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Association between microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide and type 2 diabetes.
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Association between microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide and type 2 diabetes.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jul 19;:

Authors: Shan Z, Sun T, Huang H, Chen S, Chen L, Luo C, Yang W, Yang X, Yao P, Cheng J, Hu FB, Liu L

Abstract
Background: The association of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a microbiota-dependent metabolite from dietary choline and carnitine, with type 2 diabetes was inconsistent.Objective: We evaluated the association of plasma TMAO with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and the potential modification of TMAO-generating enzyme flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) polymorphisms.Design: This was an age- and sex-matched case-control study of 2694 participants: 1346 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes and 1348 controls. Concentrations of plasma TMAO were measured, and FMO3 E158K polymorphisms (rs2266782) were genotyped.Results: Medians (IQRs) of plasma TMAO concentration were 1.47 μmol/L (0.81-2.20 μmol/L) for controls and 1.77 μmol/L (1.09-2.80 μmol/L) for type 2 diabetes cases. From the lowest to the highest quartiles of plasma TMAO, the multivariable adjusted ORs of type 2 diabetes were 1.00 (reference), 1.38 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.77), 1.64 (95% CI: 1.28, 2.09), and 2.55 (95% CI: 1.99, 3.28) (P-trend < 0.001); each SD of ln-transformed plasma TMAO was associated with a 38% (95% CI: 26%, 51%) increment in ORs of type 2 diabetes. The FMO3 rs2266782 polymorphism was not associated with type 2 diabetes. The positive association between plasma TMAO and type 2 diabetes was consistent in each rs2266782 genotype group, and no significant interaction was observed (P = 0.093).Conclusions: Our results suggested that higher plasma TMAO was associated with increased odds of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and that this association was not modified by the FMO3 rs2266782 polymorphism. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03130894.

PMID: 28724646 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Effect of maternal high dosages of folic acid supplements on neurocognitive development in children at 4-5 years of age: the prospective birth cohort Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) study.
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Effect of maternal high dosages of folic acid supplements on neurocognitive development in children at 4-5 years of age: the prospective birth cohort Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) study.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jul 19;:

Authors: Valera-Gran D, Navarrete-Muñoz EM, Garcia de la Hera M, Fernández-Somoano A, Tardón A, Ibarluzea J, Balluerka N, Murcia M, González-Safont L, Romaguera D, Julvez J, Vioque J, INMA Project

Abstract
Background: The benefits of the use of folic acid supplements (FASs) during the periconception period to prevent neural tube defects and to ensure normal brain development in offspring are well known. There is concern, however, about the long-term effects of the maternal use of high dosages of FASs that exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) (≥1000 μg/d) on child neurocognitive outcomes.Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the association between the use of high dosages of FASs during pregnancy and child neuropsychological development at ages 4-5 y.Design: The multicenter prospective mother-child cohort study, the Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project, was conducted in 4 regions of Spain: Asturias, Sabadell, Gipuzkoa, and Valencia. Pregnant women were recruited between 2003 and 2008. Data on 1682 mother-child pairs were included in the final analyses. The pregnant women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire that was validated to estimate typical dietary folate intake and the use of FASs at 10-13 and 28-32 wk of gestation. Neuropsychological development scores at 4-5 y of age were estimated with the use of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Multiple linear regression and meta-analysis were used to obtain combined-effect estimates.Results: During the periconception period, one-third of the women (n = 502) took FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/d. The use of FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/d in this period was negatively associated with several neuropsychological outcomes scores in children: global verbal (β = -2.49; 95% CI: -4.71, -0.27), verbal memory (β = -3.59; 95% CI: -6.95, -0.23), cognitive function of posterior cortex (β = -2.31; 95% CI: -4.45, -0.18), and cognitive function of left posterior cortex (β = -3.26; 95% CI: -5.51, -1.01).Conclusions: The use of FAS dosages exceeding the UL (≥1000 μg/d) during the periconception period was associated with lower levels of cognitive development in children aged 4-5 y. The use of FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/d during pregnancy should be monitored and prevented as much as possible, unless medically prescribed.

PMID: 28724645 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or noncommunicable chronic diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
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The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or noncommunicable chronic diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jul 19;:

Authors: Dibaba DT, Xun P, Song Y, Rosanoff A, Shechter M, He K

Abstract
Background: To our knowledge, the effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) in individuals with preclinical or noncommunicable diseases has not been previously investigated in a meta-analysis, and the findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been inconsistent.Objective: We sought to determine the pooled effect of magnesium supplementation on BP in participants with preclinical or noncommunicable diseases.Design: We identified RCTs that were published in English before May 2017 that examined the effect of magnesium supplementation on BP in individuals with preclinical or noncommunicable diseases through PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, clinicaltrials.gov, SpringerLink, and Google Scholar databases as well as the reference lists from identified relevant articles. Random- and fixed-effects models were used to estimate the pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs in changes in BP from baseline to the end of the trial in both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between the magnesium-supplementation group and the control group.Results: Eleven RCTs that included 543 participants with follow-up periods that ranged from 1 to 6 mo (mean: 3.6 mo) were included in this meta-analysis. The dose of elemental magnesium that was used in the trials ranged from 365 to 450 mg/d. All studies reported BP at baseline and the end of the trial. The weighted overall effects indicated that the magnesium-supplementation group had a significantly greater reduction in both SBP (SMD: -0.20; 95% CI: -0.37, -0.03) and DBP (SMD: -0.27; 95% CI: -0.52, -0.03) than did the control group. Magnesium supplementation resulted in a mean reduction of 4.18 mm Hg in SBP and 2.27 mm Hg in DBP.Conclusion: The pooled results suggest that magnesium supplementation significantly lowers BP in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or other noncommunicable chronic diseases.

PMID: 28724644 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials.
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A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jul 19;:

Authors: Poutanen KS, Dussort P, Erkner A, Fiszman S, Karnik K, Kristensen M, Marsaux CF, Miquel-Kergoat S, Pentikäinen SP, Putz P, Slavin JL, Steinert RE, Mela DJ

Abstract
Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized.Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans.Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature. Studies were included only if they reported 1) DF name and origin and 2) data on viscosity, gelling properties, fermentability, or MW of the DF materials or DF-containing matrixes.Results: A high proportion of the potentially relevant literature was excluded because of lack of adequate DF characterization. In total, 49 articles that met these criteria were identified, which reported 90 comparisons of various DFs in foods, beverages, or supplements in acute or sustained-exposure trials. In 51 of the 90 comparisons, the DF-containing material of interest was efficacious for ≥1 appetite-related outcome. Reported differences in material viscosity, MW, or fermentability did not clearly correspond to differences in efficacy, whereas gel-forming DF sources were consistently efficacious (but with very few comparisons).Conclusions: The overall inconsistent relations of DF properties with respect to efficacy may reflect variation in measurement methodology, nature of the DF preparation and matrix, and study designs. Methods of DF characterization, incorporation, and study design are too inconsistent to allow generalized conclusions about the effects of DF properties on appetite and preclude the development of reliable, predictive, structure-function relations. Improved standards for characterization and reporting of DF sources and DF-containing materials are strongly recommended for future studies on the effects of DF on human physiology. This trial was registered at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO as CRD42015015336.

PMID: 28724643 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Fructose: back to the future?
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Fructose: back to the future?

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jul 19;:

Authors: Sievenpiper JL

PMID: 28724642 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]