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Effects of protein supplementation combined with resistance exercise on body composition and physical function in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
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Effects of protein supplementation combined with resistance exercise on body composition and physical function in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug 16;:

Authors: Liao CD, Tsauo JY, Wu YT, Cheng CP, Chen HC, Huang YC, Chen HC, Liou TH

Abstract
Background: Overweight and obese older people face a high risk of muscle loss and impaired physical function, which may contribute to sarcopenic obesity. Resistance exercise training (RET) has a beneficial effect on muscle protein synthesis and can be augmented by protein supplementation (PS). However, whether body weight affects the augmentation of muscular and functional performance in response to PS in older people undergoing RET remains unclear.Objective: This study was conducted to identify the effects of PS on the body composition and physical function of older people undergoing RET.Design: We performed a comprehensive search of online databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting the efficacy of PS for lean mass gain, strength gain, and physical mobility improvements in older people undergoing RET.Results: We included 17 RCTs; the overall mean ± SD age and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) in these RCTs were 73.4 ± 8.1 y and 29.7 ± 5.5, respectively. The participants had substantially greater lean mass and leg strength gains when PS and RET were used than with RET alone, with the standard mean differences (SMDs) being 0.58 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.84) and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.98), respectively. The subgroup of studies with a mean BMI ≥30 exhibited substantially greater lean mass (SMD: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.87) and leg strength (SMD: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.42, 1.34) gains in response to PS. The subgroup of studies with a mean BMI <30 also exhibited relevant gains in response to PS.Conclusions: Compared with RET alone, PS combined with RET may have a stronger effect in preventing aging-related muscle mass attenuation and leg strength loss in older people, which was found in studies with a mean BMI ≥30 and in studies with a mean BMI <30. Clinicians could use nutrition supplement and exercise strategies, especially PS plus RET, to effectively improve the physical activity and health status of all older patients.

PMID: 28814401 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Mediation and modification of genetic susceptibility to obesity by eating behaviors.
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Mediation and modification of genetic susceptibility to obesity by eating behaviors.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug 16;:

Authors: de Lauzon-Guillain B, Clifton EA, Day FR, Clément K, Brage S, Forouhi NG, Griffin SJ, Koudou YA, Pelloux V, Wareham NJ, Charles MA, Heude B, Ong KK

Abstract
Background: Many genetic variants show highly robust associations with body mass index (BMI). However, the mechanisms through which genetic susceptibility to obesity operates are not well understood. Potentially modifiable mechanisms, including eating behaviors, are of particular interest to public health.Objective: Here we explore whether eating behaviors mediate or modify genetic susceptibility to obesity.Design: Genetic risk scores for BMI (BMI-GRSs) were calculated for 3515 and 2154 adults in the Fenland and EDEN (Etude des déterminants pré et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'enfant) population-based cohort studies, respectively. The eating behaviors-emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and cognitive restraint-were measured through the use of a validated questionnaire. The mediating effect of each eating behavior on the association between the BMI-GRS and measured BMI was assessed by using the Sobel test. In addition, we tested for interactions between each eating behavior and the BMI-GRS on BMI.Results: The association between the BMI-GRS and BMI was mediated by both emotional eating (EDEN: P-Sobel = 0.01; Fenland: P-Sobel = 0.02) and uncontrolled eating (EDEN: P-Sobel = 0.04; Fenland: P-Sobel = 0.0006) in both sexes combined. Cognitive restraint did not mediate this association (P-Sobel > 0.10), except among EDEN women (P-Sobel = 0.0009). Cognitive restraint modified the relation between the BMI-GRS and BMI among men (EDEN: P-interaction = 0.0001; Fenland: P-interaction = 0.04) and Fenland women (P-interaction = 0.0004). By tertiles of cognitive restraint, the association between the BMI-GRS and BMI was strongest in the lowest tertile of cognitive restraint, and weakest in the highest tertile.Conclusions: Genetic susceptibility to obesity was partially mediated by the "appetitive" eating behavior traits (uncontrolled and emotional eating) and, in 3 of the 4 population groups studied, was modified by cognitive restraint. High levels of cognitive control over eating appear to attenuate the genetic susceptibility to obesity. Future research into interventions designed to support restraint may help to protect genetically susceptible individuals from weight gain.

PMID: 28814400 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Modeling the dose effects of soybean oil in salad dressing on carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin bioavailability in salad vegetables.
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Modeling the dose effects of soybean oil in salad dressing on carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin bioavailability in salad vegetables.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug 16;:

Authors: White WS, Zhou Y, Crane A, Dixon P, Quadt F, Flendrig LM

Abstract
Background: Previously, we showed that vegetable oil is necessary for carotenoid absorption from salad vegetables. Research is needed to better define the dose effect and its interindividual variation for carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins.Objective: The objective was to model the dose-response relation between the amount of soybean oil in salad dressing and the absorption of 1) carotenoids, phylloquinone, and tocopherols in salad vegetables and 2) retinyl palmitate formed from the provitamin A carotenoids.Design: Women (n = 12) each consumed 5 vegetable salads with salad dressings containing 0, 2, 4, 8, or 32 g soybean oil. Blood was collected at selected time points. The outcome variables were the chylomicron carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin area under the curve (AUC) and maximum content in the plasma chylomicron fraction (Cmax). The individual-specific and group-average dose-response relations were investigated by fitting linear mixed-effects random coefficient models.Results: Across the entire 0-32-g range, soybean oil was linearly related to the chylomicron AUC and Cmax values for α-carotene, lycopene, phylloquinone, and retinyl palmitate. Across 0-8 g of soybean oil, there was a linear increase in the chylomicron AUC and Cmax values for β-carotene. Across a more limited 0-4-g range of soybean oil, there were minor linear increases in the chylomicron AUC for lutein and α- and total tocopherol. Absorption of all carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins was highest with 32 g oil (P < 0.002). For 32 g oil, the interindividual rank order of the chylomicron AUCs was consistent across the carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins (P < 0.0001).Conclusions: Within the linear range, the average absorption of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins could be largely predicted by the soybean oil effect. However, the effect varied widely, and some individuals showed a negligible response. There was a global soybean oil effect such that those who absorbed more of one carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin also tended to absorb more of the others. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02867488.

PMID: 28814399 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Plasma lipidomic profiles and cardiovascular events in a randomized intervention trial with the Mediterranean diet.
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Plasma lipidomic profiles and cardiovascular events in a randomized intervention trial with the Mediterranean diet.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug 16;:

Authors: Toledo E, Wang DD, Ruiz-Canela López M, Clish CB, Razquin C, Zheng Y, Guasch-Ferré M, Hruby A, Corella D, Gómez-Gracia E, Fiol M, Estruch R, Ros E, Lapetra J, Fito M, Aros F, Serra-Majem L, Liang L, Salas-Salvadó J, Hu FB, Martínez-González MA

Abstract
Background: Lipid metabolites may partially explain the inverse association between the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and cardiovascular disease (CVD).Objective: We evaluated the associations between 1) lipid species and the risk of CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death); 2) a MedDiet intervention [supplemented with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) or nuts] and 1-y changes in these molecules; and 3) 1-y changes in lipid species and subsequent CVD.Design: With the use of a case-cohort design, we profiled 202 lipid species at baseline and after 1 y of intervention in the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) trial in 983 participants [230 cases and a random subcohort of 790 participants (37 overlapping cases)].Results: Baseline concentrations of cholesterol esters (CEs) were inversely associated with CVD. A shorter chain length and higher saturation of some lipids were directly associated with CVD. After adjusting for multiple testing, direct associations remained significant for 20 lipids, and inverse associations remained significant for 6 lipids. When lipid species were weighted by the number of carbon atoms and double bonds, the strongest inverse association was found for CEs [HR: 0.39 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.68)] between extreme quintiles (P-trend = 0.002). Participants in the MedDiet + EVOO and MedDiet + nut groups experienced significant (P < 0.05) 1-y changes in 20 and 17 lipids, respectively, compared with the control group. Of these changes, only those in CE(20:3) in the MedDiet + nuts group remained significant after correcting for multiple testing. None of the 1-y changes was significantly associated with CVD risk after correcting for multiple comparisons.Conclusions: Although the MedDiet interventions induced some significant 1-y changes in the lipidome, they were not significantly associated with subsequent CVD risk. Lipid metabolites with a longer acyl chain and higher number of double bonds at baseline were significantly and inversely associated with the risk of CVD.

PMID: 28814398 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Association of TCN2 rs1801198 c.776G>C polymorphism with markers of one-carbon metabolism and related diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of genetic association studies.
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Association of TCN2 rs1801198 c.776G>C polymorphism with markers of one-carbon metabolism and related diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of genetic association studies.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug 16;:

Authors: Oussalah A, Levy J, Filhine-Trésarrieu P, Namour F, Guéant JL

Abstract
Background: Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) deficiency may produce severe neurologic and hematologic manifestations. Approximately 20-25% of circulating cobalamin binds to transcobalamin 2 (TCN2), which is referred to as active vitamin B-12. The G allele of the TCN2 c.776G>C (rs1801198) polymorphism has been associated with a lower plasma concentration of holotranscobalamin. However, genotype association studies on rs1801198 have led to conflicting results regarding its influence on one-carbon metabolism (OCM) markers or its association with pathologic conditions.Objective: We assessed the association of rs1801198 genotypes with OCM marker concentrations and primary risks of congenital abnormalities, cancer, and Alzheimer disease.Design: We conducted a systematic review of the literature that was published from January 1966 to February 2017 and included all studies that assessed the association between rs1801198 and OCM markers or a pathologic condition.Results: Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Subjects with the rs1801198 GG genotype had significantly lower concentrations of holotranscobalamin [standardized mean difference (SMD): -0.445 (95% CI: -0.673, -0.217; P < 0.001); I(2) = 48.16% (95% CI: 0.00%, 78.10%; P = 0.07)] and higher concentrations of homocysteine (European descent only) [SMD: 0.070 (95% CI: 0.020, 0.120; P = 0.01); I(2) = 0.00% (95% CI: 0.00%, 49.59%; P = 0.73)] than did subjects with the rs1801198 CC genotype. The meta-analysis on the association between rs1801198 and methylmalonic acid (MMA) lacked statistical power. No significant difference was observed regarding cobalamin, folate, and red blood cell folate. No significant association was observed between rs1801198 and primary risks of congenital abnormalities, cancer, or Alzheimer disease.Conclusions: Meta-analysis results indicate an influence of rs1801198 on holotranscobalamin and homocysteine concentrations in European-descent subjects. In addition, well-designed and -powered studies should be conducted for assessing the association between rs1801198 and MMA and clinical manifestations that are linked to a decreased availability of cobalamin. This review was registered at www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero as CRD42017058504.

PMID: 28814397 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Consumption of galacto-oligosaccharides increases iron absorption from a micronutrient powder containing ferrous fumarate and sodium iron EDTA: a stable-isotope study in Kenyan infants.
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Consumption of galacto-oligosaccharides increases iron absorption from a micronutrient powder containing ferrous fumarate and sodium iron EDTA: a stable-isotope study in Kenyan infants.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug 16;:

Authors: Paganini D, Uyoga MA, Cercamondi CI, Moretti D, Mwasi E, Schwab C, Bechtler S, Mutuku FM, Galetti V, Lacroix C, Karanja S, Zimmermann MB

Abstract
Background: Whether consumption of prebiotics increases iron absorption in infants is unclear.Objective: We set out to determine whether prebiotic consumption affects iron absorption from a micronutrient powder (MNP) containing a mixture of ferrous fumarate and sodium iron EDTA (FeFum+NaFeEDTA) in Kenyan infants.Design: Infants (n = 50; aged 6-14 mo) consumed maize porridge that was fortified with an MNP containing FeFum+NaFeEDTA and 7.5 g galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs) (Fe+GOS group, n = 22) or the same MNP without GOSs (Fe group, n = 28) each day for 3 wk. Then, on 2 consecutive days, we fed all infants isotopically labeled maize porridge and MNP test meals containing 5 mg Fe as (57)FeFum+Na(58)FeEDTA or ferrous sulfate ((54)FeSO4). Iron absorption was measured as the erythrocyte incorporation of stable isotopes. Iron markers, fecal pH, and bacterial groups were assessed at baseline and 3 wk. Comparisons within and between groups were done with the use of mixed-effects models.Results: There was a significant group-by-compound interaction on iron absorption (P = 0.011). The median percentages of fractional iron absorption from FeFum+NaFeEDTA and from FeSO4 in the Fe group were 11.6% (IQR: 6.9-19.9%) and 20.3% (IQR: 14.2-25.7%), respectively, (P < 0.001) and, in the Fe+GOS group, were 18.8% (IQR: 8.3-37.5%) and 25.5% (IQR: 15.1-37.8%), respectively (P = 0.124). Between groups, iron absorption was greater from the FeFum+NaFeEDTA (P = 0.047) in the Fe+GOS group but not from the FeSO4 (P = 0.653). The relative iron bioavailability from FeFum+NaFeEDTA compared with FeSO4 was higher in the Fe+GOS group than in the Fe group (88% compared with 63%; P = 0.006). There was a significant time-by-group interaction on Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.008) and Lactobacillus/Pediococcus/Leuconostoc spp. (P = 0.018); Lactobacillus/Pediococcus/Leuconostoc spp. decreased in the Fe group (P = 0.013), and there was a nonsignificant trend toward higher Bifidobacterium spp. in the Fe+GOS group (P = 0.099). At 3 wk, iron absorption was negatively correlated with fecal pH (P < 0.001) and positively correlated with Lactobacillus/Pediococcus/Leuconostoc spp. (P = 0.001).Conclusion: GOS consumption by infants increased iron absorption by 62% from an MNP containing FeFum+NaFeEDTA, thereby possibly reflecting greater colonic iron absorption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02666417.

PMID: 28814396 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Fecal concentrations of bacterially derived vitamin K forms are associated with gut microbiota composition but not plasma or fecal cytokine concentrations in healthy adults.
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Fecal concentrations of bacterially derived vitamin K forms are associated with gut microbiota composition but not plasma or fecal cytokine concentrations in healthy adults.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug 16;:

Authors: Karl JP, Meydani M, Barnett JB, Vanegas SM, Barger K, Fu X, Goldin B, Kane A, Rasmussen H, Vangay P, Knights D, Jonnalagadda SS, Saltzman E, Roberts SB, Meydani SN, Booth SL

Abstract
Background: Emerging evidence suggests novel roles for bacterially derived vitamin K forms known as menaquinones in health and disease, which may be attributable in part to anti-inflammatory effects. However, the relevance of menaquinones produced by gut bacteria to vitamin K requirements and inflammation is undetermined.Objective: This study aimed to quantify fecal menaquinone concentrations and identify associations between fecal menaquinone concentrations and serum vitamin K concentrations, gut microbiota composition, and inflammation.Design: Fecal and serum menaquinone concentrations, fecal microbiota composition, and plasma and fecal cytokine concentrations were measured in 80 men and postmenopausal women (48 men, 32 women, age 40-65 y) enrolled in a randomized, parallel-arm, provided-food trial. After consuming a run-in diet for 2 wk, participants were randomly assigned to consume a whole grain-rich (WG) or a refined grain-based (RG) diet for 6 wk. Outcomes were measured at weeks 2 and 8.Results: The median total daily excretion of menaquinones in feces was 850 nmol/d but was highly variable (range: 64-5358 nmol/d). The total median (IQR) fecal concentrations of menaquinones decreased in the WG diet compared with the RG diet [-6.8 nmol/g (13.0 nmol/g) dry weight for WG compared with 1.8 nmol/g (12.3 nmol/g) dry weight for RG; P < 0.01)]. However, interindividual variability in fecal menaquinone concentrations partitioned individuals into 2 distinct groups based on interindividual differences in concentrations of different menaquinone forms rather than the diet group or the time point. The relative abundances of several gut bacteria taxa, Bacteroides and Prevotella in particular, differed between these groups, and 42% of identified genera were associated with ≥1 menaquinone form. Menaquinones were not detected in serum, and neither fecal concentrations of individual menaquinones nor the menaquinone group was associated with any marker of inflammation.Conclusion: Menaquinone concentrations in the human gut appear highly variable and are associated with gut microbiota composition. However, the health implications remain unclear. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01902394.

PMID: 28814395 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Dynamics of intrapericardial and extrapericardial fat tissues during long-term, dietary-induced, moderate weight loss.
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Dynamics of intrapericardial and extrapericardial fat tissues during long-term, dietary-induced, moderate weight loss.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug 16;:

Authors: Tsaban G, Wolak A, Avni-Hassid H, Gepner Y, Shelef I, Henkin Y, Schwarzfuchs D, Cohen N, Bril N, Rein M, Serfaty D, Kenigsbuch S, Tene L, Zelicha H, Yaskolka-Meir A, Komy O, Bilitzky A, Chassidim Y, Ceglarek U, Stumvoll M, Blüher M, Thiery J, Dicker D, Rudich A, Stampfer MJ, Shai I

Abstract
Background: In view of evidence linking pericardial fat accumulation with increased cardiovascular disease risk, strategies to reduce its burden are needed. Data comparing the effects of specific long-term dietary interventions on pericardial fat tissue mobilization are sparse.Objective: We sought to evaluate intrapericardial-fat (IPF) and extrapericardial-fat (EPF) changes during weight-loss interventions by different dietary regimens.Design: During 18 mo of a randomized controlled trial, we compared a Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet plus 28 g walnuts/d with a calorically equal low-fat (LF) diet among randomly assigned participants with moderate abdominal obesity. We performed whole-body MRI and volumetrically quantified IPF and EPF among 80 participants to follow the 18-mo changes.Results: The participants [mean age: 48.6 y; mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)); 31.7; 90% men] had baseline IPF and EPF (mean ± SD) volumes of 172.4 ± 53.3 mL and 194.9 ± 71.5 mL, respectively. The 18-mo moderate weight loss of 3.7 kg was similar in both groups, but the reduction in waist circumference was higher in the MED/LC group (-6.9 ± 6.6 cm) than in the LF diet group (-2.3 ± 6.5 cm; P = 0.01). After 18 mo, the IPF volume had reduced twice as much in the MED/LC group compared with the LF group [-37 ± 26.2 mL (-22% ± 15%) compared with -15.5 ± 26.2 mL (-8% ± 15%), respectively; P < 0.05, after adjustment for changes in weight or visceral adipose tissue]. The EPF volume had reduced similarly in both groups [-41.6 ± 30.2 mL (-23% ± 16%) in the MED/LC group compared with -37.9 ± 28.3 mL (-19% ± 14%) in the LF group; P > 0.1]. After controlling for weight loss, IPF and EPF volume reduction paralleled changes in lipid profile but not with improved glycemic profile variables: the IPF relative reduction was associated with a decrease in triglycerides (TGs) (β = 0.090; 95% CI: 0.026, 0.154; P = 0.007) and the ratio of TGs to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (β = 2.689; 95% CI: 0.373, 5.003; P = 0.024), and the EPF relative reduction was associated with an increase in HDL cholesterol (β = -0.452; 95% CI: -0.880, -0.023; P = 0.039) and a decrease in total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol (β = 3.766; 95% CI: 1.092, 6.440; P = 0.007).Conclusions: Moderate but persistent dietary-induced weight loss substantially decreased both IPF and EPF volumes. Reduction of pericardial adipose tissues is independently associated with an improved lipid profile. The Mediterranean diet, rich in unsaturated fats and restricted carbohydrates, is superior to an LF diet in terms of the IPF burden reduction. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01530724.

PMID: 28814394 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Soya, maize, and sorghum-based ready-to-use therapeutic food with amino acid is as efficacious as the standard milk and peanut paste-based formulation for the treatment of severe acute malnutrition in children: A noninferiority individually randomized controlled efficacy clinical trial in Malawi.
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Soya, maize, and sorghum-based ready-to-use therapeutic food with amino acid is as efficacious as the standard milk and peanut paste-based formulation for the treatment of severe acute malnutrition in children: A noninferiority individually randomized controlled efficacy clinical trial in Malawi.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug 16;:

Authors: Bahwere P, Akomo P, Mwale M, Murakami H, Banda C, Kathumba S, Banda C, Jere S, Sadler K, Collins S

Abstract
Background: Development of more cost-effective ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is a global public health priority. To date, previous lower-cost recipes have been less effective than the standard peanut and milk (PM)-based RUTF, particularly in children aged <24 mo.Objective: We aimed to compare the efficacy of the PM-RUTF to a milk-free soya, maize, and sorghum (FSMS)-RUTF enriched with crystalline amino acids without cow milk powder and a milk, soya, maize, and sorghum (MSMS)-RUTF containing 9.3% skim cow milk powder.Design: This nonblinded, 3-arm, parallel-group, simple randomized controlled trial enrolled Malawian children with severe acute malnutrition.Results: In intention-to-treat analyses, FSMS-RUTF showed noninferiority for recovery rates in children aged 24-59 mo (Δ: -1.9%; 95% CI: -9.5%, 5.6%) and 6-23 mo (Δ: -0.2%; 95% CI: -7.5%, 7.1%) compared with PM-RUTF. MSMS-RUTF also showed noninferiority for recovery rates in children aged 24-59 mo (Δ: 0.0%; 95% CI: -7.3%, 7.4%) and 6-23 mo (Δ: 0.6%; 95% CI: -4.3%, 5.5%). Noninferiority in recovery rates was also observed in per-protocol analyses. For length of stay in the program (time to cure), both FSMS-RUTF in children aged 24-59 mo (Δ: 2.8 d; 95% CI: -0.8, 6.5 d) and 6-23 mo (Δ: 3.4 d; 95% CI: -1.2, 8.0 d) and MSMS-RUTF in children aged 24-59 mo (Δ: 0.2 d; 95% CI: -3.1, 3.6 d) and 6-23 mo (Δ: 1.2 d; 95% CI: -3.4, 5.8 d) were not inferior to PM-RUTF. FSMS-RUTF was also significantly better than PM-RUTF at increasing hemoglobin and body iron stores in anemic children, with mean hemoglobin increases of 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6, 2.6) and 1.3 (95% CI: 0.9, 1.8) and mean body iron store increases of 2.0 (95% CI: 0.8, 3.3) and 0.1 (95% CI: -1.1, 1.3) for FSMS-RUTF and PM-RUTF, respectively.Conclusions: FSMS-RUTF without milk is efficacious in the treatment of severe acute malnutrition in children aged 6-23 and 24-59 mo. It is also better at correcting iron deficiency anemia than PM-RUTF. This trial was registered at www.pactr.org as PACTR201505001101224.

PMID: 28814393 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Temporal eating patterns: associations with nutrient intakes, diet quality, and measures of adiposity.
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Temporal eating patterns: associations with nutrient intakes, diet quality, and measures of adiposity.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug 16;:

Authors: Leech RM, Timperio A, Livingstone KM, Worsley A, McNaughton SA

Abstract
Background: Some evidence suggests that higher energy intake (EI) later in the day is associated with poor diet quality and obesity. However, EI at one eating occasion (EO) is also dependent on EI at surrounding EOs. Studies that examine the distribution of EOs across the day are rare.Objective: The aim of this study was to examine associations between temporal eating patterns, nutrient intakes, diet quality, and measures of adiposity in a representative sample of Australian adults.Design: Dietary data from two 24-h recalls collected during the cross-sectional 2011-2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analyzed (n = 4544 adults, aged ≥19 y). Temporal eating patterns, based on the distribution of EOs across the day, were determined by using latent class analysis. Diet quality estimated adherence to healthy eating recommendations and was assessed by using the 2013 Dietary Guidelines Index (DGI). Multivariate regression models assessed associations between temporal eating patterns, nutrient intakes, diet quality, and adiposity (body mass index, waist circumference, weight status, and central weight status). Models were adjusted for potential confounders and energy misreporting.Results: Three patterns, labeled "conventional," "later lunch," and "grazing," were identified. Compared with a "conventional" or "later lunch" pattern, men and women with a "grazing" pattern had lower DGI scores and higher intakes of discretionary (noncore) foods (P < 0.05). Among women, the "grazing" pattern was associated with overweight or obesity (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.13) and central overweight or obesity (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.50). These associations were attenuated after the exclusion of energy misreporters and adjustment for total EI.Conclusions: This study found that a "grazing" temporal eating pattern was modestly but significantly associated with poorer diet quality and adiposity among women, after adjustment for covariates and energy misreporting. Future research should consider the impact of energy misreporting on the relation between temporal eating patterns and adiposity. This secondary analysis was registered at anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12617001029381.

PMID: 28814392 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]