Histamine H1 and H4 receptor expression on the ocular surface of patients with chronic allergic conjunctival diseases.
Allergol Int. 2017 Apr 05;:
Authors: Inada N, Shoji J, Shiraki Y, Aso H, Yamagami S
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the histamine H1 and H4 receptors mRNA (H1R and H4R, respectively) expression on the ocular surface of patients with chronic forms of allergic conjunctival diseases to determine whether they can serve as biomarkers for allergic inflammation in the conjunctiva.
METHODS: We examined 19 patients with vernal or atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC/VKC group) and 15 healthy volunteers (control group). The AKC/VKC group was divided into active and stable stage subgroups. Specimens were obtained from the upper tarsal conjunctiva of each participant using a modified impression cytology method. H1R, H4R, and eotaxin-1, -2, and -3 mRNA (eotaxin-1, eotaxin-2, eotaxin-3, respectively) expression was determined by real-time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis for eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil major basic protein (MBP), eotaxin-2, and histamine H4 receptor (H4R) were performed using conjunctival smears.
RESULTS: The number of H4R-positive patients was higher in the active than the stable stage subgroup and control group, whereas no difference was observed for H1R. H1R levels were higher in the active than in the stable stage subgroup, while those of H4R were higher in the active stage subgroup than in the control group. H1R and H4R levels were correlated with eotaxin-2 level. In immunohistochemical analysis, H4R revealed their expression on eosinophils in conjunctival smears of patients with AKC/VKC.
CONCLUSIONS: H4R is useful as biomarkers of allergic inflammation on ocular surfaces. Most notably, H4R expressed on eosinophils is useful as a biomarker of eosinophilic inflammation of the ocular surface.
PMID: 28391980 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Maintenance of pathogenic Th2 cells in allergic disorders.
Allergol Int. 2017 Apr 05;:
Authors: Shinoda K, Hirahara K, Nakayama T
Immunological memory is an important protective mechanism that enables host organisms to respond rapidly and vigorously to pathogens that have been previously encountered. In addition to the protective function, memory CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disorders, including asthma. Recently, several investigators have identified phenotypically and functionally distinct memory Th2 cell subsets that produce IL-5. These memory Th2 cell subsets play an important role in the pathology of allergic inflammation and function as memory-type "pathogenic Th2 (Tpath2) cells" both in mice and humans. We review the role of lung Tpath2 cells in the development of allergic inflammation and, in the context of recent findings, propose a mechanism by which Tpath2 cells not only survive but also continue to function at the sites where antigens were encountered. A greater understanding of the functional molecules or signaling pathways that regulate the inflammatory niche for Tpath2 cells may aid in the design of more effective treatments for chronic inflammatory disorders.
PMID: 28391979 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]