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Impact of polyunsaturated and saturated fat overfeeding on the DNA-methylation pattern in human adipose tissue: a randomized controlled trial.
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Impact of polyunsaturated and saturated fat overfeeding on the DNA-methylation pattern in human adipose tissue: a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):991-1000

Authors: Perfilyev A, Dahlman I, Gillberg L, Rosqvist F, Iggman D, Volkov P, Nilsson E, Risérus U, Ling C

Abstract
Background: Dietary fat composition can affect ectopic lipid accumulation and, thereby, insulin resistance. Diets that are high in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have different metabolic responses.Objective: We investigated whether the epigenome of human adipose tissue is affected differently by dietary fat composition and general overfeeding in a randomized trial.Design: We studied the effects of 7 wk of excessive SFA (n = 17) or PUFA (n = 14) intake (+750 kcal/d) on the DNA methylation of ∼450,000 sites in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Both diets resulted in similar body weight increases. We also combined the data from the 2 groups to examine the overall effect of overfeeding on the DNA methylation in adipose tissue.Results: The DNA methylation of 4875 Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites was affected differently between the 2 diets. Furthermore, both the SFA and PUFA diets increased the mean degree of DNA methylation in adipose tissue, particularly in promoter regions. However, although the mean methylation was changed in 1797 genes [e.g., alpha-ketoglutarate dependent dioxygenase (FTO), interleukin 6 (IL6), insulin receptor (INSR), neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR1), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)] by PUFAs, only 125 genes [e.g., adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing (ADIPOQ)] were changed by SFA overfeeding. In addition, the SFA diet significantly altered the expression of 28 transcripts [e.g., acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and FAT atypical cadherin 1 (FAT1)], whereas the PUFA diet did not significantly affect gene expression. When the data from the 2 diet groups were combined, the mean methylation of 1444 genes, including fatty acid binding protein 1 (FABP1), fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2), melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), MC3R, PPARG coactivator 1 α (PPARGC1A), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), was changed in adipose tissue by overfeeding. Moreover, the baseline DNA methylation of 12 CpG sites that was annotated to 9 genes [e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 (MAPK7), melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1), and splicing factor SWAP homolog (SFRS8)] was associated with the degree of weight increase in response to extra energy intake.Conclusions: SFA overfeeding and PUFA overfeeding induce distinct epigenetic changes in human adipose tissue. In addition, we present data that suggest that baseline DNA methylation can predict weight increase in response to overfeeding in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01427140.

PMID: 28275132 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Tea catechin and caffeine activate brown adipose tissue and increase cold-induced thermogenic capacity in humans.
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Tea catechin and caffeine activate brown adipose tissue and increase cold-induced thermogenic capacity in humans.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):873-881

Authors: Yoneshiro T, Matsushita M, Hibi M, Tone H, Takeshita M, Yasunaga K, Katsuragi Y, Kameya T, Sugie H, Saito M

Abstract
Background: The thermogenic effects of green tea catechin have been repeatedly reported, but their mechanisms are poorly understood.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic effects of catechin on brown adipose tissue (BAT), a site specialized for nonshivering thermogenesis, in humans.Design: Fifteen healthy male volunteers underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography to assess BAT activity. To examine the acute catechin effect, whole-body energy expenditure (EE) after a single oral ingestion of a beverage containing 615 mg catechin and 77 mg caffeine (catechin beverage) was measured. Next, to investigate the chronic catechin effects, 10 men with low BAT activity were enrolled. Before and after ingestion of the catechin beverage 2 times/d for 5 wk, cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT) after 2 h of cold exposure at 19°C, which is proportional to BAT activity, was examined. Both the acute and chronic trials were single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, season-matched crossover studies.Results: A single ingestion of the catechin beverage increased EE in 9 subjects who had metabolically active BAT (mean ± SEM: +15.24 ± 1.48 kcal, P < 0.01) but not in 6 subjects who had negligible activities (mean ± SEM: +3.42 ± 2.68 kcal). The ingestion of a placebo beverage containing 82 mg caffeine produced a smaller and comparative EE response in the 2 subject groups. Multivariate regression analysis revealed a significant interaction between BAT and catechin on EE (β = 0.496, P = 0.003). Daily ingestion of the catechin beverage elevated mean ± SEM CIT (from 92.0 ± 26.5 to 197.9 ± 27.7 kcal/d; P = 0.009), whereas the placebo beverage did not change it.Conclusion: Orally ingested tea catechin with caffeine acutely increases EE associated with increased BAT activity and chronically elevates nonshivering CIT, probably because of the recruitment of BAT, in humans. These trials were registered at www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ as UMIN000016361.

PMID: 28275131 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Mothers' intake of sugar-containing beverages during pregnancy and body composition of their children during childhood: the Generation R Study.
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Mothers' intake of sugar-containing beverages during pregnancy and body composition of their children during childhood: the Generation R Study.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):834-841

Authors: Jen V, Erler NS, Tielemans MJ, Braun KV, Jaddoe VW, Franco OH, Voortman T

Abstract
Background: High intake of sugar-containing beverages (SCBs) has been linked to increased risk of obesity. However, associations of SCB intake during pregnancy with child body composition have been unclear.Objectives: We explored whether SCB intake during pregnancy was associated with children's body mass index (BMI) and detailed measures of body composition. In addition, we examined different types of SCBs (i.e., fruit juice, soda, and concentrate).Design: We included 3312 mother-child pairs of the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort from fetal life onward in the Netherlands. Energy-adjusted SCB intake was assessed in the first trimester with a food-frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric data of the children were collected repeatedly ≤6 y of age, and BMI was calculated. At 6 y of age, we further measured fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. All outcomes were sex- and age-standardized. Associations of SCB intake with children's BMI trajectories and body composition were analyzed with multivariable linear mixed and regression models.Results: Results from linear mixed models showed that, after adjustment for confounders including the SCB intake of the child itself, mothers' total SCB intake was positively associated with children's BMI ≤6 y of age [per serving per day: 0.04 SD score (SDS); 95% CI: 0.00, 0.07 SDS]. In addition, intakes of total SCBs and fruit juice, but not of soda or concentrate, were associated with a higher FMI [total SCBs: 0.05 SDS (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08 SDS); fruit juice: 0.04 SDS (95% CI: 0.01, 0.06 SDS)] of the 6-y-old children. These associations remained significant (P < 0.05) after additional adjustment for gestational weight gain, birth weight, and children's insulin concentrations.Conclusion: Our study suggests that maternal SCB intake during pregnancy is positively associated with children's BMI during early childhood and particularly with higher fat mass.

PMID: 28275130 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Declining consumption of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia: a challenge for obesity prevention.
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Declining consumption of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia: a challenge for obesity prevention.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):854-863

Authors: Brand-Miller JC, Barclay AW

Abstract
Background: Reduced intakes of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been the main focus of efforts to stall obesity. Although obesity has risen steeply in Australia, some evidence suggests that added-sugars and SSB intakes have declined over the same time frame.Objective: We investigated recent trends in the availability of sugars and sweeteners and changes in intakes of total sugars, added sugars, and SSBs in Australia by using multiple, independent data sources.Design: The study was designed to compare relevant data published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO Statistics Division Database (FAOSTAT)], the Australian government, academia, and the food industry.Results: With the use of the FAOSTAT food balance sheets for Australia, the per capita availability of added or refined sugars and sweeteners was shown to have fallen 16% from 152 g/d in 1980 to 127 g/d in 2011 (P-trend = 0.001). In national dietary surveys in 1995 and 2011-2012, added-sugars intake declined markedly in adult men (from 72 to 59 g/d; -18%) but not in women (44-42 g/d; NS). As a proportion of total energy, added-sugars intake fell 10% in adult men but nonsignificantly in adult women. Between 1995 and 2011-2012, the proportion of energy from SSBs (including 100% juice) declined 10% in adult men and 20% in women. More marked changes were observed in children aged 2-18 y. Data from national grocery sales indicated that per capita added-sugars intakes derived from carbonated soft drinks fell 26% between 1997 and 2011 (from 23 to 17 g/d) with similar trends for noncarbonated beverages.Conclusions: In Australia, 4 independent data sets confirmed shorter- and longer-term declines in the availability and intake of added sugars, including those contributed by SSBs. The findings challenge the widespread belief that energy from added sugars or sugars in solution are uniquely linked to the prevalence of obesity.

PMID: 28275129 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Home fortification during the first 1000 d improves child development in Bangladesh: a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial.
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Home fortification during the first 1000 d improves child development in Bangladesh: a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):958-969

Authors: Matias SL, Mridha MK, Tofail F, Arnold CD, Khan MS, Siddiqui Z, Ullah MB, Dewey KG

Abstract
Background: Nutrition during the first 1000 d is critical for brain development.Objective: We evaluated the effects on child development of home fortification with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) for mothers and/or children or micronutrient powder (MNP) for children.Design: We conducted a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial with 4 arms: 1) LNSs during pregnancy and the first 6 mo postpartum and LNSs for the offspring from 6 to 24 mo (LNS-LNS), 2) iron and folic acid (IFA) during pregnancy and the first 3 mo postpartum and LNSs for the children from 6 to 24 mo (IFA-LNS), 3) IFA (as above) and MNP for the offspring from 6 to 24 mo (IFA-MNP), and 4) IFA (as above) and no child supplement (IFA-Control). Women were enrolled at ≤20 wk of gestation; children were assessed at 12 (n = 3331), 18 (n = 3364), and 24 (n = 3379) mo.Results: Compared with the IFA-Control group, motor development scores were higher in the LNS-LNS (P = 0.016) and IFA-LNS groups (P = 0.006) at 18 mo and in the IFA-MNP group (P = 0.048) at 24 mo. Receptive language scores were higher for the LNS-LNS group (P = 0.028) at 18 mo and for all 3 groups at 24 mo (P = 0.008 for LNS-LNS, P = 0.022 for IFA-LNS, and P = 0.009 for IFA-MNP compared with IFA-Control). Expressive language scores did not differ at 18 mo (P = 0.236) but were higher in the LNS-LNS (P = 0.035) and IFA-MNP (P = 0.002) groups than in the IFA-Control group at 24 mo. Groups did not differ in personal-social scores at 18 (P = 0.233) or 24 (P = 0.146) mo or in executive function score at 24 mo (P = 0.467).Conclusion: Prenatal LNSs, postnatal LNSs, or both, or postnatal MNP had a positive effect on motor and language development in Bangladeshi children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01715038.

PMID: 28275128 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Persistence of weight loss and acquired behaviors 2 y after stopping a 2-y calorie restriction intervention.
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Persistence of weight loss and acquired behaviors 2 y after stopping a 2-y calorie restriction intervention.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):928-935

Authors: Marlatt KL, Redman LM, Burton JH, Martin CK, Ravussin E

Abstract
Background: Calorie restriction (CR) influences aging processes and extends average and maximal life spans. The CALERIE 2 (Comprehensive Assessment of Long-Term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy Phase 2) study was the first randomized clinical trial to examine the metabolic and psychological effects of CR in nonobese humans.Objective: We conducted a 2-y follow-up study of adults who underwent 2 y of CR or ad libitum (control) consumption and determined whether weight loss and acquired behaviors persisted after the study ended when participants determined their own lifestyle behaviors.Design: In this prospective, longitudinal study, we assessed differences in weight, body composition, psychological function, and energy expenditure in 39 nonobese [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22-28] men and women (25% CR: n = 24; control: n = 15) 12 and 24 mo after they completed the CALERIE 2 study at Pennington Biomedical.Results: Of 39 participants who were in the follow-up study, 29 subjects (CR: n = 18; control: n = 11) completed all visits at follow-up months 12 and 24. After the CR intervention, a mean ± SEM weight loss of 9.0 ± 0.6 kg was observed in the CR group, in which only 54% of the weight was regained 2 y later. Despite such a regain, weight, the percentage of body fat, and fat mass remained significantly reduced from baseline throughout follow-up and remained significantly less than in the control group (P < 0.05). At follow-up, the CR group retained higher degrees of dietary restraint and avoidance of certain foods.Conclusion: After a 2-y intensive CR intervention, ∼50% of CR-induced weight loss was maintained 2 y later, which was probably the result of lasting effects on acquired behaviors and dietary restraint. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00943215.

PMID: 28275127 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Vitamin B-6 and colorectal cancer risk: a prospective population-based study using 3 distinct plasma markers of vitamin B-6 status.
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Vitamin B-6 and colorectal cancer risk: a prospective population-based study using 3 distinct plasma markers of vitamin B-6 status.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):897-904

Authors: Gylling B, Myte R, Schneede J, Hallmans G, Häggström J, Johansson I, Ulvik A, Ueland PM, Van Guelpen B, Palmqvist R

Abstract
Background: Higher plasma concentrations of the vitamin B-6 marker pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) have been associated with reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Inflammatory processes, including vitamin B-6 catabolism, could explain such findings.Objective: We investigated 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-6 status in relation to CRC risk.Design: This was a prospective case-control study of 613 CRC cases and 1190 matched controls nested within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (n = 114,679). Participants were followed from 1985 to 2009, and the median follow-up from baseline to CRC diagnosis was 8.2 y. PLP, pyridoxal, pyridoxic acid (PA), 3-hydroxykynurenine, and xanthurenic acids (XAs) were measured in plasma with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We calculated relative and absolute risks of CRC for PLP and the ratios 3-hydroxykynurenine:XA (HK:XA), an inverse marker of functional vitamin B-6 status, and PA:(PLP + pyridoxal) (PAr), a marker of inflammation and oxidative stress and an inverse marker of vitamin B-6 status.Results: Plasma PLP concentrations were associated with a reduced CRC risk for the third compared with the first quartile and for PLP sufficiency compared with deficiency [OR: 0.60 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.81) and OR: 0.55 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.81), respectively]. HK:XA and PAr were both associated with increased CRC risk [OR: 1.48 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.02) and OR: 1.50 (95% CI: 1.10, 2.04), respectively] for the fourth compared with the first quartile. For HK:XA and PAr, the findings were mainly observed in study participants with <10.5 y of follow-up between sampling and diagnosis.Conclusions: Vitamin B-6 deficiency as measured by plasma PLP is associated with a clear increase in CRC risk. Furthermore, our analyses of novel markers of functional vitamin B-6 status and vitamin B-6-associated oxidative stress and inflammation suggest a role in tumor progression rather than initiation.

PMID: 28275126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Lipid-based nutrient supplementation in the first 1000 d improves child growth in Bangladesh: a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial.
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Lipid-based nutrient supplementation in the first 1000 d improves child growth in Bangladesh: a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):944-957

Authors: Dewey KG, Mridha MK, Matias SL, Arnold CD, Cummins JR, Khan MS, Maalouf-Manasseh Z, Siddiqui Z, Ullah MB, Vosti SA

Abstract
Background: Stunting in linear growth occurs mainly during the first 1000 d, from conception through 24 mo of age. Despite the recognition of this critical period, there have been few evaluations of the growth impact of interventions that cover most of this window.Objective: We evaluated home fortification approaches for preventing maternal and child undernutrition within a community-based health program. We hypothesized that small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) provided to women during pregnancy and the first 6 mo postpartum, LNSs provided to their offspring from 6 to 24 mo of age, or both would result in greater child length-for-age z score (LAZ) at 24 mo than iron and folic acid (IFA) provided to women during pregnancy and postpartum plus micronutrient powder (MNP) or no supplementation for their offspring from 6 to 24 mo.Design: We conducted a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial with 4 arms: 1) women and children both received LNSs (LNS-LNS group), 2) women received IFA and children received LNSs (IFA-LNS group), 3) women received IFA and children received MNP (IFA-MNP group), and 4) women received IFA and children received no supplements (IFA-Control group). We enrolled 4011 women at ≤20 wk of gestation within 64 clusters, each comprising the supervision area of a community health worker. Analyses were primarily performed by using ANCOVA F tests and Tukey-Kramer-corrected pairwise comparisons.Results: At 24 mo, the LNS-LNS group had significantly higher LAZ (+0.13 compared with the IFA-MNP group) and head circumference (+0.15 z score compared with the IFA-Control group); these outcomes did not differ between the other groups. Stunting prevalence (LAZ <-2) was lower in the LNS-LNS group at 18 mo than in the IFA-MNP group (OR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.92), but the difference diminished by 24 mo (OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.04).Conclusion: Home fortification with small-quantity LNSs, but not MNP, during the first 1000 d improved child linear growth and head size in rural Bangladesh. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01715038.

PMID: 28275125 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Comparison of the impact of SFAs from cheese and butter on cardiometabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled trial.
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Comparison of the impact of SFAs from cheese and butter on cardiometabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):800-809

Authors: Brassard D, Tessier-Grenier M, Allaire J, Rajendiran E, She Y, Ramprasath V, Gigleux I, Talbot D, Levy E, Tremblay A, Jones PJ, Couture P, Lamarche B

Abstract
Background: Controversies persist concerning the association between intake of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and cardiovascular disease risk.Objective: We compared the impact of consuming equal amounts of SFAs from cheese and butter on cardiometabolic risk factors.Design: In a multicenter, crossover, randomized controlled trial, 92 men and women with abdominal obesity and relatively low HDL-cholesterol concentrations were assigned to sequences of 5 predetermined isoenergetic diets of 4 wk each separated by 4-wk washouts: 2 diets rich in SFAs (12.4-12.6% of calories) from either cheese or butter; a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich diet (SFAs: 5.8%, MUFAs: 19.6%); a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diet (SFAs: 5.8%, PUFAs: 11.5%); and a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet (fat: 25%, SFAs: 5.8%).Results: Serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations were similar after the cheese and butter diets but were significantly higher than after the carbohydrate diet (+3.8% and +4.7%, respectively; P < 0.05 for both). LDL-cholesterol concentrations after the cheese diet were lower than after the butter diet (-3.3%, P < 0.05) but were higher than after the carbohydrate (+2.6%), MUFA (+5.3%), and PUFA (+12.3%) diets (P < 0.05 for all). LDL-cholesterol concentrations after the butter diet also increased significantly (from +6.1% to +16.2%, P < 0.05) compared with the carbohydrate, MUFA, and PUFA diets. The LDL-cholesterol response to treatment was significantly modified by baseline values (P-interaction = 0.02), with the increase in LDL cholesterol being significantly greater with butter than with cheese only among individuals with high baseline LDL-cholesterol concentrations. There was no significant difference between all diets on inflammation markers, blood pressure, and insulin-glucose homeostasis.Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that the consumption of SFAs from cheese and butter has similar effects on HDL cholesterol but differentially modifies LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with the effects of carbohydrates, MUFAs, and PUFAs, particularly in individuals with high LDL cholesterol. In contrast, SFAs from either cheese or butter have no significant effects on several other nonlipid cardiometabolic risk factors. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02106208.

PMID: 28251937 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Dietary intake is independently associated with the maximal capacity for fat oxidation during exercise.
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Dietary intake is independently associated with the maximal capacity for fat oxidation during exercise.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):864-872

Authors: Fletcher G, Eves FF, Glover EI, Robinson SL, Vernooij CA, Thompson JL, Wallis GA

Abstract
Background: Substantial interindividual variability exists in the maximal rate of fat oxidation (MFO) during exercise with potential implications for metabolic health. Although the diet can affect the metabolic response to exercise, the contribution of a self-selected diet to the interindividual variability in the MFO requires further clarification.Objective: We sought to identify whether recent, self-selected dietary intake independently predicts the MFO in healthy men and women.Design: The MFO and maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2 max) were determined with the use of indirect calorimetry in 305 healthy volunteers [150 men and 155 women; mean ± SD age: 25 ± 6 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 2]. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition with the self-reported physical activity level (SRPAL) and dietary intake determined in the 4 d before exercise testing. To minimize potential confounding with typically observed sex-related differences (e.g., body composition), predictor variables were mean-centered by sex. In the analyses, hierarchical multiple linear regressions were used to quantify each variable's influence on the MFO.Results: The mean absolute MFO was 0.55 ± 0.19 g/min (range: 0.19-1.13 g/min). A total of 44.4% of the interindividual variability in the MFO was explained by the [Formula: see text]O2 max, sex, and SRPAL with dietary carbohydrate (carbohydrate; negative association with the MFO) and fat intake (positive association) associated with an additional 3.2% of the variance. When expressed relative to fat-free mass (FFM), the MFO was 10.8 ± 3.2 mg · kg FFM(-1) · min(-1) (range: 3.5-20.7 mg · kg FFM(-1) · min(-1)) with 16.6% of the variability explained by the [Formula: see text]O2 max, sex, and SRPAL; dietary carbohydrate and fat intakes together explained an additional 2.6% of the variability. Biological sex was an independent determinant of the MFO with women showing a higher MFO [men: 10.3 ± 3.1 mg · kg FFM(-1) · min(-1) (3.5-19.9 mg · kg FFM(-1) · min(-1)); women: 11.2 ± 3.3 mg · kg FFM(-1) · min(-1) (4.6-20.7 mg · kg FFM(-1) · min(-1)); P < 0.05].Conclusion: Considered alongside other robust determinants, dietary carbohydrate and fat intake make modest but independent contributions to the interindividual variability in the capacity to oxidize fat during exercise. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02070055.

PMID: 28251936 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Dietary quality changes in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage-reduction intervention: results from the Talking Health randomized controlled clinical trial.
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Dietary quality changes in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage-reduction intervention: results from the Talking Health randomized controlled clinical trial.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):824-833

Authors: Hedrick VE, Davy BM, You W, Porter KJ, Estabrooks PA, Zoellner JM

Abstract
Background: The reduction of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake may be beneficial for weight management and other related health conditions; however, to our knowledge, no data exist regarding the spontaneous changes in other dietary components or the overall dietary quality after an SSB-reduction intervention.Objectives: We explored longitudinal changes within and between an SSB-reduction intervention (SIPsmartER) and a physical activity intervention (MoveMore) with respect to spontaneous changes in 1) energy intake and macronutrients and micronutrients, 2) dietary quality [Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI)], and 3) beverage categories.Design: Participants were enrolled in a 6-mo, community-based behavioral trial and randomly assigned into either the SIPsmartER (n = 149) intervention group or the MoveMore (n = 143) matched-contact comparison group. Dietary intake was assessed through a mean of three 24-h dietary recalls at baseline and 6 mo. Dietary recalls were analyzed with the use of nutritional analysis software. A multilevel, mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses is presented.Results: SIPsmartER participants showed a significant reduction in total SSBs (mean decrease: -366 mL; P ≤ 0.001). Several spontaneous changes occurred within the SIPsmartER group and, compared with the MoveMore group, included significant HEI improvements for empty calorie, total vegetable, and total HEI scores (mean increases: 2.6, 0.3, and 2.6, respectively; all P ≤ 0.01). Additional positive changes were shown, including significant decreases in total energy intake, trans fat, added sugars, and total beverage energy (all P ≤ 0.05). Few dietary changes were noted in the MoveMore group over the 6-mo intervention.Conclusions: Intervention of the single dietary component SSB resulted in additional spontaneous and beneficial dietary changes. Interventions that target a single dietary change, such as limiting SSB intake to <240 mL/d (<8 fl oz/d), may improve the overall dietary quality health and provide motivation to make additional dietary changes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02193009.

PMID: 28251935 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Longitudinal study of alcohol consumption and HDL concentrations: a community-based study.
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Longitudinal study of alcohol consumption and HDL concentrations: a community-based study.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):905-912

Authors: Huang S, Li J, Shearer GC, Lichtenstein AH, Zheng X, Wu Y, Jin C, Wu S, Gao X

Abstract
Background: In cross-sectional studies and short-term clinical trials, it has been suggested that there is a positive dose-response relation between alcohol consumption and HDL concentrations. However, prospective data have been limited.Objective: We sought to determine the association between total alcohol intake, the type of alcohol-containing beverage, and the 6-y (2006-2012) longitudinal change in HDL-cholesterol concentrations in a community-based cohort.Design: A total of 71,379 Chinese adults (mean age: 50 y) who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer and did not use cholesterol-lowering agents during follow-up were included in the study. Alcohol intake was assessed via a questionnaire in 2006 (baseline), and participants were classified into the following categories of alcohol consumption: never, past, light (women: 0-0.4 servings/d; men: 0-0.9 servings/d), moderate (women: 0.5-1.0 servings/d; men: 1-2 servings/d), and heavy (women: >1.0 servings/d; men: >2 servings/d). HDL-cholesterol concentrations were measured in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. We used generalized estimating equation models to examine the associations between baseline alcohol intake and the change in HDL-cholesterol concentrations with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, liver function, and C-reactive protein concentrations.Results: An umbrella-shaped association was observed between total alcohol consumption and changes in HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Compared with never drinkers, past, light, moderate, and heavy drinkers experienced slower decreases in HDL cholesterol of 0.012 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1) (95% CI: 0.008, 0.016 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1)), 0.013 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1) (95% CI: 0.010, 0.016 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1)), 0.017 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1) (95% CI: 0.009, 0.025 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1)), and 0.008 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1) (95% CI: 0.005, 0.011 mmol · L(-1) · y(-1)), respectively (P < 0.0001 for all), after adjustment for potential confounders. Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with the slowest increase in total-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride:HDL-cholesterol ratios. We observed a similar association between hard-liquor consumption and the HDL-cholesterol change. In contrast, greater beer consumption was associated with slower HDL-cholesterol decreases in a dose-response manner.Conclusion: Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with slower HDL-cholesterol decreases; however, the type of alcoholic beverage had differential effects on the change in the HDL-cholesterol concentration.

PMID: 28251934 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the risk of cardiovascular disease: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.
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Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the risk of cardiovascular disease: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):810-819

Authors: Zhang R, Li B, Gao X, Tian R, Pan Y, Jiang Y, Gu H, Wang Y, Wang Y, Liu G

Abstract
Background: During the past decade, an increasing number of prospective studies have focused on the association between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the evidence on the relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and the risk of overt CVD is inconclusive.Objective: We performed a dose-response meta-analysis to summarize and prospectively quantify the RR of low serum 25(OH)D concentration and total CVD (events and mortality).Design: We identified relevant studies by searching PubMed and EMBASE up to December 2015 and by hand-searching reference lists. Prospective studies based on the general population and reported RRs and 95% CIs were included. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled RRs. Nonlinear association was assessed by using restricted cubic spline analyses.Results: A total of 34 publications with 180,667 participants were eligible for the meta-analysis. We included 32 publications (27 independent studies) for total CVD events and 17 publications (17 independent studies) for CVD mortality. We observed an inverse association between serum 25(OH)D and total CVD events and CVD mortality, and the pooled RRs per 10-ng/mL increment were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.86, 0.94) for total CVD events and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.96) for CVD mortality. A nonlinear association was detected for total CVD events (P-nonlinear < 0.001) and CVD mortality (P-nonlinear = 0.022).Conclusion: Serum 25(OH)D concentration was inversely associated with total CVD events and CVD mortality from the observed studies.

PMID: 28251933 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Inhibition of sweet chemosensory receptors alters insulin responses during glucose ingestion in healthy adults: a randomized crossover interventional study.
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Inhibition of sweet chemosensory receptors alters insulin responses during glucose ingestion in healthy adults: a randomized crossover interventional study.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):1001-1009

Authors: Karimian Azari E, Smith KR, Yi F, Osborne TF, Bizzotto R, Mari A, Pratley RE, Kyriazis GA

Abstract
Background: Glucose is a natural ligand for sweet taste receptors (STRs) that are expressed on the tongue and in the gastrointestinal tract. Whether STRs directly contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis in response to glucose ingestion is unclear.Objective: We sought to determine the metabolic effects of the pharmacologic inhibition of STRs in response to an oral glucose load in healthy lean participants.Design: Ten healthy lean participants with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 22.4 ± 0.8 were subjected to an oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) on 4 separate days with the use of a randomized crossover design. Ten minutes before the 75-g OGTT, participants consumed a preload solution of either 300 parts per million (ppm) saccharin or water with or without the addition of 500 ppm lactisole, a human-specific inhibitor of STRs. When present, lactisole was included in both the preload and OGTT solutions. We assessed plasma responses of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2, gastric inhibitory peptide, acetaminophen, and 3-O-methylglucose. With the use of mathematical modeling, we estimated gastric emptying, glucose absorption, β-cell function, insulin sensitivity and clearance, and the portal insulin:glucagon ratio.Results: The addition of lactisole to the OGTT caused increases in the plasma responses of insulin (P = 0.012), C-peptide (P = 0.004), and the insulin secretory rate (P = 0.020) compared with the control OGTT. The addition of lactisole also caused a slight reduction in the insulin sensitivity index independent of prior saccharin consumption (P < 0.025). The ingestion of saccharin before the OGTT did not alter any of the measured variables but eliminated the effects of lactisole on the OGTT.Conclusion: The pharmacologic inhibition of STRs in the gastrointestinal tract alters insulin responses during an oral glucose challenge in lean healthy participants. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02835859.

PMID: 28251932 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Sleep characteristics modify the association of genetic predisposition with obesity and anthropometric measurements in 119,679 UK Biobank participants.
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Sleep characteristics modify the association of genetic predisposition with obesity and anthropometric measurements in 119,679 UK Biobank participants.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):980-990

Authors: Celis-Morales C, Lyall DM, Guo Y, Steell L, Llanas D, Ward J, Mackay DF, Biello SM, Bailey ME, Pell JP, Gill JM

Abstract
Background: Obesity is a multifactorial condition influenced by genetics, lifestyle, and environment.Objective: We investigated whether the association of a validated genetic profile risk score for obesity (GPRS-obesity) with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) was modified by sleep characteristics.Design: This study included cross-sectional data from 119,859 white European adults, aged 37-73 y, participating in the UK Biobank. Interactions of GPRS-obesity and sleep characteristics (sleep duration, chronotype, day napping, and shift work) with their effects on BMI and WC were investigated. Results: β Values are expressed as the change in BMI (in kg/m(2)) or WC per 1-SD increase in GPRS-obesity. The GPRS-obesity was associated with BMI (β: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.60; P = 6.3 × 10(-207)) and WC (1.21 cm; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.28 cm; P = 4.2 × 10(-289)). There were significant interactions of GPRS-obesity and a variety of sleep characteristics with their relation with BMI (P-interaction < 0.05). In participants who slept <7 or >9 h daily, the effect of GPRS-obesity on BMI was stronger (β: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.65 and β: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.97, respectively) than in normal-length sleepers (7-9 h; β: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.55). A similar pattern was observed for shift workers (β: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.77 compared with β: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.58 for non-shift workers) and for night-shift workers (β: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.82 compared with β: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.58 for non-night-shift workers), for those taking naps during the day (β: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.78 compared with β: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.55 for those who never or rarely had naps), and for those with a self-reported evening chronotype (β: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.82 compared with β: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.57 for morning chronotype). Similar findings were obtained by using WC as the outcome.Conclusion: This study shows that the association between genetic risk for obesity and phenotypic adiposity measures is exacerbated by adverse sleeping characteristics.

PMID: 28251931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Probiotics (Lactobacillus gasseri KS-13, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1, and Bifidobacterium longum MM-2) improve rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life in individuals with seasonal allergies: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.
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Probiotics (Lactobacillus gasseri KS-13, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1, and Bifidobacterium longum MM-2) improve rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life in individuals with seasonal allergies: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):758-767

Authors: Dennis-Wall JC, Culpepper T, Nieves C, Rowe CC, Burns AM, Rusch CT, Federico A, Ukhanova M, Waugh S, Mai V, Christman MC, Langkamp-Henken B

Abstract
Background: Rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life is often reduced during seasonal allergies. The Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (MRQLQ) is a validated tool used to measure quality of life in people experiencing allergies (0 = not troubled to 6 = extremely troubled). Probiotics may improve quality of life during allergy season by increasing the percentage of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and inducing tolerance.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether consuming Lactobacillus gasseri KS-13, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1, and B. longum MM-2 compared with placebo would result in beneficial effects on MRQLQ scores throughout allergy season in individuals who typically experience seasonal allergies. Secondary outcomes included changes in immune markers as part of a potential mechanism for changes in MRQLQ scores.Design: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, randomized clinical trial, 173 participants (mean ± SEM: age 27 ± 1 y) who self-identified as having seasonal allergies received either a probiotic (2 capsules/d, 1.5 billion colony-forming units/capsule) or placebo during spring allergy season for 8 wk. MRQLQ scores were collected weekly throughout the study. Fasting blood samples were taken from a subgroup (placebo, n = 37; probiotic, n = 35) at baseline and week 6 (predicted peak of pollen) to determine serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E concentrations and Treg percentages.Results: The probiotic group reported an improvement in the MRQLQ global score from baseline to pollen peak (-0.68 ± 0.13) when compared with the placebo group (-0.19 ± 0.14; P = 0.0092). Both serum total IgE and the percentage of Tregs increased from baseline to week 6, but changes were not different between groups.Conclusions: This combination probiotic improved rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life during allergy season for healthy individuals with self-reported seasonal allergies; however, the associated mechanism is still unclear. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02349711.

PMID: 28228426 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Prebiotic supplementation improves appetite control in children with overweight and obesity: a randomized controlled trial.
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Prebiotic supplementation improves appetite control in children with overweight and obesity: a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):790-799

Authors: Hume MP, Nicolucci AC, Reimer RA

Abstract
Background: Prebiotics have been shown to improve satiety in adults with overweight and obesity; however, studies in children are limited.Objective: We examined the effects of prebiotic supplementation on appetite control and energy intake in children with overweight and obesity.Design: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-two boys and girls, ages 7-12 y, with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥85th percentile were randomly assigned to 8 g oligofructose-enriched inulin/d or placebo (maltodextrin) for 16 wk. Objective measures of appetite included energy intake at an ad libitum breakfast buffet, 3-d food records, and fasting satiety hormone concentrations. Subjective appetite ratings were obtained from visual analog scales before and after the breakfast. Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaires were also completed by caregivers.Results: Compared with placebo, prebiotic intake resulted in significantly higher feelings of fullness (P = 0.04) and lower prospective food consumption (P = 0.03) at the breakfast buffet at 16 wk compared with baseline. Compared with placebo, prebiotic supplementation significantly reduced energy intake at the week 16 breakfast buffet in 11- and 12-y-olds (P = 0.04) but not in 7- to 10-y-olds. Fasting adiponectin (P = 0.04) and ghrelin (P = 0.03) increased at 16 wk with the prebiotic compared with placebo. In intent-to-treat analysis, there was a trend for prebiotic supplementation to reduce BMI z score to a greater extent than placebo (-3.4%; P = 0.09) and a significant -3.8% reduction in per-protocol analysis (P = 0.043).Conclusions: Independent of other lifestyle changes, prebiotic supplementation in children with overweight and obesity improved subjective appetite ratings. This translated into reduced energy intake in a breakfast buffet in older but not in younger children. This simple dietary change has the potential to help with appetite regulation in children with obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02125955.

PMID: 28228425 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Widespread sucralose exposure in a randomized clinical trial in healthy young adults.
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Widespread sucralose exposure in a randomized clinical trial in healthy young adults.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):820-823

Authors: Sylvetsky AC, Walter PJ, Garraffo HM, Robien K, Rother KI

Abstract
Background: Low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) are found in many foods and beverages, but consumers may not realize their presence, and their role in appetite, weight, and health is controversial. Although consumption limits based on toxicologic safety are well established, the threshold required to exert clinically relevant metabolic effects is unknown.Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether individuals who do not report consumption of LCSs can be correctly characterized as "unexposed" and to investigate whether instructions to avoid LCSs are effective in minimizing exposure.Design: Eighteen healthy 18- to 35-y-old "nonconsumers" (<1 food or beverage with LCSs/mo) enrolled in a 2-wk trial designed to evaluate the effects of LCSs on the gut microbiota. The trial consisted of 3 visits. At baseline, participants were counseled extensively about avoiding LCSs. After the run-in, participants were randomly assigned to consume diet soda containing sucralose or carbonated water (control) 3 times/d for 1 wk. Food diaries were maintained throughout the study, and a spot urine sample was collected at each visit.Results: At baseline, 8 participants had sucralose in their urine (29.9-239.0 ng/mL; mean ± SD: 111.4 ± 91.5 ng/mL). After the run-in, sucralose was found in 8 individuals (2 of whom did not have detectable sucralose at baseline) and ranged from 25.0 to 1062.0 ng/mL (mean ± SD: 191.7 ± 354.2 ng/mL). Only 1 participant reported consumption of an LCS-containing food before her visit. After the intervention, sucralose was detected in 3 individuals randomly assigned to receive carbonated water (26-121 ng/mL; mean ± SD: 60.7 ± 52.4 ng/mL).Conclusions: Despite the selection of healthy volunteers with minimal reported LCS consumption, more than one-third were exposed to sucralose at baseline and/or before randomization, and nearly half were exposed after assignment to the control. This shows that instructions to avoid LCSs are not effective and that nondietary sources (e.g., personal care products) may be important contributors to overall exposure. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02877186.

PMID: 28228424 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




The role of gluten consumption at an early age in celiac disease development: a further analysis of the prospective PreventCD cohort study.
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The role of gluten consumption at an early age in celiac disease development: a further analysis of the prospective PreventCD cohort study.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):890-896

Authors: Crespo-Escobar P, Mearin ML, Hervás D, Auricchio R, Castillejo G, Gyimesi J, Martinez-Ojinaga E, Werkstetter K, Vriezinga SL, Korponay-Szabo IR, Polanco I, Troncone R, Stoopman E, Kolaček S, Shamir R, Szajewska H, Koletzko S, Ribes-Koninckx C

Abstract
Background: We previously found that the introduction of small quantities of gluten at 4-6 mo of age did not reduce the risk of celiac disease (CD) in a group of high-risk children. However, the consumption of high amounts of gluten early in life has been suggested to increase CD risk.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate this hypothesis by using data from the previous study of the PreventCD trial (www.preventcd.com).Design: Gluten intake was prospectively quantified by using specific food records between 11 and 36 mo of age in 715 children positive for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 from 5 European countries. According to the PreventCD protocol, infants received 100 mg immunologically active gluten/d or placebo from 4 to 6 mo of age, with a stepwise and fixed gluten increase until age 10 mo and unrestricted intake thereafter. The primary outcome of the present study was the impact of the amount of gluten consumed from age 10 mo onward on CD development.Results: Mean daily gluten intakes from 10 mo onward were significantly different between countries for children at all ages (P < 0.001) but not between children who developed CD and those who did not within the same country (P > 0.05). The variables country, sex, intervention group, and gluten consumption pattern did not show significant associations with CD development risk (HRs not significant). In addition, the interaction between HLA risk group and gluten consumption pattern showed no significant risk on CD development, except for the DQ2.2/DQ7 haplotype (HR: 5.81; 95% CI: 1.18, 28.74; P = 0.031).Conclusions: Gluten consumption patterns as well as the amount of gluten consumed at 11-36 mo of age do not influence CD development for most related HLA genotypes in children with a genetic risk. This study reports the gluten consumption pattern in children at risk of CD from different European countries. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN74582487.

PMID: 28228423 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Elevated reward response to receipt of palatable food predicts future weight variability in healthy-weight adolescents.
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Elevated reward response to receipt of palatable food predicts future weight variability in healthy-weight adolescents.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):781-789

Authors: Winter SR, Yokum S, Stice E, Osipowicz K, Lowe MR

Abstract
Background: Both an elevated brain-reward-region response to palatable food and elevated weight variability have been shown to predict future weight gain.Objective: We examined whether the brain-reward response to food is related to future weight variability.Design: A total of 162 healthy-weight adolescents, who were aged 14-18 y at baseline, were enrolled in the study and were assessed annually over a 3-y follow-up period with 127 participants completing the final 3-y follow-up assessment. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested whether the neural responses to a cue that signaled an impending milkshake receipt and the receipt of the milkshake predicted weight variability over the follow-up period. Weight variability was modeled with a root mean squared error method to reflect fluctuations in weight independent of the net weight change.Results: Elevated activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor area, cingulate gyrus, cuneus and occipital gyrus, and insula in response to milkshake receipt predicted greater weight variability. Greater activation in the precuneus and middle temporal gyrus predicted lower weight variability.Conclusions: From our study data, we suggest that the elevated activation of reward and emotional-regulation brain regions (medial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and insula) and lower activation in self-reference regions (precuneus) in response to milkshake receipt predict weight variability over 3 y of follow-up. The fact that the reward response in the current study emerged in response to high-calorie palatable food receipt suggests that weight variability may be a measure of propensity periods of a positive energy balance and should be examined in addition to measures of the net weight change. With our collective results, we suggest that weight variability and its brain correlates should be added to other variables that are predictive of weight gain to inform the design of obesity-preventive programs in adolescents. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01807572.

PMID: 28228422 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Body-composition changes in the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE)-2 study: a 2-y randomized controlled trial of calorie restriction in nonobese humans.
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Body-composition changes in the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE)-2 study: a 2-y randomized controlled trial of calorie restriction in nonobese humans.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):913-927

Authors: Das SK, Roberts SB, Bhapkar MV, Villareal DT, Fontana L, Martin CK, Racette SB, Fuss PJ, Kraus WE, Wong WW, Saltzman E, Pieper CF, Fielding RA, Schwartz AV, Ravussin E, Redman LM, CALERIE-2 Study Group

Abstract
Background: Calorie restriction (CR) retards aging and increases longevity in many animal models. However, it is unclear whether CR can be implemented in humans without adverse effects on body composition.Objective: We evaluated the effect of a 2-y CR regimen on body composition including the influence of sex and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) among participants enrolled in CALERIE-2 (Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy), a multicenter, randomized controlled trial.Design: Participants were 218 nonobese (BMI: 21.9-28.0) adults aged 21-51 y who were randomly assigned to 25% CR (CR, n = 143) or ad libitum control (AL, n = 75) in a 2:1 ratio. Measures at baseline and 12 and 24 mo included body weight, waist circumference, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and appendicular mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; activity-related energy expenditure (AREE) by doubly labeled water; and dietary protein intake by self-report. Values are expressed as means ± SDs.Results: The CR group achieved 11.9% ± 0.7% CR over 2-y and had significant decreases in weight (-7.6 ± 0.3 compared with 0.4 ± 0.5 kg), waist circumference (-6.2 ± 0.4 compared with 0.9 ± 0.5 cm), FM (-5.4 ± 0.3 compared with 0.5 ± 0.4 kg), and FFM (-2.0 ± 0.2 compared with -0.0 ± 0.2 kg) at 24 mo relative to the AL group (all between-group P < 0.001). Moreover, FFM as a percentage of body weight at 24 mo was higher, and percentage of FM was lower in the CR group than in the AL. AREE, but not protein intake, predicted preservation of FFM during CR (P < 0.01). Men in the CR group lost significantly more trunk fat (P = 0.03) and FFM expressed as a percentage of weight loss (P < 0.001) than women in the CR group.Conclusions: Two years of CR had broadly favorable effects on both whole-body and regional adiposity that could facilitate health span in humans. The decrements in FFM were commensurate with the reduced body mass; although men in the CR group lost more FFM than the women did, the percentage of FFM in the men in the CR group was higher than at baseline. CALERIE was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00427193.

PMID: 28228420 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Total and subtypes of dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study.
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Total and subtypes of dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):723-735

Authors: Guasch-Ferré M, Becerra-Tomás N, Ruiz-Canela M, Corella D, Schröder H, Estruch R, Ros E, Arós F, Gómez-Gracia E, Fiol M, Serra-Majem L, Lapetra J, Basora J, Martín-Calvo N, Portoles O, Fitó M, Hu FB, Forga L, Salas-Salvadó J

Abstract
Background: The associations between dietary fat and cardiovascular disease have been evaluated in several studies, but less is known about their influence on the risk of diabetes.Objective: We examined the associations between total fat, subtypes of dietary fat, and food sources rich in saturated fatty acids and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).Design: A prospective cohort analysis of 3349 individuals who were free of diabetes at baseline but were at high cardiovascular risk from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study was conducted. Detailed dietary information was assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate T2D HRs and 95% CIs according to baseline and yearly updated fat intake.Results: We documented 266 incident cases during 4.3 y of follow-up. Baseline saturated and animal fat intake was not associated with the risk of T2D. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of updated intake of saturated and animal fat had a higher risk of diabetes than the lowest quartile (HR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.73; and P-trend = 0.01 compared with HR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.29, 3.09; and P-trend < 0.01, respectively). In both the Mediterranean diet and control groups, participants in the highest quartile of updated animal fat intake had an ∼2-fold higher risk of T2D than their counterparts in the lowest quartile. The consumption of 1 serving of butter and cheese was associated with a higher risk of diabetes, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake was associated with a lower risk.Conclusions: In a Mediterranean trial focused on dietary fat interventions, baseline intake of saturated and animal fat was not associated with T2D incidence, but the yearly updated intake of saturated and animal fat was associated with a higher risk of T2D. Cheese and butter intake was associated with a higher risk of T2D, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake was associated with a lower risk of T2D. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN35739639.

PMID: 28202478 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Vitamin D is not associated with incident dementia or cognitive impairment: an 18-y follow-up study in community-living old men.
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Vitamin D is not associated with incident dementia or cognitive impairment: an 18-y follow-up study in community-living old men.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):936-943

Authors: Olsson E, Byberg L, Karlström B, Cederholm T, Melhus H, Sjögren P, Kilander L

Abstract
Background: Vitamin D has been implicated as being important for maintaining cognitive function in old age. Results from longitudinal studies examining the association of vitamin D with incident dementia and cognitive impairment have been inconsistent.Objective: We investigated the relation between vitamin D, assessed in 3 different ways, and the risk of dementia.Design: We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, assessed dietary vitamin D intake with the use of 7-d dietary records, and created a vitamin D-synthesis genetic risk score (GRS) at baseline (1991-1995) in a cohort of 1182 Swedish men (mean age: 71 y). In a maximum of 18 y (median: 12 y) of follow-up, 116 men developed Alzheimer disease, 64 men developed vascular dementia, and 250 men developed all-cause dementia. An additional 80 men declined in cognitive function as assessed with the use of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Adjusted HRs and ORs were calculated with the use of Cox and logistic regressions.Results: The mean ± SD plasma 25(OH)D concentration was 68.7 ± 19.1 nmol/L. Plasma 25(OH)D, dietary vitamin D intake, and vitamin D-synthesis GRS were not associated with any cognitive outcomes (crude and adjusted HRs and ORs were ∼1.0 for all continuous exposures). The adjusted HR for all-cause dementia was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.31) in men with plasma 25(OH)D concentrations ≤50 compared with >75 nmol/L. The adjusted HR for all-cause dementia was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.32) for the lowest compared with highest tertiles of vitamin D intake. The adjusted HR for the continuous GRS for all-cause dementia was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.19).Conclusion: In this cohort study, we show that there is no association between baseline vitamin D status and long-term risk of dementia or cognitive impairment over an 18-y period of time.

PMID: 28202477 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations.
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Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):842-853

Authors: Meng H, Matthan NR, Ausman LM, Lichtenstein AH

Abstract
Background: The potential confounding effect of different amounts and proportions of macronutrients across eating patterns on meal or dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations has remained partially unaddressed.Objective: The study aimed to determine the effects of different amounts of macronutrients and fiber on measured meal GI and GL values.Design: Four studies were conducted during which participants [n = 20-22; women: 50%; age: 50-80 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 25-30)] received food challenges containing different amounts of the variable nutrient in a random order. Added to the standard 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread was 12.5, 25, or 50 g carbohydrate; 12.5, 25, or 50 g protein; and 5.6, 11.1, or 22.2 g fat from rice cereal, tuna, and unsalted butter, respectively, and 4.8 or 9.6 g fiber from oat cereal. Arterialized venous blood was sampled for 2 h, and measured meal GI and GL and insulin index (II) values were calculated by using the incremental area under the curve (AUCi) method.Results: Adding carbohydrate to the standard white-bread challenge increased glucose AUCi (P < 0.0001), measured meal GI (P = 0.0066), and mean GL (P < 0.0001). Adding protein (50 g only) decreased glucose AUCi (P = 0.0026), measured meal GI (P = 0.0139), and meal GL (P = 0.0140). Adding fat or fiber had no significant effect on these variables. Adding carbohydrate (50 g), protein (50 g), and fat (11.1 g) increased the insulin AUCi or II; fiber had no effect.Conclusions: These data indicate that uncertainty in the determination of meal GI and GL values is introduced when carbohydrate-containing foods are consumed concurrently with protein (equal amount of carbohydrate challenge) but not with carbohydrate-, fat-, or fiber-containing foods. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether this uncertainty also influences the prediction of average dietary GI and GL values for eating patterns. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01023646.

PMID: 28202475 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Substituting whole grains for refined grains in a 6-wk randomized trial has a modest effect on gut microbiota and immune and inflammatory markers of healthy adults.
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Substituting whole grains for refined grains in a 6-wk randomized trial has a modest effect on gut microbiota and immune and inflammatory markers of healthy adults.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):635-650

Authors: Vanegas SM, Meydani M, Barnett JB, Goldin B, Kane A, Rasmussen H, Brown C, Vangay P, Knights D, Jonnalagadda S, Koecher K, Karl JP, Thomas M, Dolnikowski G, Li L, Saltzman E, Wu D, Meydani SN

Abstract
Background: Observational studies suggest an inverse association between whole-grain (WG) consumption and inflammation. However, evidence from interventional studies is limited, and few studies have included measurements of cell-mediated immunity.Objective: We assessed the effects of diets rich in WGs compared with refined grains (RGs) on immune and inflammatory responses, gut microbiota, and microbial products in healthy adults while maintaining subject body weights.Design: After a 2-wk provided-food run-in period of consuming a Western-style diet, 49 men and 32 postmenopausal women [age range: 40-65 y, body mass index (in kg/m(2)) <35] were assigned to consume 1 of 2 provided-food weight-maintenance diets for 6 wk.Results: Compared with the RG group, the WG group had increased plasma total alkyresorcinols (a measure of WG intake) (P < 0.0001), stool weight (P < 0.0001), stool frequency (P = 0.02), and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producer Lachnospira [false-discovery rate (FDR)-corrected P = 0.25] but decreased pro-inflammatory Enterobacteriaceae (FDR-corrected P = 0.25). Changes in stool acetate (P = 0.02) and total SCFAs (P = 0.05) were higher in the WG group than in the RG group. A positive association was shown between Lachnospira and acetate (FDR-corrected P = 0.002) or butyrate (FDR-corrected P = 0.005). We also showed that there was a higher percentage of terminal effector memory T cells (P = 0.03) and LPS-stimulated ex vivo production of tumor necrosis factor-α (P = 0.04) in the WG group than in the RG group, which were positively associated with plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations.Conclusion: The short-term consumption of WGs in a weight-maintenance diet increases stool weight and frequency and has modest positive effects on gut microbiota, SCFAs, effector memory T cells, and the acute innate immune response and no effect on other markers of cell-mediated immunity or systemic and gut inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01902394.

PMID: 28179226 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Influence of temperate, subtropical, and tropical fruit consumption on risk of type 2 diabetes in an Asian population.
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Influence of temperate, subtropical, and tropical fruit consumption on risk of type 2 diabetes in an Asian population.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):736-745

Authors: Alperet DJ, Butler LM, Koh WP, Yuan JM, van Dam RM

Abstract
Background: Findings on the relation between fruit consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been inconsistent.Objectives: We examined whether the consumption of total, temperate, subtropical, and tropical fruit is associated with T2DM risk and whether differences in the carbohydrate quality of fruit influence T2DM risk in Asians.Design: We included 45,411 participants in the Singapore Chinese Health Study who were 45-74 y old and had no diabetes, cancer, or cardiovascular disease at recruitment (1993-1998). Fruit intake was assessed with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Physician-diagnosed incident T2DM cases were reported at follow-up 1 (1999-2004) and follow-up 2 (2006-2010) interviews. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of diabetes risk.Results: In 494,741 person-years of follow-up, 5207 participants developed T2DM. After adjustment for lifestyle and dietary risk factors, high total fruit consumption was not consistently associated with lower T2DM risk [men: HR of 1.33 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.71) for ≥3 servings/d compared with <1 serving/wk (P-trend = 0.17); women: HR of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.11) (P-trend = 0.008); P-interaction = 0.003]. The direct association in men was observed for higher-glycemic index (GI) fruit [HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.86) for ≥1 serving/d compared with rarely consumed; P-trend = 0.001] but not for lower or moderate GI fruit. In women, the consumption of temperate fruit, but not of subtropical or tropical fruit, was associated with lower T2DM risk [HR: 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.92) for ≥1 serving/d compared with rarely; P-trend = 0.006].Conclusions: The consumption of temperate fruit, such as apples, was associated with a lower risk of T2DM in women, whereas the consumption of higher-GI fruit, such as bananas, was associated with higher risk in men. The impact of fruit consumption on the risk of diabetes may differ by the type of fruit, which may reflect differences in the glycemic impact or phytochemical content.

PMID: 28179225 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Dietary protein is associated with musculoskeletal health independently of dietary pattern: the Framingham Third Generation Study.
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Dietary protein is associated with musculoskeletal health independently of dietary pattern: the Framingham Third Generation Study.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):714-722

Authors: Mangano KM, Sahni S, Kiel DP, Tucker KL, Dufour AB, Hannan MT

Abstract
Background: Above-average dietary protein, as a single nutrient, improves musculoskeletal health. Evaluating the link between dietary protein and musculoskeletal health from a whole-diet perspective is important, as dietary guidelines focus on dietary patterns.Objective: We examined the prospective association of novel dietary protein food clusters (derived from established dietary pattern techniques) with appendicular lean mass (ALM), quadriceps strength (QS), and bone mineral density (BMD) in 2986 men and women, aged 19-72 y, from the Framingham Third Generation Study.Design: Total protein intake was estimated by food-frequency questionnaire in 2002-2005. A cluster analysis was used to classify participants into mutually exclusive groups, which were determined by using the percentage of contribution of food intake to overall protein intake. General linear modeling was used to 1) estimate the association between protein intake (grams per day) and BMD, ALM, appendicular lean mass normalized for height (ALM/ht(2)), and QS (2008-2011) and to 2) calculate adjusted least-squares mean outcomes across quartiles of protein (grams per day) and protein food clusters.Results: The mean ± SD age of subjects was 40 ± 9 y; 82% of participants met the Recommended Daily Allowance (0.8 g · kg body weight(-1) · d(-1)). The following 6 dietary protein food clusters were identified: fast food and full-fat dairy, fish, red meat, chicken, low-fat milk, and legumes. BMD was not different across quartiles of protein intake (P-trend range = 0.32-0.82); but significant positive trends were observed for ALM, ALM/ht(2) (P < 0.001), and QS (P = 0.0028). Individuals in the lowest quartile of total protein intake (quartile 1) had significantly lower ALM, ALM/ht(2), and QS than did those in the higher quartiles of intake (quartiles 2-4; (P ranges = 0.0001-0.003, 0.0007-0.003, and 0.009-0.05, respectively). However, there were no associations between protein clusters and any musculoskeletal outcome in adjusted models.Conclusions: In a protein-replete cohort of adults, dietary protein is associated with ALM and QS but not with BMD. In this study, dietary protein food patterns do not provide further insight into beneficial protein effects on muscle outcomes.

PMID: 28179224 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Substituting whole grains for refined grains in a 6-wk randomized trial favorably affects energy-balance metrics in healthy men and postmenopausal women.
Related Articles Substituting whole grains for refined grains in a 6-wk randomized trial favorably affects energy-balance metrics in healthy men and postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):589-599 Authors: Karl JP, Meydani M, Barnett JB, Vanegas SM, Goldin B, Kane A, Rasmussen H, Saltzman E, Vangay P, Knights D, Chen CO, Das SK, Jonnalagadda SS, Meydani SN, Roberts SB Abstract Background: The effect of whole grains on the regulation of energy balance remains controversial.Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of substituting whole grains for refined grains, independent of body weight changes, on energy-metabolism metrics and glycemic control.Design: The study was a randomized, controlled, parallel-arm controlled-feeding trial that was conducted in 81 men and postmenopausal women [49 men and 32 women; age range: 40-65 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): <35.0]. After a 2-wk run-in period, participants were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 weight-maintenance diets for 6 wk. Diets differed in whole-grain and fiber contents [mean ± SDs: whole grain-rich diet: 207 ± 39 g whole grains plus 40 ± 5 g dietary fiber/d; refined grain-based diet: 0 g whole grains plus 21 ± 3 g dietary fiber/d] but were otherwise similar. Energy metabolism and body-composition metrics, appetite, markers of glycemic control, and gut microbiota were measured at 2 and 8 wk.Results: By design, body weight was maintained in both groups. Plasma alkylresorcinols, which are biomarkers of whole-grain intake, increased in the whole grain-rich diet group (WG) but not in the refined grain-based diet group (RG) (P-diet-by-time interaction < 0.0001). Beta ± SE changes (ΔWG compared with ΔRG) in the resting metabolic rate (RMR) (43 ± 25 kcal/d; P = 0.04), stool weight (76 ± 12 g/d; P < 0.0001), and stool energy content (57 ± 17 kcal/d; P = 0.003), but not in stool energy density, were higher in the WG. When combined, the favorable energetic effects in the WG translated into a 92-kcal/d (95% CI: 28, 156-kcal/d) higher net daily energy loss compared with that of the RG (P = 0.005). Prospective consumption (P = 0.07) and glycemia after an oral-glucose-tolerance test (P = 0.10) trended toward being lower in the WG than in the RG. When nonadherent participants were excluded, between-group differences in stool energy content and glucose tolerance increased, and between-group differences in the RMR and prospective consumption were not statistically significant.Conclusion: These findings suggest positive effects of whole grains on the RMR and stool energy excretion that favorably influence energy balance and may help explain epidemiologic associations between whole-grain consumption and reduced body weight and adiposity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01902394. PMID: 28179223 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] [...]



Associations of maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI.
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Associations of maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):705-713

Authors: Chen LW, Aris IM, Bernard JY, Tint MT, Colega M, Gluckman PD, Tan KH, Shek LP, Chong YS, Yap F, Godfrey KM, van Dam RM, Chong MF, Lee YS

Abstract
Background: Infant body mass index (BMI) peak characteristics and early childhood BMI are emerging markers of future obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk, but little is known about their maternal nutritional determinants.Objective: We investigated the associations of maternal macronutrient intake with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes study.Design: With the use of infant BMI data from birth to age 18 mo, infant BMI peak characteristics [age (in months) and magnitude (BMIpeak; in kg/m(2)) at peak and prepeak velocities] were derived from subject-specific BMI curves that were fitted with the use of mixed-effects model with a natural cubic spline function. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake (assessed by using a 24-h recall during late gestation) with infant BMI peak characteristics (n = 910) and BMI z scores at ages 2, 3, and 4 y were examined with the use of multivariable linear regression.Results: Mean absolute maternal macronutrient intakes (percentages of energy) were 72 g protein (15.6%), 69 g fat (32.6%), and 238 g carbohydrate (51.8%). A 25-g (∼100-kcal) increase in maternal carbohydrate intake was associated with a 0.01/mo (95% CI: 0.0003, 0.01/mo) higher prepeak velocity and a 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08) higher BMIpeak These associations were mainly driven by sugar intake, whereby a 25-g increment of maternal sugar intake was associated with a 0.02/mo (95% CI: 0.01, 0.03/mo) higher infant prepeak velocity and a 0.07 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13) higher BMIpeak Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with a higher offspring BMI z score at ages 2-4 y. Maternal protein and fat intakes were not consistently associated with the studied outcomes.Conclusion: Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes are associated with unfavorable infancy BMI peak characteristics and higher early childhood BMI. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.

PMID: 28179222 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Frontostriatal and behavioral adaptations to daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake: a randomized controlled trial.
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Frontostriatal and behavioral adaptations to daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake: a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):555-563

Authors: Burger KS

Abstract
Background: Current obesity theories suggest that the repeated intake of highly palatable high-sugar foods causes adaptions in the striatum, parietal lobe, and prefrontal and visual cortices in the brain that may serve to perpetuate consumption in a feed-forward manner. However, the data for humans are cross-sectional and observational, leaving little ability to determine the temporal precedence of repeated consumption on brain response.Objective: We tested the impact of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake on brain and behavioral responses to beverage stimuli.Design: We performed an experiment with 20 healthy-weight individuals who were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 sugar-sweetened beverages daily for 21 d, underwent 2 functional MRI sessions, and completed behavioral and explicit hedonic assessments.Results: Consistent with preclinical experiments, daily beverage consumption resulted in decreases in dorsal striatal response during receipt of the consumed beverage (r = -0.46) and decreased ventromedial prefrontal response during logo-elicited anticipation (r = -0.44). This decrease in the prefrontal response correlated with increases in behavioral disinhibition toward the logo of the consumed beverage (r = 0.54; P = 0.02). Daily beverage consumption also increased precuneus response to both juice logos compared with a tasteless control (r = 0.45), suggesting a more generalized effect toward beverage cues. Last, the repeated consumption of 1 beverage resulted in an explicit hedonic devaluation of a similar nonconsumed beverage (P < 0.001).Conclusions: Analogous to previous reports, these initial results provide convergent data for a role of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake in altering neurobehavioral responses to the regularly consumed beverage that may also extend to other beverage stimuli. Future research is required to provide evidence of replication in a larger sample and to establish whether the neurobehavioral adaptations observed herein are specific to high-sugar and/or nonnutritive-sweetened beverages or more generally related to the repeated consumption of any type of food. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02624206.

PMID: 28179221 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Identification of dietary patterns associated with obesity in a nationally representative survey of Canadian adults: application of a priori, hybrid, and simplified dietary pattern techniques.
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Identification of dietary patterns associated with obesity in a nationally representative survey of Canadian adults: application of a priori, hybrid, and simplified dietary pattern techniques.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):669-684

Authors: Jessri M, Wolfinger RD, Lou WY, L'Abbé MR

Abstract
Background: Analyzing the effects of dietary patterns is an important approach for examining the complex role of nutrition in the etiology of obesity and chronic diseases.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to characterize the dietary patterns of Canadians with the use of a priori, hybrid, and simplified dietary pattern techniques, and to compare the associations of these patterns with obesity risk in individuals with and without chronic diseases (unhealthy and healthy obesity).Design: Dietary recalls from 11,748 participants (≥18 y of age) in the cross-sectional, nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 were used. A priori dietary pattern was characterized with the use of the previously validated 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adherence Index (DGAI). Weighted partial least squares (hybrid method) was used to derive an energy-dense (ED), high-fat (HF), low-fiber density (LFD) dietary pattern with the use of 38 food groups. The associations of derived dietary patterns with disease outcomes were then tested with the use of multinomial logistic regression.Results: An ED, HF, and LFD dietary pattern had high positive loadings for fast foods, carbonated drinks, and refined grains, and high negative loadings for whole fruits and vegetables (≥|0.17|). Food groups with a high loading were summed to form a simplified dietary pattern score. Moving from the first (healthiest) to the fourth (least healthy) quartiles of the ED, HF, and LFD pattern and the simplified dietary pattern scores was associated with increasingly elevated ORs for unhealthy obesity, with individuals in quartile 4 having an OR of 2.57 (95% CI: 1.75, 3.76) and 2.73 (95% CI: 1.88, 3.98), respectively (P-trend < 0.0001). Individuals who adhered the most to the 2015 DGAI recommendations (quartile 4) had a 53% lower OR of unhealthy obesity (P-trend < 0.0001). The associations of dietary patterns with healthy obesity and unhealthy nonobesity were weaker, albeit significant.Conclusions: Consuming an ED, HF, and LFD dietary pattern and lack of adherence to the recommendations of the 2015 DGAI were associated with a significantly higher risk of obesity with and without accompanying chronic diseases.

PMID: 28148504 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Effects of interpretive nutrition labels on consumer food purchases: the Starlight randomized controlled trial.
Related Articles Effects of interpretive nutrition labels on consumer food purchases: the Starlight randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):695-704 Authors: Ni Mhurchu C, Volkova E, Jiang Y, Eyles H, Michie J, Neal B, Blakely T, Swinburn B, Rayner M Abstract Background: Nutrition labeling is a prominent policy to promote healthy eating.Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effects of 2 interpretive nutrition labels compared with a noninterpretive label on consumer food purchases.Design: In this parallel-group randomized controlled trial, we enrolled household shoppers across New Zealand who owned smartphones and were aged ≥18 y. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive either traffic light labels (TLLs), Health Star Rating labels (HSRs), or a control [nutrition information panel (NIP)]. Smartphone technology allowed participants to scan barcodes of packaged foods and to receive allocated labels on their smartphone screens. The primary outcome was the mean healthiness of all packaged food purchases over the 4-wk intervention period, which was measured by using the Food Standards Australia New Zealand Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (NPSC).Results: Between October 2014 and November 2015, 1357 eligible shoppers were randomly assigned to TLL (n = 459), HSR (n = 443), or NIP (n = 455) labels. Overall difference in the mean transformed NPSC score for the TLL group compared with the NIP group was -0.20 (95% CI: -0.94, 0.54; P = 0.60). The corresponding difference for HSR compared with NIP was -0.60 (95% CI: -1.35, 0.15; P = 0.12). In an exploratory per-protocol analysis of participants who used the labeling intervention more often than average (n = 423, 31%), those who were assigned to TLL and HSR had significantly better NPSC scores [TLL compared with NIP: -1.33 (95% CI: -2.63, -0.04; P = 0.04); HSR compared with NIP: -1.70 (95% CI: -2.97, -0.43; P = 0.01)]. Shoppers who were randomly assigned to HSR and TLL also found the labels significantly more useful and easy to understand than the NIP (all P values <0.001).Conclusions: At the relatively low level of use observed in this trial, interpretive nutrition labels had no significant effect on food purchases. However, shoppers who used interpretive labels found them to be significantly more useful and easy to understand, and compared with frequent NIP users, frequent TLL and HSR users had significantly healthier food purchases. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366446&isReview=true) as ACTRN12614000644662. PMID: 28148503 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] [...]



Intragastric infusion of denatonium benzoate attenuates interdigestive gastric motility and hunger scores in healthy female volunteers.
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Intragastric infusion of denatonium benzoate attenuates interdigestive gastric motility and hunger scores in healthy female volunteers.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):580-588

Authors: Deloose E, Janssen P, Corsetti M, Biesiekierski J, Masuy I, Rotondo A, Van Oudenhove L, Depoortere I, Tack J

Abstract
Background: Denatonium benzoate (DB) has been shown to influence ongoing ingestive behavior and gut peptide secretion.Objective: We studied how the intragastric administration of DB affects interdigestive motility, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, hunger and satiety ratings, and food intake in healthy volunteers.Design: Lingual bitter taste sensitivity was tested with the use of 6 concentrations of DB in 65 subjects. A placebo or 1 μmol DB/kg was given intragastrically to assess its effect on fasting gastrointestinal motility and hunger ratings, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, satiety, and caloric intake.Results: Women (n = 39) were more sensitive toward a lingual bitter stimulus (P = 0.005) than men (n = 26). In women (n = 10), intragastric DB switched the origin of phase III contractions from the stomach to the duodenum (P = 0.001) and decreased hunger ratings (P = 0.04). These effects were not observed in men (n = 10). In women (n = 12), motilin (P = 0.04) plasma concentrations decreased after intragastric DB administration, whereas total and octanoylated ghrelin were not affected. The intragastric administration of DB decreased hunger (P = 0.008) and increased satiety ratings (P = 0.01) after a meal (500 kcal) in 13 women without affecting gastric emptying in 6 women. Caloric intake tended to decrease after DB administration compared with the placebo (mean ± SEM: 720 ± 58 compared with 796 ± 45 kcal; P = 0.08) in 20 women.Conclusions: Intragastric DB administration decreases both antral motility and hunger ratings during the fasting state, possibly because of a decrease in motilin release. Moreover, DB decreases hunger and increases satiety ratings after a meal and shows potential for decreasing caloric intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02759926.

PMID: 28148502 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Folic acid therapy reduces serum uric acid in hypertensive patients: a substudy of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT).
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Folic acid therapy reduces serum uric acid in hypertensive patients: a substudy of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT).

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):882-889

Authors: Qin X, Li Y, He M, Tang G, Yin D, Liang M, Wang B, Nie J, Huo Y, Xu X, Hou FF

Abstract
Background: The effect of folic acid supplementation on uric acid (UA) concentrations is still inconclusive.Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of folic acid therapy in reducing serum UA in hypertensive patients.Design: A total of 15,364 hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment with a single tablet that contained 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid (n = 7685) or 10 mg enalapril alone (n = 7679). The main outcome was the change in serum UA, which was defined as UA at the exit visit minus that at baseline. Secondary outcomes were as follows: 1) controlled hyperuricemia (UA concentration <357 μmol/L after treatment) and 2) new-onset hyperuricemia in participants with normal UA concentrations (<357 μmol/L).Results: After a median of 4.4 y of treatment, the mean ± SD UA concentration increased by 34.7 ± 72.5 μmol/L in the enalapril-alone group and by 30.7 ± 71.8 μmol/L in the enalapril-folic acid group, which resulted in a mean group difference of -4.0 μmol/L (95% CI: -6.5, -1.6 μmol/L; P = 0.001). Furthermore, compared with enalapril alone, enalapril-folic acid treatment showed an increase in controlled hyperuricemia (30.3% compared with 25.6%; OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.70) and a decrease in new-onset hyperuricemia (15.0% compared with 16.3%; OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.99). A greater beneficial effect was observed in subjects with hyperuricemia (P-interaction = 0.07) or higher concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) (P-interaction = 0.02) at baseline. Furthermore, there was a significant inverse relation (P < 0.001) between the reduction of tHcy and the change in UA concentrations.Conclusions: Enalapril-folic acid therapy, compared with enalapril alone, can significantly reduce the magnitude of the increase of UA concentrations in hypertensive adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00794885.

PMID: 28148501 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




The influence of genetic susceptibility and calcium plus vitamin D supplementation on fracture risk.
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The influence of genetic susceptibility and calcium plus vitamin D supplementation on fracture risk.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):970-979

Authors: Wang Y, Wactawski-Wende J, Sucheston-Campbell LE, Preus L, Hovey KM, Nie J, Jackson RD, Handelman SK, Nassir R, Crandall CJ, Ochs-Balcom HM

Abstract
Background: Fracture is a complex trait, affected by both genetic and environmental factors. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified multiple bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture-associated loci.Objective: We conducted a study to evaluate whether fracture genetic risk score (Fx-GRS) and bone mineral density genetic risk score (BMD-GRS) modify the association between the intake of calcium with vitamin D (CaD) and fracture risk.Design: Data from 5823 white postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative CaD randomized trial were included. Participants received 1000 mg elemental Ca with 400 IU vitamin D3/d or placebo (median follow-up: 6.5 y). Total fracture was defined as first fracture of any type. We computed the Fx-GRS with 16 fracture- and BMD-associated variants, and the BMD-GRS with 50 BMD-associated variants. We used Cox regression and a case-only approach to test for multiplicative interaction. Additive interaction was assessed with the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). We analyzed genetic risk score as a continuous variable and a categorical variable based on quartile (quartile 1, quartiles 2-3, and quartile 4).Results: We observed no interaction between the Fx-GRS and CaD on fracture risk; however, we observed a significant multiplicative interaction between the BMD-GRS and CaD assignment (P-interaction = 0.01). In addition, there was a significant negative additive interaction between placebo assignment and higher BMD-GRS: quartiles 2-3, PRERI = 0.03; quartile 4, PRERI = 0.03. In a stratified analysis, the protective effect of CaD on fracture risk was observed in women in the lowest BMD-GRS quartile (HR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.81) but not in women with a higher BMD-GRS.Conclusions: We observed significant effects of CaD intake on fracture risk only in women with the lowest genetic predisposition to low BMD. Future large-scale studies with functional characterization of GWAS findings are warranted to assess the utility of genetic risk score in analysis of risks and benefits of CaD for bone.

PMID: 28148500 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Fifteen-year trends in the prevalence of barriers to healthy eating in a high-income country.
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Fifteen-year trends in the prevalence of barriers to healthy eating in a high-income country.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):660-668

Authors: de Mestral C, Khalatbari-Soltani S, Stringhini S, Marques-Vidal P

Abstract
Background: Despite increasing levels of education and income in the Swiss population over time and greater food diversity due to globalization, adherence to dietary guidelines has remained persistently low. This may be because of barriers to healthy eating hampering adherence, but whether these barriers have evolved in prevalence over time has never been assessed, to our knowledge.Objective: We assessed 15-y trends in the prevalence of self-reported barriers to healthy eating in Switzerland overall and according to sex, age, education, and income.Design: We used data from 4 national Swiss Health Surveys conducted between 1997 and 2012 (52,238 participants aged ≥18 y, 55% women), applying multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models to assess trends in prevalence of 6 barriers to healthy eating (taste, price, daily habits, time, lack of willpower, and limited options).Results: The prevalence of 3 barriers exhibited an increasing trend until 2007, followed by a decrease in 2012 (from 44% in 1997 to 50% in 2007 and then to 44% in 2012 for taste, from 40% to 52% and then to 39% for price, and from 29% to 34% and then to 32% for time; quadratic P-trend < 0.0001). Limited options decreased slightly until 2007 (35-33%) and then sharply by 2012 (18%) (linear P-trend < 0.0001). Daily habits remained relatively stable across time from 42% in 1997 to 38% in 2012 (linear P-trend < 0.0001). Conversely, lack of willpower decreased steadily over time from 26% in 1997 to 21% in 2012 (linear P-trend < 0.0001). Trends were similar for all barriers irrespective of sex, age, education, and income.Conclusion: Between 1997 and 2012, barriers to healthy eating remained highly prevalent (≥20%) in the Swiss population and evolved similarly irrespective of age, sex, education, and income.

PMID: 28122785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Validating polyphenol intake estimates from a food-frequency questionnaire by using repeated 24-h dietary recalls and a unique method-of-triads approach with 2 biomarkers.
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Validating polyphenol intake estimates from a food-frequency questionnaire by using repeated 24-h dietary recalls and a unique method-of-triads approach with 2 biomarkers.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):685-694

Authors: Burkholder-Cooley NM, Rajaram SS, Haddad EH, Oda K, Fraser GE, Jaceldo-Siegl K

Abstract
Background: The assessment of polyphenol intake in free-living subjects is challenging, mostly because of the difficulty in accurately measuring phenolic content and the wide presence of phenolics in foods.Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the validity of polyphenol intake estimated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) by using the mean of 6 measurements of a 24-h dietary recall (24-HR) as a reference and to apply a unique method-of-triads approach to assess validity coefficients (VCs) between latent "true" dietary estimates, total urinary polyphenol (TUP) excretion, and a surrogate biomarker (plasma carotenoids).Design: Dietary intake data from 899 adults of the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2; 43% blacks and 67% women) were obtained. Pearson correlation coefficients (r), corrected for attenuation from within-person variation in the recalls, were calculated between 24-HRs and FFQs and between 24-HRs and TUPs. VCs and 95% CIs between true intake and polyphenol intakes from FFQs, 24-HRs, and the biomarkers TUPs and plasma carotenoids were calculated.Results: Mean ± SD polyphenol intakes were 717 ± 646 mg/d from FFQs and 402 ± 345 mg/d from 24-HRs. The total polyphenol intake from 24-HRs was correlated with FFQs in crude (r = 0.51, P < 0.001) and deattenuated (r = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.69) models. In the triad model, the VC between the FFQs and theoretical true intake was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.93) and between 24-HRs and true intake was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.38, 1.00).Conclusions: The AHS-2 FFQ is a reasonable indicator of total polyphenol intake in the AHS-2 cohort. Urinary polyphenol excretion is limited by genetic variance, metabolism, and bioavailability and should be used in addition to rather than as a replacement for dietary intake assessment.

PMID: 28122784 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Longitudinal association between fasting blood glucose concentrations and first stroke in hypertensive adults in China: effect of folic acid intervention.
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Longitudinal association between fasting blood glucose concentrations and first stroke in hypertensive adults in China: effect of folic acid intervention.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):564-570

Authors: Xu RB, Kong X, Xu BP, Song Y, Ji M, Zhao M, Huang X, Li P, Cheng X, Chen F, Zhang Y, Tang G, Qin X, Wang B, Hou FF, Dong Q, Chen Y, Yang T, Sun N, Li X, Zhao L, Ge J, Ji L, Huo Y, Li J

Abstract
Background: Diabetes is a known risk factor for stroke, but data on its prospective association with first stroke are limited. Folic acid supplementation has been shown to protect against first stroke, but its role in preventing first stroke in diabetes is unknown.Objectives: This post hoc analysis of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial tested the hypotheses that the fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration is positively associated with first stroke risk and that folic acid treatment can reduce stroke risk associated with elevated fasting glucose concentrations.Design: This analysis included 20,327 hypertensive adults without a history of stroke or myocardial infarction, who were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment with 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid (n = 10,160) or 10 mg enalapril alone (n = 10,167). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportionate hazard models were used to test the hypotheses with adjustment for pertinent covariables.Results: During a median treatment duration of 4.5 y, 616 participants developed a first stroke (497 ischemic strokes). A high FBG concentration (≥7.0 mmol/L) or diabetes, compared with a low FBG concentration (<5.0 mmol/L), was associated with an increased risk of first stroke (6.0% compared with 2.6%, respectively; HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.8; P < 0.001). Folic acid treatment reduced the risk of stroke across a wide range of FBG concentrations ≥5.0 mmol/L, but risk reduction was greatest in subjects with FBG concentrations ≥7.0 mmol/L or with diabetes (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.97; P < 0.05). There was a significant interactive effect of FBG and folic acid treatment on first stroke (P = 0.01).Conclusions: In Chinese hypertensive adults, an FBG concentration ≥7.0 mmol/L or diabetes is associated with an increased risk of first stroke; this increased risk is reduced by 34% with folic acid treatment. These findings warrant additional investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00794885.

PMID: 28122783 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




A metabolomic study of biomarkers of meat and fish intake.
Related Articles A metabolomic study of biomarkers of meat and fish intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):600-608 Authors: Cheung W, Keski-Rahkonen P, Assi N, Ferrari P, Freisling H, Rinaldi S, Slimani N, Zamora-Ros R, Rundle M, Frost G, Gibbons H, Carr E, Brennan L, Cross AJ, Pala V, Panico S, Sacerdote C, Palli D, Tumino R, Kühn T, Kaaks R, Boeing H, Floegel A, Mancini F, Boutron-Ruault MC, Baglietto L, Trichopoulou A, Naska A, Orfanos P, Scalbert A Abstract Background: Meat and fish intakes have been associated with various chronic diseases. The use of specific biomarkers may help to assess meat and fish intake and improve subject classification according to the amount and type of meat or fish consumed.Objective: A metabolomic approach was applied to search for biomarkers of meat and fish intake in a dietary intervention study and in free-living subjects from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Design: In the dietary intervention study, 4 groups of 10 subjects consumed increasing quantities of chicken, red meat, processed meat, and fish over 3 successive weeks. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected during each period and analyzed by high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Signals characteristic of meat or fish intake were replicated in 50 EPIC subjects for whom a 24-h urine sample and 24-h dietary recall were available and who were selected for their exclusive intake or no intake of any of the 4 same foods.Results: A total of 249 mass spectrometric features showed a positive dose-dependent response to meat or fish intake in the intervention study. Eighteen of these features best predicted intake of the 4 food groups in the EPIC urine samples on the basis of partial receiver operator curve analyses with permutation testing (areas under the curve ranging between 0.61 and 1.0). Of these signals, 8 metabolites were identified. Anserine was found to be specific for chicken intake, whereas trimethylamine-N-oxide showed good specificity for fish. Carnosine and 3 acylcarnitines (acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, and 2-methylbutyrylcarnitine) appeared to be more generic indicators of meat and meat and fish intake, respectively.Conclusion: The meat and fish biomarkers identified in this work may be used to study associations between meat and fish intake and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01684917. PMID: 28122782 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] [...]



Postexercise repletion of muscle energy stores with fructose or glucose in mixed meals.
Related Articles Postexercise repletion of muscle energy stores with fructose or glucose in mixed meals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):609-617 Authors: Rosset R, Lecoultre V, Egli L, Cros J, Dokumaci AS, Zwygart K, Boesch C, Kreis R, Schneiter P, Tappy L Abstract Background: Postexercise nutrition is paramount to the restoration of muscle energy stores by providing carbohydrate and fat as precursors of glycogen and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) synthesis. Compared with glucose, fructose ingestion results in lower postprandial glucose and higher lactate and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that these differences in substrate concentration would be associated with a different partition of energy stored as IMCLs or glycogen postexercise.Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of isocaloric liquid mixed meals containing fat, protein, and either fructose or glucose on the repletion of muscle energy stores over 24 h after a strenuous exercise session.Design: Eight male endurance athletes (mean ± SEM age: 29 ± 2 y; peak oxygen consumption: 66.8 ± 1.3 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) were studied twice. On each occasion, muscle energy stores were first lowered by a combination of a 3-d controlled diet and prolonged exercise. After assessment of glycogen and IMCL concentrations in vastus muscles, subjects rested for 24 h and ingested mixed meals providing fat and protein together with 4.4 g/kg fructose (the fructose condition; FRU) or glucose (the glucose condition; GLU). Postprandial metabolism was assessed over 6 h, and glycogen and IMCL concentrations were measured again after 24 h. Finally, energy metabolism was evaluated during a subsequent exercise session.Results: FRU and GLU resulted in similar IMCL [+2.4 ± 0.4 compared with +2.0 ± 0.6 mmol · kg(-1) wet weight · d(-1); time × condition (mixed-model analysis): P = 0.45] and muscle glycogen (+10.9 ± 0.9 compared with +12.3 ± 1.9 mmol · kg(-1) wet weight · d(-1); time × condition: P = 0.45) repletion. Fructose consumption in FRU increased postprandial net carbohydrate oxidation and decreased net carbohydrate storage (estimating total, muscle, and liver glycogen synthesis) compared with GLU (+117 ± 9 compared with +135 ± 9 g/6 h, respectively; P < 0.01). Compared with GLU, FRU also resulted in lower plasma glucose concentrations and decreased exercise performance the next day.Conclusions: Mixed meals containing fat, protein, and either fructose or glucose elicit similar repletion of IMCLs and muscle glycogen. Under such conditions, fructose lowers whole-body glycogen synthesis and impairs subsequent exercise performance, presumably because of lower hepatic glycogen stores. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01866215. PMID: 28100512 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] [...]



Higher dietary flavonoid intakes are associated with lower objectively measured body composition in women: evidence from discordant monozygotic twins.
Related Articles Higher dietary flavonoid intakes are associated with lower objectively measured body composition in women: evidence from discordant monozygotic twins. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):626-634 Authors: Jennings A, MacGregor A, Spector T, Cassidy A Abstract Background: Although dietary flavonoid intake has been associated with less weight gain, there are limited data on its impact on fat mass, and to our knowledge, the contribution of genetic factors to this relation has not previously been assessed.Objective: We examined the associations between flavonoid intakes and fat mass.Design: In a study of 2734 healthy, female twins aged 18-83 y from the TwinsUK registry, intakes of total flavonoids and 7 subclasses (flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavones, polymers, and proanthocyanidins) were calculated with the use of food-frequency questionnaires. Measures of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived fat mass included the limb-to-trunk fat mass ratio (FMR), fat mass index, and central fat mass index.Results: In cross-sectional multivariable analyses, higher intake of anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins were associated with a lower FMR with mean ± SE differences between extreme quintiles of -0.03 ± 0.02 (P-trend = 0.02), -0.03 ± 0.02 (P-trend = 0.03), and -0.05 ± 0.02 (P-trend < 0.01), respectively. These associations were not markedly changed after further adjustment for fiber and total fruit and vegetable intakes. In monozygotic, intake-discordant twin pairs, twins with higher intakes of flavan-3-ols (n = 154, P = 0.03), flavonols (n = 173, P = 0.03), and proanthocyanidins (n = 172, P < 0.01) had a significantly lower FMR than that of their co-twins with within-pair differences of 3-4%. Furthermore, in confirmatory food-based analyses, twins with higher intakes of flavonol-rich foods (onions, tea, and pears; P = 0.01) and proanthocyanidin-rich foods (apples and cocoa drinks; P = 0.04) and, in younger participants (aged <50 y) only, of anthocyanin-rich foods (berries, pears, grapes, and wine; P = 0.01) had a 3-9% lower FMR than that of their co-twins.Conclusions: These data suggest that higher habitual intake of a number of flavonoids, including anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins, are associated with lower fat mass independent of shared genetic and common environmental factors. Intervention trials are needed to further examine the effect of flavonoid-rich foods on body composition. PMID: 28100511 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] [...]



Efficacy of iron-supplement bars to reduce anemia in urban Indian women: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.
(image) Related Articles

Efficacy of iron-supplement bars to reduce anemia in urban Indian women: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):746-757

Authors: Mehta R, Platt AC, Sun X, Desai M, Clements D, Turner EL

Abstract
Background: India's high prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia has largely been attributed to the local diet consisting of nonheme iron, which has lower absorption than that of heme iron.Objective: We assessed the efficacy of the consumption of iron-supplement bars in raising hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit percentages in anemic (hemoglobin concentration <12 g/dL) Indian women of reproductive age.Design: The Let's be Well Red study was a 90-d, pair-matched, cluster-randomized controlled trial. A total of 361 nonpregnant women (age 18-35 y) were recruited from 10 sites within Mumbai and Navi Mumbai, India. All participants received anemia education and a complete blood count (CBC). Random assignment of anemic participants to intervention and control arms occurred within 5 matched site-pairs. Intervention participants received 1 iron-supplement bar (containing 14 mg Fe)/d for 90 d, whereas control subjects received nothing. CBC tests were given at days 15, 45, and 90. Primary outcomes were 90-d changes from baseline in hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit percentages. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to model continuous and binary outcomes, respectively.Results: Of 179 anemic participants, 136 (76.0%) completed all follow-up assessments (65 intervention and 71 control participants). Baseline characteristics were comparable by arm. Mean hemoglobin and hematocrit increases after 90 d were greater for intervention than for control participants [1.4 g/dL (95% CI: 1.3, 1.6 g/dL) and 2.7% (95% CI: 2.2%, 3.2%), respectively]. The anemia prevalence at 90 d was lower for intervention (29.2%) than for control participants (98.6%) (OR: 0.007; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.04).Conclusions: The daily consumption of an iron-supplement bar leads to increased hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit percentages and to a lower anemia prevalence in the target population with no reported side effects. This intervention is an attractive option to combat anemia in India. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02032615.

PMID: 28100507 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Metabolic syndrome increases dietary α-tocopherol requirements as assessed using urinary and plasma vitamin E catabolites: a double-blind, crossover clinical trial.
Related Articles Metabolic syndrome increases dietary α-tocopherol requirements as assessed using urinary and plasma vitamin E catabolites: a double-blind, crossover clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):571-579 Authors: Traber MG, Mah E, Leonard SW, Bobe G, Bruno RS Abstract Background: Vitamin E supplementation improves liver histology in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We reported previously that α-tocopherol bioavailability in healthy adults is higher than in those with MetS, thereby suggesting that the latter group has increased requirements.Objective: We hypothesized that α-tocopherol catabolites α-carboxyethyl hydroxychromanol (α-CEHC) and α-carboxymethylbutyl hydroxychromanol (α-CMBHC) are useful biomarkers of α-tocopherol status.Design: Adults (healthy or with MetS; n = 10/group) completed a double-blind, crossover clinical trial with four 72-h interventions during which they co-ingested 15 mg hexadeuterium-labeled RRR-α-tocopherol (d6-α-T) with nonfat, reduced-fat, whole, or soy milk. During each intervention, we measured α-CEHC and α-CMBHC excretions in three 8-h urine collections (0-24 h) and plasma α-tocopherol, α-CEHC, and α-CMBHC concentrations at various times ≤72 h.Results: During the first 24 h, participants with MetS compared with healthy adults excreted 41% less α-CEHC (all values are least-squares means ± SEMs: 0.6 ± 0.1 compared with 1.0 ± 0.1 μmol/g creatinine, respectively; P = 0.002), 63% less hexadeuterium-labeled (d6)-α-CEHC (0.04 ± 0.02 compared with 0.13 ± 0.02 μmol/g creatinine, respectively; P = 0.002), and 58% less d6-α-CMBHC (0.017 ± 0.004 compared with 0.041 ± 0.004 μmol/g creatinine, respectively; P = 0.0009) and had 52% lower plasma d6-α-CEHC areas under the concentration curves [area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24h): 27.7 ± 7.9 compared with 58.4 ± 7.9 nmol/L × h, respectively; P = 0.01]. d6-α-CEHC peaked before d6-α-T in 77 of 80 paired plasma concentration curves. Urinary d6-α-CEHC 24-h concentrations were associated with the plasma AUC0-24 h of d6-α-T (r = 0.53, P = 0.02) and d6-α-CEHC (r = 0.72, P = 0.0003), and with urinary d6-α-CMBHC (r = 0.88, P < 0.0001), and inversely with the plasma inflammation biomarkers C-reactive protein (r = -0.70, P = 0.0006), interleukin-10 (r = -0.59, P = 0.007), and interleukin-6 (r = -0.54, P = 0.01).Conclusion: Urinary α-CEHC and α-CMBHC are useful biomarkers to noninvasively assess α-tocopherol adequacy, especially in populations with MetS-associated hepatic dysfunction that likely impairs α-tocopherol trafficking. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01787591. PMID: 28077381 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] [...]



Metabolomic profiles as reliable biomarkers of dietary composition.
Related Articles Metabolomic profiles as reliable biomarkers of dietary composition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):547-554 Authors: Esko T, Hirschhorn JN, Feldman HA, Hsu YH, Deik AA, Clish CB, Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS Abstract Background: Clinical nutrition research often lacks robust markers of compliance, complicating the interpretation of clinical trials and observational studies of free-living subjects.Objective: We aimed to examine metabolomics profiles in response to 3 diets that differed widely in macronutrient composition during a controlled feeding protocol.Design: Twenty-one adults with a high body mass index (in kg/m(2); mean ± SD: 34.4 ± 4.9) were given hypocaloric diets to promote weight loss corresponding to 10-15% of initial body weight. They were then studied during weight stability while consuming 3 test diets, each for a 4-wk period according to a crossover design: low fat (60% carbohydrate, 20% fat, 20% protein), low glycemic index (40% carbohydrate, 40% fat, 20% protein), or very-low carbohydrate (10% carbohydrate, 60% fat, 30% protein). Plasma samples were obtained at baseline and at the end of each 4-wk period in the fasting state for metabolomics analysis by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses included adjustment for multiple comparisons.Results: Of 333 metabolites, we identified 152 whose concentrations differed for ≥1 diet compared with the others, including diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols, branched-chain amino acids, and markers reflecting metabolic status. Analysis of groups of related metabolites, with the use of either principal components or pathways, revealed coordinated metabolic changes affected by dietary composition, including pathways related to amino acid metabolism. We constructed a classifier using the metabolites that differed between diets and were able to correctly identify the test diet from metabolite profiles in 60 of 63 cases (>95% accuracy). Analyses also suggest differential effects by diet on numerous cardiometabolic disease risk factors.Conclusions: Metabolomic profiling may be used to assess compliance during clinical nutrition trials and the validity of dietary assessment in observational studies. In addition, this methodology may help elucidate mechanistic pathways linking diet to chronic disease risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00315354. PMID: 28077380 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] [...]



Dietary intake and peripheral arterial disease incidence in middle-aged adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.
Related Articles Dietary intake and peripheral arterial disease incidence in middle-aged adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):651-659 Authors: Ogilvie RP, Lutsey PL, Heiss G, Folsom AR, Steffen LM Abstract Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a costly source of morbidity and mortality among older persons in the United States. Dietary intake plays a role in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; however, few studies have examined the relation of food intake or dietary patterns with PAD.Objective: We examined the relation between habitual dietary intake at midlife and incident PAD over ∼20 y of follow-up.Design: Among 14,082 participants enrolled in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study initially free of PAD, dietary intake was assessed at baseline in 1987-1989 by using a modified Harvard food-frequency questionnaire. Food groups were created, and principal components analysis was used to develop "healthy" and "Western" dietary patterns; both were categorized into quintiles or quartiles. Incident PAD was determined by an ankle-brachial index <0.9 assessed at 2 subsequent examinations and hospital discharge codes through 2012. Multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used.Results: During a mean follow-up of 19.9 y, 1569 participants developed incident PAD. In models adjusted for demographic characteristics, behaviors, and food groups, the HRs (95% CIs) for incident PAD increased across quintiles of meat consumption [quintile 1: reference, quintile 2: 1.38 (1.16, 1.65), quintile 3: 1.38 (1.16, 1.65), quintile 4: 1.45 (1.20, 1.74), quintile 5: 1.66 (1.36, 2.03); P-trend <0.001]. Compared with those who drank no alcohol, those who had 1-6 drinks/wk had a lower risk of incident PAD [0.78 (0.68, 0.89)]. For coffee, ≥4 cups/d compared with none was inversely associated with incident PAD [quintile 5 compared with quintile 1: 0.84 (0.75, 1.00); P-trend = 0.014]. There was no association between other food groups or patterns and incident PAD.Conclusions: In this prospective cohort study, greater meat consumption was associated with a higher risk, and moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of incident PAD. Whether these associations are causal remains to be seen. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005131. PMID: 28077376 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] [...]



Vitamin B-12-fortified toothpaste improves vitamin status in vegans: a 12-wk randomized placebo-controlled study.
Related Articles Vitamin B-12-fortified toothpaste improves vitamin status in vegans: a 12-wk randomized placebo-controlled study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):618-625 Authors: Siebert AK, Obeid R, Weder S, Awwad HM, Sputtek A, Geisel J, Keller M Abstract Background: The oral application of vitamin B-12 may prevent its deficiency if the vitamin is absorbed via the mucosal barrier.Objectives: We studied the effect of the use of a vitamin B-12-fortified toothpaste on vitamin-status markers in vegans and assessed the efficiency of markers in the identification of vitamin-augmentation status.Design: In this 12-wk, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 76 vegans received either a placebo (n = 34) or vitamin B-12 (n = 42) toothpaste. Sixty-six subjects (n = 30 in the placebo arm; n = 36 in the vitamin B-12 arm) completed the intervention. Serum and plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin, total homocysteine (tHcy), and methylmalonic acid (MMA) were measured before and after the intervention.Results: Both postintervention concentrations of vitamin B-12 and holotranscobalamin and their changes over 12 wk were higher in the vitamin B-12 group (mean ± SD change: 81 ± 135 pmol/L for vitamin B-12 and 26 ± 34 pmol/L for holotranscobalamin) than in the placebo group (-27 ± 64 and -5 ± 17 pmol/L, respectively) after adjustment for baseline concentrations. Postintervention concentrations of MMA and their changes differed significantly between groups (MMA changes: -0.169 ± 0.340 compared with -0.036 ± 0.544 μmol/L in vitamin B-12 and placebo groups, respectively; P < 0.001). After adjustment for baseline tHcy, postintervention concentrations of tHcy tended to be lower (P = 0.051), and the changes in tHcy (-0.7 ± 4.4 compared with 2.0 ± 5.6 μmol/L, respectively) were greater in the vitamin B-12 group than in the placebo group. Changes in vitamin B-12 markers were more prominent in vegans who reported that they had not taken vitamin B-12 supplements.Conclusion: Vitamin B-12 that is applied to the oral cavity via toothpaste enters the circulation and corrects the vitamin B-12 markers in the blood of vegans who are at higher risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02679833. PMID: 28052884 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] [...]