Subscribe: pubmed: 0022-3166
http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/erss.cgi?rss_guid=0cB9jbU_3KkoSwJy-ih0PuM8R5knaaFNXfmKLgU2T5H
Added By: Feedage Forager Feedage Grade B rated
Language: English
Tags:
children  food  high  indexed medline  intake  nutr sep  pmid pubmed  protein  pubmed indexed  related articles  related  sep authors 
Rate this Feed
Rate this feedRate this feedRate this feedRate this feedRate this feed
Rate this feed 1 starRate this feed 2 starRate this feed 3 starRate this feed 4 starRate this feed 5 star

Comments (0)

Feed Details and Statistics Feed Statistics
Preview: pubmed: 0022-3166

pubmed: 0022-3166



NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=0022-3166



 



Adherence to Dietary Recommendations for Food Group Intakes Is Low in the Mexican Population.
(image) Related Articles

Adherence to Dietary Recommendations for Food Group Intakes Is Low in the Mexican Population.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1897S-906S

Authors: Batis C, Aburto TC, Sánchez-Pimienta TG, Pedraza LS, Rivera JA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Given the high prevalence of obesity and noncommunicable diseases in Mexico and the key role of dietary quality in these conditions, it is important to determine Mexicans' adherence to dietary recommendations.
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to estimate the percentage of the Mexican population who adhere to dietary recommendations for key food groups.
METHODS: We analyzed 7983 participants aged ≥5 y from the nationally representative Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Dietary intake data were collected by using one 24-h recall and a repeated 24-h recall in 9% of the sample. We used the National Cancer Institute method for episodically consumed foods, which uses a 2-part (probability and amount) mixed regression model to estimate the usual intake distribution and its association with sociodemographic variables.
RESULTS: For the food groups that are encouraged, only 1-4% of the population (range across sex and age groups) reached the recommended intake of legumes, 4-8% for seafood, 7-16% for fruit and vegetables, and 9-23% for dairy. For food groups that are discouraged, only 10-22% did not exceed the recommended upper limit for sugar-sweetened beverages, 14-42% for high saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) products, and 9-50% for processed meats, whereas the majority (77-93%) did not exceed the limit for red meat. A lower proportion of adolescents than children and adults adhered to recommendations for several food groups. Participants with higher socioeconomic status (SES) and living in urban areas consumed more (probability of consuming and/or amount consumed) fruit and vegetables, dairy, and HSFAS products, but they consumed fewer legumes than those of lower SES and living in rural areas.
CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal the poor dietary quality of the Mexican population and the urgent need to shift these habits. If current intakes continue, the burden of disease due to obesity and noncommunicable chronic diseases will likely remain elevated in the Mexican population.

PMID: 27511940 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Overview of the Dietary Intakes of the Mexican Population: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012.
(image) Related Articles

Overview of the Dietary Intakes of the Mexican Population: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1851S-5S

Authors: Rivera JA, Pedraza LS, Aburto TC, Batis C, Sánchez-Pimienta TG, González de Cosío T, López-Olmedo N, Pedroza-Tobías A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Mexico is facing the double burden of malnutrition: stunting and micronutrient deficiencies in young children, iron deficiency in pregnant women, and widespread obesity across age groups.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to summarize and discuss findings published in this supplement on dietary intakes and the eating habits of the Mexican population.
METHODS: A 24-h recall questionnaire that used the multiple-pass method with a repeated measure in a fraction of the sample was applied in a nationally representative sample. We estimated mean intakes and percentages of inadequacy for macronutrients and micronutrients; mean intakes and percentages of the population who adhere to dietary recommendations for food groups; sources of added sugars; intakes of discretionary foods by mealtime, place, and activity; and mean dietary intakes in children <2 y old.
RESULTS: Infant formula was consumed by almost half of infants aged <6 mo and sugar-sweetened beverages were consumed by two-thirds of children aged 12-23 mo. In the different age groups, a high proportion of the population had excessive intakes of added sugars (58-85%) and saturated fats (54-92%), whereas a high prevalence of insufficient intakes was found for fiber (65-87%), vitamin A (8-70%), folates (13-69%), calcium (26-88%), and iron (46-89%). Discretionary foods (nonbasic foods high in saturated fats and/or added sugars) contributed 26% of the population's total energy intake, whereas only 1-23% met recommendations for legumes, seafood, fruit, vegetables, and dairy foods.
CONCLUSIONS: High proportions of Mexicans consume diets that do not meet recommendations. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding diverged from recommendations, intakes of discretionary foods were high, and the prevalence of nutrient inadequacies and age groups not meeting intake recommendations of basic food groups were also high. The results are consistent with the high prevalence of the double burden of malnutrition and are useful to design food and nutrition policies.

PMID: 27511939 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Mexican Children under 2 Years of Age Consume Food Groups High in Energy and Low in Micronutrients.
(image) Related Articles

Mexican Children under 2 Years of Age Consume Food Groups High in Energy and Low in Micronutrients.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1916S-23S

Authors: Rodríguez-Ramírez S, Muñoz-Espinosa A, Rivera JA, González-Castell D, González de Cosío T

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Mexico faces malnutrition problems in the child population. Analysis of food consumption in small children allows us to identify and propose strategies focused on feeding to improve their nutritional status.
OBJECTIVE: We described the consumption of beverages and food groups in Mexican children <24 mo of age.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 926 children aged <24 mo participating in the 2012 ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Study). Dietary information was obtained through 24-h recalls. The foods and beverages consumed were divided into 17 groups. Consumption was estimated in grams or milliliters, kilocalories per day, and percentage of energy (PE) per day. The percentage of consumers was calculated for each food group and stratified by age (<6, 6-11, and 12-23 mo) and by breastfeeding status (breastfed or not breastfed). Differences in the consumption of food groups were analyzed by breastfeeding status, area of residence (urban or rural), and socioeconomic status (SES) by using linear regression adjusted for age, breastfeeding status, and survey design.
RESULTS: Only 35% of the children consumed breast milk. Infant formula was consumed by 48% in children aged <6 mo and by 33% in children 6-11 mo old. More than 35% of the children aged 6-11 and 12-23 mo and 12% of children <6 mo old consumed nondairy sugar-sweetened beverages. Legumes and seeds and maize-based preparations contributed a higher PE in rural areas (3.4% and 1.9%, respectively) than in urban areas (11.1% and 6.4%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Children from the lowest SES category consumed less PE from cereals other than maize (2.4%) and more from maize-based preparations (10.2%) than did the middle (4.9% from other cereals and 8.0% from maize) and high (6.0% from other cereals and 4.5% from maize) SES categories (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Mexican children <24 mo of age do not consume a diet that meets recommendations, which is consistent with the high prevalence of malnutrition in Mexico.

PMID: 27511938 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Usual Vitamin Intakes by Mexican Populations.
(image) Related Articles

Usual Vitamin Intakes by Mexican Populations.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1866S-73S

Authors: Pedroza-Tobías A, Hernández-Barrera L, López-Olmedo N, García-Guerra A, Rodríguez-Ramírez S, Ramírez-Silva I, Villalpando S, Carriquiry A, Rivera JA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: In the past several years, the consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor foods has increased globally. Dietary intake data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2012 provide information to assess the quality of the Mexican diet and to guide food and nutrition policy.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to describe the usual intake and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamins for the overall Mexican population and by subgroups defined by sex, age, region, urban or rural areas, and socioeconomic status (SES).
METHODS: ENSANUT 2012 is a cross-sectional probabilistic survey representative of the Mexican population. Dietary information was collected by using the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method (n = 10,096) with a repeated measurement on a subsample (n = 889) to permit adjustment for intraindividual variability with the use of the Iowa State University method. Mean usual intakes and the prevalence of inadequate intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, and vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, and B-12 were calculated for children aged 1-4 y (CH1-4y), children aged 5-11 y (CH5-11y), adolescents aged 12-19 y, and adults aged ≥20 y.
RESULTS: In all of the age groups, prevalences of inadequate intakes of vitamins D and E were the highest (77-99% of adults and adolescents and 53-95% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y) and those of folate and vitamin A were intermediate (47-70% of adults and adolescents, 15-23% of CH5-11y and 8-13% of CH1-4y), whereas those of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, and C were the lowest (0-37% of adults, 1-27% of adolescents, and 0-2.4% of CH5-11y and CH1-4y). With few exceptions, the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for vitamins were observed in the poorest populations (rural South region and the lowest tertile of SES).
CONCLUSIONS: The intake of vitamins among Mexicans is inadequate overall. Information collected by ENSANUT can help target food assistance programs and develop strategies to prevent vitamin deficiencies.

PMID: 27511936 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




High Prevalence of Inadequate Calcium and Iron Intakes by Mexican Population Groups as Assessed by 24-Hour Recalls.
(image) Related Articles

High Prevalence of Inadequate Calcium and Iron Intakes by Mexican Population Groups as Assessed by 24-Hour Recalls.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1874S-80S

Authors: Sánchez-Pimienta TG, López-Olmedo N, Rodríguez-Ramírez S, García-Guerra A, Rivera JA, Carriquiry AL, Villalpando S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: A National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) conducted in Mexico in 1999 identified a high prevalence of inadequate mineral intakes in the population by using 24-h recall questionnaires. However, the 1999 survey did not adjust for within-person variance. The 2012 ENSANUT implemented a more up-to-date 24-h recall methodology to estimate usual intake distributions and prevalence of inadequate intakes.
OBJECTIVE: We examined the distribution of usual intakes and prevalences of inadequate intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc in the Mexican population in groups defined according to sex, rural or urban area, geographic region of residence, and socioeconomic status (SES).
METHODS: We used dietary intake data obtained through the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method for 10,886 subjects as part of ENSANUT 2012. A second measurement on a nonconsecutive day was obtained for 9% of the sample. Distributions of usual intakes of the 4 minerals were obtained by using the Iowa State University method, and the prevalence of inadequacy was estimated by using the Institute of Medicine's Estimated Average Requirement cutoff.
RESULTS: Calcium inadequacy was 25.6% in children aged 1-4 y and 54.5-88.1% in subjects >5 y old. More than 45% of subjects >5 y old had an inadequate intake of iron. Less than 5% of children aged <12 y and 25-35% of subjects aged >12 y had inadequate intakes of magnesium, whereas zinc inadequacy ranged from <10% in children aged <12 y to 21.6% in men aged ≥20 y. Few differences were found between rural and urban areas, regions, and tertiles of SES.
CONCLUSIONS: Intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc are inadequate in the Mexican population, especially among adolescents and adults. These results suggest a public health concern that must be addressed.

PMID: 27511935 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Intakes of Energy and Discretionary Food in Mexico Are Associated with the Context of Eating: Mealtime, Activity, and Place.
(image) Related Articles

Intakes of Energy and Discretionary Food in Mexico Are Associated with the Context of Eating: Mealtime, Activity, and Place.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1907S-15S

Authors: Batis C, Rodríguez-Ramírez S, Ariza AC, Rivera JA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity and the intake of discretionary foods [high saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) products and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)] are high in Mexico. It is important to understand whether the intakes of HSFAS products and SSBs are associated with the context in which they are consumed.
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to estimate the associations between total energy and discretionary food (HSFAS products and SSBs) intakes and the context of eating (mealtime, activity, and place).
METHODS: We used data from 10,087 participants aged ≥1 y from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Dietary intake was estimated through a 24-h dietary recall that included questions on mealtime, activity, and place in which each food item was consumed. The associations between energy and discretionary food intakes and the context of eating were estimated by using multiple linear regression stratified by age group and adjusted for sociodemographic variables.
RESULTS: Compared with breakfast, the percentage of energy that HSFAS products contributed was 16-29 (range in all age groups) percentage points higher during midafternoon snacks and 16-23 percentage points lower at lunch and almuerzo (Mexican brunch); the percentage of energy from SSBs was 3.4-7.6 percentage points higher during midmorning snacks (P < 0.05). In many age groups and mealtimes, we found that compared with eating only while seated, the percentage of energy as HSFAS was 5.3-14 percentage points higher when watching television (P < 0.05). Compared with eating at home, the percentage of energy from HSFAS was 12-26 percentage points higher on the street and the percentage of energy from SSBs was 3.4-6.0 percentage points higher at school and 2.9-15 percentage points higher at work (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the need to promote healthier food selection among the Mexican population when snacking and watching television and healthier food environments at work, school, and on the street.

PMID: 27511934 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Vitamin A Supplementation Increases the Uptake of Chylomicron Retinyl Esters into the Brain of Neonatal Rats Raised under Vitamin A-Marginal Conditions.
(image) Related Articles

Vitamin A Supplementation Increases the Uptake of Chylomicron Retinyl Esters into the Brain of Neonatal Rats Raised under Vitamin A-Marginal Conditions.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1677-83

Authors: Hodges JK, Tan L, Green MH, Ross AC

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The most rapid phase of brain development occurs during the neonatal period. Vitamin A (VA; retinol) is critical for many aspects of this process, including neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory formation. However, the metabolism of retinol in the neonatal brain has not been extensively explored.
OBJECTIVE: We examined the uptake of VA into the brain in neonatal rats raised under VA-marginal conditions (control group) and assessed the effect of VA supplementation on the uptake of VA into the brain.
METHODS: Sprague-Dawley neonatal rats (n = 104) nursed by mothers fed a VA-marginal diet were randomly assigned and treated on postnatal day 4 with an oral dose of either VA (6 μg retinyl palmitate/g body weight) or canola oil as the control, both of which contained 1.8 μCi [(3)H]retinol. Pups (n = 4/group at a time) were killed at 13 sampling times from 30 min to 24 d after dosing. The uptake of total retinol, chylomicron-associated retinyl esters (REs), and retinol bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP) was estimated with the use of WinSAAM version 3.0.8.
RESULTS: Total retinol mass in the brain was closely dependent on its mass in plasma over time (r = 0.91; P < 0.001). The uptake of retinol into the brain involved both postprandial chylomicrons and RBP, with RBP delivering most of the retinol in the control group [0.27 nmol/d (RBP) compared with 0.01 nmol/d (chylomicrons)]. VA supplementation increased the fractional uptake of chylomicron REs from 0.3% to 1.2% of plasma pool/d, decreased that of RBP retinol from 0.5% to 0.2% of plasma pool/d, and increased the transfer rate of chylomicron REs from nearly zero to 0.7 nmol/d, causing a day-long elevation in the brain mass of total retinol.
CONCLUSION: Postprandial chylomicrons may be a primary mechanism for delivering a recently ingested large dose of VA to the brain of neonatal rats raised under VA-marginal conditions.

PMID: 27511933 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Usual Intake of Added Sugars and Saturated Fats Is High while Dietary Fiber Is Low in the Mexican Population.
(image) Related Articles

Usual Intake of Added Sugars and Saturated Fats Is High while Dietary Fiber Is Low in the Mexican Population.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1856S-65S

Authors: López-Olmedo N, Carriquiry AL, Rodríguez-Ramírez S, Ramírez-Silva I, Espinosa-Montero J, Hernández-Barrera L, Campirano F, Martínez-Tapia B, Rivera JA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) was carried out in 2012. Information from the survey is used to design and evaluate food and nutrition policies in Mexico.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the usual intake of energy and macronutrients in the Mexican population by using the ENSANUT 2012.
METHODS: Twenty-four-hour recall interviews were administered to a nationally representative subsample of 10,096 individuals aged ≥1 y from the ENSANUT 2012. Usual intake distributions and the prevalence of inadequate intakes were estimated by using the Iowa State University method. Student's t tests and tests on the equality of proportions were used to compare usual intakes and prevalence of inadequacy across socioeconomic status, area (rural or urban), and region of residence (North, Center, or South).
RESULTS: Energy and macronutrient intakes and indicators of dietary adequacy are presented for children (ages 1-4 y and 5-11 y), adolescents (12-19 y), and adults (≥20 y). At the national level, the estimated mean fiber intake was below the Adequate Intake for all population subgroups, suggesting inadequacies. The estimated proportion with a usual added sugars intake of >10% of total energy intake was >64% in all age groups. The proportion with a usual saturated fat intake of >10% of total energy intake was estimated to be >78% in children, >66% in adolescents, and >50% in adults. Overall, fiber intake was lower and intakes of saturated fat and added sugars were higher in urban compared with rural areas, in the North compared with South regions, and among those with high compared with low socioeconomic status (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Fiber intake is lower and added sugar and saturated fat intakes are higher than recommended for >50% of the Mexican population aged ≥1 y. These results highlight the importance of improving the diets of the overall population to reduce the risk of noncommunicable chronic diseases.

PMID: 27511932 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Are the Main Sources of Added Sugar Intake in the Mexican Population.
(image) Related Articles

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Are the Main Sources of Added Sugar Intake in the Mexican Population.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1888S-96S

Authors: Sánchez-Pimienta TG, Batis C, Lutter CK, Rivera JA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Sugar intake has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, other noncommunicable diseases, and dental caries. The WHO recommends that free sugars should be <10% of total energy intake (TEI) and that additional health benefits could be obtained with a reduction below 5% of TEI.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the total, intrinsic, and added sugar intake in the Mexican diet and to identify the food groups that are the main sources of these sugars.
METHODS: We used data from a national probabilistic survey [ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Survey) 2012], which represents 3 geographic regions and urban and rural areas. Dietary information was obtained by administering a 24-h recall questionnaire to 10,096 participants. Total sugar intake was estimated by using the National Institute of Public Health (INSP) food-composition table and an established method to estimate added sugars.
RESULTS: The mean intakes of total, intrinsic, and added sugars were 365, 127, and 238 kcal/d, respectively. Added sugars contributed 13% of TEI. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) were the main source of sugars, contributing 69% of added sugars. Food products high in saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) were the second main sources of added sugars, contributing 25% of added sugars.
CONCLUSIONS: The average intake of added sugars in the Mexican diet is higher than WHO recommendations, which may partly explain the high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in Mexico. Because SSBs and HSFAS contribute >94% of total added sugars, strategies to reduce their intake should be strengthened. This includes stronger food labels to warn the consumer about the content of added sugars in foods and beverages.

PMID: 27511931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




The Mexican Dietary and Physical Activity Guidelines: Moving Public Nutrition Forward in a Globalized World.
(image) Related Articles

The Mexican Dietary and Physical Activity Guidelines: Moving Public Nutrition Forward in a Globalized World.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1924S-7S

Authors: Pérez-Escamilla R

Abstract
The objective of this article is to explain the process of the development of and to assess the Mexican food-based dietary and physical activity guidelines (FBDGs). The FBDGs were developed by an intersectoral and interdisciplinary committee of 11 national experts with input from 11 external advisors. The sectors represented were research and academic institutions, the Ministry of Health, and a nongovernmental organization. The evidence-based process included the following: literature reviews of local, national, and international evidence; review of dietary patterns of the Mexican population; key national and international recommendations; and review of FBDGs and visual icons from other countries. The guidelines' report follows the life-course socioecological model rooted in a deep understanding of the epidemiology and underlying causes of malnutrition in Mexico. The guidelines are summarized in 10 pretested main recommendations that include, and go beyond, simply promoting the consumption of a healthy and varied diet that includes fresh fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains and staying within caloric needs and staying active. The guidelines strongly emphasize healthy cooking habits, enjoyable meals with family and friends, drinking water, and avoiding the consumption of sweetened beverages, grain-based desserts, and highly processed foods. Detailed guidelines specific to different groups (on the basis of age and physiologic status) are also included. An innovative aspect of the Mexican FBDGs is the inclusion of dietary guidance of children <2 y of age. Future editions of these guidelines should consider removing their emphasis on dietary cholesterol and total dietary fat and placing more attention on the substitution of saturated and trans fats with healthy oils. The process of national agenda setting, policy articulation, and implementation of the Mexican FBDGs in the context of addressing the national obesity epidemic deserves to be initiated and formally assessed through the lens of evidence-based, public nutrition complex adaptive systems.

PMID: 27511930 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND)-Vitamin A Review.
(image) (image) Related Articles

Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND)-Vitamin A Review.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1816S-48S

Authors: Tanumihardjo SA, Russell RM, Stephensen CB, Gannon BM, Craft NE, Haskell MJ, Lietz G, Schulze K, Raiten DJ

Abstract
The Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) project is designed to provide evidence-informed advice to anyone with an interest in the role of nutrition in health. The BOND program provides information with regard to selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, function, and effect, which will be especially useful for readers who want to assess nutrient status. To accomplish this objective, expert panels are recruited to evaluate the literature and to draft comprehensive reports on the current state of the art with regard to specific nutrient biology and available biomarkers for assessing nutritional status at the individual and population levels. Phase I of the BOND project includes the evaluation of biomarkers for 6 nutrients: iodine, folate, zinc, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12. This review of vitamin A is the current article in this series. Although the vitamin was discovered >100 y ago, vitamin A status assessment is not trivial. Serum retinol concentrations are under homeostatic control due in part to vitamin A's use in the body for growth and cellular differentiation and because of its toxic properties at high concentrations. Furthermore, serum retinol concentrations are depressed during infection and inflammation because retinol-binding protein (RBP) is a negative acute-phase reactant, which makes status assessment challenging. Thus, this review describes the clinical and functional indicators related to eye health and biochemical biomarkers of vitamin A status (i.e., serum retinol, RBP, breast-milk retinol, dose-response tests, isotope dilution methodology, and serum retinyl esters). These biomarkers are then related to liver vitamin A concentrations, which are usually considered the gold standard for vitamin A status. With regard to biomarkers, future research questions and gaps in our current understanding as well as limitations of the methods are described.

PMID: 27511929 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Discretionary Foods Have a High Contribution and Fruit, Vegetables, and Legumes Have a Low Contribution to the Total Energy Intake of the Mexican Population.
(image) Related Articles

Discretionary Foods Have a High Contribution and Fruit, Vegetables, and Legumes Have a Low Contribution to the Total Energy Intake of the Mexican Population.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1881S-7S

Authors: Aburto TC, Pedraza LS, Sánchez-Pimienta TG, Batis C, Rivera JA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity prevalences in Mexico are among the highest in the world, with dietary factors being the third-leading category of risk contributing to the burden of disease. Consequently, studying the compliance of the Mexican population to food-based dietary recommendations is essential for informing nutritional policies.
OBJECTIVES: We described the energy contribution of food groups to total dietary energy intake of the Mexican population and by sociodemographic subgroups and compared these results with Mexican dietary recommendations.
METHODS: Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls for participants aged ≥5 y (n = 7983) from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey were used. Foods and beverages were classified into 8 groups (the first 6 were called "basic foods" and the last 2 "discretionary foods"), as follows: 1) cereals, 2) legumes, 3) milk and dairy, 4) meat and animal products, 5) fruit and vegetables, 6) fats and oils, 7) sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and 8) products high in saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS). Recommendations were based on the Mexican Dietary Guidelines (MDG). Energy contributions from the food groups by age, sex, region, residence (rural or urban), and socioeconomic status (SES) were estimated.
RESULTS: The highest contribution to total energy intake came from cereals (33%) followed by HSFAS (16%), meat and animal products (14%), and SSBs (9.8%). Fruit and vegetables (5.7%) and legumes (3.8%) had the lowest contribution. Energy contribution of several food groups differed significantly between population subgroups. Overall, discretionary foods contributed more than one-quarter of total energy intake (26%) and were 13 percentage points above the maximum allowed by the recommendations, whereas the intakes of legumes and fruit and vegetables were much lower than recommended.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show the need to generate a food environment conducive to a healthier diet in the Mexican population.

PMID: 27511928 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Among 4 Diet Quality Indexes, Only the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score Is Associated with Better Colorectal Cancer Survival and Only in African American Women in the Multiethnic Cohort.
(image) Related Articles

Among 4 Diet Quality Indexes, Only the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score Is Associated with Better Colorectal Cancer Survival and Only in African American Women in the Multiethnic Cohort.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1746-55

Authors: Jacobs S, Harmon BE, Ollberding NJ, Wilkens LR, Monroe KR, Kolonel LN, Le Marchand L, Boushey CJ, Maskarinec G

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, with a 5-y survival rate of ∼65%. Therefore, the identification of modifiable health factors to improve CRC survival is crucial.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of 4 prediagnostic a priori diet quality indexes with CRC-specific and all-cause mortality in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC).
METHODS: The MEC included >215,000 African-American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese-American, Latino, and white adults living in Hawaii and California who completed a validated quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in 1993-1996. CRC cases and deaths were identified through linkages to cancer registries and to state and national vital registries. Sex-specific HRs and 95% CIs were estimated for the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, the Alternative HEI (AHEI) 2010, the alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED) score, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) index with CRC-specific and overall mortality as the primary outcomes. Ethnicity-specific analyses were the secondary outcomes.
RESULTS: Among 4204 MEC participants diagnosed with invasive CRC through 2010, 1976 all-cause and 1095 CRC-specific deaths were identified. A higher aMED score was associated with lower CRC-specific mortality in women [HR continuous pattern score divided by its respective SD (HR1SD): 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96] but not in men (HR1SD: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.11). A higher aMED score was also associated with lower all-cause mortality in women (HR1SD: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.96) but not in men (HR1SD: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.07). The HEI-2010, AHEI-2010, and DASH index were not significantly associated with CRC-specific or with all-cause mortality. The inverse relation for the aMED score was limited to African Americans and to colon (compared with rectal) cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: The aMED score was related to lower mortality only in African-American women (1 of 5 ethnic groups studied). The results should be interpreted with caution due to the small numbers of cases within ethnic groups and the issue of multiple testing.

PMID: 27511927 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Plasma Concentrations of Ferritin in Early Pregnancy Are Associated with Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Women in the Danish National Birth Cohort.
(image) Related Articles

Plasma Concentrations of Ferritin in Early Pregnancy Are Associated with Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Women in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1756-61

Authors: Bowers KA, Olsen SF, Bao W, Halldorsson TI, Strøm M, Zhang C

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Evidence from experimental studies has demonstrated that higher than normal iron concentrations can lead to pancreatic β cell dysfunction and impaired glucose metabolism. Studies on body iron stores in early pregnancy and subsequent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk are sparse.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether biomarkers of body iron stores measured in early pregnancy are associated with GDM risk.
METHODS: A case-control study of 350 GDM cases and 349 non-GDM controls was conducted in participants from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Blood was collected at a mean ± SD gestational age of 9.4 ± 3.2 wk. Plasma biomarkers of iron stores, including ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), were measured. Logistic regression was used to estimate the OR of GDM associated with quintiles of plasma biomarkers of body iron stores, controlling for maternal age, family history of diabetes, exercise in pregnancy, parity, and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI).
RESULTS: Cases were older (mean ± SD age: 32.2 ± 4.3 compared with 29.9 ± 4.2 y) and had a higher BMI (in kg/m(2); mean ± SD: 28.7 ± 6.0 compared with 24.1 ± 4.6) than controls. Plasma concentrations of both ferritin and sTfR in early pregnancy were significantly higher in GDM cases than in controls [means ± SDs: 80.6 ± 56.0 compared with 71.8 ± 50.1 μg/L (P = 0.03) and 1.5 ± 0.7 compared with 1.4 ± 0.6 mg/L (P = 0.002) for ferritin and sTfR, respectively]. Ferritin was positively and significantly associated with GDM risk even after adjustment for major risk factors of GDM, including prepregnancy BMI. ORs across increasing quintiles of ferritin were 1.00 (reference), 1.25 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.22), 1.89 (95% CI: 1.06, 3.37), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.46, 1.48), and 2.34 (95% CI: 1.30, 4.21) (P-linear trend = 0.02).
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that plasma ferritin measured in early pregnancy is significantly and positively associated with GDM risk.

PMID: 27511926 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Shifts in Rumen Fermentation and Microbiota Are Associated with Dissolved Ruminal Hydrogen Concentrations in Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Different Types of Carbohydrates.
(image) Related Articles

Shifts in Rumen Fermentation and Microbiota Are Associated with Dissolved Ruminal Hydrogen Concentrations in Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Different Types of Carbohydrates.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1714-21

Authors: Wang M, Wang R, Xie TY, Janssen PH, Sun XZ, Beauchemin KA, Tan ZL, Gao M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Different carbohydrates ingested greatly influence rumen fermentation and microbiota and gaseous methane emissions. Dissolved hydrogen concentration is related to rumen fermentation and methane production.
OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that carbohydrates ingested greatly alter the rumen environment in dairy cows, and that dissolved hydrogen concentration is associated with these changes in rumen fermentation and microbiota.
METHODS: Twenty-eight lactating Chinese Holstein dairy cows [aged 4-5 y, body weight 480 ± 37 kg (mean ± SD)] were used in a randomized complete block design to investigate effects of 4 diets differing in forage content (45% compared with 35%) and source (rice straw compared with a mixture of rice straw and corn silage) on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial populations.
RESULTS: Feed intake (10.7-12.6 kg/d) and fiber degradation (0.584-0.692) greatly differed (P ≤ 0.05) between cows fed the 4 diets, leading to large differences (P ≤ 0.05) in gaseous methane yield (27.2-37.3 g/kg organic matter digested), dissolved hydrogen (0.258-1.64 μmol/L), rumen fermentation products, and microbiota. Ruminal dissolved hydrogen was negatively correlated (r < -0.40; P < 0.05) with molar proportion of acetate, numbers of fungi, abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes, and methane yield, but positively correlated (r > 0.40; P < 0.05) with molar proportions of propionate and n-butyrate, numbers of methanogens, and abundance of Selenomonas ruminantium and Prevotella spp. Ruminal dissolved hydrogen was positively correlated (r = 0.93; P < 0.001) with Gibbs free energy changes of reactions producing greater acetate and hydrogen, but not correlated with those reactions producing more propionate without hydrogen.
CONCLUSIONS: Changes in fermentation pathways from acetate toward propionate production and in microbiota from fibrolytic toward amylolytic species were closely associated with ruminal dissolved hydrogen in lactating dairy cows. An unresolved paradox was that greater dissolved hydrogen was associated with greater numbers of methanogens but with lower gaseous methane emissions.

PMID: 27511925 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Prolonged Exclusive Breastfeeding Duration Is Positively Associated with Risk of Anemia in Infants Aged 12 Months.
(image) Related Articles

Prolonged Exclusive Breastfeeding Duration Is Positively Associated with Risk of Anemia in Infants Aged 12 Months.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1707-13

Authors: Wang F, Liu H, Wan Y, Li J, Chen Y, Zheng J, Huang T, Li D

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The association between exclusive breastfeeding duration and infant anemia is not clear.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the association of exclusive breastfeeding duration with risk of anemia in infants at 12 mo of age and in children aged 48-71 mo in mainland China.
METHODS: Detailed breastfeeding information and anthropometric data were obtained for 65,256 children enrolled in the Jiaxing Birth Cohort at 1, 3, and 6 mo of age. Hemoglobin was measured in 25,549 children at 12 mo and in 32,770 children between the ages of 48 and 71 mo. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentrations <110 g/L in children aged <60 mo and <115 g/L in children aged ≥60 mo. The associations between exclusive breastfeeding duration and risk of anemia were assessed as adjusted ORs by using multiple logistic regression.
RESULTS: Overall anemia prevalences at 12 and 48-71 mo were 24.9% and 9.9%, respectively. Exclusive breastfeeding for ≥6 mo, but not for 3-5 mo, was significantly associated with a higher risk of anemia in infants at age 12 mo (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.29; P = 0.02) compared with exclusive breastfeeding for <3 mo. For young children aged 48-71 mo, this finding was only marginally significant (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.29; P = 0.08). Prolonged duration of exclusive breastfeeding was also significantly associated with decreased hemoglobin concentrations of -0.56 g/L (95% CI: -1.10, -0.03; P = 0.04) in infants and -0.99 g/L (95% CI: -1.44, -0.55; P < 0.001) in young children.
CONCLUSIONS: Exclusive breastfeeding for ≥6 mo was associated with an increased risk of anemia in infants aged 12 mo and with lower hemoglobin concentrations in both infants aged 12 mo and young children aged 48-71 mo. Parents should provide infants with an adequate source of iron after 6 mo of exclusive breastfeeding.

PMID: 27489010 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Serum Immune System Biomarkers Neopterin and Interleukin-10 Are Strongly Related to Tryptophan Metabolism in Healthy Young Adults.
(image) Related Articles

Serum Immune System Biomarkers Neopterin and Interleukin-10 Are Strongly Related to Tryptophan Metabolism in Healthy Young Adults.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1801-6

Authors: Deac OM, Mills JL, Gardiner CM, Shane B, Quinn L, Midttun Ø, McCann A, Meyer K, Ueland PM, Fan R, Lu Z, Brody LC, Molloy AM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Changes in tryptophan metabolism through the vitamin B-6-dependent kynurenine pathway have been linked to activation of the immune system.
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that blood concentrations of tryptophan and its catabolites were associated with biomarkers relevant to inflammatory processes in healthy noninflamed subjects.
METHODS: Healthy young adults (n = 737) aged 18-28 y without any known diseases or clinical evidence of inflammation provided blood samples for analysis of serum tryptophan/kynurenine metabolites, neopterin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) with LC-tandem mass spectrometry methodologies. A panel of cytokines was measured in serum by using high-sensitivity ELISA assays. Anthropometric and lifestyle data were collected by questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis to determine the effect of measured serum cytokine concentrations as predictors of tryptophan metabolites was performed on inverse normal-rank transformations of the data, adjusted for sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, and contraceptive use in women.
RESULTS: Median serum CRP and neopterin concentrations were well below established clinical cutoffs for inflammation. We observed significant positive associations between serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) and serum kynurenine (P = 0.0002), the kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio (KTR) (P = 0.003), 3-hydroxykynurenine (P = 0.01), and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (P = 0.04). Serum neopterin was positively associated with kynurenine, the KTR (both P < 0.0001), and anthranilic acid (P = 0.004), and was negatively associated with serum tryptophan (P = 0.01) and PLP (P < 0.0001). Serum tumor necrosis factor α was also negatively associated with tryptophan (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young adults with no apparent inflammatory conditions, serum tryptophan metabolites are significantly associated with key immune system biomarkers. The observed association between IL-10 and kynurenine is unexpected and suggests that kynurenine-linked mechanisms promoting negative regulation of inflammatory responses are associated with normal immune homeostasis.

PMID: 27489009 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Coffee Drinking Is Widespread in the United States, but Usual Intake Varies by Key Demographic and Lifestyle Factors.
(image) Related Articles

Coffee Drinking Is Widespread in the United States, but Usual Intake Varies by Key Demographic and Lifestyle Factors.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1762-8

Authors: Loftfield E, Freedman ND, Dodd KW, Vogtmann E, Xiao Q, Sinha R, Graubard BI

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Despite widespread popularity and possible health effects, the prevalence and distribution of coffee consumption in US adults are poorly characterized.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate usual daily coffee intakes from all coffee-containing beverages, including decaffeinated and regular coffee, among US adults according to demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related factors.
METHODS: Dietary intake data from ≤2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls and a food-frequency questionnaire administered during the NHANES 2003-2006 were used to estimate the person-specific probability of consuming coffee on a particular day and the usual amount consumed on consumption days. Trends in population mean coffee consumption over time were evaluated by using multiple linear regression and 1-d 24-h recall data from NHANES 2003-2012. Analyses were weighted to be representative of the US adult population aged ≥20 y.
RESULTS: An estimated 154 million adults, or 75% of the US population, aged ≥20 y reported drinking coffee; 49% reported drinking coffee daily. Prevalence did not vary by sex, education, income, or self-reported general health (all P ≥ 0.05) but did vary by age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and alcohol drinking (all P < 0.05). Among coffee drinkers, the mean ± SE usual intake was 14.1 ± 0.5 fluid ounces/d (417 ± 15 mL/d). Mean usual intakes were higher in men than women, in older age groups than in those aged 20 to <30 y, in non-Hispanic whites than in non-Hispanic blacks or Hispanic/other races, in smokers than in never smokers, and in daily alcohol consumers than in nonconsumers (all P < 0.05). Population mean coffee consumption was stable from 2003 to 2012 (P-trend = 0.09).
CONCLUSIONS: Coffee is widely consumed in the United States, with usual intakes varying by lifestyle and demographic factors, most notably by age. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether observed differences by age reflect birth cohort effects or changes in drinking patterns over the lifetime.

PMID: 27489008 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Intake of Caffeinated Soft Drinks before and during Pregnancy, but Not Total Caffeine Intake, Is Associated with Increased Cerebral Palsy Risk in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.
(image) Related Articles

Intake of Caffeinated Soft Drinks before and during Pregnancy, but Not Total Caffeine Intake, Is Associated with Increased Cerebral Palsy Risk in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1701-6

Authors: Tollånes MC, Strandberg-Larsen K, Eichelberger KY, Moster D, Lie RT, Brantsæter AL, Meltzer HM, Stoltenberg C, Wilcox AJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Postnatal administration of caffeine may reduce the risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in vulnerable low-birth-weight neonates. The effect of antenatal caffeine exposure remains unknown.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of intake of caffeine by pregnant women and risk of CP in their children.
METHODS: The study was based on The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, comprising >100,000 live-born children, of whom 222 were subsequently diagnosed with CP. Mothers reported their caffeine consumption in questionnaires completed around pregnancy week 17 (102,986 mother-child pairs), week 22 (87,987 mother-child pairs), and week 30 (94,372 mother-child pairs). At week 17, participants were asked about present and prepregnancy consumption. We used Cox regression models to estimate associations between exposure [daily servings (1 serving = 125 mL) of caffeinated coffee, tea, and soft drinks and total caffeine consumption] and CP in children, with nonconsumers as the reference group. Models included adjustment for maternal age and education, medically assisted reproduction, and smoking, and for each source of caffeine, adjustments were made for the other sources.
RESULTS: Total daily caffeine intake before and during pregnancy was not associated with CP risk. High consumption (≥6 servings/d) of caffeinated soft drinks before pregnancy was associated with an increased CP risk (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.1), and children of women consuming 3-5 daily servings of caffeinated soft drinks during pregnancy weeks 13-30 also had an increased CP risk (HR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.8). A mean daily consumption of 51-100 mg caffeine from soft drinks during the first half of pregnancy was associated with a 1.9-fold increased risk of CP in children (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.6).
CONCLUSIONS: Maternal total daily caffeine consumption before and during pregnancy was not associated with CP risk in children. The observed increased risk with caffeinated soft drinks warrants further investigation.

PMID: 27489007 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Hedonic Hunger Is Related to Increased Neural and Perceptual Responses to Cues of Palatable Food and Motivation to Consume: Evidence from 3 Independent Investigations.
(image) Related Articles

Hedonic Hunger Is Related to Increased Neural and Perceptual Responses to Cues of Palatable Food and Motivation to Consume: Evidence from 3 Independent Investigations.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1807-12

Authors: Burger KS, Sanders AJ, Gilbert JR

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The Power of Food Scale (PFS) seeks to identify individuals who experience high appetitive drive in response to food cues, which is a construct termed "hedonic hunger."
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess cross-sectional correlates and predictive power of PFS scores to probe the construct of hedonic hunger.
METHODS: Separate data from 3 studies (study 1, n = 44; study 2, n = 398; study 3, n = 100) were used to evaluate the construct of hedonic hunger. We examined the correlations between the PFS and neural responsivity during intake and anticipated intake of palatable foods, behavioral food reinforcement, perceptual hedonic ratings of food images, and change in body mass index (BMI) and binge eating over time.
RESULTS: Hedonic hunger was strongly related to bilateral brain response in regions implicated in oral somatosensory processing during cue-elicited anticipation of food intake (study 1; right postcentral gyrus: r = 0.67, P < 0.001; left postcentral gyrus: r = 0.64, P < 0.001), and was correlated with behavioral food reinforcement (study 2; r = 0.31, P = 0.03) and perceptual hedonic ratings (study 3; r = 0.24, P = 0.02). Hedonic hunger was not associated with baseline BMI (studies 1-3: P = 0.14, 0.21, and 0.37, respectively) or change in BMI over the 2-y follow-up (studies 1 and 2: P = 0.14 and 0.37, respectively) but was significantly correlated with baseline binge eating in 2 samples (study 1: r = 0.58, P = 0.001; study 2: r = 0.31, P = 0.02; and study 3: P = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: Hedonic hunger was not predictive of weight regulation. However, individuals who report high hedonic hunger are likely to show increased neural and perceptual responses to cues of palatable foods, increased motivation to consume such foods, and a greater likelihood of current binge eating.

PMID: 27489006 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Consumption of Walnuts in Combination with Other Whole Foods Produces Physiologic, Metabolic, and Gene Expression Changes in Obese C57BL/6J High-Fat-Fed Male Mice.
Related Articles Consumption of Walnuts in Combination with Other Whole Foods Produces Physiologic, Metabolic, and Gene Expression Changes in Obese C57BL/6J High-Fat-Fed Male Mice. J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1641-50 Authors: Luo T, Miranda-Garcia O, Adamson A, Hamilton-Reeves J, Sullivan DK, Kinchen JM, Shay NF Abstract BACKGROUND: Although a reductionist approach has sought to understand the roles of individual nutrients and biochemicals in foods, it has become apparent that there can be differences when studying food components in isolation or within the natural matrix of a whole food. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the ability of whole-food intake to modulate the development of obesity and other metabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high-fat (HF), Western-style obesogenic diet. To test the hypothesis that an n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich food could synergize with other, largely polyphenol-rich foods by producing greater reductions in metabolic disease conditions, the intake of English walnuts was evaluated in combination with 9 other whole foods. METHODS: Eight-week-old male C57Bl/6J mice were fed low-fat (LF; 10% fat) and HF control diets, along with an HF diet with 8.6% (wt:wt) added walnuts for 9 wk. The HF control diet contained 46% fat with added sucrose (10.9%, wt:wt) and cholesterol (1%, wt:wt); the added sucrose and cholesterol were not present in the LF diet. Other groups were provided the walnut diet with a second whole food-raspberries, apples, cranberries, tart cherries, broccoli sprouts, olive oil, soy protein, or green tea. All of the energy-containing whole foods were added at an energy level equivalent to 1.5 servings/d. Body weights, food intake, and glucose tolerance were determined. Postmortem, serum lipids and inflammatory markers, hepatic fat, gene expression, and the relative concentrations of 594 biochemicals were measured. RESULTS: The addition of walnuts with either raspberries, apples, or green tea reduced glucose area under the curve compared with the HF diet alone (-93%, -64%, and -54%, respectively, P < 0.05). Compared with HF-fed mice, mice fed walnuts with either broccoli sprouts or green tea (-49% and -61%, respectively, P < 0.05) had reduced hepatic fat concentrations. There were differences in global gene expression patterns related to whole-food content, with many examples of differences in LF- and HF-fed mice, HF- and walnut-fed mice, and mice fed walnuts and walnuts plus other foods. The mean ± SEM increase in relative hepatic concentrations of the n-3 fatty acids α-linolenic acid, eicosapentanoic acid, and docosapentanoic acid in all walnut-fed groups was 124% ± 13%, 159% ± 11%, and 114% ± 10%, respectively (P < 0.0001), compared with LF- and HF-fed mice not consuming walnuts. CONCLUSIONS: In obese male mice, walnut consumption with an HF Western-style diet caused changes in hepatic fat concentrations, gene expression patterns, and fatty acid concentrations. The addition of a second whole food in combination with walnuts produced other changes in metabolite concentrations and gene expression patterns and other physiologic markers. Importantly, these substantial changes occurred in mice fed typical amounts of intake, representing only 1.5 servings each food/d. PMID: 27489005 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] [...]



A Conditional Cash Transfer Program in the Philippines Reduces Severe Stunting.
(image) Related Articles

A Conditional Cash Transfer Program in the Philippines Reduces Severe Stunting.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1793-800

Authors: Kandpal E, Alderman H, Friedman J, Filmer D, Onishi J, Avalos J

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Pantawid, a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program in the Philippines, provided grants conditioned on health-related behaviors for children aged 0-5 y and schooling for those aged 10-14 y.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether Pantawid improved anthropometric measurements in children aged 6-36 mo.
METHODS: We estimated cross-sectional intention-to-treat effects using a 2011 cluster-randomized trial across 130 villages-65 treated and 65 control-with data collected after 31 mo of implementation. Anthropometry characteristics were measured for 241 children in treated areas and 244 children in control areas. Health service use for children aged 6-36 mo and dietary intake for those aged 6-60 mo also were measured. Outcome variables were height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and weight-for-age z scores (WAZs), stunting, severe stunting, underweight, and severely underweight. Impact also was assessed on perinatal care, institutional delivery, presence of skilled birth attendant, breastfeeding practices, immunization, growth monitoring and deworming, care-seeking, and children's intake of protein-rich foods.
RESULTS: Pantawid was associated with a significant reduction in severe stunting [<-3 SD from WHO standards for healthy children; β = -10.2 percentage points (95% CI -18.8, -1.6 percentage points); P = 0.020] as well as a marginally significant increase in HAZs [β = 0.284 SDs (95% CI -0.033, 0.602 SDs); P = 0.08]. WAZs, stunting, underweight, and severely underweight status did not change. Concomitantly, several measures of health-seeking behavior increased significantly.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, Pantawid is one of few CCT programs worldwide that significantly reduced severe stunting in children aged 6-36 mo; changes in key parenting practices, including children's intake of protein-rich foods and care-seeking behavior, were concurrent.

PMID: 27466610 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Serum Zinc Is a Major Predictor of Anemia and Mediates the Effect of Selenium on Hemoglobin in School-Aged Children in a Nationally Representative Survey in New Zealand.
(image) Related Articles

Serum Zinc Is a Major Predictor of Anemia and Mediates the Effect of Selenium on Hemoglobin in School-Aged Children in a Nationally Representative Survey in New Zealand.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1670-6

Authors: Houghton LA, Parnell WR, Thomson CD, Green TJ, Gibson RS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Zinc, selenium, and vitamin D status of New Zealand (NZ) school-aged children was examined in a national survey in 2002. To our knowledge, however, the role of these micronutrients as predictors of hemoglobin has not been explored despite plausible mechanisms for such relations.
OBJECTIVE: We examined the relations of iron, zinc, selenium, and vitamin D status with hemoglobin and anemia in children of New Zealand European and other (NZEO) ethnicity enrolled in the 2002 Children's Nutrition Survey and explored whether zinc mediated the relation between selenium and hemoglobin.
METHODS: Multivariate regression was performed to examine the relations of serum micronutrient biomarkers, acute inflammation, socioeconomic status, and body mass index (BMI) with hemoglobin and anemia of NZEO children aged 5-15 y (n = 503). A mediation analysis also investigated direct and indirect (through zinc) relations between selenium and hemoglobin.
RESULTS: In total, 4.6% of the children were anemic, 3.2% had depleted iron stores, and none had iron deficiency anemia. The prevalence of low serum zinc (<8.7-10.1 μmol/L depending on age and sex), selenium (<0.82 μmol/L), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (<50 nmol/L) was 14.1%, 22.9%, and 48.5%, respectively. Major predictors of hemoglobin were serum zinc, age, and BMI-for-age z score (P < 0.001); log ferritin and being female were also statistically significant (P < 0.05). Selenium had an indirect effect that was mediated by zinc, with a significant effect of selenium on zinc (P = 0.002) and zinc on hemoglobin (P < 0.001). Zinc was the only variable associated with anemia risk (OR: 5.49; 95% CI: 1.95, 15.46).
CONCLUSIONS: Low serum zinc was an independent risk factor for anemia in NZEO school-aged children and mediated the effect of low selenium on hemoglobin. These findings emphasize the importance of considering multiple micronutrient deficiencies in addition to iron when interpreting anemia and of appreciating the mechanistic interactions that underlie these associations.

PMID: 27466609 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Short-Term Daily Consumption of Provitamin A Carotenoid-Biofortified Maize Has Limited Impact on Breast Milk Retinol Concentrations in Zambian Women Enrolled in a Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial.
(image) Related Articles

Short-Term Daily Consumption of Provitamin A Carotenoid-Biofortified Maize Has Limited Impact on Breast Milk Retinol Concentrations in Zambian Women Enrolled in a Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1783-92

Authors: Palmer AC, Chileshe J, Hall AG, Barffour MA, Molobeka N, West KP, Haskell MJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Provitamin A carotenoid-biofortified maize is a conventionally bred staple crop designed to help prevent vitamin A deficiency. Lactating women are a potential target group, because regularly eating biofortified maize may increase vitamin A in breast milk-a critical source of vitamin A for breastfeeding infants.
OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether daily consumption of biofortified orange maize would increase the retinol concentration in the breast milk of Zambian women.
METHODS: Lactating women (n = 149) were randomly assigned to receive orange maize delivering 600 μg retinol equivalents (REs)/d as carotenoid plus placebo (OM), low-carotenoid white maize plus 600 μg REs/d as retinyl palmitate (VA), or white maize plus placebo (WM). Boiled maize (287 g dry weight/d) was served as 2 meals/d, 6 d/wk for 3 wk. We measured initial and final breast milk plasma retinol and β-carotene concentrations, and plasma inflammatory protein concentrations.
RESULTS: Groups were comparable at enrollment, with an overall geometric mean milk retinol concentration of 0.95 μmol/L (95% CI: 0.86, 1.05 μmol/L); 56% of samples had milk retinol <1.05 μmol/L. Median capsule and maize intake was 97% and 258 g dry weight/d, respectively. Final milk β-carotene did not vary across groups (P = 0.76). Geometric mean (95% CI) milk retinol concentration tended to be higher in the OM [1.15 μmol/L (0.96, 1.39 μmol/L)] and VA [1.17 μmol/L (0.99, 1.38 μmol/L)] groups than in the WM group [0.91 μmol/L (0.72, 1.14 μmol/L); P = 0.13], and the proportion of women with milk retinol <1.05 μmol/L was 52.1%, 42.9%, and 36.7% in the WM, OM, and VA groups, respectively (P-trend = 0.16).
CONCLUSIONS: Daily biofortified maize consumption did not increase mean milk retinol concentration in lactating Zambian women; however, there was a plausible downward trend in the risk of low milk retinol across intervention groups. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01922713.

PMID: 27466608 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Gut Microbiota Richness and Composition and Dietary Intake of Overweight Pregnant Women Are Related to Serum Zonulin Concentration, a Marker for Intestinal Permeability.
(image) Related Articles

Gut Microbiota Richness and Composition and Dietary Intake of Overweight Pregnant Women Are Related to Serum Zonulin Concentration, a Marker for Intestinal Permeability.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1694-700

Authors: Mokkala K, Röytiö H, Munukka E, Pietilä S, Ekblad U, Rönnemaa T, Eerola E, Laiho A, Laitinen K

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Increased intestinal permeability may precede adverse metabolic conditions. The extent to which the composition of the gut microbiota and diet contribute to intestinal permeability during pregnancy is unknown.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate whether the gut microbiota and diet differ according to serum zonulin concentration, a marker of intestinal permeability, in overweight pregnant women.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 100 overweight women [mean age: 29 y; median body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30] in early pregnancy (<17 wk of gestation; median: 13 wk). Serum zonulin (primary outcome) was determined by using ELISA, gut microbiota by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and dietary intake of macro- and micronutrients from 3-d food diaries. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for pairwise comparisons and linear regression and Spearman's nonparametric correlations for relations between serum zonulin and other outcome variables.
RESULTS: Women were divided into "low" (<46.4 ng/mL) and "high" (≥46.4 ng/mL) serum zonulin groups on the basis of the median concentration of zonulin (46.4 ng/mL). The richness of the gut microbiota (Chao 1, observed species and phylogenetic diversity) was higher in the low zonulin group than in the high zonulin group (P = 0.01). The abundances of Bacteroidaceae and Veillonellaceae, Bacteroides and Blautia, and Blautia sp. were lower and of Faecalibacterium and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii higher (P < 0.05) in the low zonulin group than in the high zonulin group. Dietary quantitative intakes of n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fiber, and a range of vitamins and minerals were higher (P < 0.05) in women in the low zonulin group than those in the high zonulin group.
CONCLUSIONS: The richness and composition of the gut microbiota and the intake of n-3 PUFAs, fiber, and a range of vitamins and minerals in overweight pregnant women are associated with serum zonulin concentration. Modification of the gut microbiota and diet may beneficially affect intestinal permeability, leading to improved metabolic health of both the mother and fetus. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01922791.

PMID: 27466607 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Intake of High-Fat Yogurt, but Not of Low-Fat Yogurt or Prebiotics, Is Related to Lower Risk of Depression in Women of the SUN Cohort Study.
(image) Related Articles

Intake of High-Fat Yogurt, but Not of Low-Fat Yogurt or Prebiotics, Is Related to Lower Risk of Depression in Women of the SUN Cohort Study.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1731-9

Authors: Perez-Cornago A, Sanchez-Villegas A, Bes-Rastrollo M, Gea A, Molero P, Lahortiga-Ramos F, Martínez-González MA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Yogurt and prebiotic consumption has been linked to better health. However, to our knowledge, no longitudinal study has assessed the association of yogurt and prebiotic consumption with depression risk.
OBJECTIVE: We longitudinally evaluated the association of yogurt and prebiotic consumption with depression risk in a Mediterranean cohort.
METHODS: The SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project is a dynamic, prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates. A total of 14,539 men and women (mean age: 37 y) initially free of depression were assessed during a median follow-up period of 9.3 y. Validated food-frequency questionnaires at baseline and after a 10-y follow-up were used to assess prebiotic (fructans and galacto-oligosaccharide) intake and yogurt consumption (<0.5, ≥0.5 to <3, ≥3 to <7, and ≥7 servings/wk). Participants were classified as incident cases of depression when they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression by a physician (previously validated). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs.
RESULTS: We identified 727 incident cases of depression during follow-up. Whole-fat yogurt intake was associated with reduced depression risk: HR for the highest [≥7 servings/wk (1 serving = 125 g)] compared with the lowest (<0.5 servings/wk) consumption: 0.78 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.98; P-trend = 0.020). When stratified by sex, this association was significant only in women (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.87; P-trend = 0.004). Low-fat yogurt consumption was associated with a higher incidence of depression (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.65; P-trend = 0.001), although this association lost significance after the exclusion of early incident cases, suggesting possible reverse causation bias. Prebiotic consumption was not significantly associated with depression risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that high consumption of whole-fat yogurt was related to a lower risk of depression in women of the SUN cohort. No association was observed for prebiotics. Further studies are needed to clarify why the yogurt-depression association may differ by fat content of the yogurt.

PMID: 27466606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Highly Processed and Ready-to-Eat Packaged Food and Beverage Purchases Differ by Race/Ethnicity among US Households.
(image) Related Articles

Highly Processed and Ready-to-Eat Packaged Food and Beverage Purchases Differ by Race/Ethnicity among US Households.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1722-30

Authors: Poti JM, Mendez MA, Ng SW, Popkin BM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic disparities in dietary quality persist among Americans, but it is unclear whether highly processed foods or convenience foods contribute to these inequalities.
OBJECTIVE: We examined the independent associations of race/ethnicity with highly processed and ready-to-eat (RTE) food purchases among US households. We determined whether controlling for between-group differences in purchases of these products attenuated associations between race/ethnicity and the nutritional quality of purchases.
METHODS: The 2000-2012 Homescan Panel followed US households (n = 157,142) that scanned their consumer packaged goods (CPG) food and beverage purchases. By using repeated-measures regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, we examined time-varying associations of race/ethnicity with processed and convenience food purchases, expressed as a percentage of calories purchased. We estimated associations between race/ethnicity and saturated fat, sugar, or energy density of total purchases with and without adjustment for processed and convenience food purchases.
RESULTS: Compared with white households, black households had significantly lower purchases of highly processed foods (-4.1% kcal) and RTE convenience foods (-4.9% kcal) and had higher purchases of basic processed foods, particularly cooking oils and sugar (+5.4% kcal), foods requiring cooking/preparation (+4.5% kcal), and highly processed beverages (+7.1% kcal). Hispanics also had lower purchases of highly processed and RTE foods than whites. Blacks had CPG purchases with significantly higher median sugar (+2.2% kcal) and energy density (+72 kcal/1000 g), whereas Hispanics had purchases with lower saturated fat (-0.6% kcal) and energy density (-25 kcal/1000 g) than whites. Racial/ethnic differences remained significant after adjustment for processed and convenience food purchases.
CONCLUSIONS: In our study, compared with white households, both black and Hispanic households had lower purchases of highly processed and RTE foods, yet had total CPG purchases with differing nutritional quality. Our findings suggest that highly processed convenience foods are associated with, but cannot fully explain, racial/ethnic disparities in the nutritional quality of CPG purchases.

PMID: 27466605 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




High Dietary Selenium Intake Alters Lipid Metabolism and Protein Synthesis in Liver and Muscle of Pigs.
Related Articles High Dietary Selenium Intake Alters Lipid Metabolism and Protein Synthesis in Liver and Muscle of Pigs. J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1625-33 Authors: Zhao Z, Barcus M, Kim J, Lum KL, Mills C, Lei XG Abstract BACKGROUND: Prolonged high intakes of dietary selenium have been shown to induce gestational diabetes in rats and hyperinsulinemia in pigs. OBJECTIVE: Two experiments were conducted to explore metabolic and molecular mechanisms for the diabetogenic potential of high dietary selenium intakes in pigs. METHODS: In Expt. 1, 16 Yorkshire-Landrace-Hampshire crossbred pigs (3 wk old, body weight = 7.5 ± 0.81 kg, 50% males and 50% females) were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0.3 or 1.0 mg Se/kg (as selenium-enriched yeast for 6 wk). In Expt. 2, 12 pigs of the same crossbreed (6 wk old, body weight = 16.0 ± 1.8 kg) were fed a similar basal diet supplemented with 0.3 or 3.0 mg Se/kg for 11 wk. Biochemical and gene and protein expression profiles of lipid and protein metabolism and selenoproteins in plasma, liver, muscle, and adipose tissues were analyzed. RESULTS: In Expt. 1, the 1-mg-Se/kg diet did not affect body weight or plasma concentrations of glucose and nonesterified fatty acids. In Expt. 2, the 3-mg-Se/kg diet, compared with the 0.3-mg-Se/kg diet, increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of plasma insulin (0.2 compared with 0.4 ng/mL), liver and adipose lipids (41% to 2.4-fold), and liver and muscle protein (10-14%). In liver, the 3-mg-Se/kg diet upregulated (P < 0.05) the expression, activity, or both of key factors related to gluconeogenesis [phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK); 13%], lipogenesis [sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthase (FASN); 46-90%], protein synthesis [insulin receptor (INSR), P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (P70), and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P-S6); 88-105%], energy metabolism [AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); up to 2.8-fold], and selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3; 1.4-fold) and suppressed (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of lipolysis gene cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP7A1; 88%) and selenoprotein gene selenoprotein W1 (SEPW1; 46%). In muscle, the 3-mg-Se/kg diet exerted no effect on the lipid profiles but enhanced (P < 0.05) expression of P-S6 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; 42-176%; protein synthesis); selenoprotein P (SELP; 40-fold); and tumor suppressor protein 53 (P53) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG; 52-58%; lipogenesis) and suppressed (P < 0.05) expression of INSR (59%; insulin signaling); selenoprotein S (SELS); deiodinases, iodothyronine, type I (DIO1); and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1; 50%; selenoproteins); and ACC1 and FASN (35-51%; lipogenesis). CONCLUSION: Our research showed novel roles, to our best knowledge, and mechanisms of high selenium intakes in regulating the metabolism of protein, along with that of lipid, in a tissue-specific fashion in pigs. PMID: 27466604 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] [...]



Food Insecurity Is Associated with Subsequent Cognitive Decline in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study.
(image) Related Articles

Food Insecurity Is Associated with Subsequent Cognitive Decline in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1740-5

Authors: Wong JC, Scott T, Wilde P, Li YG, Tucker KL, Gao X

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Living with hunger and fear of not having enough food is a growing worldwide concern. In our previous cross-sectional study, we found that food insecurity was associated with poor cognitive function, but the direction of this relation remains unclear.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with subsequent cognitive decline.
METHODS: This was a longitudinal study of 597 participants aged 40-75 y from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study cohort, with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of ≥24 at baseline. Food security was assessed at baseline with the US Household Food Security Scale. Participants completed cognitive batteries, which included 7 cognitive tests, twice-at baseline and again at a 2-y follow-up. The primary outcome was the change in global cognitive function over 2 y. Multiple linear regression was used to obtain adjusted mean differences and 95% CIs in cognitive decline across baseline food security status.
RESULTS: Food insecurity at baseline was associated with a 2-y decline in global cognitive function (P-trend = 0.03) after adjusting for relevant potential confounders, including age, sex, baseline cognitive score, body mass index, education, poverty, acculturation score, depression score, smoking status, use of alcohol, physical activity score, presence of diabetes and hypertension, apolipoprotein E status, plasma homocysteine, healthy eating index, and time between baseline and follow-up measures. Compared with the food-secure group, the decline in the very low food security group was greater [mean difference: -0.26 (95% CI: -0.41, -0.10)]. Baseline food insecurity was significantly associated with a faster decline in executive function (P-trend = 0.02) but not memory function (P-trend = 0.66).
CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity was associated with faster cognitive decline in this cohort of Puerto Rican adults. Our study emphasizes the importance of developing interventions for food insecurity that take into account the impact of food insecurity on cognition.

PMID: 27466603 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Protein Supplementation Has Minimal Effects on Muscle Adaptations during Resistance Exercise Training in Young Men: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial.
(image) (image) Related Articles

Protein Supplementation Has Minimal Effects on Muscle Adaptations during Resistance Exercise Training in Young Men: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1660-9

Authors: Reidy PT, Borack MS, Markofski MM, Dickinson JM, Deer RR, Husaini SH, Walker DK, Igbinigie S, Robertson SM, Cope MB, Mukherjea R, Hall-Porter JM, Jennings K, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB

Abstract
BACKGROUND: To our knowledge the efficacy of soy-dairy protein blend (PB) supplementation with resistance exercise training (RET) has not been evaluated in a longitudinal study.
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the effect of PB supplementation during RET on muscle adaptation.
METHODS: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, healthy young men [18-30 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 25 ± 0.5] participated in supervised whole-body RET at 60-80% 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) for 3 d/wk for 12 wk with random assignment to daily receive 22 g PB (n = 23), whey protein (WP) isolate (n = 22), or an isocaloric maltodextrin (carbohydrate) placebo [(MDP) n = 23]. Serum testosterone, muscle strength, thigh muscle thickness (MT), myofiber cross-sectional area (mCSA), and lean body mass (LBM) were assessed before and after 6 and 12 wk of RET.
RESULTS: All treatments increased LBM (P < 0.001). ANCOVA did not identify an overall treatment effect at 12 wk (P = 0.11). There tended to be a greater change in LBM from baseline to 12 wk in the PB group than in the MDP group (0.92 kg; 95% CI: -0.12, 1.95 kg; P = 0.09); however, changes in the WP and MDP groups did not differ. Pooling data from combined PB and WP treatments showed a trend for greater change in LBM from baseline to 12 wk compared with MDP treatment (0.69 kg; 95% CI: -0.08, 1.46 kg; P = 0.08). Muscle strength, mCSA, and MT increased (P < 0.05) similarly for all treatments and were not different (P > 0.10) between treatments. Testosterone was not altered.
CONCLUSIONS: PB supplementation during 3 mo of RET tended to slightly enhance gains in whole-body and arm LBM, but not leg muscle mass, compared with RET without protein supplementation. Although protein supplementation minimally enhanced gains in LBM of healthy young men, there was no enhancement of gains in strength. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01749189.

PMID: 27466602 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




PPARα Downregulates Hepatic Glutaminase Expression in Mice Fed Diets with Different Protein:Carbohydrate Ratios.
(image) Related Articles

PPARα Downregulates Hepatic Glutaminase Expression in Mice Fed Diets with Different Protein:Carbohydrate Ratios.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1634-40

Authors: Velázquez-Villegas LA, Charabati T, Contreras AV, Alemán G, Torres N, Tovar AR

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Glutamine is catabolized in the liver by glutaminase 2 (GLS2). Evidence suggests that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) represses the expression of several amino acid-catabolizing enzymes, but for Gls2 this is unknown.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess whether PPARα regulates Gls2 expression.
METHODS: For 8 d, 7-9-wk-old male C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and Ppara-null mice weighing 23.4 ± 0.5 g were fed diets with different dietary protein:carbohydrate (DP:DCH) ratios (6%:77%, 20%:63%, or 50%:33%). Liver samples were obtained after 16 h of feed deprivation or 3 h of refeeding, and microarrays were performed. Hepatic glutaminase expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Cotransfection analyses in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cells with PPARα and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) expression vectors were performed.
RESULTS: The microarray results showed that Gls2 was the only upregulated gene in WT mice, but not in the Ppara-null mice. In the feed-deprived WT mice, the Gls2 mRNA and protein abundances in the 50%:33% group were 2.5- and 1.1-fold greater (P < 0.05), respectively, than those in the 20%:63% group, which were 2.3- and 0.4-fold greater than those in the 6%:77% group (P < 0.01). Gls2 mRNA expression in the 6%:77% group of feed-deprived Ppara-null mice was 33-fold greater than that in the same group of WT mice (P < 0.0001). GLS2 protein abundance in HepG2 cells was 78% greater than that in the controls (P < 0.0001) after HNF4α overexpression, and it was 99% greater after transfection with a short hairpin targeting PPARα.
CONCLUSIONS: In Ppara-null mice, Gls2 mRNA expression was greater than in WT mice, regardless of the DP:DCH ratio. In HepG2 cells overexpressing HNF4α, Gls2 expression increased, an effect repressed by overexpression of PPARα. This suggests that Gls2 depends on the PPARα/HNF4α counterregulatory transcriptional control.

PMID: 27466601 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Long-Term Immunomodulatory Effects of a Mediterranean Diet in Adults at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) Randomized Controlled Trial.
(image) Related Articles

Long-Term Immunomodulatory Effects of a Mediterranean Diet in Adults at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1684-93

Authors: Casas R, Sacanella E, Urpí-Sardà M, Corella D, Castañer O, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Salas-Salvadó J, Martínez-González MA, Ros E, Estruch R

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has demonstrated short-term anti-inflammatory effects, but little is known about its long-term immunomodulatory properties.
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to assess the long-term effects of the MedDiet on inflammatory markers related to atherogenesis in adults at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the effects of a low-fat diet (LFD).
METHODS: We randomly assigned 165 high-risk participants (one-half men; mean age: 66 y) without overt CVD to 1 of 3 diets: a MedDiet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a MedDiet supplemented with nuts, or an LFD. Follow-up data were collected at 3 and 5 y. Repeated-measures ANOVA, adjusted for potential confounding variables, was used to evaluate changes in diet adherence, CVD risk factors, and inflammatory variables.
RESULTS: The 2 MedDiet groups achieved a high degree of adherence to the intervention, and the LFD group had reduced energy intake from fat by 13% by 5 y. Compared with baseline, at 3 and 5 y, both MedDiet groups had significant reductions of ≥16% in plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (P ≤ 0.04), whereas there were no significant changes in the LFD group. The reductions in CD49d and CD40 expressions in T lymphocytes and monocytes at 3 y were ≥16% greater in both MedDiet groups than were the changes in the LFD group (P < 0.001) at 3 y. Compared with baseline, at 3 y, the MedDiet groups had increased HDL-cholesterol (≥8%) and decreased blood pressure (>4%) and total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride (≥8%) concentrations. At 5 y, concentrations of glucose (13%) and glycated hemoglobin (8%) had increased with the LFD.
CONCLUSIONS: The MedDiet participants had lower cellular and plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers related to atherosclerosis at 3 and 5 y. This anti-inflammatory role of the MedDiet could explain in part the long-term cardioprotective effect of the MedDiet against CVD. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.

PMID: 27440261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Ingestion of Wheat Protein Increases In Vivo Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates in Healthy Older Men in a Randomized Trial.
Related Articles Ingestion of Wheat Protein Increases In Vivo Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates in Healthy Older Men in a Randomized Trial. J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1651-9 Authors: Gorissen SH, Horstman AM, Franssen R, Crombag JJ, Langer H, Bierau J, Respondek F, van Loon LJ Abstract BACKGROUND: Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by basal muscle protein synthesis and the capacity to stimulate muscle protein synthesis after food intake. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response is modulated by the amount, source, and type of protein consumed. It has been suggested that plant-based proteins are less potent in stimulating postprandial muscle protein synthesis than animal-derived proteins. However, few data support this contention. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess postprandial plasma amino acid concentrations and muscle protein synthesis rates after the ingestion of a substantial 35-g bolus of wheat protein hydrolysate compared with casein and whey protein. METHODS: Sixty healthy older men [mean ± SEM age: 71 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 25.3 ± 0.3] received a primed continuous infusion of l-[ring-(13)C6]-phenylalanine and ingested 35 g wheat protein (n = 12), 35 g wheat protein hydrolysate (WPH-35; n = 12), 35 g micellar casein (MCas-35; n = 12), 35 g whey protein (Whey-35; n = 12), or 60 g wheat protein hydrolysate (WPH-60; n = 12). Plasma and muscle samples were collected at regular intervals. RESULTS: The postprandial increase in plasma essential amino acid concentrations was greater after ingesting Whey-35 (2.23 ± 0.07 mM) than after MCas-35 (1.53 ± 0.08 mM) and WPH-35 (1.50 ± 0.04 mM) (P < 0.01). Myofibrillar protein synthesis rates increased after ingesting MCas-35 (P < 0.01) and were higher after ingesting MCas-35 (0.050% ± 0.005%/h) than after WPH-35 (0.032% ± 0.004%/h) (P = 0.03). The postprandial increase in plasma leucine concentrations was greater after ingesting Whey-35 than after WPH-60 (peak value: 580 ± 18 compared with 378 ± 10 μM, respectively; P < 0.01), despite similar leucine contents (4.4 g leucine). Nevertheless, the ingestion of WPH-60 increased myofibrillar protein synthesis rates above basal rates (0.049% ± 0.007%/h; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The myofibrillar protein synthetic response to the ingestion of 35 g casein is greater than after an equal amount of wheat protein. Ingesting a larger amount of wheat protein (i.e., 60 g) substantially increases myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in healthy older men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01952639. PMID: 27440260 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] [...]



Prenatal Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Affect Maternal Anthropometric Indicators Only in Certain Subgroups of Rural Bangladeshi Women.
(image) Related Articles

Prenatal Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Affect Maternal Anthropometric Indicators Only in Certain Subgroups of Rural Bangladeshi Women.

J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1775-82

Authors: Matias SL, Mridha MK, Paul RR, Hussain S, Vosti SA, Arnold CD, Dewey KG

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Maternal undernutrition and low macro- and micronutrient intake and weight gain during pregnancy have been reported in Bangladesh.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements for pregnant and lactating women (LNS-PL) on weight gain and midupper arm circumference (MUAC) during pregnancy.
METHODS: The Rang-Din Nutrition Study, a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial conducted in Bangladesh, enrolled 4011 pregnant women at ≤20 wk gestation who received either 60 mg Fe + 400 μg folic acid/d or 20 g LNS-PL/d (118 kcal) containing essential fatty acids and vitamins and minerals until delivery. At 36 wk gestation, women were interviewed at home and then attended a follow-up examination at local clinics (n = 2877), where anthropometric measurements were taken.
RESULTS: No significant differences between intervention groups in maternal weight gain per week, low weight gain per week, or MUAC at 36 wk gestation were observed in the full sample. However, among multiparous women aged ≥25 y, those in the LNS-PL group gained 34 g/wk more than their counterparts in the iron and folic acid (IFA) group (P = 0.001), whereas no differences were seen in the other parity/age subgroups. Women aged ≥25 y in the LNS-PL group had a 0.4-cm greater MUAC than their counterparts in the IFA group (P = 0.003); no significant differences were observed in the other age groups. Among women whose height at baseline was in the lowest quartile of the distribution, those in the LNS-PL group had a 0.1-0.3-cm greater MUAC at 36 wk gestation than those in the IFA group (P = 0.004-0.014).
CONCLUSIONS: Lipid-based nutrient supplements provided during pregnancy did not affect maternal anthropometric indicators in the overall sample but increased MUAC among women aged ≥25 y and those with lower stature and weight gain among multiparous women aged ≥25 y. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01715038.

PMID: 27440259 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Delaying Iron Therapy until 28 Days after Antimalarial Treatment Is Associated with Greater Iron Incorporation and Equivalent Hematologic Recovery after 56 Days in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Related Articles Delaying Iron Therapy until 28 Days after Antimalarial Treatment Is Associated with Greater Iron Incorporation and Equivalent Hematologic Recovery after 56 Days in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Nutr. 2016 Sep;146(9):1769-74 Authors: Cusick SE, Opoka RO, Abrams SA, John CC, Georgieff MK, Mupere E Abstract BACKGROUND: Iron therapy begun concurrently with antimalarial treatment may not be well absorbed because of malaria-induced inflammation. Delaying the start of iron therapy may permit better iron absorption and distribution. OBJECTIVE: We compared erythrocyte iron incorporation in children who started iron supplementation concurrently with antimalarial treatment or 28 d later. We hypothesized that delayed iron supplementation would be associated with greater incorporation and better hematologic recovery. METHODS: We enrolled 100 children aged 6-59 mo with malaria and hemoglobin concentrations of 50.0-99.9 g/L who presented to Mulago Hospital, Kampala, into a randomized trial of iron therapy. All children were administered antimalarial treatment. Children with zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) ≥80 μmol/mol heme were randomly assigned to start iron supplementation concurrently with the antimalarial treatment [immediate iron (I) group] or 28 d later [delayed iron (D) group]. All children were administered iron-stable isotope (57)Fe on day 0 and (58)Fe on day 28. We compared the percentage of iron incorporation at the start of supplementation (I group at day 0 compared with D group at day 28, aim 1) and hematologic recovery at day 56 (aim 2). RESULTS: The percentage of iron incorporation (mean ± SE) was greater at day 28 in the D group (16.5% ± 1.7%) than at day 0 in the I group (7.9% ± 0.5%; P < 0.001). On day 56, concentrations of hemoglobin and ZPP and plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), hepcidin, and C-reactive protein did not differ between the groups. On day 28, the hemoglobin (mean ± SD) and plasma iron markers (geometric mean; 95% CI) reflected poorer iron status in the D group than in the I group at this intervening time as follows: hemoglobin (105 ± 15.9 compared with 112 ± 12.4 g/L; P = 0.04), ferritin (39.3 μg/L; 23.5, 65.7 μg/L compared with 79.9 μg/L; 58.3, 110 μg/L; P = 0.02), sTfR (8.9 mg/L; 7.4, 10.7 mg/L compared with 6.7 mg/L; 6.1, 7.5 mg/L; P = 0.01), and hepcidin (13.3 ng/mL; 8.3, 21.2 ng/mL compared with 38.8 ng/mL; 28.3, 53.3 ng/mL; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Delaying the start of iron improves incorporation but leads to equivalent hematologic recovery at day 56 in Ugandan children with malaria and anemia. These results do not demonstrate a clear, short-term benefit of delaying iron. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01754701. PMID: 27358418 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] [...]