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Postexercise repletion of muscle energy stores with fructose or glucose in mixed meals.
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Postexercise repletion of muscle energy stores with fructose or glucose in mixed meals.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jan 18;:

Authors: Rosset R, Lecoultre V, Egli L, Cros J, Dokumaci AS, Zwygart K, Boesch C, Kreis R, Schneiter P, Tappy L

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Postexercise nutrition is paramount to the restoration of muscle energy stores by providing carbohydrate and fat as precursors of glycogen and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) synthesis. Compared with glucose, fructose ingestion results in lower postprandial glucose and higher lactate and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that these differences in substrate concentration would be associated with a different partition of energy stored as IMCLs or glycogen postexercise.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of isocaloric liquid mixed meals containing fat, protein, and either fructose or glucose on the repletion of muscle energy stores over 24 h after a strenuous exercise session.
DESIGN: Eight male endurance athletes (mean ± SEM age: 29 ± 2 y; mean ± SEM peak oxygen consumption: 66.8 ± 1.3 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) were studied twice. On each occasion, muscle energy stores were first lowered by a combination of a 3-d controlled diet and prolonged exercise. After assessment of glycogen and IMCL concentrations in vastus muscles, subjects rested for 24 h and ingested mixed meals providing fat and protein together with 4.4 g/kg fructose (the fructose condition; FRU) or glucose (the glucose condition; GLU). Postprandial metabolism was assessed over 6 h, and glycogen and IMCL concentrations were measured again after 24 h. Finally, energy metabolism was evaluated during a subsequent exercise session.
RESULTS: FRU and GLU resulted in similar IMCL [+2.4 ± 0.4 compared with +2.0 ± 0.6 mmol · kg(-1) wet weight · d(-1); time × condition (mixed-model analysis): P = 0.45] and muscle glycogen (+10.9 ± 0.9 compared with +12.3 ± 1.9 mmol · kg(-1) wet weight · d(-1); time × condition: P = 0.45) repletion. Fructose consumption in FRU increased postprandial net carbohydrate oxidation and decreased net carbohydrate storage (estimating total, muscle, and liver glycogen synthesis) compared with GLU (+117 ± 9 compared with +135 ± 9 g/6 h, respectively; P < 0.01). Compared with GLU, FRU also resulted in lower plasma glucose concentrations and decreased exercise performance the next day.
CONCLUSIONS: Mixed meals containing fat, protein, and either fructose or glucose elicit similar repletion of IMCLs and muscle glycogen. Under such conditions, fructose lowers whole-body glycogen synthesis and impairs subsequent exercise performance, presumably because of lower hepatic glycogen stores. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01866215.

PMID: 28100512 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Higher dietary flavonoid intakes are associated with lower objectively measured body composition in women: evidence from discordant monozygotic twins.
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Higher dietary flavonoid intakes are associated with lower objectively measured body composition in women: evidence from discordant monozygotic twins.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jan 18;:

Authors: Jennings A, MacGregor A, Spector T, Cassidy A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Although dietary flavonoid intake has been associated with less weight gain, there are limited data on its impact on fat mass, and to our knowledge, the contribution of genetic factors to this relation has not previously been assessed.
OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations between flavonoid intakes and fat mass.
DESIGN: In a study of 2734 healthy, female twins aged 18-83 y from the TwinsUK registry, intakes of total flavonoids and 7 subclasses (flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavones, polymers, and proanthocyanidins) were calculated with the use of food-frequency questionnaires. Measures of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived fat mass included the limb-to-trunk fat mass ratio (FMR), fat mass index, and central fat mass index.
RESULTS: In cross-sectional multivariable analyses, higher intake of anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins were associated with a lower FMR with mean ± SE differences between extreme quintiles of -0.03 ± 0.02 (P-trend = 0.02), -0.03 ± 0.02 (P-trend = 0.03), and -0.05 ± 0.02 (P-trend < 0.01), respectively. These associations were not markedly changed after further adjustment for fiber and total fruit and vegetable intakes. In monozygotic, intake-discordant twin pairs, twins with higher intakes of flavan-3-ols (n = 154, P = 0.03), flavonols (n = 173, P = 0.03), and proanthocyanidins (n = 172, P < 0.01) had a significantly lower FMR than that of their co-twins with within-pair differences of 3-4%. Furthermore, in confirmatory food-based analyses, twins with higher intakes of flavonol-rich foods (onions, tea, and pears; P = 0.01) and proanthocyanidin-rich foods (apples and cocoa drinks; P = 0.04) and, in younger participants (aged <50 y) only, of anthocyanin-rich foods (berries, pears, grapes, and wine; P = 0.01) had a 3-9% lower FMR than that of their co-twins.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that higher habitual intake of a number of flavonoids, including anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins, are associated with lower fat mass independent of shared genetic and common environmental factors. Intervention trials are needed to further examine the effect of flavonoid-rich foods on body composition.

PMID: 28100511 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




The nutritional metabolomics crossroads: how to ensure success for dietary biomarkers.
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The nutritional metabolomics crossroads: how to ensure success for dietary biomarkers.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jan 18;:

Authors: Brennan L

PMID: 28100510 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Determining the protein needs of "older" persons one meal at a time.
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Determining the protein needs of "older" persons one meal at a time.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jan 18;:

Authors: Phillips SM

PMID: 28100509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Challenges in accurately modeling the complexity of human ingestive behavior: the influence of portion size and energy density of food on fMRI food-cue reactivity.
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Challenges in accurately modeling the complexity of human ingestive behavior: the influence of portion size and energy density of food on fMRI food-cue reactivity.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jan 18;:

Authors: Binks M, Kahathuduwa CN, Davis T

PMID: 28100508 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Efficacy of iron-supplement bars to reduce anemia in urban Indian women: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.
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Efficacy of iron-supplement bars to reduce anemia in urban Indian women: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jan 18;:

Authors: Mehta R, Platt AC, Sun X, Desai M, Clements D, Turner EL

Abstract
BACKGROUND: India's high prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia has largely been attributed to the local diet consisting of nonheme iron, which has lower absorption than that of heme iron.
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the efficacy of the consumption of iron-supplement bars in raising hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit percentages in anemic (hemoglobin concentration <12 g/dL) Indian women of reproductive age.
DESIGN: The Let's be Well Red study was a 90-d, pair-matched, cluster-randomized controlled trial. A total of 361 nonpregnant women (age 18-35 y) were recruited from 10 sites within Mumbai and Navi Mumbai, India. All participants received anemia education and a complete blood count (CBC). Random assignment of anemic participants to intervention and control arms occurred within 5 matched site-pairs. Intervention participants received 1 iron-supplement bar (containing 14 mg Fe)/d for 90 d, whereas control subjects received nothing. CBC tests were given at days 15, 45, and 90. Primary outcomes were 90-d changes from baseline in hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit percentages. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to model continuous and binary outcomes, respectively.
RESULTS: Of 179 anemic participants, 136 (76.0%) completed all follow-up assessments (65 intervention and 71 control participants). Baseline characteristics were comparable by arm. Mean hemoglobin and hematocrit increases after 90 d were greater for intervention than for control participants [1.4 g/dL (95% CI: 1.3, 1.6 g/dL) and 2.7% (95% CI: 2.2%, 3.2%), respectively]. The anemia prevalence at 90 d was lower for intervention (29.2%) than for control participants (98.6%) (OR: 0.007; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: The daily consumption of an iron-supplement bar leads to increased hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit percentages and to a lower anemia prevalence in the target population with no reported side effects. This intervention is an attractive option to combat anemia in India. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02032615.

PMID: 28100507 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]