Meal Distribution of Dietary Protein and Leucine Influences Long-Term Muscle Mass and Body Composition in Adult Rats.
J Nutr. 2016 Nov 30;:
Authors: Norton LE, Wilson GJ, Moulton CJ, Layman DK
BACKGROUND: Protein quantity and quality at a meal affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS); however, long-term effects of protein distribution at individual meals on adult muscle mass remain unknown.
OBJECTIVE: We used a precise feeding protocol in adult rats to determine if optimizing postmeal MPS response by modifying the meal distribution of protein, and the amino acid leucine (Leu), would affect muscle mass.
METHODS: Two studies were conducted with the use of male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼300 g) trained to consume 3 meals/d, then assigned to diet treatments with identical macronutrient contents (16% of energy from protein, 54% from carbohydrates, and 30% from fat) but differing in protein quality or meal distribution. Study 1 provided 16% protein at each meal with the use of whey, egg white, soy, or wheat gluten, with Leu concentrations of 10.9%, 8.8%, 7.7%, and 6.8% (wt:wt), respectively. Study 2 used whey protein with 16% protein at each meal [balanced distribution (BD)] or meals with 8%, 8%, and 27% protein [unbalanced distribution (UD)]. MPS and translation factors 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and ribosomal protein p70S6 (S6K) were determined before and after breakfast meals at 2 and 11 wk. Muscle weights and body composition were measured at 11 wk.
RESULTS: In study 1, the breakfast meal increased MPS and S6K in whey and egg treatments but not in wheat or soy treatments. Gastrocnemius weight was greater in the whey group (2.20 ± 0.03 g) than the soy group (1.95 ± 0.04 g) (P < 0.05) and was intermediate in the egg and wheat groups. The wheat group had >20% more body fat than the soy, egg, or whey groups (P < 0.05). Study 2, postmeal MPS and translation factors were 30-45% greater in the BD group than the UD group (P < 0.05), resulting in 6% and 11% greater (P < 0.05) gastrocnemius and soleus weights at 11 wk.
CONCLUSION: These studies show that meal distribution of protein and Leu influences MPS and long-term changes in adult muscle mass.
PMID: 27903833 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Predictors of the Size of the Exchangeable Zinc Pool Differ between Children and Adults.
J Nutr. 2016 Nov 30;:
Authors: Miller LV, Hambidge KM, King JC, Westcott JE, Krebs NF
BACKGROUND: The size of the rapidly exchanging pool of body zinc has been suggested as having potential utility as a biomarker of zinc status. Knowledge of the relations of exchangeable zinc pool (EZP) size to relevant variables is necessary to adequately evaluate its use as a biomarker.
OBJECTIVE: We used regression analysis to investigate associations of EZP with age, sex, body size, and zinc nutrition variables.
METHODS: Data were compiled from 18 isotope tracer studies of zinc absorption in 247 children and adults (248 observations) in which EZP and relevant variables (e.g., weight, age, absorbed zinc) were measured. Linear regression analyses were performed separately on data from adults and children.
RESULTS: In children, EZP was most strongly associated with weight (r = 0.78). The best-fitting regression models of EZP (R(2) ≥ 0.68) had weight or age and weight-for-age z score as predictors. Other variables had little effect on EZP when controlling for weight. Absorbed zinc was observed to be a predictor of EZP only in zinc intervention trials of infants. The mean EZP/wt was 4 mg/kg between 8 and 120 mo of age. In adults, EZP was observed to vary in a complex manner with (in order of importance) age, absorbed zinc, weight, sex, and plasma zinc concentration. EZP data from zinc-deprived subjects were lower than the 95% prediction interval of a model of normative data.
CONCLUSIONS: EZP was observed to maintain a constant size relative to weight and was influenced only slightly by other factors in children. In contrast, EZP in adults varied with several factors, including absorbed zinc, and was statistically smaller in zinc-deprived individuals. The findings suggest that EZP may have utility as an indicator of zinc status in adults, but there is less evidence for this in children. Additional data are needed to reach a definitive conclusion.
PMID: 27903832 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Dietary Mung Bean Protein Reduces Hepatic Steatosis, Fibrosis, and Inflammation in Male Mice with Diet-Induced, Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
J Nutr. 2016 Nov 30;:
Authors: Watanabe H, Inaba Y, Kimura K, Asahara SI, Kido Y, Matsumoto M, Motoyama T, Tachibana N, Kaneko S, Kohno M, Inoue H
BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, is increasing, novel dietary approaches are required for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the potential of mung bean protein isolate (MuPI) to prevent NAFLD progression.
METHODS: In Expts. 1 and 2, the hepatic triglyceride (TG) concentration was compared between 8-wk-old male mice fed a high-fat diet (61% of energy from fat) containing casein, MuPI, and soy protein isolate and an MuPI-constituent amino acid mixture as a source of amino acids (18% of energy) for 4 wk. In Expt. 3, hepatic fatty acid synthase (Fasn) expression was evaluated in 8-wk-old male Fasn-promoter-reporter mice fed a casein- or MuPI-containing high-fat diet for 20 wk. In Expt. 4, hepatic fibrosis was examined in 8-wk-old male mice fed an atherogenic diet (61% of energy from fat, containing 1.3 g cholesterol/100 g diet) containing casein or MuPI (18% of energy) as a protein source for 20 wk.
RESULTS: In the high fat-diet mice, the hepatic TG concentration in the MuPI group decreased by 66% and 47% in Expt. 1 compared with the casein group (P < 0.001) and the soy protein isolate group (P = 0.001), respectively, and decreased by 56% in Expt. 2 compared with the casein group (P = 0.011). However, there was no difference between the MuPI-constituent amino acid mixture and casein groups in Expt. 2. In Expt. 3, Fasn-promoter-reporter activity and hepatic TG concentration were lower in the MuPI group than in those fed casein (P < 0.05). In Expt. 4, in mice fed an atherogenic diet, hepatic fibrosis was not induced in the MuPI group, whereas it developed overtly in the casein group.
CONCLUSION: MuPI potently reduced hepatic lipid accumulation in mice and may be a potential foodstuff to prevent NAFLD onset and progression.
PMID: 27903831 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Early-Life Sugar Consumption Affects the Rat Microbiome Independently of Obesity.
J Nutr. 2016 Nov 30;:
Authors: Noble EE, Hsu TM, Jones RB, Fodor AA, Goran MI, Kanoski SE
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome has been implicated in various metabolic and neurocognitive disorders and is heavily influenced by dietary factors, but there is a paucity of research on the effects of added sugars on the gut microbiome.
OBJECTIVE: With the use of a rodent model, our goal was to determine how added-sugar consumption during the juvenile and adolescent phase of development affects the gut microbiome.
METHODS: Forty-two juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats [postnatal day (PND) 26; 50-70 g] were given access to 1 of 3 different 11%-carbohydrate solutions designed to model a range of monosaccharide ratios commonly consumed in sugar-sweetened beverages: 1) 35% fructose:65% glucose, 2) 50% fructose:50% glucose, 3) 65% fructose:35% glucose, and 4) control (no sugar). After ad libitum access to the respective solutions for the juvenile and adolescent period (PND 26-80), fecal samples were collected for next-generation 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and multivariate microbial composition analyses. Energy intake, weight change, and adiposity index were analyzed in relation to sugar consumption and the microbiota.
RESULTS: Body weight, adiposity index, and total caloric intake did not differ as a result of sugar consumption. However, sugar consumption altered the gut microbiome independently of anthropometric measures and caloric intake. At the genus level, Prevotella [linear discriminant analysis (LDA) score = -4.62; P < 0.001] and Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis (LDA score = -3.01; P = 0.03) were reduced, whereas Bacteroides (LDA score = 4.19; P < 0.001), Alistipes (LDA score = 3.88; P < 0.001), Lactobacillus (LDA score = 3.78; P < 0.001), Clostridium sensu stricto (LDA score = 3.77; P < 0.001), Bifidobacteriaceae (LDA score = 3.59; P = 0.001), and Parasutterella (LDA score = 3.79; P = 0.004) were elevated by sugar consumption. No overall pattern could be attributable to monosaccharide ratio.
CONCLUSIONS: Early-life sugar consumption affects the gut microbiome in rats independently of caloric intake, body weight, or adiposity index; these effects are robust across a range of fructose-to-glucose ratios.
PMID: 27903830 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]