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Last Build Date: Sun, 19 Nov 2017 01:36:23 PST

Copyright: Copyright (c) 2017 University of Pennsylvania All rights reserved.

An Essay of a Declaration of Rights

Sat, 18 Nov 2017 19:05:10 PST

The transcription of an essay declaring the rights of Pennsylvanians, edited by Benjamin Franklin in 1776.

The cultural construction of birth: Changes in attitude and practice as illustrated by the history of birth chairs

Wed, 15 Nov 2017 15:40:13 PST

Previous histories of birth concentrated on cataloguing and describing practices of delivery and failed to address the way society continually redefined and shaped these practices. The history of the design and changes in the popularity of a traditional artifact of birth, the birth chair, illustrates these subtle shifts in the values and attitudes of society toward women and birth. These changes in the philosophy of birth significantly influenced and altered the actual practice of delivery. The history of birth chairs indicates that the change from a natural philosophy to a medicalized definition of birth was not merely the result of a heightened knowledge of anatomy and physiology, but a consequence of the rise in medical professionalism, prevailing social attitudes of women as fragile and invalid, and the growing economic rewards of birth as a medical specialty. Furthermore, the revival of birth chairs in the late twentieth century illustrates the contest between official obstetrics and the alternative birth movement over the philosophy of birth. This debate was characterized by questions about the safety of medical delivery, the role of women in birth, and the efforts of official medicine toward further medicalization and consolidation of the lucrative business of birth. The history of birth chairs clearly illustrates changes in the prevailing philosophy of birth and the way in which society practiced delivery in response. Midwifery and obstetrical texts, artistic renditions of birth scenes, and interviews, in conjunction with a study of birth chairs, provides the basis for a history of birth which does not merely catalogue practices and beliefs, but creates a context in which the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of society on this culturally patterned event can be understood. ^

Bringing books to life: A study of southern women's literacies

Wed, 15 Nov 2017 15:40:08 PST

This study of literacy examines the literacy development of six women from the southern United States. A four-dimensional model of adult literacy development (Lytle, 1991), including beliefs, practices, processes, and plans, frames women's self-selected reading as a particular literacy practice and as it relates to other literacy practices.^ Data include fieldnotes and transcripts of three individual interviews between the researcher and the readers; discussions with community residents; observations of the women in homes, workplaces and churches; and notes of collaborative interaction with the six informants of the study. Literature from literacy studies, women's studies, and literary theory informs this study.^ The study has several conclusions. It describes a community where literacy and reading and writing are culturally differentiated entities. The community considers literacy to mean "absence of literacy" while reading and writing are activities for literate people. Through two case studies, this research indicates that the relationships between literacy beliefs, practices, processes, and plans are dynamic, interactive, and recursive although beliefs and values formed in childhood impact the other three dimensions. Five themes representative of the women's cultural history and their individual literacy development support that conclusion. These themes include childhood storytelling, reading as identity, reading as relationships with others, reading as alternative reality, and reading as accommodative and resistive behavior.^ Implications for theory, research, and practice are suggested. These include that adults have awareness of their own literacy knowledge supportive of transformative literacy experiences; that classrooms at all levels need to offer adequate role models for women, provide curricula to more fairly reflect women's contributions to society, and develop means by which to confront power issues in classrooms; and that collaborative or emancipatory research is a viable model for lessening power relationships between researcher and researched and supporting continued literacy development. ^

Communication and coarticulation in facial animation

Wed, 15 Nov 2017 15:40:02 PST

Our goal is to produce a high level programming language or tool for 3D animation of facial expressions, especially, those conveying information correlated with the intonation of the voice: this includes the differences of timing, pitch, and emphasis that are related to such semantic distinctions of discourse as "given" and "new" information, some of which are also correlated with affect or emotion. Up till now, systems have not embodied such rule-governed translation from speech and utterance meaning to facial expressions. Our algorithm embodies rules that describe and coordinate these relations (intonation/information, intonation/emotions and facial expression/emotions). Given an utterance, we consider how the discourse information (what is new/old information in the given context, or what is the "topic" of the discourse) is transmitted through the choice of accents and their placement, how it is conveyed over facial expression and how the two are coordinated. The facial model integrates the action at several levels, including individual muscle, group of muscles, and eye- and head-motion, as well as the propagation of or interaction of these movements, especially coarticulation effects. This study offers a higher level of representation of facial actions by grouping them into specialized functions (lip shapes for phonemes, eyebrow and head motions as emphatic movements). The major "key phrases" of this work involves the integration of FACS (facial notational system derived by P. Ekman and W. Friesen), and the Action Units (muscle actions); it offers a solution to lip synchronization as well as it provides a repertory of the different types of facial expressions involved with speech; it considers speaker/listener interaction. This representation is used to drive an animation system linked to facial motion. ^

Informal sector factor mobilization: The process by which poor people shelter themselves and implications for policy focus on the Caribbean: St. Vincent and Dominica

Wed, 15 Nov 2017 15:39:54 PST

This study, conducted within five settlements in the capital cities of St. Vincent and Dominica, focuses specifically on the dynamics of informal sector factor mobilization with particular reference to the way in which land, labour and capital are mobilized to produce housing. While the bulk of the residents are from the ranks of the urban poor, rural migrants constitute over one-third of the population in these settlements. Major findings include the existence of a tremendously vibrant widescale market for second-hand building materials. Moreover, depending on the stage of economic life cycle of a household, both the ratios and relationships of productive inputs undergo significant transformation during the processes of unit consolidation and conversion increasingly approximating characteristics intrinsic to the formal housing sector as a result of significant reductions in the use of self help, mutual help ("coud main") and informal sector financing over time. Squatters translate illegal occupancy into capital gain and income generation, selling and renting 'rights' to land, occupying several peripheral urban sites simultaneously, building second or third units for sale or rent and through the development of on site microenterprises. Building materials are stockpiled for several months to years prior to construction of the initial unit. The processes of unit consolidation, conversion and the addition of finishes occur within an unending continuum. Cash payments are minimized through payments in kind, the provision of cooked food, strong drink, cigarettes and second hand building materials. Incomes within settlements cover wide ranges, with remittances from abroad contributing a miniscule of all financing. While unequal access to land is a problem, one of the biggest factors undermining the ability of poor people to house themselves is the complete divergence between inherited institutional regulations and standards, and the socioeconomic realities of the poor, continuously illiciting their "illegal" yet normal response. ^


Wed, 15 Nov 2017 15:39:49 PST

The importance of social activism for the development of John Dewey's philosophy has long been appreciated. Historians view the rise of Chicago Pragmatism as a significant part of the history of progressive liberalism in the United States. The purpose of this study is to rectify some of the historical misunderstandings about the connection between Chicago philosophy and social reform, about Chicago Pragmatism's antecedents in nineteenth-century philosophical discourse, and about the significance of Deweyan theory for twentieth-century political traditions.^ This study explores the philosophical origins of Chicago philosophy in nineteenth-century liberal theology, particularly in the effort by American theologians to come to terms with post-bellum social crisis. The study then focuses on the concern Dewey and his colleagues shared with earlier religious leaders about the problems of work, industry and work values. Philosophy at the University of Chicago was an extended exploration of the philosophical implications, in psychology, ethics, and pedagogy, of the new factory system. In the functionalist psychology of Dewey and George H. Mead, Chicago philosophers acquired a tool for political and social commentary, as well as a guide to social activism. Their philosophy and their activism led them into the sharp political and social conflicts that broke out in Chicago after 1894, particularly in the city's factories and over the future of the city's schools. The social reform experience of the Chicago philosophers, while determined by the political and ethical biases of their initial philosophical positions, in turn acted back on their philosophy, chanelling it in the direction of social meliorism and the containment of political dissent. This development is particularly evident in the labor arbitration efforts of Mead and James H. Tufts, and in Mead's work on social psychology after 1900. ^


Wed, 15 Nov 2017 15:39:45 PST

Charles S. Peirce occupies a secure and significant position in the annals of American intellectual history. His impact on contemporary philosophy, logic, semiotic, literary theory and communication studies has been enormous. Nevertheless, only a handful of theologians and philosophers of religion have looked to his writings as an important resource; very few of his commentators have paid to the religious dimension of his thought the attention that it deserves.^ The purpose of this dissertation is to underscore the role that religious ideas played in shaping Peirce's philosophy, and to provide a systematic account of his philosophy of religion. There is a hermeneutical difficulty here; very few of Peirce's writings are devoted explicitly to religious topics. I contend, however, that Peirce's interest in and perspective on such topics are manifested throughout his corpus, in scientific and mathematical papers, as well as in his writings on metaphysics, cosmology and the normative sciences. I conclude that Peirce's religious ideas are continuous with and integral to his reflections on these other issues, so that they must be identified and understood if his work as a whole is to be interpreted properly. And I suggest that his writings ought to be considered an important resource for contemporary scholars of religion, briefly indicating at the end of my study those of his ideas that might be most fruitfully entertained and developed.^ Peirce's most famous essay in the philosophy of religion, "A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God," provides a useful sketch of his general religious perspective. I use the argument there to organize my study; an extended commentary on that essay comprises my fifth, penultimate chapter. ^