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ω-3 and ω-6 long-chain PUFAs and their enzymatic metabolites in neovascular eye diseases.
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ω-3 and ω-6 long-chain PUFAs and their enzymatic metabolites in neovascular eye diseases.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: Gong Y, Fu Z, Liegl R, Chen J, Hellström A, Smith LE

Abstract
Neovascular eye diseases, including retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, threaten the visual health of children and adults. Current treatment options, including anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy and laser retinal photocoagulation, have limitations and are associated with adverse effects; therefore, the identification of additional therapies is highly desirable. Both clinical and experimental studies show that dietary ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) reduce retinal and choroidal angiogenesis. The ω-3 LC-PUFA metabolites from 2 groups of enzymes, cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases, inhibit [and the ω-6 (n-6) LC-PUFA metabolites promote] inflammation and angiogenesis. However, both of the ω-3 and the ω-6 lipid products of cytochrome P450 oxidase 2C promote neovascularization in both the retina and choroid, which suggests that inhibition of this pathway might be beneficial. This review summarizes our current understanding of the roles of ω-3 and ω-6 LC-PUFAs and their enzymatic metabolites in neovascular eye diseases.

PMID: 28515072 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Challenges in defining the role of dietary protein in bone health.
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Challenges in defining the role of dietary protein in bone health.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: Dawson-Hughes B

PMID: 28515071 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Even mealtime distribution of protein intake is associated with greater muscle strength, but not with 3-y physical function decline, in free-living older adults: the Quebec longitudinal study on Nutrition as a Determinant of Successful Aging (NuAge study).
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Even mealtime distribution of protein intake is associated with greater muscle strength, but not with 3-y physical function decline, in free-living older adults: the Quebec longitudinal study on Nutrition as a Determinant of Successful Aging (NuAge study).

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: Farsijani S, Payette H, Morais JA, Shatenstein B, Gaudreau P, Chevalier S

Abstract
Background: Functional status declines with aging, thus impeding autonomy. Recently, a more even mealtime distribution of dietary protein was positively associated with muscle mass, but the relation of this distribution to physical performance remains unknown.Objective: We examined the relation between mealtime protein-intake distribution and physical performance and its 3-y decline in community-dwelling older adults.Design: Three-year follow-up data from 827 men and 914 women (67-84 y) in the longitudinal study on nutrition and aging [Quebec longitudinal study on Nutrition as a Determinant of Successful Aging (NuAge study); Quebec, Canada] were analyzed. Physical performance, which was measured yearly, was grouped into the following 2 functional composite scores: muscle strength (handgrip, arm, and leg) and mobility (timed-up-and-go, chair stand, and walking speed). Dietary data were collected in 2 sets of three 24-h food recalls at baseline and year 2. The individual mealtime protein distribution was calculated as the CV (i.e., SD divided by the mean) of grams of protein per meal. A mixed model analysis was used to examine trajectories of muscle strength and mobility across time by sex as conditioned by the protein distribution and adjusted for potential covariates.Results: Physical performance deteriorated over 3 y with muscle strength declining more than the mobility score in men (-1.51 ± 1.68 compared with -0.66 ± 2.81) and women (-1.35 ± 1.77 compared with -0.78 ± 2.63) (means ± SD, P < 0.001). More-evenly distributed protein intake, independent of the total quantity, was associated with a higher muscle-strength score in both sexes throughout follow-up. It was also associated with a greater mobility score, but only in men and only before adjustment for covariates. Strength and mobility rates of decline were not affected by protein-intake distribution in either sex.Conclusions: In addition to the previously observed association with lean mass, an even distribution of daily protein intake across meals is independently associated with greater muscle strength, but not with the mobility score, in older adults. A longer-term investigation of the role of protein intake and its distribution on physical performance is warranted, as well as intervention studies, to support future recommendations.

PMID: 28515070 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Mendelian randomization shows sex-specific associations between long-chain PUFA-related genotypes and cognitive performance in Danish schoolchildren.
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Mendelian randomization shows sex-specific associations between long-chain PUFA-related genotypes and cognitive performance in Danish schoolchildren.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: Lauritzen L, Sørensen LB, Harsløf LB, Ritz C, Stark KD, Astrup A, Dyssegaard CB, Egelund N, Michaelsen KF, Damsgaard CT

Abstract
Background: Dietary and endogenously formed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are hypothesized to improve cognitive development, but results are inconclusive, with suggestions of sex specificity. One study suggested that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1535 and rs174448 in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have opposite effects on erythrocyte LCPUFAs at 9 mo.Objective: To explore whether SNPs in FADS and elongase (ELOVL) genes were associated with school performance in a sex-specific manner, we performed a Mendelian randomization study using data from the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study with 765 Danish schoolchildren 8-11 y old.Design: Associations between selected FADS1/2 SNPs (rs1535, rs174448, and rs174468) and ELOVL5 rs2397142, whole-blood fatty acid composition, and performance in the d2 Test of Attention and a reading test were analyzed in multiple regression models including all SNPs, SNP-sex interactions, and covariates related to testing conditions.Results:FADS, rs1535 minor allele carriage associated with lower whole-blood arachidonic acid (P ≤ 0.002), and minor alleles of rs174448 tended to associate with lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (P = 0.052). We identified sex interactions in 50% of the SNP performance sets. Sex-dependent associations were observed for rs174448 and rs1535 on the d2 Test of Attention outcomes (P < 0.03) and for the associations between reading scores and rs174448 and rs2397142 (P < 0.01). All of the sex-specific analyses showed associations in opposite directions in girls and boys. The minor allele carriage of rs174448 was associated with lower d2 Test of Attention performance (P < 0.02) and reading scores (P < 0.001) in boys but with better reading scores in girls (P ≤ 0.002). The associations were consistently the opposite for rs1535 minor allele carriage (P < 0.05). Associations with rs2397142 also appeared to be opposite of those of rs174448, but only for reading and not significant after adjustment for parental educational level and whole-blood DHA.Conclusions: This study showed associations between rs1535 minor allele homozygosity and rs174448 major allele carriage and improved performance in 8- to 11-y-old boys but not in girls, thereby counteracting existing sex differences. This may be a consequence of increased endogenous DHA synthesis in infancy but not at school-age. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01457794.

PMID: 28515069 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Low-fat dietary pattern and cardiovascular disease: results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.
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Low-fat dietary pattern and cardiovascular disease: results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: Prentice RL, Aragaki AK, Van Horn L, Thomson CA, Beresford SA, Robinson J, Snetselaar L, Anderson GL, Manson JE, Allison MA, Rossouw JE, Howard BV

Abstract
Background: The influence of a low-fat dietary pattern on the cardiovascular health of postmenopausal women continues to be of public health interest.Objective: This report evaluates low-fat dietary pattern influences on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality during the intervention and postintervention phases of the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.Design: Participants comprised 48,835 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 y; 40% were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary pattern intervention (target of 20% of energy from fat), and 60% were randomly assigned to a usual diet comparison group. The 8.3-y intervention period ended in March 2005, after which >80% of surviving participants consented to additional active follow-up through September 2010; all participants were followed for mortality through 2013. Breast and colorectal cancer were the primary trial outcomes, and coronary heart disease (CHD) and overall CVD were additional designated outcomes.Results: Incidence rates for CHD and total CVD did not differ between the intervention and comparison groups in either the intervention or postintervention period. However, CHD HRs comparing these groups varied strongly with baseline CVD and hypertension status. Participants without prior CVD had an intervention period CHD HR of 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.87) or 1.04 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.19) if they were normotensive or hypertensive, respectively (P-interaction = 0.003). The CHD benefit among healthy normotensive women was partially offset by an increase in ischemic stroke risk. Corresponding HRs in the postintervention period were close to null. Participants with CVD at baseline (3.4%) had CHD HRs of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.93) and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.55) in the intervention and postintervention periods, respectively. However, various lines of evidence suggest that results in women with CVD or hypertension at baseline are confounded by postrandomization use of cholesterol-lowering medications.Conclusions: CVD risk in postmenopausal women appears to be sensitive to a change to a low-fat dietary pattern and, among healthy women, includes both CHD benefit and stroke risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.

PMID: 28515068 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Relative contribution of α-carotene to postprandial vitamin A concentrations in healthy humans after carrot consumption.
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Relative contribution of α-carotene to postprandial vitamin A concentrations in healthy humans after carrot consumption.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: Cooperstone JL, Goetz HJ, Riedl KM, Harrison EH, Schwartz SJ, Kopec RE

Abstract
Background: Asymmetric α-carotene, a provitamin A carotenoid, is cleaved to produce retinol (vitamin A) and α-retinol (with negligible vitamin A activity). The vitamin A activity of α-carotene-containing foods is likely overestimated because traditional analytic methods do not separate α-retinol derivatives from active retinol.Objective: This study aimed to accurately characterize intestinal α-carotene cleavage and its relative contribution to postprandial vitamin A in humans after consumption of raw carrots.Design: Healthy adults (n = 12) consumed a meal containing 300 g raw carrot (providing 27.3 mg β-carotene and 18.7 mg α-carotene). Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions of plasma were isolated and extracted, and α-retinyl palmitate (αRP) and retinyl palmitate were measured over 12 h postprandially via high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The complete profile of all α-retinyl esters and retinyl esters was measured at 6 h, and total absorption of α- and β-carotene was calculated.Results: αRP was identified and quantified in every subject. No difference in preference for absorption of β- over α-carotene was observed (adjusting for dose, 28% higher, P = 0.103). After absorption, β-carotene trended toward preferential cleavage compared with α-carotene (22% higher, P = 0.084). A large range of provitamin A carotenoid conversion efficiencies was observed, with α-carotene contributing 12-35% of newly converted vitamin A (predicted contribution = 25.5%). In all subjects, a majority of α-retinol was esterified to palmitic acid (as compared with other fatty acids).Conclusions: α-Retinol is esterified in the enterocyte and transported in the blood analogous to retinol. The percentage of absorption of α-carotene from raw carrots was not significantly different from β-carotene when adjusting for dose, although a trend toward higher cleavage of β-carotene was observed. The results demonstrate large interindividual variability in α-carotene conversion. The contribution of newly absorbed α-carotene to postprandial vitamin A should not be estimated but should be measured directly to accurately assess the vitamin A capacity of α-carotene-containing foods. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01432210.

PMID: 28515067 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Estimating salt intake in humans: not so easy!
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Estimating salt intake in humans: not so easy!

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: Titze J

PMID: 28515066 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Neonatal vitamin D status from archived dried blood spots and future risk of fractures in childhood: results from the D-tect study, a population-based case-cohort study.
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Neonatal vitamin D status from archived dried blood spots and future risk of fractures in childhood: results from the D-tect study, a population-based case-cohort study.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: Händel MN, Frederiksen P, Cohen A, Cooper C, Heitmann BL, Abrahamsen B

Abstract
Background: Whether antenatal and neonatal vitamin D status have clinical relevance in fracture prevention has not been examined extensively, although observational studies indicate that fetal life may be a sensitive period in relation to bone growth and mineralization during childhood.Objective: We examined whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentrations in stored neonatal dried blood spot (DBS) samples are associated with pediatric fracture risk. We hypothesized that in particular, low neonatal vitamin D status may be a risk factor for fracture incidence among children.Design: In a register-based case-cohort study design, the case group was composed of 1039 individuals who were randomly selected from a total of 82,154 individuals who were born during 1989-1999 and admitted to a Danish hospital with a fracture of the forearm, wrist, scaphoid bone, clavicle, or ankle at age 6-13 y. The subcohort was composed of 1600 individuals randomly selected from all Danish children born during 1989-1999. The neonatal 25(OH)D3 concentrations in DBS samples were assessed by using highly sensitive chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.Results: The mean ± SD 25(OH)D3 concentration for all subjects was 27.7 ± 18.9 nmol/L [median (IQR): 23.5 nmol/L (13.3, 37.3 nmol/L)] and showed significant monthly variation (P < 0.0001) with the highest values in July and August. Individuals in the middle quintile of neonatal 25(OH)D3 had lower odds of sustaining a fracture than did those in the lowest quintile (adjusted OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.96), but a global test did not show any significant overall association (adjusted P = 0.13).Conclusions: This study suggested that neonatal vitamin D status does not influence subsequent fracture risk in childhood. This is in accordance with studies that report no association between antenatal maternal vitamin D status and childhood fractures. Further studies are needed to examine fracture risk in relation to prenatal vitamin D status in a randomized controlled setting.

PMID: 28515065 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Genetics of serum carotenoid concentrations and their correlation with obesity-related traits in Mexican American children.
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Genetics of serum carotenoid concentrations and their correlation with obesity-related traits in Mexican American children.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: Farook VS, Reddivari L, Mummidi S, Puppala S, Arya R, Lopez-Alvarenga JC, Fowler SP, Chittoor G, Resendez RG, Kumar BM, Comuzzie AG, Curran JE, Lehman DM, Jenkinson CP, Lynch JL, DeFronzo RA, Blangero J, Hale DE, Duggirala R, Vanamala JK

Abstract
Background: Dietary intake of phytonutrients present in fruits and vegetables, such as carotenoids, is associated with a lower risk of obesity and related traits, but the impact of genetic variation on these associations is poorly understood, especially in children.Objective: We estimated common genetic influences on serum carotenoid concentrations and obesity-related traits in Mexican American (MA) children.Design: Obesity-related data were obtained from 670 nondiabetic MA children, aged 6-17 y. Serum α- and β-carotenoid concentrations were measured in ∼570 (α-carotene in 565 and β-carotene in 572) of these children with the use of an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-photodiode array. We determined heritabilities for both carotenoids and examined their genetic relation with 10 obesity-related traits [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, fat mass (FM), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin and glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance] by using family data and a variance components approach. For these analyses, carotenoid values were inverse normalized, and all traits were adjusted for significant covariate effects of age and sex.Results: Carotenoid concentrations were highly heritable and significant [α-carotene: heritability (h(2)) = 0.81, P = 6.7 × 10(-11); β-carotene: h(2) = 0.90, P = 3.5 × 10(-15)]. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found significant (P ≤ 0.05) negative phenotypic correlations between carotenoid concentrations and the following traits: BMI, WC, FM, and triglycerides (range: α-carotene = -0.19 to -0.12; β-carotene = -0.24 to -0.13) and positive correlations with HDL cholesterol (α-carotene = 0.17; β-carotene = 0.24). However, when the phenotypic correlations were partitioned into genetic and environmental correlations, we found marginally significant (P = 0.051) genetic correlations only between β-carotene and BMI (-0.27), WC (-0.30), and HDL cholesterol (0.31) after accounting for multiple comparisons. None of the environmental correlations were significant.Conclusions: The findings from this study suggest that the serum carotenoid concentrations were under strong additive genetic influences based on variance components analyses, and that the common genetic factors may influence β-carotene and obesity and lipid traits in MA children.

PMID: 28515064 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Learning to like vegetables during breastfeeding: a randomized clinical trial of lactating mothers and infants.
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Learning to like vegetables during breastfeeding: a randomized clinical trial of lactating mothers and infants.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: Mennella JA, Daniels LM, Reiter AR

Abstract
Background: What lactating mothers eat flavors breast milk and, in turn, modifies their infants' acceptance of similarly flavored foods.Objective: We sought to determine the effects of the timing and duration of eating a variety of vegetables during breastfeeding on the liking of vegetables in both members of the dyad.Design: We conducted a randomized controlled study of 97 mother-infant dyads. Lactating mothers drank vegetable, beet, celery, and carrot juices for 1 mo beginning at 0.5, 1.5, or 2.5 mo postpartum or for 3 mo beginning at 0.5 mo postpartum. The control group drank equal volumes of water and avoided drinking the juices. Mothers rated the tastes of the juices and self-reported dietary intakes at each monthly visit (0.5-4.5 mo). After weaning, when 7.9 mo of age, infants' acceptance of plain, carrot-flavor (exposed flavor), and broccoli-flavor (nonexposed flavor) cereals was assessed on separate days.Results: The timing of exposure affected the acceptance of the carrot flavor that did not generalize to the novel broccoli flavor. A relatively brief experience (1 mo) with vegetable flavors in mothers' milk, starting at 0.5 mo postpartum, was sufficient to shift the hedonic tone, which resulted in a faster rate of eating carrot-flavored cereal than that in infants who were exposed during subsequent months or not at all. One month of exposure had a greater effect than 3 mo of exposure or no exposure. Regardless of when exposure occurred, infants were less likely to display facial expressions of distaste initially when eating the carrot cereal. Over time, mothers liked the tastes of carrot, beet, and celery juices more, but no changes in dietary intake of vegetables were observed.Conclusions: Early life may be an optimum time for both infants and their mothers to learn to like the taste of healthy foods. More research is needed to facilitate the liking and eating of these foods by mothers, which will, in turn, increase the likelihood of their feeding these foods to their children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01667549.

PMID: 28515063 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Changes in total energy intake and macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery predict long-term weight outcome: findings from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study.
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Changes in total energy intake and macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery predict long-term weight outcome: findings from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: Kanerva N, Larsson I, Peltonen M, Lindroos AK, Carlsson LM

Abstract
Background: Approximately 20-30% of obese patients do not achieve successful weight outcomes after bariatric surgery.Objective: We examined whether short-term changes (≤0.5 y postsurgery) in energy intake and macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery could predict 10-y weight change.Design: Participants were recruited from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study, which was a matched (nonrandomized) prospective trial that compared bariatric surgery with usual care for obese patients. A total of 2010 patients who underwent bariatric surgery were included in the study. Physical examinations (e.g., weight) and questionnaires (e.g., dietary questionnaire) were completed before and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 y after surgery. For the main analytic strategy, a linear mixed model was implemented, which included repeated measures with a random intercept and an unstructured covariance matrix.Results: Short-term changes in energy intake (P < 0.001) and in relative proportions of energy from carbohydrates (P < 0.001), fat (P < 0.001), and protein (P < 0.05) were associated with 10-y weight change after bariatric surgery. At the 10-y follow-up, men and women with the largest reductions in energy intake had lost 7.3% and 3.9% more weight, respectively, compared with that of subjects with the smallest intake reductions (P < 0.001). Greater weight loss was achieved in men and women who favored protein and carbohydrates over fat and in subjects who favored protein over carbohydrates than in individuals who favored the opposite changes in macronutrient composition (P < 0.05).Conclusions: The level of energy restriction that is achieved at 0.5 y after bariatric surgery predicts long-term weight loss. Weight loss is also associated with a changing dietary macronutrient composition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01479452.

PMID: 28515062 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Is there a better way to set population iron recommendations?
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Is there a better way to set population iron recommendations?

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May 17;:

Authors: Frazer DM, Anderson GJ

PMID: 28515061 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]