAA nitrogen.

PMID: 29021372 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Consumption of a Double-Fortified Salt Affects Perceptual, Attentional, and Mnemonic Functioning in Women in a Randomized Controlled Trial in India.
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Consumption of a Double-Fortified Salt Affects Perceptual, Attentional, and Mnemonic Functioning in Women in a Randomized Controlled Trial in India.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct 11;:

Authors: Wenger MJ, Murray-Kolb LE, Nevins JE, Venkatramanan S, Reinhart GA, Wesley A, Haas JD

Abstract
Background: Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia have been shown to have negative effects on aspects of perception, attention, and memory.Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to assess the extent to which increases in dietary iron consumption are related to improvements in behavioral measures of perceptual, attentional, and mnemonic function.Methods: Women were selected from a randomized, double-blind, controlled food-fortification trial involving ad libitum consumption of either a double-fortified salt (DFS) containing 47 mg potassium iodate/kg and 3.3 mg microencapsulated ferrous fumarate/g (1.1 mg elemental Fe/g) or a control iodized salt. Participants' blood iron status (primary outcomes) and cognitive functioning (secondary outcomes) were assessed at baseline and after 10 mo at endline. The study was performed on a tea plantation in the Darjeeling district of India. Participants (n = 126; 66% iron deficient and 49% anemic at baseline) were otherwise healthy women of reproductive age, 18-55 y.Results: Significant improvements were documented for iron status and for perceptual, attentional, and mnemonic function in the DFS group (percentage of variance accounted for: 16.5%) compared with the control group. In addition, the amount of change in perceptual and cognitive performance was significantly (P < 0.05) related to the amount of change in blood iron markers (mean percentage of variance accounted for: 16.0%) and baseline concentrations of blood iron markers (mean percentage of variance accounted for: 25.0%). Overall, there was evidence that the strongest effects of change in iron status were obtained for perceptual and low-level attentional function.Conclusion: DFS produced measurable and significant improvements in the perceptual, attentional, and mnemonic performance of Indian female tea pickers of reproductive age. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01032005.

PMID: 29021371 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Integrating Nutrition Interventions into an Existing Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health Program Increased Maternal Dietary Diversity, Micronutrient Intake, and Exclusive Breastfeeding Practices in Bangladesh: Results of a Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation.
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Integrating Nutrition Interventions into an Existing Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health Program Increased Maternal Dietary Diversity, Micronutrient Intake, and Exclusive Breastfeeding Practices in Bangladesh: Results of a Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct 11;:

Authors: Nguyen PH, Kim SS, Sanghvi T, Mahmud Z, Tran LM, Shabnam S, Aktar B, Haque R, Afsana K, Frongillo EA, Ruel MT, Menon P

Abstract
Background: Maternal undernutrition is a major concern globally, contributing to poor birth outcomes. Limited evidence exists on delivering multiple interventions for maternal nutrition simultaneously. Alive & Thrive addressed this gap by integrating nutrition-focused interpersonal counseling, community mobilization, distribution of free micronutrient supplements, and weight-gain monitoring through an existing Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health (MNCH) program in Bangladesh.Objectives: We evaluated the effect of providing nutrition-focused MNCH compared with standard MNCH (antenatal care with standard nutrition counseling) on coverage of nutrition interventions, maternal dietary diversity, micronutrient supplement intake, and early breastfeeding practices.Methods: We used a cluster-randomized design with cross-sectional surveys at baseline (2015) and endline (2016) (n ∼ 300 and 1000 pregnant or recently delivered women, respectively, per survey round). We derived difference-in-difference effect estimates, adjusted for geographic clustering and infant age and sex.Results: Coverage of interpersonal counseling was high; >90% of women in the nutrition-focused MNCH group were visited at home by health workers for maternal nutrition and breastfeeding counseling. The coverage of community mobilization activities was ∼50%. Improvements were significantly greater in the nutrition-focused MNCH group than in the standard MNCH group for consumption of iron and folic acid [effect: 9.8 percentage points (pp); 46 tablets] and calcium supplements (effect: 12.8 pp; 50 tablets). Significant impacts were observed for the number of food groups consumed (effect: 1.6 food groups), percentage of women who consumed ≥5 food groups/d (effect: 30.0 pp), and daily intakes of several micronutrients. A significant impact was also observed for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF; effect: 31 pp) but not for early initiation of breastfeeding.Conclusions: Addressing nutrition during pregnancy by delivering interpersonal counseling and community mobilization, providing free supplements, and ensuring weight-gain monitoring through an existing MNCH program improved maternal dietary diversity, micronutrient supplement consumption, and EBF practices. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02745249.

PMID: 29021370 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




New Evidence against Chromium as an Essential Trace Element.
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New Evidence against Chromium as an Essential Trace Element.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct 11;:

Authors: Vincent JB

Abstract
Nearly 60 y ago, chromium, as the trivalent ion, was proposed to be an essential element, but the results of new studies indicate that chromium currently can only be considered pharmacologically active and not an essential element. Regardless, articles still continue to appear in the literature claiming chromium is an essential element. Chromium has been marketed as an agent to reduce body mass and develop muscle; however, such marketing claims are no longer allowed in the United States because these claims, similar to claims of essential status, are not supported by experiments. Trivalent chromium has also been proposed as a therapeutic agent to increase insulin sensitivity and affect lipid metabolism. Although effective in certain rodent models, beneficial effects in humans have not been unequivocally established. Molecular mechanisms have been proposed for the beneficial effects but have not been definitively shown to occur in animals.

PMID: 29021369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




A Simplified Regimen Compared with WHO Guidelines Decreases Antenatal Calcium Supplement Intake for Prevention of Preeclampsia in a Cluster-Randomized Noninferiority Trial in Rural Kenya.
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A Simplified Regimen Compared with WHO Guidelines Decreases Antenatal Calcium Supplement Intake for Prevention of Preeclampsia in a Cluster-Randomized Noninferiority Trial in Rural Kenya.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):1986-1991

Authors: Omotayo MO, Dickin KL, Pelletier DL, Mwanga EO, Kung'u JK, Stoltzfus RJ

Abstract
Background: To prevent preeclampsia, the WHO recommends antenatal calcium supplementation in populations with inadequate habitual intake. The WHO recommends 1500-2000 mg Ca/d with iron-folic acid (IFA) taken separately, a complex pill-taking regimen. Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that simpler regimens with lower daily dosages would lead to higher adherence and similar supplement intake.Methods: In the Micronutrient Initiative Calcium Supplementation study, we compared the mean daily supplement intake associated with 2 dosing regimens with the use of a parallel, cluster-randomized noninferiority trial implemented in 16 primary health care facilities in rural Kenya. The standard regimen was 3 × 500 mg Ca/d in 3 pill-taking events, and the low-dose regimen was 2 × 500 mg Ca/d in 2 pill-taking events; both regimens included a 200 IU cholecalciferol and calcium pill and a separate IFA pill. We enrolled 990 pregnant women between 16 and 30 wk of gestation. The primary outcome was supplemental calcium intake measured by pill counts 4 and 8 wk after recruitment. We carried out intention-to-treat analyses with the use of mixed-effect models, with regimen as the fixed effect and health care facilities as a random effect, by using a noninferiority margin of 125 mg Ca/d.Results: Women in facilities assigned to the standard regimen consumed a mean of 1198 mg Ca/d, whereas those assigned to the low-dose regimen consumed 810 mg Ca/d. The difference in intake was 388 mg Ca/d (95% CI = 341, 434 mg Ca/d), exceeding the prespecified margin of 125 mg Ca/d. The overall adherence rate was 80% and did not differ between study arms.Conclusions: Contrary to our expectation, a simpler, lower-dose regimen led to significantly lower supplement intake than the regimen recommended by the WHO. Further studies are needed to precisely characterize the dose-response relation of calcium supplementation and preeclampsia risk and to examine cost effectiveness of lower and simpler regimens in program settings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02238704.

PMID: 28878035 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Validation Testing Demonstrates Efficacy of a 7-Day Fluid Record to Estimate Daily Water Intake in Adult Men and Women When Compared with Total Body Water Turnover Measurement.
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Validation Testing Demonstrates Efficacy of a 7-Day Fluid Record to Estimate Daily Water Intake in Adult Men and Women When Compared with Total Body Water Turnover Measurement.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):2001-2007

Authors: Johnson EC, Péronnet F, Jansen LT, Capitan-Jiménez C, Adams JD, Guelinckx I, Jiménez L, Mauromoustakos A, Kavouras SA

Abstract
Background: Mean daily water intake from fluids (WATER-FL) has proven to be difficult to measure because of a range of nonvalidated data collection techniques. Few questionnaires have been validated to estimate WATER-FL against self-reported diaries or urinary hydration markers, which may limit their objectivity.Objectives: The goals of this investigation were 1) to assess the validity of a 7-d fluid record (7dFLR) to measure WATER-FL (WATER-FL-7dFLR) through comparison with WATER-FL as calculated by measuring deuterium oxide (D2O) disappearance (WATER-FL-D2O), and 2) to evaluate the reliability of the 7dFLR in measuring WATER-FL.Methods: Participants [n = 96; 51% female; mean ± SD age: 41 ± 14 y; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 26.2 ± 5.1] completed body water turnover analysis over 3 consecutive weeks. They completed the 7dFLR and food diaries during weeks 2 and 4 of the observation. The records were entered into nutritional software to determine the water content of all foods and fluids consumed. WATER-FL-D2O was calculated from water turnover (via the D2O dilution method), minus water from food and metabolic water. The agreement between the 2 methods of determining WATER-FL were compared according to a Bland-Altman plot at week 2. The test-retest reliability of 7dFLR between weeks 2 and 4 was assessed via intraclass correlation (ICC).Results: The mean ± SD difference between WATER-FL-7dFLR and WATER-FL-D2O was -131 ± 845 mL/d. In addition, no bias was observed (F[1,94] = 0.484; R(2) = 0.006; P = 0.488). When comparing WATER-FL-7dFLR from weeks 2 and 4, no significant difference (mean ± SD difference: 71 ± 75 mL/d; t[79] = 0.954; P = 0.343) and an ICC of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.90) was observed.Conclusions: The main findings of this study were that the use of the 7dFLR is an effective and reliable method to estimate WATER-FL in adults. This style of questionnaire may be extremely helpful for collecting water intake data for large-scale epidemiologic studies.

PMID: 28878034 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Plant-based Food Cyanidin-3-Glucoside Modulates Human Platelet Glycoprotein VI Signaling and Inhibits Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation.
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Plant-based Food Cyanidin-3-Glucoside Modulates Human Platelet Glycoprotein VI Signaling and Inhibits Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):1917-1925

Authors: Yao Y, Chen Y, Adili R, McKeown T, Chen P, Zhu G, Li D, Ling W, Ni H, Yang Y

Abstract
Background: Platelets play an important role in hemostasis, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis. Glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is a major platelet receptor that interacts with exposed collagen on injured vessel walls. Our previous studies have shown that anthocyanins (a type of natural plant pigment) attenuate platelet function; however, whether anthocyanins affect collagen-induced GPVI signaling remains unknown.Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the effects of cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-g, one of the major bioactive compounds in anthocyanins) on platelet activation and thrombosis and the GPVI signaling pathway.Methods: Platelets from healthy men and women were isolated and incubated with different concentrations (0, 0.5, 5, and 50 μM) of Cy-3-g. The expression of activated integrin αIIbβ3, P-selectin, CD63, and CD40L, fibrinogen binding to platelets, and platelet aggregation were evaluated in vitro. Platelet adhesion and aggregation in whole blood under flow conditions were assessed in collagen-coated perfusion chambers. Thrombosis and hemostasis were assessed in 3-4-wk-old male C57BL/6J mice through FeCl3-induced intravital microscopy and tail bleeding time. The effect of Cy-3-g on collagen-induced human platelet GPVI signaling was explored with Western blot.Results: Cy-3-g attenuated platelet function in a dose-dependent manner. The 0.5-μM dose of Cy-3-g inhibited (P < 0.05) human platelet adhesion and aggregation to collagen at both venous (-54.02%) and arterial (-22.90%) shear stresses. The 5-μM dose inhibited (P < 0.05) collagen-induced human platelet activation (PAC-1: -48.21%, P-selectin: -50.63%), secretion (CD63: -73.89%, CD40L: -43.70%), fibrinogen binding (-56.79%), and aggregation (-17.81%). The 5-μM dose attenuated (P < 0.01) thrombus growth (-66.67%) without prolonging bleeding time in mice. The 50-μM dose downregulated (P < 0.05) collagen-induced GPVI signaling in human platelets and significantly decreased phosphorylation of Syk-linker for activation of T cells (LAT)-SLP76 (Syk: -39.08%, LAT: -32.25%, SLP76: -40.00%) and the expression of Lyn (-31.89%), Fyn (-36.27%), and phospholipase C-γ2 (-39.08%).Conclusions: Cy-3-g inhibits human platelet activation, aggregation, secretion, and thrombus formation, and downregulates the collagen-GPVI signaling pathway. Supplementation of Cy-3-g may have protective effects against atherothrombosis.

PMID: 28855423 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Very Low Food Security in US Households Is Predicted by Complex Patterns of Health, Economics, and Service Participation.
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Very Low Food Security in US Households Is Predicted by Complex Patterns of Health, Economics, and Service Participation.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):1992-2000

Authors: Choi SK, Fram MS, Frongillo EA

Abstract
Background: Very low food security (VLFS) happens at the intersection of nuanced and complex patterns of risk characteristics across multiple domains. Little is known about the idiosyncratic situations that lead households to experience VLFS.Objective: We used classification and regression tree (CART) analysis, which can handle complex combinations of predictors, to identify patterns of characteristics that distinguish VLFS households in the United States from other households.Methods: Data came from 3 surveys, the 2011-2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the 2005-2012 NHANES, and the 2002-2012 Current Population Survey (CPS), with sample participants aged ≥18 y and households with income <300% of the federal poverty line. Survey participants were stratified into households with children, adult-only households, and older-adult households (NHIS, CPS) or individuals aged 18-64 y and individuals aged ≥65 y (NHANES). Household food security was measured with the use of the 10-item US Adult Food Security Scale. Variables from multiple domains, including sociodemographic characteristics, health, health care, and participation in social welfare and food assistance programs, were considered as predictors. The 3 data sources were analyzed separately with the use of CART analysis.Results: Household experiences of VLFS were associated with different predictors for different types of households and often occurred at the intersection of multiple characteristics spanning unmet medical needs, poor health, disability, limitation, depressive symptoms, low income, and food assistance program participation. These predictors built complex trees with various combinations in different types of households.Conclusions: This study showed that multiple characteristics across multiple domains distinguished VLFS households. Flexible and nonlinear methods focusing on a wide range of risk characteristics should be used to identify VLFS households and to inform policies and programs that can address VLFS households' various needs.

PMID: 28855422 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Dietary Supplement Use Was Very High among Older Adults in the United States in 2011-2014.
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Dietary Supplement Use Was Very High among Older Adults in the United States in 2011-2014.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):1968-1976

Authors: Gahche JJ, Bailey RL, Potischman N, Dwyer JT

Abstract
Background: Dietary supplements (DSs) have the potential to be both beneficial and harmful to health, especially in adults aged ≥60 y, and therefore it is important to monitor the patterns of their use.Objective: This study evaluated DS use by adults aged ≥60 y to characterize the use of DSs, determine the motivations for use, and examine the associations between the use of DSs and selected demographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics.Methods: Data from 3469 older adults aged ≥60 y from the 2011-2014 NHANES were analyzed. DSs used in the past 30 d were ascertained via an interviewer-administered questionnaire in participants' homes. The prevalence of overall DS use and specific types of DSs were estimated. The number of DSs reported and the frequency, duration, and motivation(s) for use were assessed. Logistic regression models were constructed to examine the association between DS use and selected characteristics.Results: Seventy percent of older adults in the United States reported using ≥1 DS in the past 30 d; 54% of users took 1 or 2 products, and 29% reported taking ≥4 products. The most frequently reported products were multivitamin or mineral (MVM) (39%), vitamin D only (26%), and omega-3 fatty acids (22%). Women used DSs almost twice as often as men [adjusted OR (aOR), 1.8; 95% CI: 1.5, 2.3). Those not reporting prescription medications were less likely to take a DS than those reporting ≥3 prescription medications (aOR, 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.6). The most frequently reported motivation for DS use was to improve overall health (41%).Conclusions: Use of DSs among older adults continues to be high in the United States, with 29% of users regularly taking ≥4 DSs, and there is a high concurrent usage of them with prescription medications.

PMID: 28855421 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Dietary Patterns Exhibit Sex-Specific Associations with Adiposity and Metabolic Risk in a Cross-Sectional Study in Urban Mexican Adolescents.
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Dietary Patterns Exhibit Sex-Specific Associations with Adiposity and Metabolic Risk in a Cross-Sectional Study in Urban Mexican Adolescents.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):1977-1985

Authors: Perng W, Fernandez C, Peterson KE, Zhang Z, Cantoral A, Sanchez BN, Solano-González M, Téllez-Rojo MM, Baylin A

Abstract
Background: Studies in Western nations have shown associations of certain dietary patterns with obesity and metabolic risk in youth. Little is known about these relations in newly industrialized countries where obesity prevalence is surpassing those of developed countries.Objective: We sought to characterize dietary patterns in a cross-sectional study in 224 adolescents aged 8-14 y in Mexico and to investigate associations of the dietary patterns with adiposity and metabolic risk.Methods: We used principal components analysis to derive dietary patterns from food-frequency questionnaire data. By using linear regression models that accounted for mother's marital status, education, and smoking habits and child's age and physical activity, we examined associations of the dietary patterns with adiposity [body mass index z score, waist circumference, the sum and ratio of the subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses, blood pressure, serum fasting glucose and a C-peptide-based measure of insulin resistance (CP-IR), lipid profile, and a metabolic syndrome risk z score (MetS z score)].Results: We identified a "prudent" dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruit, fish, chicken, and legumes and a "transitioning" dietary pattern, which comprises processed meats, Mexican foods, and sweetened beverages. Each unit increase in the prudent pattern factor score corresponded with 0.33 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.09, 0.57 ng/mL) lower C-peptide, 0.08 units (95% CI: 0.02, 0.13 units) lower CP-IR, and a 0.14 unit (0.00, 0.27 unit) lower MetS z score in boys. In girls, the transitioning pattern corresponded with higher subscapular + triceps skinfold thickness (per 1-unit increase in the factor score: 2.46 mm; 95% CI: 0.10, 4.81 mm). These results did not change after accounting for pubertal status.Conclusions: A prudent dietary pattern was protective against metabolic risk in adolescent boys, whereas a transitioning dietary pattern corresponded with higher adiposity among adolescent girls. Given that adolescence is a key developmental period for long-term health, efforts to elucidate dietary determinants of metabolic risk during this life stage may have long-term benefits.

PMID: 28855420 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Analyses of Selenotranscriptomes and Selenium Concentrations in Response to Dietary Selenium Deficiency and Age Reveal Common and Distinct Patterns by Tissue and Sex in Telomere-Dysfunctional Mice.
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Analyses of Selenotranscriptomes and Selenium Concentrations in Response to Dietary Selenium Deficiency and Age Reveal Common and Distinct Patterns by Tissue and Sex in Telomere-Dysfunctional Mice.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):1858-1866

Authors: Cao L, Zhang L, Zeng H, Wu RT, Wu TL, Cheng WH

Abstract
Background: The hierarchies of tissue selenium distribution and selenotranscriptomes are thought to critically affect healthspan and longevity.Objective: We determined selenium status and selenotranscriptomes in response to long-term dietary selenium deficiency and age in tissues of male and female mice.Methods: Weanling telomerase RNA component knockout C57BL/6 mice were fed a selenium-deficient (0.03 mg Se/kg) Torula yeast-based AIN-93G diet or a diet supplemented with sodium selenate (0.15 mg Se/kg) until age 18 or 24 mo. Plasma, hearts, kidneys, livers, and testes were collected to assay for selenotranscriptomes, selected selenoproteins, and tissue selenium concentrations. Data were analyzed with the use of 2-factor ANOVA (diet × age) in both sexes.Results: Dietary selenium deficiency decreased (P ≤ 0.05) selenium concentrations (65-72%) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) 3 (82-94%) and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) (17-41%) levels in the plasma of both sexes of mice and mRNA levels (9-68%) of 4, 4, and 12 selenoproteins in the heart, kidney, and liver of males, respectively, and 5, 16, and 14 selenoproteins, respectively, in females. Age increased selenium concentrations and SELENOP levels (27% and 30%, respectively; P ≤ 0.05) in the plasma of males only but decreased (12-46%; P < 0.05) mRNA levels of 1, 5, and 13 selenoproteins in the heart, kidney, and liver of males, respectively, and 6, 5, and 0 selenoproteins, respectively, in females. Among these mRNAs, selenoprotein H (Selenoh), selenoprotein M (Selenom), selenoprotein W (Selenow), methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase 1 (MsrB1), Gpx1, Gpx3, thioredoxin reductase 1 (Txnrd1), Txnrd2, selenoprotein S (Selenos), selenoprotein F (Selenof), and selenoprotein O (Selenoo) responded in parallel to dietary selenium deficiency and age in ≥1 tissue or sex, or both. Dietary selenium deficiency upregulated (40-160%; P ≤ 0.05) iodothyronine deiodinase 2 (Dio2) and selenoprotein N (Selenon) in the kidneys of males. Age upregulated (11-44%; P < 0.05) Selenon in the kidneys of males, selenoprotein K (Selenok) and selenoprotein I (Selenoi) in the kidneys of females, and Selenof and Selenok in the testes.Conclusions: These results illustrate tissue-specific sexual dimorphisms of selenium status and selenotranscriptomes because of dietary selenium deficiency and age.

PMID: 28855418 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Total Sulfur Amino Acid Requirements Are Not Altered in Children with Chronic Renal Insufficiency, but Minimum Methionine Needs Are Increased.
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Total Sulfur Amino Acid Requirements Are Not Altered in Children with Chronic Renal Insufficiency, but Minimum Methionine Needs Are Increased.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):1954-1959

Authors: Elango R, Humayun MA, Turner JM, Rafii M, Langos V, Ball RO, Pencharz PB

Abstract
Background: The total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) and minimum Met requirements have been previously determined in healthy children. TSAA metabolism is altered in kidney disease. Whether TSAA requirements are altered in children with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is unknown.Objective: We sought to determine the TSAA (Met in the absence of Cys) requirements and minimum Met (in the presence of excess Cys) requirements in children with CRI.Methods: Five children (4 boys, 1 girl) aged 10 ± 2.6 y with CRI were randomly assigned to receive graded intakes of Met (0, 5, 10, 15, 25, and 35 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)) with no Cys in the diet. Four of the children (3 boys, 1 girl) were then randomly assigned to receive graded dietary intakes of Met (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 15 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)) with 21 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1) Cys. The mean TSAA and minimum Met requirements were determined by measuring the oxidation of l-[1-(13)C]Phe to (13)CO2 (F(13)CO2). A 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the F(13)CO2 data identified a breakpoint at minimal F(13)CO2 Urine samples collected from all study days and from previous studies of healthy children were measured for sulfur metabolites.Results: The mean and population-safe (upper 95% CI) intakes of TSAA and minimum Met in children with CRI were determined to be 12.6 and 15.9 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1) and 7.3 and 10.9 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1), respectively. In healthy school-aged children the mean and upper 95% CI intakes of TSAA and minimum Met were determined to be 12.9 and 17.2 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1) and 5.8 and 7.3 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1), respectively. A comparison of the minimum Met requirements between healthy children and children with CRI indicated significant (P < 0.05) differences.Conclusion: These results suggest that children with CRI have a similar mean and population-safe TSAA to that of healthy children, suggesting adequate Cys synthesis via transsulfuration, but higher minimum Met requirement, suggesting reduced remethylation rates.

PMID: 28855417 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Epigallocatechin Gallate Has a Neurorescue Effect in a Mouse Model of Parkinson Disease.
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Epigallocatechin Gallate Has a Neurorescue Effect in a Mouse Model of Parkinson Disease.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):1926-1931

Authors: Xu Q, Langley M, Kanthasamy AG, Reddy MB

Abstract
Background: Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that has been associated with many factors, including oxidative stress, inflammation, and iron accumulation. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and iron-chelating properties of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, may offer protection against PD.Objective: We sought to determine the neurorescue effects of EGCG and the role of iron in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD.Methods: We evaluated the neurorescue effect of EGCG (25 mg/kg, 7 d, oral administration) against MPTP-induced (20 mg/kg, 3 d, intraperitoneal injection) neurodegeneration in C57 male black mice. Thirty mice weighing ∼25 g were divided into 3 groups: control, MPTP, and MPTP + EGCG. The neurorescue effect of EGCG was assessed with the use of motor behavior tests, neurotransmitter analysis, oxidative stress indicators, and iron-related protein expression.Results: Compared with the control group, MPTP treatment shortened the mice's latency to fall from the rotarod by 16% (P < 0.05), decreased the striatal dopamine concentration by 58% (P < 0.001) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid by 35% (P < 0.05), and increased serum protein carbonyls by 71% (P = 0.07). However, EGCG rescued MPTP-induced neurotoxicity by increasing the rotational latency by 17% (P < 0.05) to a value similar to the control group. Striatal dopamine concentrations were 40% higher in the MPTP + EGCG group than in the MPTP group (P < 0.05), but the values were significantly lower than in the control group. Compared with the MPTP and control groups, mice in the MPTP + EGCG group had higher substantia nigra ferroportin expression (44% and 35%, respectively) (P < 0.05) but not hepcidin and divalent metal transporter 1 expression.Conclusion: Overall, our study demonstrated that EGCG regulated the iron-export protein ferroportin in substantia nigra, reduced oxidative stress, and exerted a neurorescue effect against MPTP-induced functional and neurochemical deficits in mice.

PMID: 28835392 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Fructo-oligosaccharide-Induced Transient Increases in Cecal Immunoglobulin A Concentrations in Rats Are Associated with Mucosal Inflammation in Response to Increased Gut Permeability.
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Fructo-oligosaccharide-Induced Transient Increases in Cecal Immunoglobulin A Concentrations in Rats Are Associated with Mucosal Inflammation in Response to Increased Gut Permeability.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):1900-1908

Authors: Genda T, Sasaki Y, Kondo T, Hino S, Nishimura N, Tsukahara T, Sonoyama K, Morita T

Abstract
Background: The mechanism underlying transient increases in immunoglobulin (Ig) A concentrations in the cecal contents of rats fed fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) is unclear.Objective: This study was designed to test whether increased IgA concentrations represent one aspect of the inflammatory response to increased permeability induced by FOS in the cecum.Methods: Seven-week-old male Wistar rats were fed a fiber-free semipurified diet (FFP) with or without supplemental FOS (60 g/kg diet) for 9 or 58 d [experiment (expt.) 1], 7 d (expt. 2), or 7 or 56 d (expt. 3). In addition to measuring IgA concentrations in cecal content, we assessed gut permeability, inflammatory responses (expt. 1), the number of IgA plasma cells in the cecal lamina propria, polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) expression in the cecal mucosa (expt. 2), and the condition of the cecal mucus layer (expt. 3).Results: The cecal IgA concentration in the FOS-fed rats was 15-fold higher than that of the rats fed FFP for 9 d (P < 0.05). Gut permeability estimated by urinary chromium-EDTA excretion, bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes, myeloperoxidase activity, and expression of inflammatory cytokine genes in the cecal mucosa was greater in the FOS-fed rats than in the rats fed FFP for 9 d. These effects were not observed in the rats fed FOS for 58 d (expt. 1). Accompanying the higher cecal IgA concentration, pIgR protein and the number of IgA plasma cells in the cecal mucosa were higher in the FOS-fed rats than in the rats fed FFP for 7 d (expt. 2). Destruction of the mucus layer on the epithelial surface, as evidenced by Alcian blue staining in the cecal sections, was evident in the rats fed FOS for 7 d, but the mucus layer appeared normal in the rats fed FOS for 56 d (expt. 3).Conclusions: These findings suggest that transient increases in cecal IgA concentrations induced by FOS in rats are associated with mucosal inflammation in response to increased gut permeability; these are presumably evoked by disruption of the cecal mucus barrier. The observed responses could contribute to the maturation of the gut immune system.

PMID: 28835391 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Excessive Vitamin E Intake Does Not Cause Bone Loss in Male or Ovariectomized Female Mice Fed Normal or High-Fat Diets.
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Excessive Vitamin E Intake Does Not Cause Bone Loss in Male or Ovariectomized Female Mice Fed Normal or High-Fat Diets.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):1932-1937

Authors: Ikegami H, Kawawa R, Ichi I, Ishikawa T, Koike T, Aoki Y, Fujiwara Y

Abstract
Background: Animal studies on the effects of vitamin E on bone health have yielded conflicting and inconclusive results, and to our knowledge, no studies have addressed the effect of vitamin E on bone in animals consuming a high-fat diet (HFD).Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of excessive vitamin E on bone metabolism in normal male mice and ovariectomized female mice fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD.Methods: In the first 2 experiments, 7-wk-old male mice were fed an ND (16% energy from fat) containing 75 (control), 0 (vitamin E-free), or 1000 (high vitamin E) mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 1) or an HFD (46% energy from fat) containing 0, 200, 500, or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 2) for 18 wk. In the third experiment, 7-wk-old sham-operated or ovariectomized female mice were fed the ND (75 mg vitamin E/kg) or HFD containing 0 or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg for 8 wk. At the end of the feeding period, blood and femurs were collected to measure bone turnover markers and analyze histology and microcomputed tomography.Results: In experiments 1 and 2, vitamin E intake had no effect on plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, or bone formation, resorption, or volume in femurs in mice fed the ND or HFDs. In experiment 3, bone volume was significantly reduced (85%) in ovariectomized mice compared with that in sham-operated mice (P < 0.05), but it did not differ among mice fed the 3 diets. Plasma ALP and TRAP activities and bone formation and resorption in femur were similar among ovariectomized mice fed the HFD containing 0 or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg.Conclusions: The results suggest that excess vitamin E intake does not cause bone loss in normal male mice or in ovariectomized or sham-operated female mice, regardless of dietary fat content.

PMID: 28835390 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Dietary Methionine Restriction Alleviates Hyperglycemia in Pigs with Intrauterine Growth Restriction by Enhancing Hepatic Protein Kinase B Signaling and Glycogen Synthesis.
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Dietary Methionine Restriction Alleviates Hyperglycemia in Pigs with Intrauterine Growth Restriction by Enhancing Hepatic Protein Kinase B Signaling and Glycogen Synthesis.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):1892-1899

Authors: Ying Z, Zhang H, Su W, Zhou L, Wang F, Li Y, Zhang L, Wang T

Abstract
Background: Individuals with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are prone to developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Dietary methionine restriction (MR) improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in individuals with normal birth weight (NBW).Objective: This study investigated the effects of MR on plasma glucose concentration and hepatic and muscle glucose metabolism in pigs with IUGR.Methods: Thirty female NBW and 60 same-sex spontaneous IUGR piglets (Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected. After weaning (day 21), the piglets were fed diets with adequate methionine (NBW-CON and IUGR-CON) or 30% less methionine (IUGR-MR) (n = 6). At day 180, 1 pig with a body weight near the mean of each replication was selected for biochemical analysis.Results: The IUGR-CON group showed 41.6%, 68.6%, and 67.1% higher plasma glucose concentration, hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity, and glucose-6-phosphatase activity, respectively, than the NBW-CON group (P < 0.05). Muscle glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity were 36.9% and 38.8% lower, respectively, in the IUGR-CON than the NBW-CON group (P < 0.05), respectively, and there was decreased hepatic and muscle protein kinase B phosphorylation in the IUGR-CON group (P < 0.05). Compared with the IUGR-CON pigs, the IUGR-MR pigs had 28.7% lower plasma glucose concentrations (P < 0.05), which were similar to those of the NBW-CON pigs (P ≥ 0.05). The hepatic glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity of the IUGR-MR pigs were 62.9% and 50.8% higher than those of the IUGR-CON pigs (P < 0.05) and 53.5% and 84.3% higher than the NBW-CON pigs (P < 0.05), respectively. The IUGR-MR pigs' hepatic and muscle protein kinase B phosphorylation was higher than that of the IUGR-CON pigs (P < 0.05) and similar to that of the NBW-CON pigs (P ≥ 0.05).Conclusion: MR attenuates hyperglycemia in IUGR pigs by enhancing hepatic protein kinase B signaling and glycogen synthesis, implying a potential nutritional strategy to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus in IUGR offspring.

PMID: 28835389 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




College-Aged Males Experience Attenuated Sweet and Salty Taste with Modest Weight Gain.
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College-Aged Males Experience Attenuated Sweet and Salty Taste with Modest Weight Gain.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):1885-1891

Authors: Noel CA, Cassano PA, Dando R

Abstract
Background: Human and animal studies report a blunted sense of taste in people who are overweight or obese, with heightened sensitivity also reported after weight loss. However, it is unknown if taste changes concurrently with weight gain.Objective: This study investigated the association of weight gain with changes in suprathreshold taste intensity perception in a free-living population of young adults.Methods: Taste response, anthropometric measures, and diet changes were assessed with a longitudinal study design in first-year college students 3 times throughout the academic year. At baseline, 93 participants (30 males, 63 females) were an average of 18 y old, with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 21.9. Sweet, umami, salty, sour, and bitter taste intensities were evaluated at 3 concentrations by using the general Labeled Magnitude Scale. Ordinary least-squares regression models assessed the association of weight gain and within-person taste change, adjusting for sex, race, and diet changes.Results: Participants gained an average of 3.9% in weight, ranging from -5.7% to +13.8%. With each 1% increase in body weight, males perceived sweet and salty as less intense, with taste responses decreasing by 11.0% (95% CI: -18.9%, -2.3%; P = 0.015) and 7.5% (95% CI: -13.1%, -1.5%; P = 0.015) from baseline, respectively. Meanwhile, females did not experience this decrement, and even perceived a 6.5% increase (95% CI: 2.6%, 10.5%; P = 0.007) in sour taste with similar amounts of weight gain. Changes in the consumption of meat and other umami-rich foods also negatively correlated with umami taste response (-39.1%; 95% CI: -56.3%, -15.0%; P = 0.004).Conclusions: A modest weight gain is associated with concurrent taste changes in the first year of college, especially in males who experience a decrement in sweet and salty taste. This suggests that young-adult males may be susceptible to taste loss when gaining weight.

PMID: 28835388 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Dietary Selenium Deficiency or Excess Reduces Sperm Quality and Testicular mRNA Abundance of Nuclear Glutathione Peroxidase 4 in Rats.
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Dietary Selenium Deficiency or Excess Reduces Sperm Quality and Testicular mRNA Abundance of Nuclear Glutathione Peroxidase 4 in Rats.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):1947-1953

Authors: Zhou JC, Zheng S, Mo J, Liang X, Xu Y, Zhang H, Gong C, Liu XL, Lei XG

Abstract
Background: Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) 4 and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) are abundant, and several variants are expressed in the testis.Objective: We determined the effects of dietary selenium deficiency or excess on sperm quality and expressions of GPX4 and SELENOP variants in rat testis and liver.Methods: After weaning, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a Se-deficient basal diet (BD) for 5 wk until they were 9 wk old [mean ± SEM body weight (BW) = 256 ± 5 g]. They were then fed the BD diet alone (deficient) or with 0.25 (adequate), 3 (excess), or 5 (excess) mg Se/kg for 4 wk. Testis, liver, blood, and semen were collected to assay for selenoprotein mRNA and protein abundances, selenium concentration, GPX activity, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine concentration, and sperm quality.Results: Dietary selenium supplementations elevated (P < 0.05) tissue selenium concentrations and GPX activities. Compared with those fed BD + 0.25 mg Se/kg, rats fed BD showed lower (P < 0.05) BW gain (86%) and sperm density (57%) but higher (P < 0.05) plasma 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine concentrations (189%), and nonprogressive sperm motility (4.4-fold). Likewise, rats fed BD + 5 mg Se/kg had (P = 0.06) lower BW gain and higher (1.9-fold) sperm deformity rates than those in the selenium-adequate group. Compared with the selenium-adequate group, dietary selenium deficiency (BD) or excess (BD + 3 or 5 mg Se/kg) resulted in 45-77% lower (P < 0.05) nuclear Gpx4 (nGpx4) mRNA abundance in the testis. Rats fed BD had lower (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of 2 Selenop variants in both testis and liver than those in the other groups. Testicular SELENOP was 155-170% higher (P < 0.05) in rats fed BD + 5 mg Se/kg and hepatic c/mGPX4 was 13-15% lower (P < 0.05) in rats fed BD than in the other groups.Conclusions: The mRNA abundance of rat testicular nGPX4 responded to dietary selenium concentrations in similar ways to sperm parameters and may be used as a sensitive marker to assess appropriate Se status for male function.

PMID: 28814533 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Developmental Process and Early Phases of Implementation for the US Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research National Nutrition Research Roadmap 2016-2021.
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Developmental Process and Early Phases of Implementation for the US Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research National Nutrition Research Roadmap 2016-2021.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):1833-1838

Authors: Fleischhacker SE, Ballard RM, Starke-Reed PE, Galuska DA, Neuhouser ML

Abstract
The Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research (ICHNR) is charged with improving the planning, coordination, and communication among federal agencies engaged in nutrition research and with facilitating the development and updating of plans for federal research programs to meet current and future domestic and international needs for nutrition. The ICHNR is co-chaired by the USDA Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics and Chief Scientist and the US Department of Health and Human Services Assistant Secretary for Health and is made up of >10 departments and agencies. Once the ICHNR was reassembled after a 10-y hiatus, the ICHNR recognized a need for a written roadmap to identify critical human nutrition research gaps and opportunities. This commentary provides an overview of the process the ICHNR undertook to develop a first-of-its-kind National Nutrition Research Roadmap, which was publicly released on 4 March 2016. The primary audience for the Roadmap is federal science agency leaders, along with relevant program and policy staff who rely on federally supported human nutrition research, in addition to the broader scientific community. The Roadmap is framed around the following 3 questions: 1) How can we better understand and define eating patterns to improve and sustain health? 2) What can be done to help people choose healthy eating patterns? 3) How can we develop and engage innovative methods and systems to accelerate discoveries in human nutrition? Within these 3 questions, 11 topical areas were identified on the basis of the following criteria: population impact, feasibility given current technological capacities, and emerging scientific opportunities. This commentary highlights initial federal and some professional research society efforts to address the Roadmap's research and resource priorities. We conclude by noting examples of early collaborations and partnerships to move human nutrition research forward in the 21st century.

PMID: 28814532 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Have a Low Response Rate to Vitamin D Supplementation.
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Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Have a Low Response Rate to Vitamin D Supplementation.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):1938-1946

Authors: Dasarathy J, Varghese R, Feldman A, Khiyami A, McCullough AJ, Dasarathy S

Abstract
Background: Hypovitaminosis D is associated with an increased severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but reports on the response to cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation are conflicting.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if standard vitamin D3 supplementation is effective in NAFLD with hypovitaminosis D.Methods: Sixty-five well-characterized adults [age (mean ± SD): 51.6 ± 12.3 y] with biopsy-proven NAFLD were screened. Forty-two patients (the ratio of men to women was 13:29) had hypovitaminosis D (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <30 ng/mL). An observational study was performed in NAFLD patients with hypovitaminosis D treated with 2000 IU cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) daily for 6 mo per clinical practice. Plasma 25(OH)D, hepatic and metabolic panels, and metabolic syndrome components were assessed before and after cholecalciferol supplementation. Body composition was measured by using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The primary outcome measure was plasma 25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mL at the end of the study. Secondary outcomes included change in serum transaminases, fasting plasma glucose, and insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Chi-square, Student's t tests, correlation coefficient, and multivariate analysis were performed.Results: Twenty-six (61.9%) patients had nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and 16 (38.1%) had hepatic steatosis. After 6 mo of cholecalciferol supplementation, plasma 25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mL was observed in 16 subjects (38.1%; responders) whereas the remaining 26 patients (61.9%) were nonresponders with plasma 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL. Significantly fewer (P < 0.01) patients with NASH were responders (4 of 26, 15.4%) than those with hepatic steatosis (12 of 16, 75%). Baseline fasting serum alanine aminotransferase, plasma glucose, and HOMA-IR were similar in the responders and nonresponders, but the NASH score on the liver biopsy was lower (16.5%) in the responders (P < 0.001). Nonresponders had a higher fat mass (10.5%) and lower fat-free mass (10.4%) than responders did. End-of-treatment alanine aminotransferase and HOMA-IR improved only in responders. The baseline HOMA-IR and histological NASH score were independent predictors of nonresponse to cholecalciferol supplementation.Conclusions: Daily supplementation with 2000 IU cholecalciferol for 6 mo did not correct hypovitaminosis D in the majority of patients with NASH. Further studies are needed to determine if higher doses are effective. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as 13-00153.

PMID: 28814531 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




A High-Fat Diet Decreases Bone Mass in Growing Mice with Systemic Chronic Inflammation Induced by Low-Dose, Slow-Release Lipopolysaccharide Pellets.
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A High-Fat Diet Decreases Bone Mass in Growing Mice with Systemic Chronic Inflammation Induced by Low-Dose, Slow-Release Lipopolysaccharide Pellets.

J Nutr. 2017 Oct;147(10):1909-1916

Authors: Cao JJ, Gregoire BR, Shen CL

Abstract
Background: Chronic inflammation is associated with increased bone resorption and is linked to osteopenia, or low bone mass. Obesity is also associated with low-grade chronic upregulation of inflammatory cytokines.Objective: This study investigated the effect of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity on bone structure changes in growing mice with existing systemic chronic inflammation induced by low-dose, slow-release lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Methods: Forty-eight 6-wk-old female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (n = 12/group) in a 2 × 2 factorial design-control (placebo) or LPS treatment (1.5 μg/d)-and consumed either a normal-fat (NF, 10% of energy as fat) or an HF (45% of energy as fat) diet ad libitum for 13 wk. Bone structure, serum biomarkers of bone turnover, and osteoclast differentiation were measured.Results: No alterations were observed in final body weights, fat mass, or lean mass in response to LPS treatment. LPS treatment increased serum concentration of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, a bone resorption marker) and bone marrow osteoclast differentiation and decreased femoral and lumbar vertebral bone volume (BV):total volume (TV) by 25% and 24%, respectively, compared with the placebo. Mice fed the HF diet had greater body weight at the end of the study (P < 0.01) due to increased fat mass (P < 0.01) than did mice fed the NF diet. The HF diet increased serum TRAP concentration, bone marrow osteoclast differentiation, and expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β and interleukin 6 in adipose tissue. Compared with the NF diet, the HF diet decreased BV:TV by 10% and 8% at femur and lumbar vertebrae, respectively, and the HF diet was detrimental to femoral and lumbar vertebral bone structure with decreased trabecular number and increased trabecular separation and structure model index.Conclusion: Results suggest that HF diets and systemic chronic inflammation have independent negative effects on bone structure in mice.

PMID: 28814530 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]