Urine 24-Hour Sodium Excretion Decreased between 1953 and 2014 in Japan, but Estimated Intake Still Exceeds the WHO Recommendation.
J Nutr. 2017 Jan 18;:
Authors: Uechi K, Sugimoto M, Kobayashi S, Sasaki S
BACKGROUND: Accurate monitoring of sodium intake is necessary for evaluating strategies used to reduce sodium intake. However, no repeat survey has been conducted in representative populations in Japan to examine trends in sodium intake with the use of 24-h urinary sodium excretion, a standard evaluation method for sodium intake monitoring.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine potential trends in sodium intake by examining previous reports of 24-h urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations.
METHODS: We systematically searched for reports of 24-h urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations (mean age range: 18-69 y). We searched PubMed and Web of Science for English-language articles and hand-searched 7 Japanese scientific journals for Japanese-language articles. Trends in urinary sodium excretion were examined with the use of weighted linear regression and random-effects meta-regression analyses, with adjustment or stratification to address study characteristics (population mean age, percentage of men, and sample size) and study assessment for completeness of urine collection.
RESULTS: We identified 68 reports of urinary sodium excretion from 53 articles published from 1953 through 2014 that showed high rates of urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations (weighted mean: 4900 mg/d). The rate of urinary sodium excretion significantly decreased between 1953 and 2014, by 4350 mg/d (P < 0.001); however, the rate of reduction in urinary sodium excretion was variable and decreased with time (P-linear trend <0.001 and P-quadratic trend <0.001). In the random-effects meta-regression analysis of studies that assessed completeness of urine collection with creatinine excretion, no significant relation between urinary sodium excretion and year was observed from 1978 to 2014 (β = -16, P = 0.40).
CONCLUSION: Despite a decrease in urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations between 1953 and 2014, sodium intake still exceeds the WHO recommendation for adults. This review was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42016035452.
PMID: 28100605 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Sufficient Protein Quality of Food Aid Varies with the Physiologic Status of Recipients.
J Nutr. 2017 Jan 18;:
Authors: Callaghan M, Oyama M, Manary M
Protein quality scores use the amino acid (AA) requirements of a healthy North American child. AA requirements vary with physiologic status. We estimated AA requirements for healthy North American children, children with environmental enteric dysfunction, children recovering from wasting, and children with an acute infection. The protein quality of food aid products was then calculated to determine whether it was sufficient in all these groups, and we found that it may not be adequate for all of them. Physiologic status is important when assessing the protein quality of food aid. Rates of weight gain from 8 published trials treating children with moderate acute malnutrition were abstracted, and protein quality scores from the corresponding food aid products were calculated with the use of the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS). Two DIAAS values were calculated, one in healthy children aged 1-3 y as a reference population and the other in malnourished children aged 1-3 y as a reference population. These data were used to calculate the best fit regression line between weight gain and protein quality. The slope of the regression line was greater when malnourished children were used as a reference population than when healthy children were used (0.128; 95% CI: 0.118, 0.138 compared with 0.097; 95% CI: 0.090, 0.105 measured in g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) ⋅ DIASS U(-1)). These findings suggest that adjusting AA requirements for physiologic status may more accurately estimate the minimum protein quality of food aid products.
PMID: 28100604 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Digestion-Resistant Dextrin Derivatives Are Moderately Digested in the Small Intestine and Contribute More to Energy Production Than Predicted from Large-Bowel Fermentation in Rats.
J Nutr. 2017 Jan 18;:
Authors: Kondo T, Handa K, Genda T, Hino S, Hamaguchi N, Morita T
BACKGROUND: Digestion-resistant dextrin derivatives (DRDDs), including resistant maltodextrin (RM), polydextrose, and resistant glucan (RG), have been developed as low-energy foods. However, data on the resistance of DRDDs to small-intestinal digestion are scarce.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the site and extent of DRDD breakdown in the rat intestine and to predict its energy contributions.
METHODS: In vitro small-intestinal resistance of DRDDs was evaluated by the AOAC method for dietary fiber measurement and by artificial digestion with the use of pancreatic α-amylase and brush-boarder membrane vesicles. In vivo small-intestinal resistance of DRDDs was determined from the feces of male ileorectostomized Sprague-Dawley rats fed a control diet or a diet containing one of the DRDDs at 50 g/kg for 9 d (period 1) and then for 10 d (period 2), during which they received 1 g neomycin/L in their drinking water. Separately, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the same diets for 4 wk, and the whole-gut recoveries of DRDDs were determined from feces at days 8-10.
RESULTS: Small-intestinal resistances determined in vitro by artificial digestion (RM: 70%; polydextrose: 67%; RG: 69%) were lower than those measured by the AOAC method (RM: 92%; polydextrose: 80%; RG: 82%). In the ileorectostomized rats, fecal dry-matter excretions were consistently greater in the DRDDs than in the control. The small-intestinal resistances of the DRDDs were 68%, 58%, and 62% in period 1 and 66%, 61%, and 67% during period 2 for RM, polydextrose, and RG, respectively. The resistances did not differ among the DRDDs at either time. In the normal rats, food intakes and body weight gains did not differ among the groups. The whole-gut recovery of RM (13%) was lower than that of polydextrose (33%) and RG (29%), which did not differ.
CONCLUSIONS: DRDDs were more digestible in the rat small intestine than the AOAC method. The energy contribution from small-intestine digestibility, not just large-bowel fermentability, must be considered in determining the energy contribution of DRDDs. Whether humans respond similarly needs to be tested.
PMID: 28100603 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]