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pubmed: 0022-3166



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Vitamin D Supplementation Trials Aimed at Reducing Mortality Have Much Higher Power When Focusing on People with Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations.
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Vitamin D Supplementation Trials Aimed at Reducing Mortality Have Much Higher Power When Focusing on People with Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations.

J Nutr. 2017 May 24;:

Authors: Brenner H, Jansen L, Saum KU, Holleczek B, Schöttker B

Abstract
Background: Evidence of an inverse association between serum vitamin D and mortality from epidemiological studies has prompted efforts to reduce mortality by vitamin D supplementation, either in targeted interventions for people with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency, or in untargeted interventions regardless of baseline vitamin D status.Objective: We aimed to assess the expected impact of the 2 different approaches on effect sizes and power of intervention studies.Methods: Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured in 9579 participants aged 50-75 y in the German Epidemiologische Studie zu Chancen der Verhütung, Früherkennung und optimierten Therapie chronischer Erkrankungen in der älteren Bevölkerung (ESTHER) study who were followed for mortality for a median of 12.4 y. We estimated adjusted HRs of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer for defined increases in serum 25(OH)D by Cox regression, both across the full range of 25(OH)D concentrations and for those with vitamin D insufficiency [30 nmol/L ≤ 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L] or deficiency [25(OH)D <30 nmol/L] only, and we calculated the power of intervention studies achieving those effect sizes.Results: An inverse association between serum 25(OH)D and mortality was observed only for participants with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency and was strongest for the latter. Accordingly, the expected effects were much stronger and the expected power was much higher for interventions that targeted these groups than for untargeted interventions. For example, a targeted intervention study with 10,000 older adults (age 50-75 y) with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L that increases serum 25(OH)D concentrations by 20 nmol/L in the intervention group (n = 5000) would be expected to yield a 26% reduction of all-cause mortality that could be detected with 89% power within 5 y of follow-up compared with a 10% mortality reduction and 20% power in an untargeted intervention study of the same size.Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation trials aimed at reducing mortality in older adults have much higher power when focused on those with low serum 25(OH)D concentrations.

PMID: 28539415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Moderately Elevated Homocysteine Does Not Contribute to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm in Mice.
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Moderately Elevated Homocysteine Does Not Contribute to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm in Mice.

J Nutr. 2017 May 24;:

Authors: Roohi J, Kang B, Bernard D, Bedja D, Dietz HC, Brody LC

Abstract
Background: Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is an attractive target for intervention because it is present in 5-7% of the population and can be reversed by diet. This approach presupposes that hyperhomocysteinemia is directly involved in the disease process. Epidemiologic studies have indicated that moderately elevated homocysteine may contribute to thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) dilatation and dissection in humans. In vitro, elevated homocysteine disrupts the structure and function of extracellular matrix components, suggesting that moderate hyperhomocysteinemia may contribute to the development and/or progression of TAA.Objective: We investigated moderately elevated homocysteine in the development and progression of TAA in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome (MFS) and in isogenic wild-type mice. The MFS mouse is a well-described model of a systemic connective tissue disorder characterized by thoracic aortic dilatation, dissection, and rupture. We used this model as a sensitized indicator system to examine the impact of homocysteine on the progression of TAA.Methods: Murine fibrillin 1 gene (Fbn1)(C1039G/+) MFS and C57BL/6J wild-type mice were fed a cobalamin-restricted diet to induce moderate hyperhomocysteinemia from weaning until the age of 32 wk. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid were measured and aortic root diameter assessed with the use of echocardiography in mice aged 3, 7, 15, and 32 wk.Results: Cobalamin-restricted mice exhibited significantly higher homocysteine (P < 0.0001) and methylmalonic acid (P < 0.0001) in the blood. For both strains, no significant difference in thoracic aortic diameter was observed in mice on the cobalamin-restricted diet compared with those on the control diet.Conclusions:Fbn1(C1039G/+) mice are a well-characterized model of progressive aortic root dilation. Hyperhomocysteinemia in the physiologic range did not induce abnormal aortic growth in wild-type mice and did not accelerate or otherwise influence aortic root growth and pathologic progression in mice with an underlying predisposition for aortic dilatation.

PMID: 28539414 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Unconditional Cash Transfers Do Not Prevent Children's Undernutrition in the Moderate Acute Malnutrition Out (MAM'Out) Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Rural Burkina Faso.
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Unconditional Cash Transfers Do Not Prevent Children's Undernutrition in the Moderate Acute Malnutrition Out (MAM'Out) Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Rural Burkina Faso.

J Nutr. 2017 May 24;:

Authors: Houngbe F, Tonguet-Papucci A, Altare C, Ait-Aissa M, Huneau JF, Huybregts L, Kolsteren P

Abstract
Background: Limited evidence is available on the impact that unconditional cash transfer (UCT) programs can have on child nutrition, particularly in West Africa, where child undernutrition is still a public health challenge.Objective: This study examined the impact of a multiannual, seasonal UCT program to reduce the occurrence of wasting (weight-for-height, midupper arm circumference), stunting (height-for-age), and morbidity among children <36 mo old in Tapoa Province, in the eastern region of Burkina Faso.Methods: The study was designed as a 2-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial, with 32 villages randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. The study population comprised households that were classified as poor or very poor according to household economy approach criteria and that had ≥1 child <1 y of age at inclusion. The intervention consisted of seasonal UCTs, provided monthly from July to November, over 2 y (2013 and 2014). A monthly allowance of 10,000 West African Financial Community of Africa francs (∼US$17) was given by mobile phone to mothers in participating households. Anthropometric measurements and morbidity were recorded on a quarterly basis.Results: We found no evidence that multiannual, seasonal UCTs reduced the cumulative incidence of wasting in young children [incidence rate ratio: 0.92 (95% CI: 0.64, 1.32); P = 0.66]. We observed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in children's anthropometric measurements and stunting between the 2 groups at the end point. However, children in the intervention group had a lower risk [21% (95% CI: 18.6%, 21.3%); P < 0.001] of self-reported respiratory tract infections than did children in the control group.Conclusions: We found that seasonal UCTs in the framework of safety nets did not result in a significant decrease in the incidence of acute malnutrition among children in Tapoa Province. Cash transfers combined with complementary interventions targeted to child nutrition and health should be investigated further. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01866124.

PMID: 28539413 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Newborn Body Composition.
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Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Newborn Body Composition.

J Nutr. 2017 May 24;:

Authors: Starling AP, Sauder KA, Kaar JL, Shapiro AL, Siega-Riz AM, Dabelea D

Abstract
Background: Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy may influence offspring growth and adiposity. Specific dietary patterns associated with newborn adiposity have not been identified.Objective: We aimed to identify patterns of maternal dietary intake associated with gestational weight gain (GWG) and fasting glucose during pregnancy and to evaluate whether adherence to these patterns is associated with newborn adiposity.Methods: In the Healthy Start prospective cohort, dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed via 24-h recalls. Reduced-rank regression identified dietary patterns predictive of GWG and fasting glucose. Associations between dietary patterns and newborn fat mass, fat-free mass, and adiposity were estimated by using linear regression models among 764 ethnically diverse mother-infant pairs.Results: Two dietary patterns were identified. Pattern 1, correlated with greater GWG (r = 0.22, P < 0.01), was characterized by a higher consumption of poultry, nuts, cheese, fruits, whole grains, added sugars, and solid fats. Greater adherence to pattern 1 (upper compared with lower tertile) predicted a greater newborn fat-free mass (61 g; 95% CI: 12, 110 g) but no difference in fat mass or adiposity. Pattern 2, correlated with greater maternal fasting glucose (r = 0.16, P < 0.01), was characterized by a higher consumption of eggs, starchy vegetables, solid fats, fruits, and nonwhole grains and a lower consumption of dairy foods, dark-green vegetables, and whole grains. Greater adherence to pattern 2 was associated with a greater newborn birth weight (80 g; 95% CI: 15, 145 g), fat mass (33 g; 95% CI: 8, 59 g), and adiposity (0.9%; 95% CI: 0.3%, 1.6%).Conclusions: Among pregnant women, adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by an intake of poultry, nuts, cheese, and whole grains was associated with greater GWG but not maternal fasting glucose or newborn adiposity. Adherence to a pattern characterized by an intake of eggs, starchy vegetables, and nonwhole grains was associated with higher maternal fasting glucose and greater newborn adiposity. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy may influence newborn body composition.

PMID: 28539412 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]