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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="Journal of Athletic Training"[JOUR]



 



Epidemiology of Stress Fractures in Collegiate Student-Athletes, 2004-2005 Through 2013-2014 Academic Years.

Epidemiology of Stress Fractures in Collegiate Student-Athletes, 2004-2005 Through 2013-2014 Academic Years.

J Athl Train. 2017 Sep 22;:

Authors: Rizzone KH, Ackerman KE, Roos KG, Dompier TP, Kerr ZY

Abstract
CONTEXT:   Stress fractures are injuries caused by cumulative, repetitive stress that leads to abnormal bone remodeling. Specific populations, including female athletes and endurance athletes, are at higher risk than the general athletic population. Whereas more than 460 000 individuals participate in collegiate athletics in the United States, no large study has been conducted to determine the incidence of stress fractures in collegiate athletes.
OBJECTIVE:   To assess the incidence of stress fractures in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes and investigate rates and patterns overall and by sport.
DESIGN:   Descriptive epidemiology study.
SETTING:   National Collegiate Athletic Association institutions.
PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:   National Collegiate Athletic Association athletes.
INTERVENTION(S):   Data were analyzed from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program for the academic years 2004-2005 through 2013-2014.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):   Injury rates and rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS:   A total of 671 stress fractures were reported over 11 778 145 athlete-exposures (AEs) for an overall injury rate of 5.70 per 100 000 AEs. The sports with the highest rates of stress fractures were women's cross-country (28.59/100 000 AEs), women's gymnastics, (25.58/100 000 AEs), and women's outdoor track (22.26/100 000 AEs). Among sex-comparable sports (baseball/softball, basketball, cross-country, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer, swimming and diving, tennis, indoor track, and outdoor track), stress fracture rates were higher in women (9.13/100 000 AEs) than in men (4.44/100 000 AEs; RR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.71, 2.47). Overall, stress fracture rates for these NCAA athletes were higher in the preseason (7.30/100 000 AEs) than in the regular season (5.12/100 000 AEs; RR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.22, 1.67). The metatarsals (n = 254, 37.9%), tibia (n = 147, 21.9%), and lower back/lumbar spine/pelvis (n = 81, 12.1%) were the most common locations of injury. Overall, 21.5% (n = 144) of stress fractures were recurrent injuries, and 20.7% (n = 139) were season-ending injuries.
CONCLUSIONS:   Women experienced stress fractures at higher rates than men, more often in the preseason, and predominantly in the foot and lower leg. Researchers should continue to investigate biological and biomechanical risk factors for these injuries as well as prevention interventions.

PMID: 28937802 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Clinical Implications of Hand Position and Lower Limb Length Measurement Method on Y-Balance Test Scores and Interpretation.

Clinical Implications of Hand Position and Lower Limb Length Measurement Method on Y-Balance Test Scores and Interpretation.

J Athl Train. 2017 Sep 22;:

Authors: Hébert-Losier K

Abstract
CONTEXT:   The Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test (LQ-YBT) was developed to provide an effective and efficient screen for injury risk in sports. Earlier protocol recommendations for the LQ-YBT involved the athlete placing the hands on the hips and the clinician normalizing scores to lower limb length measured from the anterior-superior iliac spine to the lateral malleolus. The updated LQ-YBT protocol recommends the athlete's hands be free moving and the clinician measure lower limb length to the medial malleolus.
OBJECTIVE:   To investigate the effect of hand position and lower limb length measurement method on LQ-YBT scores and their interpretation.
DESIGN:   Cross-sectional study.
SETTING:   National Sports Institute of Malaysia.
PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:   A total of 46 volunteers, consisting of 23 men (age = 25.7 ± 4.6 years, height = 1.70 ± 0.05 m, mass = 69.3 ± 9.2 kg) and 23 women (age = 23.5 ± 2.5 years, height = 1.59 ± 0.07 m, mass = 55.7 ± 10.6 kg).
INTERVENTION(S):   Participants performed the LQ-YBT with hands on hips and hands free to move on both lower limbs.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):   In a single-legged stance, participants reached with the contralateral limb in each of the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions 3 times. Maximal reach distances in each direction were normalized to lower limb length measured from the anterior-superior iliac spine to the lateral and medial malleoli. Composite scores (average of the 3 normalized reach distances) and anterior-reach differences (in raw units) were extracted and used to identify participants at risk for injury (ie, anterior-reach difference ≥4 cm or composite score ≤94%). Data were analyzed using paired t tests, Fisher exact tests, and magnitude-based inferences (effect size [ES], ±90% confidence limits [CL]).
RESULTS:   I observed differences between hand positions in normalized anterior-reach distances that were trivial (t91 = -2.075, P = .041; ES = 0.12, 90% CL = ±0.10). In contrast, reach distances were greater when the hands moved freely for the normalized posteromedial (t91 = -6.404, P < .001; ES = 0.42, 90% CL = ±0.11), posterolateral (t91 = -6.052, P < .001; ES = 0.58, 90% CL = ±0.16), and composite scores (t91 = -7.296, P < .001; ES = 0.47, 90% CL = ±0.11). A similar proportion of the cohort was classified as at risk with the hands on the hips (35% [n = 16]) and the hands free to move (43% [n = 20]; P = .52). However, the participants classified as at risk with the hands on the hips were not all categorized as at risk with the hands free to move and vice versa. The lower limb length measurement method exerted trivial effects on LQ-YBT outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS:   Hand position exerted nontrivial effects on LQ-YBT outcomes and interpretation, whereas lower limb length measurement method had trivial effects.

PMID: 28937801 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




The Doctor of Philosophy Experience of Athletic Trainers: Facilitators and Barriers to Anticipatory Faculty Socialization.

The Doctor of Philosophy Experience of Athletic Trainers: Facilitators and Barriers to Anticipatory Faculty Socialization.

J Athl Train. 2017 Sep 22;:

Authors: Bowman T, Klossner J, Mazerolle S

Abstract
CONTEXT:   It is important to understand the process whereby athletic trainers learn about their future roles, particularly when the roles can be complex and demanding. Little is known about the experiences of athletic training doctoral students, including facilitators and barriers to socialization as aspiring faculty members.
OBJECTIVE:   To investigate factors influencing the anticipatory socialization of athletic training doctoral students into future faculty roles.
DESIGN:   Qualitative study.
SETTING:   Universities with athletic training doctoral students.
PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:   We recruited 28 students (19 women, 9 men, age = 28 ± 3 years) with a minimum of 1 year of doctoral coursework completed and participating in an assistantship at the time of the study to reach data saturation. Participants were certified for 6 ± 3 years and represented 5 National Athletic Trainers' Association districts and 9 institutions.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:   We completed semistructured, 1-on-1 telephone interviews with participants. We transcribed each interview verbatim and analyzed the data using an inductive approach. Peer review, multiple-analyst triangulation, and member checks ensured trustworthiness.
RESULTS:   We uncovered 4 themes from our analysis: research, teaching, service, and administration. Participants described comprehensive autonomous experiences in research that allowed them to feel confident they could sustain a scholarly agenda. Independent experiences and lack of pedagogy training yielded mixed preparedness relative to teaching responsibilities. Limited formal experience led to incomplete role understanding related to the service component of the professoriate. Finally, with regard to the administrative duties associated with an athletic training faculty position, participants noted a lack of direct exposure to common responsibilities.
CONCLUSIONS:   Role occupation in various aspects of the professoriate helped doctoral students prepare as future faculty members, although full role understanding was limited. Intentional exposure to research, teaching, service, and administrative expectations during doctoral experiences may facilitate the socialization of future AT faculty into academic roles.

PMID: 28937790 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Identifying Dyslexia Risk in Student-Athletes: A Preliminary Protocol for Concussion Management.

Identifying Dyslexia Risk in Student-Athletes: A Preliminary Protocol for Concussion Management.

J Athl Train. 2017 Sep 22;:

Authors: Wiseheart R, Wellington R

Abstract
Learning disability (LD) has been identified as a potential risk factor for protracted recovery from a sport-related concussion, yet students with LD are rarely included in concussion research. Here, we draw special attention to dyslexia, a common but often underdiagnosed LD. Reading and learning problems commonly associated with dyslexia are often masked by protective factors, such as high verbal ability or general intelligence. Hence, high-achieving individuals with dyslexia may not be identified as being in a high-risk category. To ensure that students with dyslexia are included in LD concussion research and identified as LD in baseline testing, we provide athletic trainers with an overview of dyslexia and a preliminary screening protocol that is sensitive to dyslexia, even among academically high-achieving students in secondary school and college.

PMID: 28937789 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Gaining Access to Providing Medical Care to Male Sport Teams: The Female Athletic Trainer Perspective.

Gaining Access to Providing Medical Care to Male Sport Teams: The Female Athletic Trainer Perspective.

J Athl Train. 2017 Sep 22;:

Authors: Pike A, Mazerolle SM, Barrett JL

Abstract
CONTEXT:   Female athletic trainers (ATs) can face barriers to employment within the profession. Although there is evidence for an increasing percentage of women in athletic training, the portion providing medical care to male sport teams within the professional sport and collegiate settings continues to be small.
OBJECTIVE:   To investigate the experiences of female ATs when seeking employment with male sport teams within the Division I setting.
DESIGN:   Qualitative study.
SETTING:   National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I.
PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:   A total of 15 NCAA Division I female ATs providing medical care to a male sport team participated in our study. Their mean age was 33 ± 9 years, and they had a mean of 11 ± 9 years of overall clinical experience.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:   All participants completed one-on-one phone interviews, which were recorded and transcribed. Analysis of the data followed thematic analysis using a phenomenologic approach. Credibility was established through credibility checks, peer review, and researcher triangulation.
RESULTS:   Factors that played a role in women gaining employment with male sport teams were (1) preexisting professional relationships, (2) prior experience with a male sport, and (3) perseverance. Participants in our study were most attracted to their current positions because of (1) the environment of the collegiate setting and (2) the location of the university.
CONCLUSIONS:   Job access for female ATs in this study was not viewed as a challenge. Familiarity through previous connections with the university and staff and commitment to career goals helped these women obtain the positions they currently held. The desire to work in male sports was not a primary contributing factor to the decision-making process. Progress continues for women in athletic training, as evidenced by the reported ease of job access with male sport teams.

PMID: 28937785 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Cold-Water Immersion Cooling Rates in Football Linemen and Cross-Country Runners With Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia.

Cold-Water Immersion Cooling Rates in Football Linemen and Cross-Country Runners With Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia.

J Athl Train. 2017 Sep 22;:

Authors: Godek SF, Morrison KE, Scullin G

Abstract
CONTEXT:   Ideal and acceptable cooling rates in hyperthermic athletes have been established in average-sized participants. Football linemen (FBs) have a small body surface area (BSA) to mass ratio compared with smaller athletes, which hinders heat dissipation.
OBJECTIVE:   To determine cooling rates using cold-water immersion in hyperthermic FBs and cross-country runners (CCs).
DESIGN:   Cohort study.
SETTING:   Controlled university laboratory.
PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:   Nine FBs (age = 21.7 ± 1.7 years, height = 188.7 ± 4 cm, mass = 128.1 ± 18 kg, body fat = 28.9% ± 7.1%, lean body mass [LBM] = 86.9 ± 19 kg, BSA = 2.54 ± 0.13 m(2), BSA/mass = 201 ± 21.3 cm(2)/kg, and BSA/LBM = 276.4 ± 19.7 cm(2)/kg) and 7 CCs (age = 20 ± 1.8 years, height = 176 ± 4.1 cm, mass = 68.7 ± 6.5 kg, body fat = 10.2% ± 1.6%, LBM = 61.7 ± 5.3 kg, BSA = 1.84 ± 0.1 m(2), BSA/mass = 268.3 ± 11.7 cm(2)/kg, and BSA/LBM = 298.4 ± 11.7 cm(2)/kg).
INTERVENTION(S):   Participants ingested an intestinal sensor, exercised in a climatic chamber (39°C, 40% relative humidity) until either target core temperature (Tgi) was 39.5°C or volitional exhaustion was reached, and were immediately immersed in a 10°C circulated bath until Tgi declined to 37.5°C. A general linear model repeated-measures analysis of variance and independent t tests were calculated, with P < .05.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):   Physical characteristics, maximal Tgi, time to reach 37.5°C, and cooling rate.
RESULTS:   Physical characteristics were different between groups. No differences existed in environmental measures or maximal Tgi (FBs = 39.12°C ± 0.39°C, CCs = 39.38°C ± 0.19°C; P = .12). Cooling times required to reach 37.5°C (FBs = 11.4 ± 4 minutes, CCs = 7.7 ± 0.06 minutes; P < .002) and therefore cooling rates (FBs = 0.156°C ± 0.06°C·min(-1), CCs = .255°C ± 0.05°C·min(-1); P < .002) were different. Strong correlations were found between cooling rate and body mass (r = -0.76, P < .001), total BSA (r = -0.74, P < .001), BSA/mass (r = 0.73, P < .001), LBM/mass (r = 0.72, P < .002), and LBM (r = -0.72, P < .002).
CONCLUSIONS:   Using cold-water immersion, the cooling rate in CCs (0.255°C·min(-1)) was greater than in FBs (0.156°C·min(-1)); however, both were considered ideal (≥0.155°C·min(-1)). Athletic trainers should realize that it likely takes considerably longer to cool large hyperthermic American-football players (>11 minutes) than smaller, leaner athletes (7.7 minutes). Cooling rates varied widely from 0.332°C·min(-1) in a small runner to only 0.101°C·min(-1) in a lineman, supporting the use of rectal temperature for monitoring during cooling.

PMID: 28937782 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]