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Recent documents in ScholarlyCommons



Last Build Date: Wed, 23 Aug 2017 03:10:35 PDT

Copyright: Copyright (c) 2017 University of Pennsylvania All rights reserved.
 



Changes in School Mathematics: Curricular Changes, Instructional Changes and Indicators of Change

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 10:49:48 PDT

Discusses how the mathematics curriculum should be changed to reflect changes in the nation’s economic and social culture brought on by new technology. The report also outlines the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) proposal for new curriculum and evaluation standards




Accelerated Schools for At-Risk Students

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 10:49:42 PDT

Outlines features of an “Accelerated School,” a transitional elementary school designed to bring disadvantaged students up to grade level by the end of sixth grade. Several schools across the nation are piloting the model.




The Effects of High School Organization on Dropping Out: An Exploratory Investigation

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 10:49:41 PDT

Analyzes data from the High School and Beyond (HS&B) survey to investigate the effects of school characteristics on the probability of dropping out and absenteeism.




Course-taking Patterns in the 1980s

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 10:49:39 PDT

Uses data on eleventh grade students from the 1983 84 National Assessment of Progress (NAEP) as a baseline for examining the effects of changing state policies on student course taking and on the relationship between course taking and student characteristics.




Diversity Amidst Standardization: State Differential Treatment of Districts

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 10:49:37 PDT

Drawing on a review of literature and telephone interviews of state agency staff in 25 states, the paper identifies traditional and emerging forms of state differential treatment of districts. The author discusses potential benefits and disadvantages of various approaches to differential treatment and suggests areas for further research.




Beyond Exploratory: A Tailored Framework for Assessing Rigor in Qualitative Health Services Research

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 09:27:43 PDT

Objective: To propose a framework for assessing the rigor of qualitative research that identifies and distinguishes between the diverse objectives of qualitative studies currently used in patient-centered outcomes and health services research (PCOR and HSR).

Study Design: Narrative review of published literature discussing qualitative guidelines and standards in peer-reviewed journals and national funding organizations that support PCOR and HSR.

Principal Findings: We identify and distinguish three objectives of current qualitative studies in PCOR and HSR: exploratory, descriptive, and comparative. For each objective, we propose methodological standards that can be used to assess and improve rigor across all study phases—from design to reporting. Similar to quantitative studies, we argue that standards for qualitative rigor differ, appropriately, for studies with different objectives and should be evaluated as such.

Conclusions: Distinguishing between different objectives of qualitative HSR improves the ability to appreciate variation in qualitative studies as well as appropriately evaluate the rigor and success of studies in meeting their own objectives. Researchers, funders, and journal editors should consider how adopting the criteria for assessing qualitative rigor outlined here may advance the rigor and potential impact of qualitative research in patient-centered outcomes and health services research.




Adherence Patterns to Extended Cervical Screening Intervals in Women Undergoing HPV and Cytology Cotesting

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 09:27:36 PDT

Although guidelines have recommended extended interval cervical screening using concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) and cytology (“cotesting”) for over a decade, little is known about its adoption into routine care. Using longitudinal medical record data (2003-2015) from Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), which adopted triennial cotesting in 2003, we examined adherence to extended interval screening. We analyzed predictors of screening intervals among 504,202 women undergoing routine screening, categorizing interval length into early (<2.5 years), adherent (2.5<3.5 years), or late (3.5<6.0 years). We also examined repeated early screening in a subgroup of 50,864 women. Predictors included: cohort year (defined by baseline cotest, 2003-2009), race/ethnicity, and baseline age. Compared to the 2003 cohort, women in the 2009 cohort were significantly less likely to screen early (aOR=0.22, 95% CI=0.21, 0.23) or late (aOR=0.46, 95% CI=0.45, 0.48). African American (AA) and Hispanic women were less adherent overall than Non-Hispanic White women, with increased early [(AA: aOR=1.21, 95%CI=1.17, 1.24) (Hispanic: aOR=1.08, 95%CI=1.06, 1.11)] and late screening [(AA: aOR=1.23, 95%CI=1.19, 1.27) (Hispanic: aOR=1.05, 95%CI=1.03, 1.08)]. Asian women were more likely to screen early (aOR=1.03, 95%CI=1.00, 1.05), and less likely to screen late (aOR=0.92, 95% CI=0.90, 0.94). Women aged 60-64 years were most likely to screen early for two consecutive intervals (aOR=2.06, 95%CI=1.88, 2.26). Our study found that widespread and rapid adoption of extended interval cervical cancer screening is possible, at least in managed care. Further research examining multilevel drivers promoting or restricting extended interval screening across diverse healthcare settings is needed.




P2X7 Receptor Primes IL-1β and the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Astrocytes Subjected to Mechanical Strain

Tue, 22 Aug 2017 06:25:33 PDT

Inflammatory responses play a key role in many neural pathologies, with localized signaling from non-immune cells making critical contributions. The NLRP3 inflammasome is an important component of innate immune signaling and can link neural insult to chronic inflammation. Stimulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is a two-stage process. The priming stage involves upregulation of the biosynthesis of the structural components while activation results in their assembly into the actual inflammasome complex and subsequent activation. The priming step can be rate limiting and can connect insult to chronic inflammation but our knowledge of the signals that regulate NLRP3 inflammasome priming in sterile inflammatory conditions is limited. This study examined the link between mechanical strain and inflammasome priming in neural systems. Transient non-ischemic elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) increased mRNA for inflammasome components IL-1β, NLRP3, ASC, CASP1 and IL-6 in rat and mouse retinas. The P2X7 receptor was implicated in the in vivo mechanosensitive priming of IL-1β and IL-6 transcription and translation. In vitro experiments with optic nerve head astrocytes demonstrated enhanced expression of the IL-1β and IL-6 genes following stretching or swelling. The increase in IL-1β expression was inhibited by degradation of extracellular ATP with apyrase, blocking pannexin hemichannels with carbenoxolone, probenecid or 10Panx1 peptide, P2X7 receptor antagonists (BBG, A839977 or A740003) as well inhibition of the NFκB transcription factor with Bay 11-7082. The swelling-dependent fall in expression of the NFκB inhibitor IκB-α was reduced by treatment of cells with A839977 and in P2X7 knockout mice. In summary, our data suggest that mechanical trauma to the retina results in priming of the NLRP3 inflammasome components and upregulated IL-6 expression and release. This was dependent upon ATP release through pannexin hemichannels and autostimulation of the P2X7 receptor. Since the P2X7 receptor can also trigger inflammasome activation it appears to have a central role in linking mechanical strain to neuroinflammation.




Standardizing School Dropout Measures

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 09:57:05 PDT

Proposes the establishment of a uniform definition of school dropout which would help to more accurately measure the extent of the dropout problem. The report describes elements of dropout measures and examines factors that account for variation in measures from city to city and state to state.




State Strategies for Building Capacity in Education: Progress and Continuing Challenges

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 09:57:05 PDT

This report examines capacity-building strategies used in eight states (California, Colorado, Florida, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, and Texas) and analyzes their promises and continuing challenges.




Increasing Educational Productivity Through Improving the Science Curriculum

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 09:57:02 PDT

Outlines features of an “Accelerated School,” a transitional elementary school designed to bring disadvantaged students up to grade level by the end of sixth grade. Several schools across the nation are piloting the model.




Appreciation And Well Being: Proposing Active Constructive Complimenting (ACC) And Active Constructive Accepting (ACA) To Improve Appreciation

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 09:21:39 PDT

Appreciation is extremely powerful. The exchange of this power through giving and receiving appreciation is enjoyed by many. Research has shown that appreciating others and receiving appreciation from others has a significant positive impact on our well-being. In this paper, along with discussing these benefits, I will elaborate on the various common languages of appreciation and the challenges faced while giving and accepting appreciation. Also, in addition to highlighting ways to make appreciation more aligned with the idea of positive psychology, I will draw on relevant literature from psychology and sociology, to propose the concepts of active constructive complimenting and active constructive accepting, as suggestions to better use the opportunity of giving and receiving verbal appreciation. In doing so, I suggest how we could transform our daily lives by building quality connections with others and have more meaningful interactions. To gain a better understanding of how people use appreciation in their daily lives, I created an online survey, open to the nonclinical adult population, which had inputs from 339 individuals from around the world.




Bringing Awe Down to Earth: Inspiring High Performance Through Positive Executive Coaching

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 09:21:35 PDT

What inspires and sustains high performance? Positive psychology, the scientific study of human strengths and well-being, provides evidence-based insights into the mechanisms of, and characteristics associated with, flourishing. Astronauts represent a paragon of high performance through the intensely focused preparation, passion, and perseverance required in their training and during space missions. This capstone draws on both scientific findings from positive psychology and insights from astronaut training to provide a unique lens for a positive executive coaching program. In addition to a review of relevant positive psychology research to illustrate the principles of this program, this capstone includes personal anecdotes and interviews with astronauts about their experiences of awe and the practices that inspire high performance.




How Positive Psychology Overlaps with a Culturally-Based Indigenous Addictions Treatment Program

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 09:21:32 PDT

Indigenous cultural teachings on well-being continue to be passed on from generation to generation. Research is showing promise in the effectiveness of participating in cultural practices as more First Nations are returning to their culture for healing and recovery in addictions treatment centres. Positive psychology may help explain why. A very brief and general background will be provided on some cultural well-being teachings and on the impacts of history that have had devastating effects on many Indigenous people. Even through historical challenges that affect present day life, more Indigenous people are returning to their cultural ways of healing and living well. This paper will look at positive psychology constructs and theories in the context of supporting the effectiveness of a culturally-based addictions treatment center program and at ways positive psychology can enhance the program.




Ms. Coll 762

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 08:46:28 PDT

A transcription of the Buckley-Ferguson letters (1747-1819).




Cultivating Meaning at Work, in Four Movements

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 06:41:33 PDT

This paper explores ways to enhance meaning at work for professional orchestra musicians, whose psychological needs include both the collective symphonic whole as well as individual mastery needs. An introduction to meaning and meaning in work is followed by a discussion of four pathways to enhance meaning at work for professional orchestra musicians. Finally, for each of the four pathways, initial interventions are proposed. In support of the research on meaning pathways and related psychological experiences of this population, a series of appendices review theoretical constructs from social science at the individual and group levels. Concluding the appendices is a discussion of social cognitive theory’s view of agency, which bolsters individual and collective pathways for orchestra musicians to find or create meaning at work.




Saving the World the Right Way: Altruistic Education

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 06:11:35 PDT

The function of education today is to merely put power in the hands of students without teaching them how to exercise it. As a result, it has made possible the world where the educated could use the power they have gained through education to take advantage of those who are less fortunate. What is needed to ensure students put their power to good use is an education system which helps students to strive not only towards being smart and gritty but also towards having a higher understanding of how and why should they be intelligent and gritty. This novel form of education is altruistic education. It is what this paper proposes as the right way of saving the world. Altruistic education is defined as education which helps students to altruistically flourish by allowing them to understand and experience firsthand the joy and beauty that comes from a life lived above and beyond oneself. Happiness is usually perceived as getting more for oneself. But this paper will demystify and radicalize such a common way of pursuing happiness. It will suggest how learning to live for less not more is actually what leads one toward one’s “complete happiness,” growth, virtue, freedom from one’s own desires, being fully “human,” as well as the fulcrum upon which this world can shift from being the world of takers towards a world of givers.










Three Transcriptions

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 20:22:49 PDT




Poems by John Syng Dorsey

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 20:22:45 PDT







An Afternoon with the Early Books Collective

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:35:46 PDT




The EMMO Exploration

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:35:41 PDT




And We're Off!

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:35:37 PDT




Transcription (and Tea!) at the Folger

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:35:32 PDT




The Cholera Camp Transcription Project

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:31:01 PDT




The Penn Manuscript Collective: An Update

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:30:55 PDT




The Pitman Project

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:30:51 PDT







Palaeography Group Holiday Party

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:30:43 PDT




Words, Words, Words! An Afternoon of Letters

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:30:40 PDT




Sneak Peak -- T Shirts!

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:30:36 PDT







And We're Off!

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:30:29 PDT







Handwriting Woes!

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:30:22 PDT




Website Set-Up

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:25:39 PDT




Anatomy of a Letter, Pt. 2

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:25:34 PDT




Things Are Still Moving!

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:25:30 PDT




A SHARP Turn and A Sunburn

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:25:27 PDT




Anatomy of a Letter

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:25:23 PDT




It's SHARP Week!

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:25:19 PDT




Introductions, Part 2!

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:25:15 PDT




Anatomy of a Letter, Pt. 3

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:25:11 PDT




Introductions, Part 1

Sun, 20 Aug 2017 18:20:12 PDT




Reconstructing The Center: The Institutional Logics of a Structural Intervention for a Post Incarceration Community

Fri, 18 Aug 2017 05:51:13 PDT

The United States currently has the largest prison population in the world. Every week, over 10,000 people are released from US state and federal prisons back into their communities, and two thirds of these will likely be rearrested within three years of their release from prison. People released from incarceration face more significant barriers to successful engagement in the community than when they entered prison. Scholars have noted the lack of effective services for this population, leading to recidivism rates of about 70%. This study examines the ways innovative and effective practices can be implemented for people released from incarceration. It examines the factors that shape innovations at a community center (The Center for Carceral Communities, University of Pennsylvania) serving people with a history of incarceration. Observation and participant observation of public events were utilized to examine the implementation of innovation. Publicly available discussions, speeches, and interviews with public figures, Center brochures, field notes, and reflexivity journals were analyzed. A grounded theory approach, informed by sensitizing concepts drawn from the Theory of Institutional Logics was utilized to analyze the data, and explore the manner in which internal and external organizational factors shape innovation. The results indicate that the carceral field is shaped by competing logics, whereby multiple institutional fields, actors, social movements, and frames of understanding interact and result in opportunities to resist institutionally normative processes. These then allow innovative practices to emerge, flourish and establish themselves in the carceral institutional field.




Ms. Codex 926: The Royal Merchant

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 11:24:23 PDT

An annotated transcription of an anonymous seventeenth-century English manuscript play, The Royal Merchant. The play is set in Atlantis and addresses the role of the monarchy.




School social work: An introductory course for MSW students

Thu, 17 Aug 2017 10:51:18 PDT

The purpose of this dissertation is to create a first year, MSW-level course on school social work. It was assessed that there is a lack of school social work courses offered at local universities with accredited social work programs in addition to a consensus in the specialized school social work community that specific competencies are taught and mastered to social work students interested in working in a school. The conceptual framework used are the four governing bodies for school social workers in Pennsylvania: CSWE, NASW, PDE, SSWAA. A 14-week semester long course was developed, titled Foundations in School Social Work. Competencies, standards, and guidelines from the governing bodies are used to guide the course syllabus. The course syllabus consists of: course description, course objectives, grading and assignment descriptions, weekly topics, readings, and an annotated bibliography for the readings.