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Controlled release for crop and wood protection: Recent progress toward sustainable and safe nanostructured biocidal systems.
Related Articles

Controlled release for crop and wood protection: Recent progress toward sustainable and safe nanostructured biocidal systems.

J Control Release. 2017 Jul 21;:

Authors: Mattos BD, Tardy BL, Magalhães WLE, Rojas OJ

Abstract
We review biocide delivery systems (BDS), which are designed to deter or control harmful organisms that damage agricultural crops, forests and forest products. This is a timely topic, given the growing socio-economical concerns that have motivated major developments in sustainable BDS. Associated designs aim at improving or replacing traditional systems, which often consist of biocides with extreme behavior as far as their solubility in water. This includes those that compromise or pollute soil and water (highly soluble or volatile biocides) or those that present low bioavailability (poorly soluble biocides). Major breakthroughs are sought to mitigate or eliminate consequential environmental and health impacts in agriculture and silviculture. Here, we consider the most important BDS vehicles or carriers, their synthesis, the environmental impact of their constituents and interactions with the active components together with the factors that affect their rates of release such as environmental factors and interaction of BDS with the crops or forest products. We put in perspective the state-of-the-art nanostructured carriers for controlled release, which need to address many of the challenges that exist in the application of BDS.

PMID: 28739450 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Strategies to enhance the distribution of nanotherapeutics in the brain.
Related Articles

Strategies to enhance the distribution of nanotherapeutics in the brain.

J Control Release. 2017 Jul 21;:

Authors: Zhang C, Mastorakos P, Sobral M, Berry S, Song E, Nance E, Eberhart CG, Hanes J, Suk JS

Abstract
Convection enhanced delivery (CED) provides a powerful means to bypass the blood-brain barrier and drive widespread distribution of therapeutics in brain parenchyma away from the point of local administration. However, recent studies have detailed that the overall distribution of therapeutic nanoparticles (NP) following CED remains poor, due to tissue inhomogeneity and anatomical barriers present in the brain, which has limited its translational applicability. Using probe NP, we first demonstrate that a significantly improved brain distribution is achieved by infusing small, non-adhesive NP via CED in a hyperosmolar infusate solution. This multimodal delivery strategy minimizes the hindrance of NP diffusion imposed by the brain extracellular matrix and reduces NP confinement within the perivascular spaces. We further recapitulate the distributions achieved by CED of this probe NP using a most widely explored biodegradable polymer-based drug delivery NP. These findings provide a strategy to overcome several key limitations of CED that have been previously observed in clinical trials.

PMID: 28739449 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]