Elastic modulus and hydraulic permeability of MDCK monolayers.
J Biomech. 2017 Jan 20;:
Authors: Schulze KD, Zehnder SM, Urueña JM, Bhattacharjee T, Sawyer WG, Angelini TE
The critical role of cell mechanics in tissue health has led to the development of many in vitro methods that measure the elasticity of the cytoskeleton and whole cells, yet the connection between these local cell properties and bulk measurements of tissue mechanics remains unclear. To help bridge this gap, we have developed a monolayer indentation technique for measuring multi-cellular mechanics in vitro. Here, we measure the elasticity of cell monolayers and uncover the role of fluid permeability in these multi-cellular systems, finding that the resistance of fluid transport through cells controls their force-response at long times.
PMID: 28173919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The bending stiffness of shoes is beneficial to running energetics if it does not disturb the natural MTP joint flexion.
J Biomech. 2017 Jan 18;:
Authors: Oh K, Park S
A local minimum for running energetics has been reported for a specific bending stiffness, implying that shoe stiffness assists in running propulsion. However, the determinant of the metabolic optimum remains unknown. Highly stiff shoes significantly increase the moment arm of the ground reaction force (GRF) and reduce the leverage effect of joint torque at ground push-off. Inspired by previous findings, we hypothesized that the restriction of the natural metatarsophalangeal (MTP) flexion caused by stiffened shoes and the corresponding joint torque changes may reduce the benefit of shoe bending stiffness to running energetics. We proposed the critical stiffness, kcr, which is defined as the ratio of the MTP joint (MTPJ) torque to the maximal MTPJ flexion angle, as a possible threshold of the elastic benefit of shoe stiffness. 19 subjects participated in a running test while wearing insoles with five different bending stiffness levels. Joint angles, GRFs, and metabolic costs were measured and analyzed as functions of the shoe stiffness. No significant changes were found in the take-off velocity of the center of mass (CoM), but the horizontal ground push-offs were significantly reduced at different shoe stiffness levels, indicating that complementary changes in the lower-limb joint torques were introduced to maintain steady running. Slight increases in the ankle, knee, and hip joint angular impulses were observed at stiffness levels exceeding the critical stiffness, whereas the angular impulse at the MTPJ was significantly reduced. These results indicate that the shoe bending stiffness is beneficial to running energetics if it does not disturb the natural MTPJ flexion.
PMID: 28168959 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]