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PCSK9 variant, long-chain n-3 PUFAs, and risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rican Hispanics.
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PCSK9 variant, long-chain n-3 PUFAs, and risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rican Hispanics.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar 22;:

Authors: Yu Z, Huang T, Zheng Y, Wang T, Heianza Y, Sun D, Campos H, Qi L

Abstract
Background: Previous studies have indicated that the cardioprotective effects of long-chain (LC) n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may vary across various ethnic populations. Emerging evidence has suggested that the gene-environment interaction may partly explain such variations. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) was shown to have a mutually regulating relation with LC n-3 PUFAs and also to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, we hypothesized that certain PCSK9 genetic variants may modify the association between LC n-3 PUFA intake and CVD risk.Objective: We determined whether a PCSK9 variant (rs11206510), which has been identified for early onset myocardial infarction (MI), modified the association of LC n-3 PUFAs with nonfatal MI risk in Costa Rican Hispanics.Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1932 case subjects with a first nonfatal MI and 2055 population-based control subjects who were living in Costa Rica to examine potential gene-environment interactions. Two-sided P values <0.05 were considered significant.Results: We observed a significant interaction between the PCSK9 rs11206510 genotype and LC n-3 PUFA intake on nonfatal MI risk (P-interaction = 0.012). The OR of nonfatal MI was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.98) per 0.1% increase in total energy intake from LC n-3 PUFAs in protective-allele (C-allele) carriers, whereas the corresponding OR (95% CI) in non-C-allele carriers was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.10). Similar results were observed when we examined the association between docosahexaenoic acid, which is one type of LC n-3 PUFA, and nonfatal MI risk (P-interaction = 0.003).Conclusion: LC n-3 PUFA intake is associated with a lower risk of nonfatal MI in C-allele carriers of PCSK9 rs11206510 (n = 799) but not in non-C-allele carriers (n = 3188).

PMID: 28330911 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Toward personalized calcium and vitamin D supplementation.
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Toward personalized calcium and vitamin D supplementation.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar 22;:

Authors: Civitelli R, Peterson T

PMID: 28330910 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Vitamin B-12 status in infancy is positively associated with development and cognitive functioning 5 y later in Nepalese children.
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Vitamin B-12 status in infancy is positively associated with development and cognitive functioning 5 y later in Nepalese children.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar 22;:

Authors: Kvestad I, Hysing M, Shrestha M, Ulak M, Thorne-Lyman AL, Henjum S, Ueland PM, Midttun Ø, Fawzi W, Chandyo RK, Shrestha PS, Strand TA

Abstract
Background: Poor vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) status is widespread in South Asia. Insufficient vitamin B-12 status has been linked to poor neurodevelopment in young children.Objective: We measured the associations between vitamin B-12 status in infancy (2-12 mo) and the development and cognitive functioning in Nepalese children 5 y later.Design: Vitamin B-12 status was assessed in infancy with the use of plasma cobalamin, total homocysteine (tHcy), and methylmalonic acid (MMA). At 5 y of age, we measured development with the use of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, 3rd edition (ASQ-3), and cognitive functioning by using the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, 2nd edition (NEPSY II), in 320 children. In regression models, we estimated the associations between vitamin B-12 status, including a combined indicator of vitamin B-12 status (3cB12) and scores on the ASQ-3 and NEPSY II subtests.Results: All markers of vitamin B-12 status with the exception of plasma cobalamin were significantly associated with the total ASQ-3 scores in the multiple regression models. A 1-unit increase in the 3cB12 score was associated with an increase in the total ASQ-3 score of 4.88 (95% CI: 2.09, 7.68; P = 0.001). Increases in both plasma tHcy and MMA (indicating poorer status) were associated with a decrease in scores on the NEPSY II affect recognition and geometric puzzle subtests. Each unit increment in 3cB12 scores was associated with increases of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.49, 1.14; P < 0.0005), 0.59 (95% CI: 0.10, 1.09; P = 0.020), and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.47; P = 0.035) in the affect recognition, geometric puzzle, and block construction scores, respectively.Conclusions: Vitamin B-12 status in infancy is associated with development and performance on social perception tasks and visuospatial abilities at 5 y of age. The long-term effects of poor vitamin B-12 status in infancy need further investigation in randomized controlled trials.

PMID: 28330909 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




The effect of dairy intake on bone mass and body composition in early pubertal girls and boys: a randomized controlled trial.
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The effect of dairy intake on bone mass and body composition in early pubertal girls and boys: a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar 22;:

Authors: Vogel KA, Martin BR, McCabe LD, Peacock M, Warden SJ, McCabe GP, Weaver CM

Abstract
Background: Calcium retention increases with increasing body mass index (BMI) on recommended calcium intakes. Dairy foods are an excellent source of essential nutrients that are needed to increase bone mineral content (BMC) and potentially decrease fracture.Objective: We compared children who were overweight with children who were healthy weight for the accrual of bone mass in response to an extra 3 servings dairy/d compared with usual intake.Design: Participants were 240 healthy boys and girls (64%), aged 8-15.9 y (mean ± SD age: 11.8 ± 1.5 y), who consumed low amounts of dairy (<800 mg Ca/d). A total of 181 subjects completed the trial-61% were black, 35% were white, and 4% were other; 50% of subjects were healthy weight [5th through 70th BMI percentiles for age (percentile)], and 50% of subjects were overweight (≥85th percentile). Participants were randomly assigned within BMI categories to receive an 18-mo dairy intervention (3 servings/d equivalent to ∼900 mg Ca/d) or control. Main outcome measures assessed every 6 mo included the total-body bone mineral content and density, cortical and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), BMC, and bone area at the 4% tibia and anthropometric measures.Results: No significant differences in the change of BMD, BMC, or bone area for the total-body radius, lumbar spine, and total hip were observed between subjects who received the dairy intervention (achieved consumption of 1500 mg Ca/d) and subjects who did not (achieved 1000 mg Ca/d, which represented ∼2 cups milk or other dairy as part of the diet) with the exception of a tibial BMC gain, which was greater in the group who were given dairy (P = 0.02). Body fat was not influenced by the diet assignment.Conclusions: Dairy food interventions generally had no effect on bone mineral acquisition or body composition either within or between weight groups. This study suggests that 2 cups milk or the dairy equivalent is adequate for normal bone gain between ages 8 and 16 y. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00635583.

PMID: 28330908 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Plasma ω-3 fatty acids in pregnancy are inversely associated with postpartum weight retention in a multiethnic Asian cohort.
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Plasma ω-3 fatty acids in pregnancy are inversely associated with postpartum weight retention in a multiethnic Asian cohort.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar 22;:

Authors: Loy SL, Ng MJ, Cheung YB, Godfrey KM, Calder PC, Lek N, Yap F, Müller-Riemenschneider F, Natarajan P, Chong YS, Tan KH, Shek LP, Chong MF, Chan JK

Abstract
Background: Studies have demonstrated associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and adiposity. It is unclear whether PUFAs in pregnancy have an effect on maternal weight retention after childbirth, which can contribute to long-term obesity.Objective: We examined the association of maternal plasma PUFAs in pregnancy with 18-mo postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a multiethnic Asian cohort.Design: We studied pregnant women (n = 653) recruited between June 2009 and September 2010 from a prospective cohort. At 26-28 wk of gestation, plasma phosphatidylcholine PUFA concentrations were measured and determined as percentages of total fatty acids (FAs). PPWR was calculated based on the difference between measured weight at the first antenatal clinic visit and at 18 mo postpartum.Results: The median retained weight of women was 0.90 kg (IQR: -1.40, 3.25) at 18 mo postpartum. Of 653 women, 544 women (83.3%) had PPWR of <5 kg and 109 (16.7%) had PPWR of ≥5 kg. In adjusted linear regression models, higher plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total ω-3 (n-3) PUFA concentrations were associated with lower PPWR [EPA: β = -0.62 kg/1% increase of total FAs (95% CI: -1.18, -0.05); DHA: β = -0.24 kg/1% increase (95% CI: -0.45, -0.02); total ω-3 PUFAs: β = -0.20 kg/1% increase (95% CI: -0.36, -0.03)], whereas a higher ratio of plasma ω-6-to-ω-3 PUFAs was associated with a higher PPWR [β = 0.21 kg/unit increase (95% CI: 0.05, 0.36)].Conclusions: Higher plasma percentages of ω-3 PUFAs and a lower ratio of ω-6-to-ω-3 PUFAs in the late-second trimester of pregnancy are associated with less weight retention at 18 mo postpartum. This may offer an alternative strategy to assist postpartum weight reduction by increasing EPA and DHA status together with a decreased ratio of ω-6-to-ω-3 PUFA through diet or fish-oil supplementation during pregnancy. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.

PMID: 28330907 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]