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Phototherapy for Improvement of Performance and Exercise Recovery: Comparison of 3 Commercially Available Devices.
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Phototherapy for Improvement of Performance and Exercise Recovery: Comparison of 3 Commercially Available Devices.

J Athl Train. 2017 Mar 20;:

Authors: De Marchi T, Schmitt VM, Danúbia da Silva Fabro C, da Silva LL, Sene J, Tairova O, Salvador M

Abstract
CONTEXT:   Recent studies suggest the prophylactic use of low-powered laser/light has ergogenic effects on athletic performance and postactivity recovery. Manufacturers of high-powered lasers/light devices claim that these can produce the same clinical benefits with increased power and decreased irradiation time; however, research with high-powered lasers is lacking.
OBJECTIVE:   To evaluate the magnitude of observed phototherapeutic effects with 3 commercially available devices.
DESIGN:   Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.
SETTING:   Laboratory.
PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:   Forty healthy untrained male participants.
INTERVENTION(S):   Participants were randomized into 4 groups: placebo, high-powered continuous laser/light, low-powered continuous laser/light, or low-powered pulsed laser/light (comprising both lasers and light-emitting diodes). A single dose of 180 J or placebo was applied to the quadriceps.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):   Maximum voluntary contraction, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and creatine kinase (CK) activity from baseline to 96 hours after the eccentric exercise protocol.
RESULTS:   Maximum voluntary contraction was maintained in the low-powered pulsed laser/light group compared with placebo and high-powered continuous laser/light groups in all time points (P < .05). Low-powered pulsed laser/light demonstrated less DOMS than all groups at all time points (P < .05). High-powered continuous laser/light did not demonstrate any positive effects on maximum voluntary contraction, CK activity, or DOMS compared with any group at any time point. Creatine kinase activity was decreased in low-powered pulsed laser/light compared with placebo (P < .05) and high-powered continuous laser/light (P < .05) at all time points. High-powered continuous laser/light resulted in increased CK activity compared with placebo from 1 to 24 hours (P < .05).
CONCLUSIONS:   Low-powered pulsed laser/light demonstrated better results than either low-powered continuous laser/light or high-powered continuous laser/light in all outcome measures when compared with placebo. The increase in CK activity using the high-powered continuous laser/light compared with placebo warrants further research to investigate its effect on other factors related to muscle damage.

PMID: 28319422 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Bilateral Proprioceptive Evaluation in Individuals With Unilateral Chronic Ankle Instability.
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Bilateral Proprioceptive Evaluation in Individuals With Unilateral Chronic Ankle Instability.

J Athl Train. 2017 Mar 20;:

Authors: Sousa AS, Leite J, Costa B, Santos R

Abstract
CONTEXT: Despite extensive research on chronic ankle instability, the findings regarding proprioception have been conflicting and focused only on the injured limb. Also, the different components of proprioception have been evaluated in isolation.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bilateral ankle proprioception in individuals with unilateral ankle instability.
DESIGN: Cohort study.
SETTING: Research laboratory center in a university.
PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four individuals with a history of unilateral ankle sprain and chronic ankle instability (mechanical ankle instability group, n = 10; functional ankle instability [FAI] group, n = 14) and 20 controls.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Ankle active and passive joint-position sense, kinesthesia, and force sense.
RESULTS: We observed a significant interaction between the effects of limb and group for kinesthesia (F = 3.27, P = .049). Increased error values were observed in the injured limb of the FAI group compared with the control group (P = .031, Cohen d = 0.47). Differences were also evident for force sense (F = 9.31, P < .001): the FAI group demonstrated increased error versus the control group (injured limb: P < .001, Cohen d = 1.28; uninjured limb: P = .009, Cohen d = 0.89) and the mechanical ankle instability group (uninjured limb: P = .023, Cohen d = 0.76).
CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with unilateral FAI had increased error ipsilaterally (injured limb) for inversion movement detection (kinesthesia) and evertor force sense and increased error contralaterally (uninjured limb) for evertor force sense.

PMID: 28318316 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




The Epidemiology of Deltoid Ligament Sprains in 25 National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports, 2009-2010 Through 2014-2015 Academic Years.
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The Epidemiology of Deltoid Ligament Sprains in 25 National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports, 2009-2010 Through 2014-2015 Academic Years.

J Athl Train. 2017 Mar 20;:

Authors: Hibberd EE, Kopec TJ, Roos KG, Djoko A, Dompier TP, Kerr ZY

Abstract
CONTEXT: Deltoid ligament sprains among collegiate student-athletes have not been extensively investigated. Research regarding the mechanisms, participation-restriction time, and recurrence of deltoid ligament sprains in collegiate student-athletes is lacking.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of deltoid ligament sprains in 25 National Collegiate Athletic Association championship sports.
DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study.
SETTING: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): We analyzed deltoid ligament sprains recorded in the Injury Surveillance Program for the 2009-2010 through 2014-2015 academic years. Deltoid ligament sprain injury rates, rate ratios, and injury proportion ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported.
RESULTS: During the study period, 380 deltoid ligament sprains were reported, resulting in a combined injury rate of 0.79/10 000 athlete-exposures (AEs; 95% CI = 0.71, 0.87). Most deltoid ligament sprains occurred in practices (54.2%, n = 206). However, the competition injury rate was higher than the practice injury rate (rate ratio = 3.74; 95% CI = 3.06, 4.57). The highest deltoid ligament sprain rates were in women's gymnastics (2.30/10 000 AEs; 95% CI = 1.05, 3.55), men's soccer (1.73/10 000 AEs; 95% CI = 1.14, 2.32), women's soccer (1.61/10 000 AEs; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.09), and men's football (1.40/10 000 AEs; 95% CI = 1.18, 1.62). Nearly half of all deltoid ligament sprains (49.7%, n = 189) were due to player contact, and 39.5% (n = 150) were non-time-loss injuries (ie, participation restricted for less than 24 hours). Only 8.2% (n = 31) of deltoid ligament sprains were recurrent.
CONCLUSIONS: The highest deltoid ligament sprain rates were in women's gymnastics, men's and women's soccer, and men's football. However, the rate for women's gymnastics was imprecise (ie, the CI was wide), highlighting the need for further surveillance of deltoid ligament sprains in the sport. Most deltoid ligament sprains were due to player contact. Future researchers should assess interventions that may prevent deltoid ligament sprains.

PMID: 28318315 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Promising and Established Investigators' Experiences Participating in the National Athletic Trainers' Association Foundation Research Mentor Program (a).
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Promising and Established Investigators' Experiences Participating in the National Athletic Trainers' Association Foundation Research Mentor Program (a).

J Athl Train. 2017 Mar 20;:

Authors: Nottingham SL, Mazerolle SM, Barrett JL

Abstract
CONTEXT: Mentorship is a helpful resource for individuals who transition from doctoral student to tenure-track faculty member. The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) Research & Education Foundation offers a Research Mentor Program to provide mentorship to promising investigators, particularly as they work to establish independent lines of research.
OBJECTIVE: To gain the perspectives of promising and established investigators on their participation in the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program.
DESIGN: Qualitative, phenomenological research.
SETTING: Higher education institutions.
PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Seven promising investigators (5 women, 2 men) and 7 established investigators (2 women, 5 men), all of whom had completed the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We developed and piloted interview guides designed to gain participants' perspectives on their experiences participating in the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program. Semistructured telephone interviews were completed with each individual and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach, and saturation was obtained. Trustworthiness was established with the use of member checking, multiple-analyst triangulation, and data-source triangulation.
RESULTS: Three themes emerged from the interviews, including (1) motivation, (2) collaboration, and (3) resources. Participants were motivated to become involved because they saw the value of mentorship, and mentees desired guidance in their research. Participants believed that collaboration on a project contributed to a positive relationship, and they also desired additional program and professional resources to support novice faculty.
CONCLUSIONS: Promising and established investigators should be encouraged to engage in mentoring relationships to facilitate mentees' research agenda and professional development. The NATA Foundation and athletic training profession may consider providing additional resources for novice faculty, such as training on effective mentoring; grant writing and other research-related tasks; and support for broader faculty responsibilities, such as teaching, service, and work-life balance.

PMID: 28318314 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]