Multidirectional WSS disturbances in stenotic turbulent flows: A pre- and post-intervention study in an aortic coarctation.
J Biomech. 2016 Nov 28;:
Authors: Andersson M, Lantz J, Ebbers T, Karlsson M
Wall shear stress (WSS) disturbances are commonly expressed at sites of abnormal flow obstructions and may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of various vascular diseases. In laminar flows these disturbances have recently been assessed by the transverse wall shear stress (transWSS), which accounts for the WSS multidirectionality. Site-specific estimations of WSS disturbances in pulsatile transitional and turbulent type of flows are more challenging due to continuous and unpredictable changes in WSS behavior. In these complex flow settings, the transWSS may serve as a more comprehensive descriptor for assessing WSS disturbances of general nature compared to commonly used parameters. In this study large eddy simulations (LES) were used to investigate the transWSS properties in flows subjected to different pathological turbulent flow conditions, governed by a patient-specific model of an aortic coarctation pre and post balloon angioplasty. Results showed that regions of strong near-wall turbulence were collocated with regions of elevated transWSS and turbulent WSS, while in more transitional-like near-wall flow regions a closer resemblance was found between transWSS and low, and oscillatory WSS. Within the frame of this study, the transWSS parameter demonstrated a more multi-featured picture of WSS disturbances when exposed to different types of flow regimes, characteristics which were not depicted by the other parameters alone.
PMID: 27919417 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
A 3D model of the Achilles tendon to determine the mechanisms underlying nonuniform tendon displacements.
J Biomech. 2016 Nov 28;:
Authors: Handsfield GG, Inouye JM, Slane LC, Thelen DG, Miller GW, Blemker SS
The Achilles is the thickest tendon in the body and is the primary elastic energy-storing component during running. The form and function of the human Achilles is complex: twisted structure, intratendinous interactions, and differential motor control from the triceps surae muscles make Achilles behavior difficult to intuit. Recent in vivo imaging of the Achilles has revealed nonuniform displacement patterns that are not fully understood and may result from complex architecture and musculotendon interactions. In order to understand which features of the Achilles tendon give rise to the nonuniform deformations observed in vivo, we used computational modeling to predict the mechanical contributions from different features of the tendon. The aims of this study are to: (i) build a novel computational model of the Achilles tendon based on ultrashort echo time MRI, (ii) compare simulated displacements with published in vivo ultrasound measures of displacement, and (iii) use the model to elucidate the effects of tendon twisting, intratendon sliding, retrocalcaneal insertion, and differential muscle forces on tendon deformation. Intratendon sliding and differential muscle forces were found to be the largest factors contributing to displacement nonuniformity between tendon regions. Elimination of intratendon sliding or muscle forces reduced displacement nonuniformity by 96% and 85%, respectively, while elimination of tendon twist and the retrocalcaneal insertion reduced displacement nonuniformity by only 35% and 3%. These results suggest that changes in the complex internal structure of the tendon alter the interaction between muscle forces and tendon behavior and therefore may have important implications on muscle function during movement.
PMID: 27919416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]