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Recent documents in ScholarlyCommons

Last Build Date: Mon, 27 Mar 2017 01:36:07 PDT

Copyright: Copyright (c) 2017 University of Pennsylvania All rights reserved.

Why Divest? Against Divestment

Fri, 24 Mar 2017 17:50:33 PDT

Why Divest? For Divestment

Fri, 24 Mar 2017 17:50:31 PDT

King Coal in the Land Down Under

Fri, 24 Mar 2017 17:50:20 PDT

Letter from the Editor

Fri, 24 Mar 2017 17:50:12 PDT

Discriminative Measures for Comparison of Phylogenetic Trees

Fri, 24 Mar 2017 11:03:15 PDT

In this paper we introduce and study three new measures for efficient discriminative comparison of phylogenetic trees. The NNI navigation dissimilarity $d_{nav}$ counts the steps along a “combing” of the Nearest Neighbor Interchange (NNI) graph of binary hierarchies, providing an efficient approximation to the (NP-hard) NNI distance in terms of “edit length”. At the same time, a closed form formula for $d_{nav}$ presents it as a weighted count of pairwise incompatibilities between clusters, lending it the character of an edge dissimilarity measure as well. A relaxation of this formula to a simple count yields another measure on all trees — the crossing dissimilarity $d_{CM}$. Both dissimilarities are symmetric and positive definite (vanish only between identical trees) on binary hierarchies but they fail to satisfy the triangle inequality. Nevertheless, both are bounded below by the widely used Robinson–Foulds metric and bounded above by a closely related true metric, the cluster-cardinality metric $d_{CC}$. We show that each of the three proposed new dissimilarities is computable in time O($n^2$) in the number of leaves $n$, and conclude the paper with a brief numerical exploration of the distribution over tree space of these dissimilarities in comparison with the Robinson–Foulds metric and the more recently introduced matching-split distance.

For more information: Kod*Lab

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

Thu, 23 Mar 2017 09:41:12 PDT

Hydro power: Those Damn Dams

Thu, 23 Mar 2017 09:41:08 PDT

Wave Energy

Thu, 23 Mar 2017 09:41:04 PDT

Land Water Conservation Fund

Thu, 23 Mar 2017 09:40:56 PDT

Letter from the Editor

Thu, 23 Mar 2017 09:40:40 PDT

vCAT: Dynamic Cache Management Using CAT Virtualization

Wed, 22 Mar 2017 09:13:31 PDT

This paper presents vCAT, a novel design for dynamic shared cache management on multicore virtualization platforms based on Intel’s Cache Allocation Technology (CAT). Our design achieves strong isolation at both task and VM levels through cache partition virtualization, which works in a similar way as memory virtualization, but has challenges that are unique to cache and CAT. To demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of our design, we provide a prototype implementation of vCAT, and we present an extensive set of microbenchmarks and performance evaluation results on the PARSEC benchmarks and synthetic workloads, for both static and dynamic allocations. The evaluation results show that (i) vCAT can be implemented with minimal overhead, (ii) it can be used to mitigate shared cache interference, which could have caused task WCET increased by up to 7.2 x, (iii) static management in vCAT can increase system utilization by up to 7 x compared to a system without cache management; and (iv) dynamic management substantially outperforms static management in terms of schedulable utilization (increase by up to 3 x in our multi-mode example use case).

Resilient Linear Classification: An Approach to Deal with Attacks on Training Data

Wed, 22 Mar 2017 09:13:25 PDT

Data-driven techniques are used in cyber-physical systems (CPS) for controlling autonomous vehicles, handling demand responses for energy management, and modeling human physiology for medical devices. These data-driven techniques extract models from training data, where their performance is often analyzed with respect to random errors in the training data. However, if the training data is maliciously altered by attackers, the effect of these attacks on the learning algorithms underpinning data-driven CPS have yet to be considered. In this paper, we analyze the resilience of classification algorithms to training data attacks. Specifically, a generic metric is proposed that is tailored to measure resilience of classification algorithms with respect to worst-case tampering of the training data. Using the metric, we show that traditional linear classification algorithms are resilient under restricted conditions. To overcome these limitations, we propose a linear classification algorithm with a majority constraint and prove that it is strictly more resilient than the traditional algorithms. Evaluations on both synthetic data and a real-world retrospective arrhythmia medical case-study show that the traditional algorithms are vulnerable to tampered training data, whereas the proposed algorithm is more resilient (as measured by worst-case tampering).

Extensible Energy Planning Framework for Preemptive Tasks

Wed, 22 Mar 2017 09:13:19 PDT

Cyber-physical systems (CSPs) are demanding energy-efficient design not only of hardware (HW), but also of software (SW). Dynamic Voltage and and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) and Dynamic Power Manage (DPM) are most popular techniques to improve the energy efficiency. However, contemporary complicated HW and SW designs requires more elaborate and sophisticated energy management and efficiency evaluation techniques. This paper is concerned about energy supply planning for real-time scheduling systems (units) of which tasks need to meet deadlines. This paper presents a modelbased compositional energy planning technique that computes a minimal ratio of processor frequency that preserves schedulability of independent and preemptive tasks. The minimal ratio of processor frequency can be used to plan the energy supply of real-time components. Our model-based technique is extensible by refining our model with additional features so that energy management techniques and their energy efficiency can be evaluated by model checking techniques. We exploit the compositional framework for hierarchical scheduling systems and provide a new resource model for the frequency computation. As results, our use-case for avionics software components shows that our new method outperforms the classical real-time calculus (RTC) method, requiring 36.21% less frequency ratio on average for scheduling units under RM than the RTC method.

Review of Charles Berlin, Harvard Judaica in the 21st Century

Wed, 22 Mar 2017 08:47:57 PDT

In 2004, Dr. Charles Berlin, Lee M. Friedman Bibliographer in Judaica and Head of the Judaica Division of the Harvard Library, published a blue, cloth-bound volume entitled Harvard Judaica (Berlin 2004) to mark the fortieth anniversary of the start of the programmatic development of the Harvard University Library’s Judaica collections (1962–2002).1 This new, school-colored crimson, also hardback volume, Harvard Judaica in the 21st Century, published a decade later, may be read both as a sequel and also as a prequel. Where the fortieth anniversary volume was understated and reflective; the latter is celebratory and future oriented even as both look back on past achievements. If the 2004 volume is mostly about the history of a collection and its development, the 2014 jubilee volume is a tribute to the people who made it great. It also is self-consciously presented in the introduction as an “ethical will” by its founder to future stewards of the collection. This bequest is not only material, but also spiritual. It is an effort to share a lifetime of wisdom and practical experience and a hope for the future.

Alfred Moldovan, 1921–2013

Wed, 22 Mar 2017 08:47:48 PDT

Obituary of Alfred Moldovan (1921–2013).

Daniel J. Rettberg, 1952–2013

Wed, 22 Mar 2017 08:47:36 PDT

Obituary of Daniel J. Rettberg (1952–2013).

Review of Charles Berlin, Harvard Judaica: A History and Description of the Judaica Collection in the Harvard College Library

Wed, 22 Mar 2017 08:47:25 PDT

The history of Harvard University’s sui generis Judaica Division and its collections are summarized with principled clarity and remarkable reserve in this new publication of the Harvard College Library. The author, Charles Berlin, the Lee M. Friedman Bibliographer in Judaica in the Harvard College Library and Head of its Judaica Division, is uniquely qualified to tell this story. Indeed, he is the author not only of this volume, but also of much of the recent history it recounts between its elegant, gold-embossed, yet understated hardbound covers. Given the extraordinary scope of Berlin’s achievements, this reviewer must pause to acknowledge his 42 years of contributions, which are recorded here

Review of Zeev Gries, The Book in the Jewish World 1700-1900

Wed, 22 Mar 2017 08:47:15 PDT

An important milestone in the study of the Jewish book was marked in 2002 with the publication of Ze'ev Gries's ha-Sefer ke-sokhen tarbut, be-shanim 1700-1900 ("The Book as an Agent of Culture, 1700-1900"). In this "slim volume," as he subsequently and modestly would refer to it, Gries introduced his readers to what he calls in Hebrew "toldot ha-sefer ha-Yehudi" (the "History of the Jewish book"). The book, based on his twenty-five previous years of research in the field, offered new insights and raised new questions. Thanks to this 2007 English-language edition, Gries's scholarship happily can reach a broader audience. Moreover, as Gries explains in his preface to the English edition, "the present volume draws heavily on (the Hebrew edition) but is not a direct translation." At the same time, Gries acknowledges and thanks Jeffrey Green for translating the original "Hebrew text as the basis of the present book." Originally published in Hebrew by ha-J9buts ha-me'ul).ad at the suggestion of its founding editor, Meir Ayali, the English edition is published appropriately by the Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, a cultural broker that brings to the English reading public important works of classical Jewish literature and modern scholarship that were originally written in Hebrew. However, for those interested in a comprehensive survey of the topic, as the title seems to promise, this book falls short of that expectation in several important ways.

Review of Yosef Goldman, Hebrew Printing in America, 1735– 1926: A History and Annotated Bibliography

Wed, 22 Mar 2017 08:47:07 PDT

Yosef Goldman’s superb revitalization of our knowledge of Hebrew printing in America from colonial times through the period of mass migration effectively challenges the widespread prejudice that the United States, and American Jewish history with it, has amounted to a treyfene medine, a wasteland unsuitable for Jewish life. Indeed, this beautifully executed two-volume work is not only a hefty counter-weight to that negative opinion; it also raises the bar of expectations for future bibliographies of Judaica of all kinds. The conception and design of this work effectively centralize in one convenient place, for easy reference and research, all the currently available information about printing in Hebrew letters in one region of the world, and the circulation of these imprints around the globe from 1735 to 1926.

Examining Suicide Rates in Japan and South Korea: An Actuarial Analysis

Tue, 21 Mar 2017 06:35:16 PDT

Japan and South Korea, despite having some of the longest life expectancies in the world, also have the highest suicide rates. This paper uses actuarial multiple decrement techniques to calculate the amount by which life expectancy in each country is impacted by suicide rates in these countries. This shows that suicides shorten life expectancy at birth by 1.05% in Japan and 0.83% in South Korea. The demographics most critically affected by suicide are Japanese males with a 1.50% reduction in life expectancy at birth, and the South Korean over-65 population with a 0.78% reduction in post-65 life expectancy—an alarmingly high percentage when considering overall heightened mortality rates at that age. These results suggest that high suicide rates, especially in Japan and South Korea, have massive implications for quality of life and economic productivity.

Diagnosing Norms

Mon, 20 Mar 2017 11:00:26 PDT

This short book explores how social norms work, and how changing them--changing preferences, beliefs, and especially social expectations--can potentially improve lives all around the world.

The Rules We Live By

Mon, 20 Mar 2017 11:00:22 PDT

In The Grammar of Society, first published in 2006, Cristina Bicchieri examines social norms, such as fairness, cooperation, and reciprocity, in an effort to understand their nature and dynamics, the expectations that they generate, and how they evolve and change. Drawing on several intellectual traditions and methods, including those of social psychology, experimental economics and evolutionary game theory, Bicchieri provides an integrated account of how social norms emerge, why and when we follow them, and the situations where we are most likely to focus on relevant norms. Examining the existence and survival of inefficient norms, she demonstrates how norms evolve in ways that depend upon the psychological dispositions of the individual and how such dispositions may impair social efficiency. By contrast, she also shows how certain psychological propensities may naturally lead individuals to evolve fairness norms that closely resemble those we follow in most modern societies.