A Novel Mouse Model of Staphylococcus aureus Vascular Graft Infection: Noninvasive Imaging of Biofilm Development in Vivo.
Am J Pathol. 2017 Jan 04;:
Authors: Van de Vyver H, Bovenkamp PR, Hoerr V, Schwegmann K, Tuchscherr L, Niemann S, Kursawe L, Grosse C, Moter A, Hansen U, Neugebauer U, Kuhlmann MT, Peters G, Hermann S, Löffler B
Staphylococcus aureus causes very serious infections of vascular grafts. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of this disease is largely lacking because of the absence of representable models. Therefore, the aim of this study was to set up a mouse model of vascular graft infections that closely mimics the human situation. A catheter was inserted into the right carotid artery of mice, which acted as a vascular graft. Mice were infected i.v. using 8 different S. aureus strains, and development of the infection was followed up. Although all strains had varying abilities to form biofilm in vitro and different levels of virulence in mice, they all caused biofilm formation on the grafts. This graft infection was monitored using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and (18)F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). MRI allowed the quantification of blood flow through the arteries, which was decreased in the catheter after infection. FDG-PET revealed high inflammation levels at the site of the catheter after infection. This model closely resembles the situation in patients, which is characterized by a tight interplay between pathogen and host, and can therefore be used for the testing of novel treatment, diagnosis, and prevention strategies. In addition, combining MRI and PET with microscopic techniques provides an appropriate way to characterize the course of these infections and to precisely analyze biofilm development.
PMID: 28088288 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 Deficiency Leads to Behavior Impairment with Monoaminergic and Synaptic Dysfunction.
Am J Pathol. 2017 Jan 10;:
Authors: Dai H, Goto YI, Itoh M
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 regulates IGF bioactivity, induces apoptosis, and inhibits cell growth independent of IGFs, but the functional role of IGFBP3 in the brain is not clear. In the present study, we revealed the effect of IGFBP3 on the brain by characterizing the phenotype of Igfbp3-null mice. Compared with wild-type mice, Igfbp3-null mice had significantly decreased IGF-1 content in the brain but no change in weights of brain and body. In Igfbp3-null mice, the number of dendritic spines was significantly reduced, and the dendritic diameter was thickening. In addition, in Igfbp3-null mice, a decrease in phosphorylated Akt and ERK1/2 significantly reduced PSD-95 expression, and GAD65/67 expression was significantly decreased. These results indicate that IGFBP3 deficiency impairs neuronal structure and signaling. In behavioral studies, Igfbp3-null mice were hyperactive, and a Y-maze alternation test revealed impaired spatial working memory but no anxiety-like behavior. Monoaminergic analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography indicated that Igfbp3-null mice had lower levels of dopamine and serotonin compared with wild-type mice, suggesting an abnormal monoaminergic neurotransmission. In conclusion, our studies found that the deletion of IGFBP3 results in behavioral impairments that are associated with abnormal synaptic function and monoaminergic neurotransmission, which helps to characterize the critical role of IGFBP3 in the brain.
PMID: 28088287 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]