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Dietary Protein Intake in Young Children in Selected Low-Income Countries Is Generally Adequate in Relation to Estimated Requirements for Healthy Children, Except When Complementary Food Intake Is Low.
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Dietary Protein Intake in Young Children in Selected Low-Income Countries Is Generally Adequate in Relation to Estimated Requirements for Healthy Children, Except When Complementary Food Intake Is Low.

J Nutr. 2017 Feb 15;:

Authors: Arsenault JE, Brown KH

Abstract
Background: Previous research indicates that young children in low-income countries (LICs) generally consume greater amounts of protein than published estimates of protein requirements, but this research did not account for protein quality based on the mix of amino acids and the digestibility of ingested protein.Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake by young children in LICs, accounting for protein quality.Methods: Seven data sets with information on dietary intake for children (6-35 mo of age) from 6 LICs (Peru, Guatemala, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Uganda, and Zambia) were reanalyzed to estimate protein and amino acid intake and assess adequacy. The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of each child's diet was calculated and multiplied by the original (crude) protein intake to obtain an estimate of available protein intake. Distributions of usual intake were obtained to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake for each cohort according to Estimated Average Requirements.Results: The prevalence of inadequate protein intake was highest in breastfeeding children aged 6-8 mo: 24% of Bangladeshi and 16% of Peruvian children. With the exception of Bangladesh, the prevalence of inadequate available protein intake decreased by age 9-12 mo and was very low in all sites (0-2%) after 12 mo of age. Inadequate protein intake in children <12 mo of age was due primarily to low energy intake from complementary foods, not inadequate protein density.Conclusions: Overall, most children consumed protein amounts greater than requirements, except for the younger breastfeeding children, who were consuming low amounts of complementary foods. These findings reinforce previous evidence that dietary protein is not generally limiting for children in LICs compared with estimated requirements for healthy children, even after accounting for protein quality. However, unmeasured effects of infection and intestinal dysfunction on the children's protein requirements could modify this conclusion.

PMID: 28202639 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Vitamin Concentrations in Human Milk Vary with Time within Feed, Circadian Rhythm, and Single-Dose Supplementation.
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Vitamin Concentrations in Human Milk Vary with Time within Feed, Circadian Rhythm, and Single-Dose Supplementation.

J Nutr. 2017 Feb 15;:

Authors: Hampel D, Shahab-Ferdows S, Islam MM, Peerson JM, Allen LH

Abstract
Background: Human milk is the subject of many studies, but procedures for representative sample collection have not been established. Our improved methods for milk micronutrient analysis now enable systematic study of factors that affect its concentrations.Objective: We evaluated the effects of sample collection protocols, variations in circadian rhythms, subject variability, and acute maternal micronutrient supplementation on milk vitamin concentrations.Methods: In the BMQ (Breast-Milk-Quality) study, we recruited 18 healthy women (aged 18-26 y) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, at 2-4 mo of lactation for a 3-d supplementation study. On day 1, no supplements were given; on days 2 and 3, participants consumed ∼1 time and 2 times, respectively, the US-Canadian Recommended Dietary Allowances for vitamins at breakfast (0800-0859). Milk was collected during every feeding from the same breast over 24 h. Milk expressed in the first 2 min (aliquot I) was collected separately from the remainder (aliquot II); a third aliquot (aliquot III) was saved by combining aliquots I and II. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, A, and E and fat were measured in each sample.Results: Significant but small differences (14-18%) between aliquots were found for all vitamins except for vitamins B-6 and B-12. Circadian variance was significant except for fat-adjusted vitamins A and E, with a higher contribution to total variance with supplementation. Between-subject variability accounted for most of the total variance. Afternoon and evening samples best reflected daily vitamin concentrations for all study days. Acute supplementation effects were found for thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins B-6 and A at 2-4 h postdosing, with 0.1-6.17% passing into milk. Supplementation was reflected in fasting, 24-h postdose samples for riboflavin and vitamin B-6. Maximum amounts of dose-responding vitamins in 1 feeding ranged from 4.7% to 21.8% (day 2) and 8.2% to 35.0% (day 3) of Adequate Intake.Conclusions: In the milk of Bangladeshi mothers, differences in vitamin concentrations between aliquots within feedings and by circadian variance were significant but small. Afternoon and evening collection provided the most-representative samples. Supplementation acutely affects some breast-milk micronutrient concentrations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02756026.

PMID: 28202638 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Supplemental Selenium May Decrease Ovarian Cancer Risk in African-American Women.
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Supplemental Selenium May Decrease Ovarian Cancer Risk in African-American Women.

J Nutr. 2017 Feb 15;:

Authors: Terry PD, Qin B, Camacho F, Moorman PG, Alberg AJ, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Bondy M, Cote ML, Funkhouser E, Guertin KA, Peters ES, Schwartz AG, Schildkraut JM, Bandera EV

Abstract
Background: To our knowledge, no previous study has evaluated the associations of antioxidant intake with the risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women, who are known to have high mortality from the disease.Objective: We sought to evaluate these associations among 406 ovarian cancer cases and 632 age- and site-matched controls of African-American descent recruited from AACES (African American Cancer Epidemiology Study), a population-based, case-control study in 11 geographical areas within the United States.Methods: Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs adjusted for a wide range of potentially confounding factors, including age, region, education, parity, oral contraceptive use, menopause, tubal ligation, family history, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, total energy, and physical activity.Results: Women with the highest intakes of supplemental selenium (>20 μg/d) had an ∼30% lower risk of ovarian cancer than those with no supplemental intake (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.97; P-trend = 0.035). This inverse association was stronger in current smokers (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.46; P-trend = 0.001). There was no association with dietary selenium. The associations with carotenoid intakes were weak and nonsignificant (P = 0.07-0.60). We observed no association with dietary or supplemental intake of vitamin C or vitamin E. There were no appreciable differences in results between serous and nonserous tumors.Conclusions: These findings provide the first insights, to our knowledge, into the potential association between antioxidants and ovarian cancer in African-American women, indicating potential inverse associations with supplemental selenium.

PMID: 28202637 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Moderate-to-Severe Iodine Deficiency in the "First 1000 Days" Causes More Thyroid Hypofunction in Infants than in Pregnant or Lactating Women.
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Moderate-to-Severe Iodine Deficiency in the "First 1000 Days" Causes More Thyroid Hypofunction in Infants than in Pregnant or Lactating Women.

J Nutr. 2017 Feb 15;:

Authors: Stinca S, Andersson M, Herter-Aeberli I, Chabaa L, Cherkaoui M, El Ansari N, Aboussad A, Weibel S, Zimmermann MB

Abstract
Background: Iodine deficiency early in the life cycle-the "first 1000 days"-can cause hypothyroidism and irreversibly impair neuromotor development. However, the relative vulnerability among women and infants during this critical period is unclear, making it difficult for country-based programs with limited resources to prioritize their iodine interventions.Objective: Our aim was to determine the prevalence of thyroid hypofunction in women and infants living in an area of moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency.Methods: In a cross-sectional survey in Morocco, we measured urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) and concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and total or free thyroxine (TT4 or fT4, respectively) in women of reproductive age (n = 156), pregnant women (n = 245), and lactating women (n = 239) and their young infants (n = 239). We calculated daily iodine intakes and measured iodine concentrations in breast milk and household salt. We compared the incidence of hypothyroidism between the 3 groups of women and with the infants.Results: Women of reproductive age, pregnant women, and lactating women had median (IQR) UICs of 41 (29-63), 32 (17-58), and 35 (19-62) μg/L; and estimated iodine intakes were ∼60%, 22%, and 26% of Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs). The infants' median UIC was 73 (28-157) μg/L, which was greater than for all 3 groups of women (P < 0.001), and their dietary intakes were 27% of the RNI. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was not significantly different between the 4 groups, whereas the prevalence of hypothyroxinemia was higher in infants (40%) than in the 3 groups of women (11-14%) (P < 0.001). The median breast-milk iodine concentration was 42 (26-81) μg/L. Only 6% of salt samples were adequately iodized to a concentration of ≥15 ppm; 54% were inadequately iodized and 40% contained no measurable iodine.Conclusions: In an area of moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency, the prevalence of thyroid hypofunction is ∼4-fold higher in young infants compared with the 3 groups of women, suggesting that, in the "first 1000 days," infants are more vulnerable than their mothers and that programs should prioritize iodine prophylaxis for this group.

PMID: 28202636 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Short-Term Subclinical Zinc Deficiency in Weaned Piglets Affects Cardiac Redox Metabolism and Zinc Concentration.
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Short-Term Subclinical Zinc Deficiency in Weaned Piglets Affects Cardiac Redox Metabolism and Zinc Concentration.

J Nutr. 2017 Feb 15;:

Authors: Brugger D, Windisch WM

Abstract
Background: Subclinical zinc deficiency (SZD) represents the common zinc malnutrition phenotype. However, its association with oxidative stress is not well understood. The heart muscle may be a promising target for studying early changes in redox metabolism.Objective: We investigated the effects of short-term SZD on cardiac redox metabolism in weaned piglets.Methods: Forty-eight weaned German Large White × Landrace × Piétrain piglets (50% castrated males and 50% females; body weight of 8.5 kg) were fed diets with different zinc concentrations for 8 d. Measurements included cardiac parameters of antioxidative capacity, stress-associated gene expression, and tissue zinc status. Analyses comprised (linear, broken-line) regression models and Pearson correlation coefficients.Results: Glutathione and α-tocopherol concentrations as well as catalase, glutathione reductase, B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, and caspase 9 gene expression plateaued in response to reduction in dietary zinc from 88.0 to 57.6, 36.0, 36.5, 41.3, 55.3, and 33.8 mg/kg, respectively (P < 0.0001). Further reduction in dietary zinc promoted a linear decrease of glutathione and α-tocopherol (30 and 0.6 nmol/mg dietary Zn, respectively; P < 0.05) and a linear increase of gene expression [0.02, 0.01, 0.003, and 0.02 Log10(2(-ΔΔCt))/mg dietary Zn, respectively; P < 0.05)]. Tissue zinc declined linearly with reduction in dietary zinc (0.21 mg tissue Zn/mg dietary Zn; P = 0.004) from 88.0 to 42.7 mg/kg (P < 0.0001), below which it linearly increased inversely to further reduction in dietary zinc (0.57 mg tissue Zn/mg dietary Zn; P = 0.006). H2O2-detoxification activity and metallothionein 1A gene expression decreased linearly with reduction in dietary zinc from 88.0 to 28.1 mg/kg [0.02 mU and 0.008 Log10(2(-ΔΔCt))/mg dietary Zn, respectively; P < 0.05]. Fas cell-surface death receptor, etoposide-induced 2.4 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A gene expression correlated positively to cardiac zinc in piglets fed ≤42.7 mg Zn/kg (r ≥ 0.97; P < 0.05).Conclusions: Short-term SZD decreased cardiac antioxidative capacity of weaned piglets while simultaneously increasing stress-associated gene expression and zinc concentration. This is the first report to our knowledge on the effects of SZD on redox metabolism.

PMID: 28202635 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Metabolic Outcomes among Adult Samoans in a Cross-Sectional Study.
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Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Metabolic Outcomes among Adult Samoans in a Cross-Sectional Study.

J Nutr. 2017 Feb 15;:

Authors: Wang D, Hawley NL, Thompson AA, Lameko V, Reupena MS, McGarvey ST, Baylin A

Abstract
Background: The Samoan population has been undergoing a nutrition transition toward more imported and processed foods and a more sedentary lifestyle.Objectives: We aimed to identify dietary patterns in Samoa and to evaluate their associations with metabolic outcomes.Methods: The sample of this cross-sectional study includes 2774 Samoan adults recruited in 2010 (1104 with metabolic syndrome compared with 1670 without). Principal component analysis on food items from a 104-item food-frequency questionnaire was used to identify dietary patterns. Adjusted least squares means of each component of metabolic syndrome were estimated by quintiles of factor scores for each dietary pattern. Metabolic syndrome status was regressed on quintiles of scores by using log-binomial models to obtain prevalence ratios.Results: We identified a modern pattern, a mixed-traditional pattern, and a mixed-modern pattern. The modern pattern included a high intake of imported and processed foods, including pizza, cheeseburgers, margarine, sugary drinks, desserts, snacks, egg products, noodles, nuts, breads, and cakes and a low intake of traditional agricultural products and fish. The mixed-traditional pattern had a high intake of neotraditional foods, including fruits, vegetables, soup, poultry, and fish, and imported and processed foods, including dairy products, breads, and cakes. The mixed-modern pattern was loaded with imported and processed foods, including pizza, cheeseburgers, red meat, egg products, noodles, and grains, but also with neotraditional foods, such as seafood and coconut. It also included a low intake of fish, tea, coffee, soup, and traditional agricultural staples. Higher adherence to the mixed-modern pattern was associated with lower abdominal circumference (P-trend < 0.0001), lower serum triglycerides (P-trend = 0.03), and higher serum HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.0003). The mixed-modern pattern was inversely associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome (the highest quintile: prevalence ratio = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.91; P-trend = 0.006).Conclusion: Mixed dietary patterns containing healthier foods, rather than a largely imported and processed modern diet, may help prevent metabolic syndrome in Samoa.

PMID: 28202634 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]