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Bio-synthetic materials for immunomodulation of islet transplants.
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Bio-synthetic materials for immunomodulation of islet transplants.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2017 May 19;:

Authors: Foster GA, García AJ

Abstract
Clinical islet transplantation is an effective therapy in restoring physiological glycemic control in type 1 diabetics. However, allogeneic islets derived from cadaveric sources elicit immune responses that result in acute and chronic islet destruction. To prevent immune destruction of islets, transplant recipients require lifelong delivery of immunosuppressive drugs, which are associated with debilitating side effects. Biomaterial-based strategies to eliminate the need for immunosuppressive drugs are an emerging therapy for improving islet transplantation. In this context, two main approaches have been used: 1) encapsulation of islets to prevent infiltration and contact of immune cells, and 2) local release of immunomodulatory molecules from biomaterial systems that suppress local immunity. Synthetic biomaterials provide excellent control over material properties, molecule presentation, and therapeutic release, and thus, are an emerging platform for immunomodulation to facilitate islet transplantation. This review highlights various synthetic biomaterial-based strategies for preventing immune rejection of islet allografts.

PMID: 28532691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Combinatorial Drug Delivery Approaches for Immunomodulation.
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Combinatorial Drug Delivery Approaches for Immunomodulation.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2017 May 19;:

Authors: Stewart JM, Keselowsky BG

Abstract
Immunotherapy has been widely explored for applications to both augment or suppress intrinsic host immunity. Clinical achievements have seen a number of immunotherapeutic drugs displace established strategies like chemotherapy in treating immune-associated diseases. However, single drug approaches modulating an individual arm of the immune system are often incompletely effective. Imperfect mechanistic understanding and heterogeneity within disease pathology have seen monotherapies inadequately equipped to mediate complete disease remission. Recent success in applications of combinatorial immunotherapy has suggested that targeting multiple biological pathways simultaneously may be critical in treating complex immune pathologies. Drug delivery approaches through engineered biomaterials offer the potential to augment desired immune responses while mitigating toxic side-effects by localizing immunotherapy. This review discusses recent advances in immunotherapy and highlights newly explored combinatorial drug delivery approaches. Furthermore, prospective future directions for immunomodulatory drug delivery to exploit are provided.

PMID: 28532690 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]