A brief summary of the articles appearing in this issue of Biological Psychiatry.
Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Mar 01;81(5):379
PMID: 28328411 [PubMed - in process]
Late-life Depression, Hippocampal Volumes, and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Regulation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Jan 27;:
Authors: Geerlings MI, Gerritsen L
BACKGROUND: We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed the association of late-life depression (LLD) with hippocampal volume (HCV) and total brain volume (TBV), and of cortisol levels with HCV, including subgroup analyses of depression characteristics and methodological aspects.
METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase for original studies that examined the cross-sectional relationship between LLD and HCV or TBV, and 46 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Standardized mean differences (Hedges' g) between LLD and control subjects were calculated from crude or adjusted brain volumes using random effects. Standardized Fisher transformations of the correlations between cortisol levels and HCVs were calculated using random effects.
RESULTS: We included 2702 LLD patients and 11,165 control subjects from 35 studies examining HCV. Relative to control subjects, patients had significantly smaller HCVs (standardized mean difference = -0.32 [95% confidence interval, -0.44 to -0.19]). Subgroup analyses showed that late-onset depression was more strongly associated with HCV than early-onset depression. In addition, effect sizes were larger for case-control studies, studies with lower quality, and studies with small sample size, and were almost absent in cohort studies and studies with larger sample sizes. For TBV, 2523 patients and 7880 control subjects from 31 studies were included. The standardized mean difference in TBV between LLD and control subjects was -0.10 (95% confidence interval, -0.16 to -0.04). Of the 12 studies included, higher levels of cortisol were associated with smaller HCV (correlation = -0.11 [95% confidence interval, -0.18 to -0.04]).
CONCLUSIONS: While an overall measure of LLD may be associated with smaller HCVs, differentiating clinical aspects of LLD and examining methodological issues show that this relationship is not straightforward.
PMID: 28318491 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
What's the Buzz About Hydroxynorketamine? Is It the History, the Story, the Debate, or the Promise?
Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Apr 15;81(8):e61-e63
Authors: Abdallah CG
PMID: 28317551 [PubMed - in process]
The Nature of Nurture: How Developmental Experiences Program Adult Stress Circuitry.
Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Apr 15;81(8):e57-e59
Authors: Dwyer JB, Ross DA
PMID: 28317550 [PubMed - in process]
Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Apr 15;81(8):728
PMID: 28317549 [PubMed - in process]
Sex and Orexins: Uncovering a Mechanism Underlying Sex Differences in Stress Susceptibility.
Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Apr 15;81(8):642-644
Authors: Holmes A
PMID: 28317548 [PubMed - in process]
Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases: A Role for Mood Disorders and the Emotional Component of Pain?
Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Apr 15;81(8):639-641
Authors: Rupprecht R, Di Benedetto B
PMID: 28317547 [PubMed - in process]
D1 and D2 Type Medium Spiny Neuron Contributions to Depression.
Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Apr 15;81(8):636-638
Authors: Peña CJ
PMID: 28317546 [PubMed - in process]
Reversing the Atypical Valuation of Drug and Nondrug Rewards in Smokers Using Multimodal Neuroimaging.
Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Jan 27;:
Authors: Baker TE, Lesperance P, Tucholka A, Potvin S, Larcher K, Zhang Y, Jutras-Aswad D, Conrod P
BACKGROUND: Chronic substance use can disrupt the reward function of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), biasing the ACC to favor goal-directed behaviors that converge on drug use. Here we used multimodal neuroimaging methods to ask whether modulating reward-related signaling in the ACC can reverse the atypical valuation of nondrug and drug rewards in abstinent smokers.
METHODS: We first recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 20 moderately dependent cigarette smokers (mean age = 25 years; no history of neuropsychiatric disorders), following an overnight period of abstinence, to identify regions of the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex associated with the anticipation of drug-related rewards (cigarette puff). Next, we recorded the reward positivity-an electrophysiological signal believed to index sensitivity of the ACC to rewards-while participants engaged in two feedback tasks to gain either monetary or cigarette rewards. Lastly, guided by functional magnetic resonance imaging data, a robotic arm positioned a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation coil over a subject-specific dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex target, and 50 repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation pulses were delivered at 10 Hz (excitatory stimulation) immediately before each block of 10 trials of the money condition and at 1 Hz (inhibitory stimulation) before each block of 10 trials of the cigarette condition.
RESULTS: Our findings show that abstained smokers exhibited a heightened reward positivity to cigarette rewards relative to monetary rewards, and by applying excitatory or inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to a subject-specific frontal-cingulate reward pathway, this pattern of results was reversed.
CONCLUSIONS: By modulating how the brain links value to drug and nondrug rewards, novel brain-based treatments may finally be on the horizon.
PMID: 28314439 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]