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Prior Consumption of a Fat Meal in Healthy Adults Modulates the Brain's Response to Fat.
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Prior Consumption of a Fat Meal in Healthy Adults Modulates the Brain's Response to Fat.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep 21;

Authors: Eldeghaidy S, Marciani L, Hort J, Hollowood T, Singh G, Bush D, Foster T, Taylor AJ, Busch J, Spiller RC, Gowland PA, Francis ST

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The consumption of fat is regulated by reward and homeostatic pathways, but no studies to our knowledge have examined the role of high-fat meal (HFM) intake on subsequent brain activation to oral stimuli.
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated how prior consumption of an HFM or water load (WL) modulates reward, homeostatic, and taste brain responses to the subsequent delivery of oral fat.
METHODS: A randomized 2-way crossover design spaced 1 wk apart was used to compare the prior consumption of a 250-mL HFM (520 kcal) [rapeseed oil (440 kcal), emulsifier, sucrose, flavor cocktail] or noncaloric WL on brain activation to the delivery of repeated trials of a flavored no-fat control stimulus (CS) or flavored fat stimulus (FS) in 17 healthy adults (11 men) aged 25 ± 2 y and with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 22.4 ± 0.8. We tested differences in brain activation to the CS and FS and baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) after the HFM and WL. We also tested correlations between an individual's plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentration after the HFM and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activation of brain regions.
RESULTS: Compared to the WL, consuming the HFM led to decreased anterior insula taste activation in response to both the CS (36.3%; P < 0.05) and FS (26.5%; P < 0.05). The HFM caused reduced amygdala activation (25.1%; P < 0.01) in response to the FS compared to the CS (fat-related satiety). Baseline CBF significantly reduced in taste (insula: 5.7%; P < 0.01), homeostatic (hypothalamus: 9.2%, P < 0.01; thalamus: 5.1%, P < 0.05), and reward areas (striatum: 9.2%; P < 0.01) after the HFM. An individual's plasma CCK concentration correlated negatively with brain activation in taste and oral somatosensory (ρ = -0.39; P < 0.05) and reward areas (ρ = -0.36; P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results in healthy adults show that an HFM suppresses BOLD activation in taste and reward areas compared to a WL. This understanding will help inform the reformulation of reduced-fat foods that mimic the brain's response to high-fat counterparts and guide future interventions to reduce obesity.

PMID: 27655761 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Flavanone Intake Is Inversely Associated with Risk of Incident Ischemic Stroke in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.
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Flavanone Intake Is Inversely Associated with Risk of Incident Ischemic Stroke in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep 21;

Authors: Goetz ME, Judd SE, Hartman TJ, McClellan W, Anderson A, Vaccarino V

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Flavonoids may have beneficial cerebrovascular effects, but evidence from racially and geographically representative cohorts in comprehensive flavonoid databases is lacking. Given racial and geographic disparities in stroke incidence, representative cohort studies are needed.
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between flavonoid intake and incident ischemic stroke in a biracial, national cohort using updated flavonoid composition tables and assessed differences in flavonoid intake by sex, race, and region of residence.
METHODS: We evaluated 20,024 participants in the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study, a biracial prospective study. Participants with stroke history or missing dietary data were excluded. Flavonoid intake was estimated by using a Block98 food frequency questionnaire and the USDA's Provisional Flavonoid Addendum and Proanthocyanidin Database. Associations between quintiles of flavonoid intake and incident ischemic stroke were evaluated by using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for confounders.
RESULTS: Over 6.5 y, 524 acute ischemic strokes occurred. Flavanone intake was lower in the Southeastern United States but higher in blacks than in whites. After multivariable adjustment, flavanone intake was inversely associated with incident ischemic stroke (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.95; P-trend = 0.03). Consumption of citrus fruits and juices was inversely associated with incident ischemic stroke (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.91; P-trend = 0.02). Total flavonoids and other flavonoid subclasses were not associated with incident ischemic stroke. There was no statistical interaction with sex, race, or region for any flavonoid measure.
CONCLUSIONS: Greater consumption of flavanones, but not total or other flavonoid subclasses, was inversely associated with incident ischemic stroke. Associations did not differ by sex, race, or region for the association; however, regional differences in flavanone intake may contribute to regional disparities in ischemic stroke incidence. Higher flavanone intake in blacks suggests that flavanone intake is not implicated in racial disparities in ischemic stroke incidence.

PMID: 27655760 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Life-Course Body Mass Index Trajectories Are Predicted by Childhood Socioeconomic Status but Not Exposure to Improved Nutrition during the First 1000 Days after Conception in Guatemalan Adults.
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Life-Course Body Mass Index Trajectories Are Predicted by Childhood Socioeconomic Status but Not Exposure to Improved Nutrition during the First 1000 Days after Conception in Guatemalan Adults.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep 21;

Authors: Ford ND, Martorell R, Mehta NK, Ramirez-Zea M, Stein AD

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Latin America has experienced increases in obesity. Little is known about the role of early life factors on body mass index (BMI) gain over the life course.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to examine the role of early life factors [specifically, nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d (from conception to 2 y of age) and childhood household socioeconomic status (SES)] on the pattern of BMI gain from birth or early childhood through midadulthood by using latent class growth analysis.
METHODS: Study participants (711 women, 742 men) who were born in 4 villages in Guatemala (1962-1977) were followed prospectively since participating in a randomized nutrition supplementation trial as children. Sex-specific BMI latent class trajectories were derived from 22 possible measures of height and weight from 1969 to 2004. To characterize early life determinants of BMI latent class membership, we used logistic regression modeling and estimated the difference-in-difference (DD) effect of nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d.
RESULTS: We identified 2 BMI latent classes in women [low (57%) and high (43%)] and 3 classes in men [low (38%), medium (47%), and high (15%)]. Nutrition supplementation during the first 1000 d after conception was not associated with BMI latent class membership (DD test: P > 0.15 for men and women), whereas higher SES was associated with increased odds of high BMI latent class membership in both men (OR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.61) and women (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.45) for the highest relative to the lowest tertile.
CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of Guatemalan men and women, nutrition supplementation provided during the first 1000 d was not significantly associated with higher BMI trajectory. Higher childhood household SES was associated with increased odds of high BMI latent class membership relative to the poorest households. The pathways through which this operates still need to be explored.

PMID: 27655759 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Hepcidin Attenuates Zinc Efflux in Caco-2 Cells.
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Hepcidin Attenuates Zinc Efflux in Caco-2 Cells.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep 21;

Authors: Hennigar SR, McClung JP

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Hepcidin mediates the hypoferremia of inflammation by inhibiting iron transfer into circulation; however, a regulator for the hypozincemia observed in individuals with acute and chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases is not known.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of hepcidin on zinc transport in intestinal epithelial cells.
METHODS: Differentiated human intestinal Caco-2 cells were untreated or treated with 1 μM hepcidin for 3-24 h. Zinc transport was assessed in cells seeded on Transwell inserts. Media from the apical and basolateral chambers were collected, and zinc concentrations were determined using (67)Zn. Labile zinc pools were imaged and quantified in cells loaded with FluoZin-3-AM and expression of metallothionein and the zinc transporters zrt-/irt-like protein (ZIP)4 (SLC39A4), ZIP5 (SLC39A5), ZIP14 (SLC39A14), and zinc transporter 1 (ZnT1) (SLC30A1) was determined. Cells were transfected with SLC40A1- or SLC30A1-specific small interfering RNA to knock down ferroportin and ZnT1 protein, respectively. Cell surface proteins were isolated by cell surface biotinylation and lysosomal and proteasomal degradation was inhibited by treating cells with chloroquine or MG132, respectively.
RESULTS: Hepcidin attenuated zinc transport, as cells treated with hepcidin exported 26% less (67)Zn (P < 0.05) into the basolateral chamber and retained 27% more cellular (67)Zn (P < 0.05) than did control cells. Labile zinc decreased, and the mRNA abundance of metallothionein increased by ∼50% in hepcidin-treated cells compared with control cells (P < 0.05). Hepcidin reduced ZnT1 protein by 75% (P < 0.05) compared with control cells. Hepcidin-mediated reductions in zinc export remained in ferroportin knockdown cells compared with untreated controls (P < 0.05), whereas knockdown of ZnT1 inhibited this effect (P ≥ 0.05). Hepcidin significantly reduced biotinylated cell surface ZnT1 compared with control cells (P < 0.05); chloroquine inhibited hepcidin-mediated degradation of ZnT1 (P ≥ 0.05), whereas MG132 had no effect (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Hepcidin reduces intestinal zinc export by post-translationally downregulating ZnT1 through a lysosomal-mediated degradation pathway, indicating that hepcidin may contribute to the hypozincemia of inflammation and infection.

PMID: 27655758 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Simulated Models Suggest That Price per Calorie Is the Dominant Price Metric That Low-Income Individuals Use for Food Decision Making.
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Simulated Models Suggest That Price per Calorie Is the Dominant Price Metric That Low-Income Individuals Use for Food Decision Making.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep 21;

Authors: Beheshti R, Igusa T, Jones-Smith J

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The price of food has long been considered one of the major factors that affect food choices. However, the price metric (e.g., the price of food per calorie or the price of food per gram) that individuals predominantly use when making food choices is unclear. Understanding which price metric is used is especially important for studying individuals with severe budget constraints because food price then becomes even more important in food choice.
OBJECTIVE: We assessed which price metric is used by low-income individuals in deciding what to eat.
METHODS: With the use of data from NHANES and the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, we created an agent-based model that simulated an environment representing the US population, wherein individuals were modeled as agents with a specific weight, age, and income. In our model, agents made dietary food choices while meeting their budget limits with the use of 1 of 3 different metrics for decision making: energy cost (price per calorie), unit price (price per gram), and serving price (price per serving). The food consumption patterns generated by our model were compared to 3 independent data sets.
RESULTS: The food choice behaviors observed in 2 of the data sets were found to be closest to the simulated dietary patterns generated by the price per calorie metric. The behaviors observed in the third data set were equidistant from the patterns generated by price per calorie and price per serving metrics, whereas results generated by the price per gram metric were further away.
CONCLUSIONS: Our simulations suggest that dietary food choice based on price per calorie best matches actual consumption patterns and may therefore be the most salient price metric for low-income populations.

PMID: 27655757 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Egg Consumption Increases Vitamin E Absorption from Co-Consumed Raw Mixed Vegetables in Healthy Young Men.
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Egg Consumption Increases Vitamin E Absorption from Co-Consumed Raw Mixed Vegetables in Healthy Young Men.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep 21;

Authors: Kim JE, Ferruzzi MG, Campbell WW

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Most people living in the United States underconsume vitamin E, and dietary approaches to increase the absorption of vitamin E may help individuals to meet their body's needs.
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of adding cooked whole egg to a raw mixed-vegetable salad on α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol absorption.
METHODS: With the use of a randomized-crossover design, 16 healthy young men [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 4 y; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 24 ± 2] consumed the same salad (all served with 3 g canola oil) with no egg [control (CON)], with 75 g cooked egg [low egg (LE)], or with 150 g cooked egg [high egg (HE)]; a 1-wk dietary washout period was included between trials. For the first 7 d of each trial, participants consumed a low-vitamin E diet to reduce plasma vitamin E concentrations. Blood was collected hourly for 10 h and the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fractions (TRLs) were isolated. α-Tocopherol and γ-tocopherol concentrations in TRLs were analyzed and composite areas under the curve (AUCs) were calculated.
RESULTS: The α-tocopherol 0- to 10-h AUCs (AUCs0-10 h) in TRLs was higher (P < 0.05) for the HE trial (least-squares mean ± SE: 981 ± 162 nmol/L ⋅ 10 h) than for the LE (311 ± 162 nmol/L ⋅ 10 h) and CON (117 ± 162 nmol/L ⋅10 h) trials, which did not differ from one another. The γ-tocopherol AUCs0-10 h in TRLs was also higher (P < 0.05) for the HE trial (402 ± 54 nmol/L ⋅ 10 h) than for the CON trial (72 ± 54 nmol/L ⋅ 10 h).
CONCLUSION: The consumption of cooked whole eggs is an effective way to increase the absorption of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol from a co-consumed meal that naturally contains vitamin E, such as a raw mixed-vegetable salad, in healthy young men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01951313.

PMID: 27655756 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Daily Cholecalciferol Supplementation during Pregnancy Alters Markers of Regulatory Immunity, Inflammation, and Clinical Outcomes in a Randomized Controlled Trial.
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Daily Cholecalciferol Supplementation during Pregnancy Alters Markers of Regulatory Immunity, Inflammation, and Clinical Outcomes in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep 21;

Authors: Zerofsky MS, Jacoby BN, Pedersen TL, Stephensen CB

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in pregnancy and has been associated with adverse health conditions in mothers and infants. Vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy may support the maintenance of pregnancy by its effects on innate and adaptive immunity.
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on vitamin D status and markers of immune function associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.
METHODS: We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind intervention of 2 doses of cholecalciferol (400 and 2000 IU/d) from <20 wk to delivery in 57 pregnant women. Vitamin D status, regulatory and inflammatory T cells, markers of innate immunity and systemic inflammation, and clinical outcomes including maternal blood pressure and birth weight were assessed at 26 and 36 wk of pregnancy.
RESULTS: Supplementation with 2000 IU/d vitamin D had a greater effect on the change in vitamin D status over pregnancy (P < 0.0001) and the final value at 36 wk (P < 0.0001) than 400 IU/d, increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D from 81.1 nmol/L at baseline to 116 nmol/L at 36 wk and from 69.6 nmol/L at baseline to 85.6 nmol/L at 36 wk, respectively. The 2000-IU/d group had 36% more interleukin-10(+) regulatory CD4(+) T cells at 36 wk than did the 400-IU/d group (P < 0.007). The daily intake of 2000 compared with 400 IU/d tended to dampen the pregnancy-related increase in diastolic blood pressure by 1.3-fold (P = 0.06) and increase birth weight by 8.6% (P = 0.06), but these differences were not statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with 2000 IU/d is more effective at increasing vitamin D status in pregnant women than 400 IU/d and is associated with increased regulatory T cell immunity that may prevent adverse outcomes caused by excess inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01417351.

PMID: 27655755 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]