Mechanical properties and composition of carotid and femoral atherosclerotic plaques: A comparative study.
J Biomech. 2016 Oct 6;:
Authors: Cunnane EM, Mulvihill JJ, Barrett HE, Hennessy MM, Kavanagh EG, Walsh MT
This study compares the mechanical properties of excised carotid and femoral human plaques and also develops a predictor of these properties based on plaque composition. Circumferential planar tension tests were performed on 24 carotid and 16 femoral plaque samples. Composition was characterised using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Stretch at failure, strength, and stiffness are significantly higher in the carotid group (P=.012, P<.001 and P=.002, respectively). The ratio of calcified to lipid plaque content demonstrates the strongest correlation with the stretch at failure and strength (R(2)=.285, P<.001 and R(2)=.347, P<.001). No composition based parameter correlates significantly with stiffness. The significantly different mechanical properties of the two groups aids in explaining the varying endovascular treatment outcomes clinically observed in these vessels. Furthermore, determining the ratio of calcified to lipid plaque content may be useful in predicting individual plaque mechanical response to endovascular treatment.
PMID: 27776741 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Estimating the gravity induced three dimensional deformation of the breast.
J Biomech. 2016 Oct 18;:
Authors: Mills C, Sanchez A, Scurr J
As human breast tissue is continuously deformed by gravity, it is difficult to identify the non-loaded neutral breast position from which to take measurements. To estimate the neutral nipple position, this study proposed a simple novel method to counteract the three dimensional effect of gravity on the breast using the buoyant forces from water and soybean oil (ρWATER = 994kgm(-3); ρOIL = 909kgm(-3)). Fourteen female participants with breast sizes ranging from 30 to 34in. under band and B to E cup size took part in this study. Each participant had their static gravity-loaded nipple position measured and their neutral nipple position estimated (as the midpoint between the nipple position during water and soybean oil immersion). Participants were asked to sit in each fluid and fully submerge their torso and breasts. The mean gravity-induced nipple displacements from the neutral nipple position were 15.3mm in the posterior direction, 7.4mm in the lateral direction, and 25.7mm in the inferior direction. Gravity had a significant (p < 0.05, r > 0.82) measurable effect on the static nipple position, particularly in the inferior and posterior directions. Furthermore the density difference between water and soybean oil produced a significant difference (p < 0.05, r = 0.72) in superior-inferior nipple position (5.6mm). These findings suggest that neglect of gravity-induced breast deformations may lead to errors when assessing breast position and its relationship to possible breast pain, and that water alone may not be sufficient to estimate the neutral nipple position.
PMID: 27776740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]