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Cognitive Deficits in Prematurely Born Adults Are Associated With Reduced Basal Forebrain Integrity.
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Cognitive Deficits in Prematurely Born Adults Are Associated With Reduced Basal Forebrain Integrity.

Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Jul 15;82(2):e15-e16

Authors: Balu DT

PMID: 28645360 [PubMed - in process]




A Fragile Balance: Dendritic Spines, Learning, and Memory.
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A Fragile Balance: Dendritic Spines, Learning, and Memory.

Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Jul 15;82(2):e11-e13

Authors: McCann RF, Ross DA

PMID: 28645359 [PubMed - in process]




A Placenta-Specific Genetic Manipulation Reprograms Offspring Brain Development and Function.
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A Placenta-Specific Genetic Manipulation Reprograms Offspring Brain Development and Function.

Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Jul 15;82(2):81-82

Authors: Bonnin A

PMID: 28645358 [PubMed - in process]




Appreciating the Population-wide Impact of Copy Number Variants on Cognition.
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Appreciating the Population-wide Impact of Copy Number Variants on Cognition.

Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Jul 15;82(2):78-80

Authors: An JY, Sanders SJ

PMID: 28645357 [PubMed - in process]




Stress and Loss of Adult Neurogenesis Differentially Reduce Hippocampal Volume.
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Stress and Loss of Adult Neurogenesis Differentially Reduce Hippocampal Volume.

Biol Psychiatry. 2017 May 22;:

Authors: Schoenfeld TJ, McCausland HC, Morris HD, Padmanaban V, Cameron HA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal volume loss is a hallmark of clinical depression. Chronic stress produces volume loss in the hippocampus in humans and atrophy of CA3 pyramidal cells and suppression of adult neurogenesis in rodents.
METHODS: To investigate the relationship between decreased adult neurogenesis and stress-induced changes in hippocampal structure and volume, we compared the effects of chronic unpredictable restraint stress and inhibition of neurogenesis in a rat pharmacogenetic model.
RESULTS: Chronic unpredictable restraint stress over 4 weeks decreased total hippocampal volume, reflecting loss of volume in all hippocampal subfields and in both dorsal and ventral hippocampus. In contrast, complete inhibition of adult neurogenesis for 4 weeks led to volume reduction only in the dentate gyrus. With prolonged inhibition of neurogenesis for 8 or 16 weeks, volume loss spread to the CA3 region, but not CA1. Combining stress and inhibition of adult neurogenesis did not have additive effects on the magnitude of volume loss but did produce a volume reduction throughout the hippocampus. One month of chronic unpredictable restraint stress and inhibition of adult neurogenesis led to atrophy of pyramidal cell apical dendrites in dorsal CA3 and to neuronal reorganization in ventral CA3. Stress also significantly affected granule cell dendrites.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that adult neurogenesis is required to maintain hippocampal volume but is not responsible for stress-induced volume loss.

PMID: 28629541 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Kinetics and Dose Dependency of Intranasal Oxytocin Effects on Amygdala Reactivity.
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Kinetics and Dose Dependency of Intranasal Oxytocin Effects on Amygdala Reactivity.

Biol Psychiatry. 2017 May 10;:

Authors: Spengler FB, Schultz J, Scheele D, Essel M, Maier W, Heinrichs M, Hurlemann R

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Current neuroimaging perspectives on a variety of mental disorders emphasize dysfunction of the amygdala. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT), a key mediator in the regulation of social cognition and behavior, accumulates in cerebrospinal fluid after intranasal administration in macaques and humans and modulates amygdala reactivity in both species. However, the translation of neuromodulatory OXT effects to novel treatment approaches is hampered by the absence of studies defining the most effective dose and dose-response latency for targeting the amygdala.
METHODS: To address this highly relevant issue, a total of 116 healthy men underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study design. The experimental rationale was to systematically vary dose-test latencies (15-40, 45-70, and 75-100 minutes) and doses of OXT (12, 24, and 48 international units) in order to identify the most robust effects on amygdala reactivity. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects completed an emotional face recognition task including stimuli with varying intensities ranging from low (highly ambiguous) to high (less ambiguous).
RESULTS: Our results indicate that the OXT-induced inhibition of amygdala responses to fear was most effective in a time window between 45 and 70 minutes after administration of a dose of 24 international units. Furthermore, the observed effect was most evident in subjects scoring high on measures of autistic-like traits. Behavioral response patterns suggest that OXT specifically reduced an emotional bias in the perception of ambiguous faces.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide initial evidence of the most effective dose and dose-test interval for future experimental or therapeutic regimens aimed at targeting amygdala functioning using intranasal OXT administration.

PMID: 28629540 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Opposing Roles of Rapid Dopamine Signaling Across the Rostral-Caudal Axis of the Nucleus Accumbens Shell in Drug-Induced Negative Affect.
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Opposing Roles of Rapid Dopamine Signaling Across the Rostral-Caudal Axis of the Nucleus Accumbens Shell in Drug-Induced Negative Affect.

Biol Psychiatry. 2017 May 11;:

Authors: Hurley SW, West EA, Carelli RM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Negative reinforcement theories of drug addiction posit that addicts use drugs to alleviate negative mood states. In a preclinical model developed in our laboratory, rats exhibit negative affect to a normally rewarding taste cue when it predicts impending but delayed cocaine. The emergence of this state is accompanied by a reduction in dopamine concentration in the rostral nucleus accumbens shell. However, the rostral and caudal regions of the shell have been implicated in promoting opposing appetitive and aversive states, respectively. Here, we tested whether dopamine transmission along the rostral-caudal axis of the shell plays differential roles in the emergence of drug-induced negative affect.
METHODS: In TH::Cre rats, the dopaminergic pathways from the ventral tegmental area to the rostral and caudal regions of the shell were optogenetically stimulated during intraoral delivery of a taste cue signaling delayed cocaine. Affective responses to the taste cue were measured using taste reactivity, and optical self-stimulation of the rostral and caudal shells was also examined.
RESULTS: Optical stimulation of the rostral shell during tastant infusion prevented the emergence of negative affect, but activation of the caudal shell exacerbated aversive responses. These effects endured in the absence of optical stimulation, and the degree of negative affect in our model predicted self-stimulation responding.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal unprecedented, pronounced, and opposing roles of rapid dopamine signaling across the rostral-caudal axis of the nucleus accumbens in the control of drug-induced negative affect, a hallmark of continued drug seeking and use in human addicts.

PMID: 28624112 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Computational Psychosomatics and Computational Psychiatry: Toward a Joint Framework for Differential Diagnosis.
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Computational Psychosomatics and Computational Psychiatry: Toward a Joint Framework for Differential Diagnosis.

Biol Psychiatry. 2017 May 25;:

Authors: Petzschner FH, Weber LAE, Gard T, Stephan KE

Abstract
This article outlines how a core concept from theories of homeostasis and cybernetics, the inference-control loop, may be used to guide differential diagnosis in computational psychiatry and computational psychosomatics. In particular, we discuss 1) how conceptualizing perception and action as inference-control loops yields a joint computational perspective on brain-world and brain-body interactions and 2) how the concrete formulation of this loop as a hierarchical Bayesian model points to key computational quantities that inform a taxonomy of potential disease mechanisms. We consider the utility of this perspective for differential diagnosis in concrete clinical applications.

PMID: 28619481 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Characterization of Psychosis Spectrum and Future Directions.
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22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Characterization of Psychosis Spectrum and Future Directions.

Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Jul 01;82(1):e5-e7

Authors: Radoeva PD

PMID: 28619254 [PubMed - in process]




The N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor: Memory, Madness, and More.
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The N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor: Memory, Madness, and More.

Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Jul 01;82(1):e1-e3

Authors: Ramirez A, Arbuckle MR

PMID: 28619253 [PubMed - in process]




ZNF804A: Insights From the First Genome-wide Significant Schizophrenia Gene.
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ZNF804A: Insights From the First Genome-wide Significant Schizophrenia Gene.

Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Jul 01;82(1):6-7

Authors: Harrison PJ

PMID: 28619252 [PubMed - in process]




Increases of Calbindin-Containing Chandelier Cartridges in Schizophrenia: Fact or Artifact?
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Increases of Calbindin-Containing Chandelier Cartridges in Schizophrenia: Fact or Artifact?

Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Jul 01;82(1):4-5

Authors: Benes FM

PMID: 28619251 [PubMed - in process]




Biotypes: Promise and Pitfalls.
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Biotypes: Promise and Pitfalls.

Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Jul 01;82(1):2-3

Authors: Barch DM

PMID: 28619250 [PubMed - in process]