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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="Journal of Athletic Training"[JOUR]



 



An Evaluation of Portable Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Monitor Accuracy.

An Evaluation of Portable Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Monitor Accuracy.

J Athl Train. 2017 Nov 20;:

Authors: Cooper E, Grundstein A, Rosen A, Miles J, Ko J, Curry P

Abstract
CONTEXT:   Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) is the gold standard for assessing environmental heat stress during physical activity. Many manufacturers of commercially available instruments fail to report WBGT accuracy.
OBJECTIVE:   To determine the accuracy of several commercially available WBGT monitors compared with a standardized reference device.
DESIGN:   Observational study.
SETTING:   Field test.
PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:   Six commercially available WBGT devices.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):   Data were recorded for 3 sessions (1 in the morning and 2 in the afternoon) at 2-minute intervals for at least 2 hours. Mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), mean bias error (MBE), and the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated to determine instrument performance compared with the reference unit.
RESULTS:   The QUESTemp° 34 (RMSE = 0.44°C, MAE = 0.24°C, MBE = -0.64%) and Extech HT30 Heat Stress Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Meter (Extech; RMSE = 0.79°C, MAE = 0.61°C, MBE = 0.44%) demonstrated the least error in relation to the reference standard, whereas the General WBGT8778 Heat Index Checker (General; RMSE = 1.34°C, MAE = 1.18°C, MBE = 4.25%) performed the poorest. The QUESTemp° 34 and Kestrel 4400 Heat Stress Tracker (Kestrel) units provided conservative measurements that slightly overestimated the WBGT provided by the reference unit. Finally, instruments using the psychrometric wet bulb temperature (General, REED Heat Index WBGT Meter, and WBGT-103 Heat Stroke Checker) tended to underestimate the WBGT, and the resulting values more frequently fell into WBGT-based activity categories with fewer restrictions as defined by the American College of Sports Medicine.
CONCLUSIONS:   The QUESTemp° 34, followed by the Extech, had the smallest error compared with the reference unit. Moreover, the QUESTemp° 34, Extech, and Kestrel units appeared to offer conservative yet accurate assessments of the WBGT, potentially minimizing the risk of allowing physical activity to continue in stressful heat environments. Instruments using the psychrometric wet bulb temperature tended to underestimate WBGT under low wind speed conditions. Accurate WBGT interpretations are important to enable clinicians to guide activities in hot and humid weather conditions.

PMID: 29154695 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Gait and Quiet-Stance Performance Among Adolescents After Concussion Symptom Resolution.

Gait and Quiet-Stance Performance Among Adolescents After Concussion Symptom Resolution.

J Athl Train. 2017 Nov 20;:

Authors: Berkner J, Meehan WP, Master CL, Howell DR

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:   To prospectively examine adolescent athletes' gait and quiet-stance performance while concurrently completing a cognitive task acutely after concussion and after symptom resolution.
SETTING:   Sport concussion clinic.
DESIGN:   Participants diagnosed with a concussion completed a symptom inventory and single- and dual-task quiet-stance and gait evaluations within 21 days of injury and then again after symptom resolution. Gait and postural-control measurements were quantified using an inertial sensor system and analyzed using multivariate analyses of covariance.
PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:   Thirty-seven athletes (age = 16.2 ± 3.1 years; 54% female) were diagnosed with a concussion, and their performance was compared with that of a group of 44 uninjured control participants (age = 15.0 ± 2.0 years; 57% female).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):   Post-Concussion Symptom Scale, single-task and dual-task gait measures, quiet-stance measures, and cognitive task performance.
RESULTS:   At the initial postinjury examination, single-task gait stride length (1.16 ± 0.14 versus 1.25 ± 0.13 m, P = .003) and dual-task gait stride length (1.02 ± 0.13 m versus 1.10 ± 0.13 m, P = .011) for the concussion group compared with the control group, respectively, was shorter. After symptom resolution, no single-task gait differences were found, but the concussion group demonstrated a shorter stride length (0.99 ± 0.15 m versus 1.10 ± 0.13 m, P = .003), slower gait velocity (0.78 ± 0.15 m/s versus 0.92 ± 0.14 m/s, P = .005), and lower cadence (92.5 ± 12.2 steps/min versus 99.3 ± 7.8 steps/min, P < .001) during dual-task gait than the control group. No between-group differences were detected during quiet stance at either time point.
CONCLUSIONS:   Acutely after concussion, single-task and dual-task stride-length alterations were present among youth athletes compared with a control group. Although single-task gait alterations were not detected after symptom resolution, dual-task gait differences persisted, suggesting that dual-task gait alterations may persist longer after concussion than single-task gait or objective quiet-stance alterations. Dual-task gait assessments may, therefore, be a useful component in monitoring concussion recovery after symptom resolution.

PMID: 29154694 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Epidemiology of Injury Due to Race-Day Jockey Falls in Professional Flat and Jump Horse Racing in Ireland, 2011-2015.

Epidemiology of Injury Due to Race-Day Jockey Falls in Professional Flat and Jump Horse Racing in Ireland, 2011-2015.

J Athl Train. 2017 Nov 20;:

Authors: O'Connor S, Warrington G, McGoldrick A, Cullen S

Abstract
CONTEXT:   Professional horse racing is considered a high-risk sport, yet the last analysis of fall and injury incidence in this sport in Ireland was completed between 1999 and 2006.
OBJECTIVE:   To provide an updated analysis of the fall and injury incidence in professional flat and jump horse racing in Ireland from 2011 through 2015, compare it with the previous analysis, and detail the specific types and locations of injuries.
DESIGN:   Descriptive epidemiology study.
SETTING:   A medical doctor recorded all injuries that occurred at every official flat and jump race meeting for the 2011 through 2015 seasons, using standardized injury-report forms.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):   Injury and fall rates and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported for flat and jump racing. Incidence rate ratios and 95% CIs were calculated between flat and jump racing, between the 1999-2006 analysis and the current results, and between 2011 and 2015. The distribution of injuries for type and location of injury was reported.
RESULTS:   Compared with flat racing, jump racing had significantly more falls per 1000 rides (49.5 versus 3.8), injuries per 1000 rides (10.1 versus 1.4), and injuries per 1000 meetings (776.0 versus 94.1). However, the rate of injuries per 1000 falls was significantly higher in flat racing (352.8 versus 203.8). An increase in injuries per 1000 falls between 2011 and 2015 was found in flat racing (P = .005). Since the previous analysis, a significant increase in injuries per 1000 rides and falls was noted in jump racing. Soft tissue injuries were predominant in flat and jump racing (61.54% and 68.80%, respectively), with fractures the second most common injury (15.38% and 18.06%, respectively). Concussions were more prevalent from flat-racing falls (incidence rate ratio = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.15, 0.61). The lower limb was the most frequent location of injury (32.89%) in flat racing; however, in jump racing, upper limb injuries (34.97%) were predominant.
CONCLUSIONS:   An update on professional flat- and jump-racing fall and injury epidemiology is provided. Further research to identify risk factors for injury, develop designs and investigate the feasibility of injury-prevention strategies, and document their effects on fall and injury incidence is required.

PMID: 29154693 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Landing Kinematics and Kinetics at the Knee During Different Landing Tasks.

Landing Kinematics and Kinetics at the Knee During Different Landing Tasks.

J Athl Train. 2017 Nov 20;:

Authors: Heebner NR, Rafferty DM, Wohleber MF, Simonson AJ, Lovalekar M, Reinert A, Sell TC

Abstract
CONTEXT:   Several tasks have been used to examine landing biomechanics for evaluation and rehabilitation, especially as related to anterior cruciate ligament injuries. However, comparing results among studies in which different tasks were used can be difficult, and it is unclear which task may be most appropriate.
OBJECTIVE:   To compare lower extremity biomechanics across 5 commonly used landing tasks.
DESIGN:   Descriptive laboratory study.
SETTING:   University-operated US Air Force Special Operations Forces human performance research laboratory.
PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:   A total of 65 US Air Force Special Tactics Operators (age = 27.7 ± 5.0 years, height = 176.5 ± 5.7 cm, mass = 83.1 ± 9.1 kg).
INTERVENTION(S):   Kinematic and kinetic analysis of double- and single-legged drop landing, double- and single-legged stop jump, and forward jump to single-legged landing.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):   Hip-, knee-, and ankle-joint kinematics; knee-joint forces and moments; and ground reaction forces (GRFs) were the dependent measures. We used repeated-measures analyses of variance or Friedman tests, as appropriate, to assess within-subject differences across tasks.
RESULTS:   Peak vertical GRF and peak knee-flexion angle were different among all tasks (P < .001). Single-legged landings generated higher vertical GRF (χ(2) = 244.68, P < .001) and lower peak knee-flexion values (F4,64 = 209.33, P < .001) except for forward jump to single-legged landing, which had the lowest peak knee-flexion value and the second highest peak vertical GRF. The single-legged drop landing generated the highest vertical (χ(2) = 244.68, P < .001) and posterior (χ(2) = 164.46, P < .001) GRFs. Peak knee-valgus moment was higher during the double-legged drop landing (χ(2) = 239.63, P < .001) but similar for all others.
CONCLUSIONS:   Different landing tasks elicited different biomechanical responses, no single task was best for assessing a wide range of biomechanical variables related to anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Therefore, depending on the goals of the study, using multiple assessment tasks should be considered.

PMID: 29154692 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Optimal Screening Methods to Detect Cardiac Disorders in Athletes: An Evidence-Based Review.
Optimal Screening Methods to Detect Cardiac Disorders in Athletes: An Evidence-Based Review. J Athl Train. 2017 Nov 20;: Authors: Winkelmann ZK, Crossway AK Abstract Reference/Citation:  Harmon KG, Zigman M, Drezner JA. The effectiveness of screening history, physical exam, and ECG to detect potentially lethal cardiac disorders in athletes: a systematic review/meta-analysis. J Electrocardiol. 2015;48(3):329-338. CLINICAL QUESTION:   Which screening method should be considered best practice to detect potentially lethal cardiac disorders during the preparticipation physical examination (PE) of athletes? DATA SOURCES:   The authors completed a comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and SPORTDiscus from January 1996 to November 2014. The following key words were used individually and in combination: ECG, athlete, screening, pre-participation, history, and physical. A manual review of reference lists and key journals was performed to identify additional studies. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed for this review. STUDY SELECTION:   Studies selected for this analysis involved (1) outcomes of cardiovascular screening in athletes using the history, PE, and electrocardiogram (ECG); (2) history questions and PE based on the American Heart Association recommendations and guidelines; and (3) ECGs interpreted following modern standards. The exclusion criteria were (1) articles not in English, (2) conference abstracts, and (3) clinical commentary articles. Study quality was assessed on a 7-point scale for risk of bias; a score of 7 indicated the highest quality. Articles with potential bias were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION:   Data included number and sex of participants, number of true- and false-positives and negatives, type of ECG criteria used, number of cardiac abnormalities, and specific cardiac conditions. The sensitivity, specificity, false-positive rate, and positive predictive value of each screening tool were calculated and summarized using a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis model. MAIN RESULTS:   Fifteen articles reporting on 47 137 athletes were fully reviewed. The overall quality of the 15 articles ranged from 5 to 7 on the 7-item assessment scale (ie, participant selection criteria, representative sample, prospective data with at least 1 positive finding, modern ECG criteria used for screening, cardiovascular screening history and PE per American Heart Association guidelines, individual test outcomes reported, and abnormal screening findings evaluated by appropriate diagnostic testing). The athletes (66% males and 34% females) were ethnically and racially diverse, were from several countries, and ranged in age from 5 to 39 years. The sensitivity and specificity of the screening methods were, respectively, ECG, 94% and 93%; history, 20% and 94%; and PE, 9% and 97%. The overall false-positive rate for ECG (6%) was less than that for history (8%) or PE (10%). The positive likelihood ratios of each screening method were 14.8 for ECG, 3.22 for history, and 2.93 for PE. The negative likelihood ratios were 0.055 for ECG, 0.85 for history, and 0.93 for PE. A total of 160 potentially lethal cardiovascular conditions were detected, for a rate of 0.3%, or 1 in 294 patients. The most common conditions were Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (n = 67, 42%), long QT syndrome (n = 18, 11%), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 18, 11%), dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 11, 7%), coronary artery disease or myocardial ischemia (n = 9, 6%), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (n = 4, 3%). CONCLUSIONS:   The most effective strategy to screen athletes for cardiovascular disease was ECG. This test was 5 times more sensitive than history and 10 times more sensitive t[...]