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Treatment of the Fixation Surface Improves Glenoid Prosthesis Longevity in vitro.
Related Articles

Treatment of the Fixation Surface Improves Glenoid Prosthesis Longevity in vitro.

J Biomech. 2017 Jul 22;:

Authors: Junaid S, Sanghavi S, Anglin C, Bull A, Emery R, Amis AA, Hansen U

Abstract
Many commercial cemented glenoid components claim superior fixation designs and increased survivability. However, both research and clinical studies have shown conflicting results and it is unclear whether these design variations do improve loosening rates. Part of the difficulty in investigating fixation failure is the inability to directly observe the fixation interface, a problem addressed in this study by using a novel experimental set-up. Cyclic loading-displacement tests were carried out on 60 custom-made glenoid prostheses implanted into a bone substitute. Design parameters investigated included treatment of the fixation surface of the component resulting in different levels of back-surface roughness, flat-back versus curved-back, keel versus peg and more versus less conforming implants. Visually-observed failure and ASTM-recommended rim-displacements were recorded throughout testing to investigate fixation failure and if rim displacement is an appropriate measure of loosening. Roughening the implant back (Ra>3µm) improved resistance to failure (P<0.005) by an order of magnitude with the rough and smooth groups failing at 8712±5584 cycles (mean±SD) and 1080±1197 cycles, respectively. All other design parameters had no statistically significant effect on the number of cycles to failure. All implants failed inferiorly and 95% (57/60) at the implant/cement interface. Rim-displacement correlated with visually observed failure. The most important effect was that of roughening the implant, which strengthened the polyethylene-cement interface. Rim-displacement can be used as an indicator of fixation failure, but the sensitivity was insufficient to capture subtle effects.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Basic Science Study, Biomechanical Analysis.

PMID: 28811043 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




The effect of fixed charge density and cartilage swelling on mechanics of knee joint cartilage during simulated gait.
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The effect of fixed charge density and cartilage swelling on mechanics of knee joint cartilage during simulated gait.

J Biomech. 2017 Jul 06;:

Authors: Räsänen LP, Tanska P, Zbýň Š, van Donkelaar CC, Trattnig S, Nieminen MT, Korhonen RK

Abstract
The effect of swelling of articular cartilage, caused by the fixed charge density (FCD) of proteoglycans, has not been demonstrated on knee joint mechanics during simulated walking before. In this study, the influence of the depth-wise variation of FCD was investigated on the internal collagen fibril strains and the mechanical response of the knee joint cartilage during gait using finite element (FE) analysis. The FCD distribution of tibial cartilage was implemented from sodium ((23)Na) MRI into a 3-D FE-model of the knee joint ("Healthy model"). For comparison, models with decreased FCD values were created according to the decrease in FCD associated with the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) ("Early OA" and "Advanced OA" models). In addition, a model without FCD was created ("No FCD" model). The effect of FCD was studied with five different collagen fibril network moduli of cartilage. Using the reference fibril network moduli, the decrease in FCD from "Healthy model" to "Early OA" and "Advanced OA" models resulted in increased axial strains (by +2 and +6%) and decreased fibril strains (by -3 and -13%) throughout the stance, respectively, calculated as mean values through cartilage depth in the tibiofemoral contact regions. Correspondingly, compared to the "Healthy model", the removal of the FCD altogether in "NoFCD model" resulted in increased mean axial strains by +16% and decreased mean fibril strains by -24%. This effect was amplified as the fibril network moduli were decreased by 80% from the reference. Then mean axial strains increased by +6, +19 and +49% and mean fibril strains decreased by -9, -20 and -32%, respectively. Our results suggest that the FCD in articular cartilage has influence on cartilage responses in the knee during walking. Furthermore, the FCD is suggested to have larger impact on cartilage function as the collagen network degenerates e.g. in OA.

PMID: 28807526 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Experimental and computational analysis of micromotions of an uncemented femoral knee implant using elastic and plastic bone material models.
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Experimental and computational analysis of micromotions of an uncemented femoral knee implant using elastic and plastic bone material models.

J Biomech. 2017 Jul 29;:

Authors: Berahmani S, Janssen D, Verdonschot N

Abstract
It is essential to calculate micromotions at the bone-implant interface of an uncemented femoral total knee replacement (TKR) using a reliable computational model. In the current study, experimental measurements of micromotions were compared with predicted micromotions by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) using two bone material models: linear elastic and post-yield material behavior, while an actual range of interference fit was simulated. The primary aim was to investigate whether a plasticity model is essential in order to calculate realistic micromotions. Additionally, experimental bone damage at the interface was compared with the FEA simulated range. TKR surgical cuts were applied to five cadaveric femora and micro- and clinical CT- scans of these un-implanted specimens were made to extract geometrical and material properties, respectively. Micromotions at the interface were measured using digital image correlation. Cadaver-specific FEA models were created based on the experimental set-up. The average experimental micromotion of all specimens was 53.1±42.3µm (mean±standard deviation (SD)), which was significantly higher than the micromotions predicted by both models, using either the plastic or elastic material model (26.5±23.9µm and 10.1±10.1µm, respectively; p-value<0.001 for both material models). The difference between the two material models was also significant (p-value<0.001). The predicted damage had a magnitude and distribution which was comparable to the experimental bone damage. We conclude that, although the plastic model could not fully predict the micro motions, it is more suitable for pre-clinical assessment of a press-fit TKR implant than using an elastic bone model.

PMID: 28807525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Peak linear and rotational acceleration magnitude and duration effects on maximum principal strain in the corpus callosum for sport impacts.
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Peak linear and rotational acceleration magnitude and duration effects on maximum principal strain in the corpus callosum for sport impacts.

J Biomech. 2017 Jul 25;:

Authors: Post A, Blaine Hoshizaki T, Gilchrist MD, Cusimano MD

Abstract
Concussion has been linked to the presence of injurious strains in the brain tissues. Research investigating severe brain injury has reported that strains in the brain may be affected by two parameters: magnitude of the acceleration, and duration of that acceleration. However, little is known how this relationship changes in terms of creating risk for brain injury for magnitudes and durations of acceleration common in sporting environments. This has particular implications for the understanding and prevention of concussive risk of injury in sporting environments. The purpose of this research was to examine the interaction between linear and rotational acceleration and duration on maximum principal strain in the brain tissues for loading conditions incurred in sporting environments. Linear and rotational acceleration loading curves of magnitudes and durations similar to those from impact in sport were used as input to the University College Brain Trauma Model and maximum principal strain (MPS) was measured for the different curves. The results demonstrated that magnitude and duration do have an effect on the strain incurred by the brain tissue. As the duration of the acceleration increases, the magnitude required to achieve strains reflecting a high risk of concussion decreases, with rotational acceleration becoming the dominant contributor. The magnitude required to attain a magnitude of MPS representing risk of brain injury was found to be as low as 2500rad/s(2) for impacts of 10-15ms; indicating that interventions to reduce the risk of concussion in sport must consider the duration of the event while reducing the magnitude of acceleration the head incurs.

PMID: 28807524 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]