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2016 SNMMI Highlights Lecture: Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine.
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2016 SNMMI Highlights Lecture: Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine.

J Nucl Med. 2016 Dec;57(12):8N-14N

Authors: Tamaki N

PMID: 27909187 [PubMed - in process]




This Month in JNM.
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This Month in JNM.

J Nucl Med. 2016 Dec;57(12):7A

Authors:

PMID: 27909186 [PubMed - in process]




A Final Note from the Outgoing Editor-in-Chief.
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A Final Note from the Outgoing Editor-in-Chief.

J Nucl Med. 2016 Dec;57(12):20A

Authors: Delbeke D

PMID: 27909185 [PubMed - in process]




SNMMI Leadership Update: A Strong Springboard for the Future.
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SNMMI Leadership Update: A Strong Springboard for the Future.

J Nucl Med. 2016 Dec;57(12):19N

Authors: Pappas V

PMID: 27909184 [PubMed - in process]




In Memoriam: Robert W. Frelick, MD, 1920-2016.
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In Memoriam: Robert W. Frelick, MD, 1920-2016.

J Nucl Med. 2016 Dec;57(12):18N

Authors:

PMID: 27909183 [PubMed - in process]




2016 Update of the North American Consensus Guidelines for Pediatric Administered Radiopharmaceutical Activities.
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2016 Update of the North American Consensus Guidelines for Pediatric Administered Radiopharmaceutical Activities.

J Nucl Med. 2016 Dec;57(12):15N-18N

Authors: Treves ST, Gelfand MJ, Fahey FH, Parisi MT

PMID: 27909182 [PubMed - in process]




Emergency Radiology COFFEE Case Book: Case-Oriented Fast Focused Effective Education.
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Emergency Radiology COFFEE Case Book: Case-Oriented Fast Focused Effective Education.

J Nucl Med. 2016 Dec;57(12):2027

Authors: Kim EE

PMID: 27909181 [PubMed - in process]




13N-ammonia PET/CT detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in Beagle dogs after local heart irradiation.
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13N-ammonia PET/CT detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in Beagle dogs after local heart irradiation.

J Nucl Med. 2016 Dec 1;:

Authors: Song J, Yan R, Wu Z, Li J, Yan M, Hao X, Liu J, Li S

Abstract
To determine the potential value of (13)N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for detection of myocardial perfusion changes at early stage induced by radiation damage.
METHODS: Thirty-six Beagle dogs were randomly divided into the control (n = 18) or the irradiation groups (n = 18). The irradiation group underwent local irradiation to the left ventricular anterior cardiac wall with a single dose of 20 Gy, whereas the control group received sham irradiation. All dogs underwent (13)N-ammonia PET/CT MPI one week before irradiation and at three, six, and twelve month after sham or local irradiation. One week after completing (13)N-ammonia PET/CT MPI examination, the irradiation group underwent coronary angiography examination. Six randomly selected Beagle dogs from each group were sacrificed and used to detect pathological cardiac injury at three, six, and twelve month after irradiation.
RESULTS: Compared with the control group and baseline, the irradiation group showed significantly increased perfusion in the irradiated area of the heart at three month after irradiation, perfusion reduction at six month after irradiation, and perfusion defect at twelve month after irradiation. There was no significant difference in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) values between the control and irradiation groups at baseline and at three month after irradiation. The irradiation group showed a reduction of LVEF compared with the control group at six (50.0 ± 8.1% vs. 59.3 ± 4.1%, P = 0.016) and twelve month (47.2 ± 6.7% vs. 57.4 ± 3.3%, P = 0.002) after irradiation. No coronary stenosis was observed in the irradiation group. Regional wall motion abnormalities appeared in the irradiated area at six month after irradiation and its extent was enlarged at twelve month after irradiation. Pathological changes were observed, radiation-induced myocardial tissue damage and microvascular fibrosis was progressively increased with time prolonged in the irradiated area.
CONCLUSION: (13)N-ammonia PET/CT MPI can dynamically detect myocardial perfusion changes together with global and regional left ventricular dysfunction induced by irradiation and may be a valuable method for monitoring radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD).

PMID: 27908971 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Non-invasive Imaging of Colitis using Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography.
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Non-invasive Imaging of Colitis using Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography.

J Nucl Med. 2016 Dec 1;:

Authors: Bhutiani N, Grizzle WE, Galandiuk S, Otali D, Dryden GW, Egilmez NK, McNally LR

Abstract
Currently, several non-invasive modalities, including MRI and PET, are being investigated to identify early intestinal inflammation, longitudinally monitor disease status, or detect dysplastic changes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, we assess the applicability and utility of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) in evaluating the presence and severity of colitis. Mice with bacterial colitis demonstrated a temporally associated increase in mesenteric and colonic vascularity with an increase in mean signal intensity of oxygenated hemoglobin (p=0.004) by MSOT two days after inoculation. These findings were significantly more prominent 7 days after inoculation, with increased mean signal intensity of oxygenated hemoglobin (p=0.0002) and the development of punctate vascular lesions on the colonic surface, which corresponded to changes observed on colonoscopy as well as histology. With improvements in depth of tissue penetration, MSOT may hold potential as a sensitive, accurate, non-invasive imaging tool in evaluation of patients with IBD.

PMID: 27908970 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Synthesis and Evaluation of the new Estrogen Receptor β selective radioligand [18F]FHNP: Comparison with [18F]FES.
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Synthesis and Evaluation of the new Estrogen Receptor β selective radioligand [18F]FHNP: Comparison with [18F]FES.

J Nucl Med. 2016 Dec 1;:

Authors: F Antunes I, Waarde AV, Dierckx RA, de Vries EG, Hospers GA, de Vries EF

Abstract
Estrogen receptors (ER) are targets for endocrine treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. The ER consists of 2 isoforms, ERα and ERβ, which have distinct biological functions. While activation of ERα stimulates cell proliferation and cell survival, ERβ promotes apoptosis. Positron emission tomography (PET) of ERα and ERβ levels could provide more insight in response to hormonal treatment. 16α-(18)F-Fluoro-17β-estradiol ((18)F-FES) is a PET tracer for ER with relative selectivity for ERα. Here we report the synthesis and evaluation of a potential ERβ-selective PET tracer: 2-(18)F-fluoro-6-(6-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)pyridin-3-ol ((18)F-FHNP).
METHODS: (18)F-FHNP was synthesized by fluorination of the corresponding nitro precursor, followed by acidic removal of the 2-methoxyethoxymethyl protecting group. In-vitro affinity of (18)F-FHNP and (18)F-FES for ER was evaluated in SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cell. PET imaging and ex-vivo biodistribution studies with (18)F-FHNP and (18)F-FES were conducted in athymic nude mice bearing a SKOV3 xenograft.
RESULTS: FHNP has nanomolar afffinty for ERs, with a 3.5 times higher affinity for ERβ. (18)F-FHNP was obtained in 15-40% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) with a specific activity of 279±75 GBq/µmol. (18)F-FHNP had a KD of 2 nM and Bmax of 18 fmol/106 cells, while (18)F-FES had a KD of 3 nM and Bmax 83 fmol/106 SKOV3 cells. Both (18)F-FHNP and (18)F-FES PET could clearly visualize the tumor in male mice bearing a SKOV3 xenograft. Biodistribution studies showed similar distribution of (18)F-FHNP and (18)F-FES in most peripheral organs. (18)F-FES showed 2-fold higher tumor uptake than (18)F-FHNP. The tumor-to-plasma ratio of (18)F-FES decreased 55% (P = 0.024) and 8% (P = 0.68) when administered in the presence of estradiol (non-selective) and genistein (ERβ-selective), respectively. The tumor-to-plasma ratio of (18)F-FHNP decreased 47% (P = 0.004) and 70% (P = 0.0009) when administered with estradiol and genistein, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The new PET tracer (18)F-FHNP has suitable properties for imaging and shows relative selectivity for ERβ.

PMID: 27908969 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




PSA-stratified performance of 18F- and 68Ga-labeled tracers in PSMA-PET imaging of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer.
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PSA-stratified performance of 18F- and 68Ga-labeled tracers in PSMA-PET imaging of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer.

J Nucl Med. 2016 Dec 1;:

Authors: Dietlein F, Kobe C, Neubauer S, Schmidt M, Stockter S, Fischer T, Schomäcker K, Heidenreich A, Zlatopolskiy BD, Neumaier B, Drzezga A, Dietlein M

Abstract
PURPOSE: Several studies outlined the sensitivity of (68)Ga-labeled PET tracers against the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) for localization of relapsed prostate cancer in patients with renewed increase in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA), commonly referred to as biochemical recurrence. Labeling of PSMA tracers with (18)F offers numerous advantages, including improved image resolution, longer half-life and increased production yields. The aim of this study was to assess the PSA-stratified performance of the (18)F-labeled PSMA tracer (18)F-DCFPyL and the (68)Ga-labeled reference (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC.
METHODS: We examined 191 consecutive patients with biochemical recurrence according to standard acquisition protocols with (18)F-DCFPyL (N = 62, 269.8 MBq, PET scan at 120 minutes p.i.) or (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC (N = 129, 158.9 MBq, 60 minutes p.i.). We determined PSA-stratified sensitivity rates for both tracers and corrected our calculations for Gleason scores using iterative matched-pair analyses. As an orthogonal validation, we directly compared tracer distribution patterns in a separate cohort of 25 patients, sequentially examined with both tracers.
RESULTS: After prostatectomy (N = 106), the sensitivity of both tracers was significantly associated with absolute PSA levels (P = 4.3x10-3). Sensitivity increased abruptly, when PSA values exceeded 0.5µg/L (P = 2.4x10-5). For PSA <3.5µg/L, most relapses were diagnosed at a still limited stage (P = 3.4x10-6). For PSA of 0.5-3.5µg/L, PSA-stratified sensitivity was 88% (15/17) for (18)F-DCFPyL and 66% (23/35) for (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC. This significant difference was preserved in the Gleason-matched-pair analysis. Outside of this range, sensitivity was comparably low (PSA <0.5µg/L) or high (PSA >3.5µg/L). After radiotherapy (N = 85), tracer sensitivity was largely PSA-independent. In the 25 patients examined with both tracers, distribution patterns of (18)F-DCFPyL and (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC were strongly comparable (P = 2.71x10-8). However, in 36% of the PSMA-positive patients we detected additional lesions on the (18)F-DCFPyL scan (P = 3.7x10-2).
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that (18)F-DCFPyL is non-inferior to (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC, while offering the advantages of (18)F-labeling. Our results indicate that imaging with (18)F-DCFPyL may even exhibit improved sensitivity in localizing relapsed tumors after prostatectomy for moderately increased PSA levels. Although the standard acquisition protocols, used for (18)F-DCFPyL and (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC in this study, stipulate different activity doses and tracer uptake times after injection, our findings provide a promising rationale for validation of (18)F-DCFPyL in future prospective trials.

PMID: 27908968 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Kinetic Modeling of the Tau PET Tracer 18F-AV-1451 in Human Healthy Volunteers and Alzheimer's Disease Subjects.
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Kinetic Modeling of the Tau PET Tracer 18F-AV-1451 in Human Healthy Volunteers and Alzheimer's Disease Subjects.

J Nucl Med. 2016 Dec 1;:

Authors: Barret O, Alagille D, Sanabria S, Comley RA, Weimer RM, Borroni E, Mintun M, Seneca N, Papin C, Morley T, Marek K, Seibyl JP, Tamagnan GD, Jennings D

Abstract
(18)F-AV-1451 is currently the most widely used of several experimental tau PET tracers. The objective of this study was to evaluate (18)F-AV-1451 binding with full kinetic analysis using a metabolite corrected arterial input function, and to compare parameters derived from kinetic analysis with standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) calculated over different imaging time intervals.
METHODS: (18)F-AV-1451 PET brain imaging was completed in 16 subjects: 4 young healthy volunteers (YHV), 4 aged healthy volunteers (AHV) and 8 Alzheimer's disease subjects (AD). Subjects were imaged for 3.5 hours, with arterial blood samples obtained throughout. PET data were analyzed using plasma and reference-tissue-based methods to estimate the distribution volume (VT), the binding potential (BPND) and SUVR. BPND and SUVR were calculated using cerebellar cortex as reference region and were compared across the different methods and across the three groups (YHV, AHV and AD).
RESULTS: AD demonstrated increased (18)F-AV-1451 retention compared to HV based on both invasive and non-invasive analyses in cortical regions where paired helical filaments (PHF) tau accumulation is expected in AD. A correlation of R2>0.93 was found between BPND (130 min) and SUVR-1 at all time intervals. Cortical SUVR curves reached a relative plateau around 1.0-1.2 for YHV and AHV by ~50 min, but increased in AD by up to ~20% at 110-130 min and ~30% at 160-180min relative to 80-100min. VT (130 min) was lower by 30-35% in the YHV compared to AHV.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that although (18)F-AV-1451 SUVR curves do not reach a plateau and are still increasing in AD, an SUVR calculated over imaging window of 80-100 min (as currently used in clinical studies) provides estimates of PHF tau burden in good correlation with BPND, while SUVR sensitivity to regional cerebral blood changes needs further investigation.

PMID: 27908967 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Prudence required when using 18F-FDG PET as reference standard for lymphoma detection.
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Prudence required when using 18F-FDG PET as reference standard for lymphoma detection.

J Nucl Med. 2016 Dec 1;:

Authors: Adams HJ, Kwee TC

PMID: 27908966 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]