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pubmed: 0196-0644



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Characteristics of Pediatric Emergency Revisits After an Asthma-Related Hospitalization.
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Characteristics of Pediatric Emergency Revisits After an Asthma-Related Hospitalization.

Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Mar 14;:

Authors: Johnson LH, Beck AF, Kahn RS, Huang B, Ryan PH, Olano KK, Auger KA

Abstract
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We identify and characterize factors related to subsequent emergency revisits among children hospitalized for asthma.
METHODS: This population-based, prospective, observational cohort included children aged 2 to 16 years, hospitalized for asthma at an urban pediatric facility and followed for greater than or equal to 12 months. The primary outcome was asthma-related emergency revisit within 12 months of discharge. Revisits were identified by billing codes, respiratory chief complaints, and medications administered (eg, albuterol, systemic corticosteroids), dispensed, or prescribed. Predictors and covariates include demographic, socioeconomic, access, and environmental exposure variables collected during index admission. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between predictors and odds of asthma-related revisit.
RESULTS: A total of 671 children were enrolled; the majority were boys (65%), aged 4 to 11 years (59%), black (59%), and publicly insured (73%). There were 274 patients (41%) who were treated for asthma-related emergency revisits within 12 months of the index admission. In adjusted models, younger children, black children, children with excellent reported access to primary care, and children with a history of inhaled steroids were more likely to experience emergency revisits. Low income, detectable cotinine levels, and traffic exposure did not independently predict revisit.
CONCLUSION: Asthma-related emergency revisit is common after hospitalization, with more than 40% of children returning within 12 months. Socioeconomic and exposure-related risk factors typically predictive of asthma morbidity were not independently associated with emergency revisit among children in this cohort.

PMID: 28302425 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




External Validation of the Universal Termination of Resuscitation Rule for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in British Columbia.
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External Validation of the Universal Termination of Resuscitation Rule for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in British Columbia.

Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Mar 14;:

Authors: Grunau B, Taylor J, Scheuermeyer FX, Stenstrom R, Dick W, Kawano T, Barbic D, Drennan I, Christenson J

Abstract
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The Universal Termination of Resuscitation Rule (TOR Rule) was developed to identify out-of-hospital cardiac arrests eligible for field termination of resuscitation, avoiding futile transportation to the hospital. The validity of the rule in emergency medical services (EMS) systems that do not routinely transport out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients to the hospital is unknown. We seek to validate the TOR Rule in British Columbia.
METHODS: This study included consecutive, nontraumatic, adult, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests treated by EMS in British Columbia from April 2011 to September 2015. We excluded patients with active do-not-resuscitate orders and those with missing data. Following consensus guidelines, we examined the validity of the TOR Rule after 6 minutes of resuscitation (to approximate three 2-minute cycles of resuscitation). To ascertain rule performance at the different time junctures, we recalculated TOR Rule classification accuracy at subsequent 1-minute resuscitation increments.
RESULTS: Of 6,994 consecutive, adult, EMS-treated, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, overall survival was 15%. At 6 minutes of resuscitation, rule performance was sensitivity 0.72, specificity 0.91, positive predictive value 0.98, and negative predictive value 0.36. The TOR Rule recommended care termination for 4,367 patients (62%); of these, 92 survived to hospital discharge (false-positive rate 2.1%; 95% confidence interval 1.7% to 2.5%); however, this proportion steadily decreased with later application. The TOR Rule recommended continuation of resuscitation in 2,627 patients (38%); of these, 1,674 died (false-negative rate 64%; 95% confidence interval 62% to 66%). Compared with 6-minute application, test characteristics at 30 minutes demonstrated nearly perfect positive predictive value (1.0) and specificity (1.0) but a lower sensitivity (0.46) and negative predictive value (0.25).
CONCLUSION: In this cohort of adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients, the TOR Rule applied at 6 minutes falsely recommended care termination for 2.1% of patients; however, this decreased with later application. Systems using the TOR Rule to cease resuscitation in the field should consider rule application at points later than 6 minutes.

PMID: 28302424 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




What Is the Utility of Ultrasonography for the Identification of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in the Emergency Department?
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What Is the Utility of Ultrasonography for the Identification of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in the Emergency Department?

Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Mar 14;:

Authors: Gottlieb M, Pandurangadu AV

PMID: 28302423 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Paramedic Assessment of Older Adults After Falls, Including Community Care Referral Pathway: Cluster Randomized Trial.
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Paramedic Assessment of Older Adults After Falls, Including Community Care Referral Pathway: Cluster Randomized Trial.

Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Mar 13;:

Authors: Snooks HA, Anthony R, Chatters R, Dale J, Fothergill RT, Gaze S, Halter M, Humphreys I, Koniotou M, Logan P, Lyons RA, Mason S, Nicholl J, Peconi J, Phillips C, Porter A, Siriwardena AN, Wani M, Watkins A, Wilson L, Russell IT

Abstract
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine clinical and cost-effectiveness of a paramedic protocol for the care of older people who fall.
METHODS: We undertook a cluster randomized trial in 3 UK ambulance services between March 2011 and June 2012. We included patients aged 65 years or older after an emergency call for a fall, attended by paramedics based at trial stations. Intervention paramedics could refer the patient to a community-based falls service instead of transporting the patient to the emergency department. Control paramedics provided care as usual. The primary outcome was subsequent emergency contacts or death.
RESULTS: One hundred five paramedics based at 14 intervention stations attended 3,073 eligible patients; 110 paramedics based at 11 control stations attended 2,841 eligible patients. We analyzed primary outcomes for 2,391 intervention and 2,264 control patients. One third of patients made further emergency contacts or died within 1 month, and two thirds within 6 months, with no difference between groups. Subsequent 999 call rates within 6 months were lower in the intervention arm (0.0125 versus 0.0172; adjusted difference -0.0045; 95% confidence interval -0.0073 to -0.0017). Intervention paramedics referred 8% of patients (204/2,420) to falls services and left fewer patients at the scene without any ongoing care. Intervention patients reported higher satisfaction with interpersonal aspects of care. There were no other differences between groups. Mean intervention cost was $23 per patient, with no difference in overall resource use between groups at 1 or 6 months.
CONCLUSION: A clinical protocol for paramedics reduced emergency ambulance calls for patients attended for a fall safely and at modest cost.

PMID: 28302422 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]