Last Build Date: Mon, 16 Jan 2017 01:34:53 PSTCopyright: Copyright (c) 2017 University of Pennsylvania All rights reserved.
Fri, 13 Jan 2017 13:37:59 PST
Fri, 13 Jan 2017 13:37:50 PST
Fri, 13 Jan 2017 13:37:44 PST
Fri, 13 Jan 2017 13:37:25 PST
Fri, 13 Jan 2017 12:51:32 PST
From the Odyssey onwards, the long nostos tradition has at times called J attention to a paradoxical insight: the challenges and rewards of homecoming can be experienced by those who never leave home. If being at home means more than being physically located in a certain place, then the dynamics of presence and absence, loss and recovery, that make up nostos can be played out within a single setting. Something new can be gained that makes the non-traveler somehow more "at home" than before. Or the obstacles to a successful experience of outward journey and smooth reintegration may not be intrusions from the outside, but internal, homegrown impediments.
Fri, 13 Jan 2017 12:51:25 PST
Fri, 13 Jan 2017 09:54:00 PST
Ag nanoparticle inkjet printing on polyimide and polyethylene terephthalate films has been performed using Dimatix inkjet printer at Quattrone Nanofabrication Facility. This article describes selection of Ag nanoparticle inks and reports the progress of optimization of drop spacing, drop frequency, droplet size, and waveform for high resolution features, and furthermore reveals the pros and cons of Dimatix inkjet printing. In addition, the resistivity of Ag nanoparticle line sintered was determined to be ~2.2 x 10-5 Ωm. The adhesion and bending tests indicated that Ag nanoparticle pattern sintered on PI and PET films had exceptional mechanical stability.
Thu, 12 Jan 2017 12:55:37 PST
While Western reports have previously casted shadows over China’s children’s welfare institutes, this study conducts interviews as well as on-site visits for five geographically dispersed institutes and finds that they have undergone major change since the late 1990s. Influenced by new government policies and programs as well as social changes, China’s orphanages no longer fill with female inmates but with children of both genders abandoned for their disabilities. Despite challenges associated with heavy disability statistics, participating orphanages boast excellent facilities and provide excellent nutrition, treatment, education, and post-orphanage services. Ensuing challenges include the need for additional medical specialists and more dynamic adoption and foster care systems.
Thu, 12 Jan 2017 12:44:12 PST
Thu, 12 Jan 2017 12:43:56 PST
With his plays drawn from Greek mythology and his evocative epic hymn to the Caribbean, Omeros, Nobel laureate Derek Walcott has forced many to rethink the relationships between archaic Greek society and the contemporary world. Joseph Farrell, known especially for his work on classical epic, takes up a debate as to whether Omeros can be considered an epic at all, and suggests that in forcing us even to ask this question, Walcott demands that we reassess the position and assumed supremacy of Western literary epic. In demonstrating the complex relationship of Omeros to the tradition of classical epic, Farrell reveals the contingencies of that tradition and the richness ofWalcott's poem as a work that straddles both epic and novel, classical and modern, scribal and oral.
Tue, 10 Jan 2017 13:56:29 PST
Tue, 10 Jan 2017 13:45:09 PST
When we speak of Servius' commentary on the works of Vergil, we understand that the name of Servius, which we use mainly for convenience, cloaks in apparent unity a work that is notable for its diversity and heterogeneity. This remark pertains not only to the existence of two Servian commentaries, the one written by Servius himself in the fifth century and the one compiled several centuries afterwards and eventually published by Pierre Daniel, but also to the diverse prior sources on which both these commentaries are based. It is well known that much of the material in these commentaries is tralatician. Except in a few specific cases, however, we cannot name either the proximate or the ultimate source of any given contribution, nor can we claim to understand fully the general principles that Servius followed in compiling his work. In this paper I will review some of those cases in which we can say with certainty or with reasonable probability how some specific passages in Servius took their current form, and will attempt to clarify what these instances can tell us about Servius' working methods in general. In order to keep this essay within manageable limits, I will confine my examination to passages in which the Servian commentaries show a strong affinity with the exegetical tradition of Homer.
Tue, 10 Jan 2017 13:45:02 PST
It stands to reason that mythographic sources should have played a role in the composition of Ovid's works, and recent work suggests more and more that this must be the case. But the complex motives behind Ovid's engagement with this tradition have proven difficult to comprehend and to integrate with Ovidian criticism as a whole. There are some fairly clear reasons why this is so. One is the understandable tendency of critics to emphasize Ovid's use of poetic sources organized along mythographic lines, such as Nicander's Heteroeumena and, more recently, the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, rather than of conventional prose mythographies. But a greater appreciation of what Ovid may owe to his fellow poets, while obviously a good thing in itself, should not be allowed to obscure his debt to mythographic treatises and encyclopedias. Another factor is that many of Ovid's works flaunt their relationships to various prose genres other than mythography. This the Ars amatoria does by imitating earlier didactic poetry of the metaphrastic tradition, while the Heroides and the exile poetry, in their different ways, thematize their relationship to prose letters. In the case of the Fasti, the obvious importance of the calendar itself as the primary structural model for the poem and the specific verbal parallels that can be found in a few specific calendars, especially the Fasti Praenestini, have tended to distract attention away from the potential influence of other prose genres. As for the Metamorphoses, it now seems clear that the genre of universal history contributed in significant ways to the architecture of that poem. But it is still obviously worth investigating the extent to which the concerns of prose mythographers in particular influenced Ovid's treatment not only of individual myths but especially of the relationships among them.
Some important preliminary work has been done, and as an example of how any number of more focused studies might fit into a larger picture, I adduce a selection of examples from the Heroides, the Metamorphoses, and the Fasti to suggest how the characteristic concerns of prose mythographers inform all three poems and of how Ovid transforms what he borrows. In the process, I identify two aspects of Ovidian poetics, complementarity and contradiction, that greatly enrich his treatment of mythographic material. Finally I offer some tentative conclusions and raise a few questions to indicate what I think are some productive avenues of further investigation.
Tue, 10 Jan 2017 13:44:56 PST
Any effort to interpret Goethe's career according to a single, pre-existing pattern would obviously be misconceived. Not only was his literary career a vast, sprawling thing in itself, but it was thoroughly intertwined with several others, including those of courrier, politician, diplomat, scientist and artist, Moreover, several of these callings interacted quite directly with his work as a writer. Even if we focus on Goethe's literary career in the narrowest possible sense, we cannot really speak in any simple way either of continuous Virgilian ascent through ever more elevated genres, or of Horatian retirement to an aesthetic angulus, or of any other model derived from the careers of Classical poets as the dominant lens through which to view Goethe's experience. And let us admit this at once: the evidence that Goethe himself modelled his own career upon any of these patterns is non-existent. In this respect he differs from Petrarch, Spenser, Marlowe, Milton and other poets who explicitly represent themselves as fashioning their careers after Virgilian, Horatian and Lucanian proto-types. All of this might seem to make Goethe an unpromising subject in the context of career studies.
Tue, 10 Jan 2017 11:53:50 PST
When increasing use of the private automobile intensified street traffic congestion, cities, generally pursued one or two types of policies. The "Car accommodation policy" was aimed 'primarily at accommodating the car and highway traffic, neglecting all other modes. The "Balanced transportation policy" was directed to achievement of a co-ordinated system of different transportation modes.
The former group of cities eliminated streetcars I tramways. The latter upgraded them through numerous innovations, into Light Rail Transit - LRT. The intermediate transit modes, which LRT represents, have been increasingly found effective as a solution for the cities which need better services than buses on streets can offer, but which cannot afford the high investment for metro systems.
Due to its innovative concepts, LRT is increasingly used in a number of different forms and functions. The recent invention of low floor vehicles has further contributed to the image of LRT as a major contributor to livable cities.
The paper compares the conditions and policies toward streetcars which led to their elimination from many cities in the 1950's, with those of the 1990's, which have resulted in a strong promotion of LRT systems in many cities of developed and developing countries. This comparison offers a useful lesson for the cities which find themselves now, belatedly. in the stage when streetcars are considered "obsolete". They can avoid the costly mistake of allowing transit systems to deteriorate only later to be upgraded at a much higher cost.
Tue, 10 Jan 2017 11:53:42 PST
Tue, 10 Jan 2017 11:53:34 PST
Most transit networks are designed empirically. For bus networks this process 1s often satisfactory because bus routes and networks are very dependent on local conditions, and they can be easily modified, allowing easy corrections of problems which line design may cause in operations. However, with transit systems which have extensive infrastructure, most typically metro lines and networks, corrections are extremely difficult to make. Development of an optimal network and avoidance of design features which result in operational problems are therefore of great importance. Yet, the experiences from the design and operation of such large older metro systems as London, Moscow, New York, Pan's and Tokyo, or from numerous recently built medium-size metro systems, such as Hong Kong, San Francisco, Sao Paulo and Washington, remain largely unknown to the designers of new metro networks.
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of transit lines and networks and its applications. The focus is on network geometry and operational characteristics. The basic design and operational elements, such as geometric forms of lines, headways, schedules, etc., are discussed in general terms, valid for any mode; however, the main focus is on metro systems because of the particular importance of these analyses for fixed, permanent systems.
Tue, 10 Jan 2017 07:35:27 PST
The CeIII/IV couple is useful for many applications in organic, inorganic, and materials chemistry. However, attaining a general method to access both oxidations states through reversible solution redox chemistry remains challenging. Herein we report the synthesis, characterization, and oxidation chemistry of the novel Ce/Li REMB heterochiral diastereomer, 1-Ce(het). The solution exchange processes of 1-RE(het) (RE ¼ Ce and Yb) were investigated to estimate rates of ligand and cation exchange relevant in homochiral and heterochiral frameworks. A detailed mechanistic investigation following the solution dynamics of 1-Ce(het) revealed reactivity controlled both by ligand reorganization and redistribution processes. Ligand reorganization was responsible for the kinetics associated with the chemical oxidation reaction, whereas ligand redistribution and exchange dictated the isolated products
Mon, 09 Jan 2017 10:14:20 PST
The disqualification of Aeschylus's Suppliants as our earliest surviving tragedy has inevitably led to new understandings of the play's prominent chorus. While the use of the chorus as a main character was once seen as a direct link with tragedy's past and a conservative reflection of tragedy's origins, that feature is now as likely to be viewed as an innovation. Thus H. Friis Johansen and E. H. Whittle, authors of the extensive 1980 commentary on the play, see the Suppliants as a "grandiose experiment with a group instead of a single person as the main carrier of the action." In their view this experiment stands outside the history of tragedy, telling us nothing about the evolution of the genre; it does not derive from the tragedies that immediately preceded the Suppliants, and it exerted "no influence on the development of Attic tragedy."
Mon, 09 Jan 2017 10:14:14 PST
Study of lament has begun to be a major part of the feminist reinterpretation of epic, including both textual study and anthropological accounts of female lament in modern Greece. Sheila Murnaghan draws on this scholarship to trace a continuum from male lament, which turns the speaker back toward an affirmation of kleos and epic purposes, to female lament, which ignores the death-defying fame that epic provides as compensation for heroic loss. Murnaghan's essay makes an important contribution to debates about just how subversive lament can be in epic. In spite of the ways that female lament can seem to disrupt or challenge the heroic code, Murnaghan argues that epic cannot do without lament, since lament not only begins the process of generating praise from grief but also presents the body of the enslaved and mournful widow as inspiration for the creation of the husband's unending fame. Murnaghan's interpretation leads us to form a more polyvocal and performative-and less monumental-theory of epic than more traditional readings would, one in which the poem's celebration of martial and heroic values coexists with the challenges to those values raised by lament.
Mon, 09 Jan 2017 10:14:08 PST
The Odyssey opens by dramatizing the Olympian negotiations behind its action, and the goddess Athena quickly emerges as the source and sponsor of the plot that follows. All of the gods except Poseidon are gathered in the halls of Zeus listening to his meditations on a story that is already concluded, the story of Agamemnon. Athena tactfully shifts Zeus' attention to the story that is on her mind, the still-unconcluded story of Odysseus. When Zeus allows that it is indeed time for Odys seus to return, she responds with a ready set of plans that constitute the two lines of action occupying the next twelve books of the poem: the adventures of Telemachos, initiated by her own visit to Ithaka in the guise of Mentes, and Odysseus' release from the island of Kalypso, initiated by Hermes sent as a messenger from Zeus (1.80- 95). At the end of that phase of the action, Athena takes an even more direct hand in events, meeting with Odysseus as he reaches the shore of Ithaka in Book 13 and devising with him the plot that will control the second half of the poem.
Mon, 09 Jan 2017 10:14:01 PST
A considerable body of recent scholarship has been devoted to investigating the ways in which societies remember, studying not only what they construct as memorable but also why and how they do so. Adopting a narrower focus, this volume examines the ways in which different aspects and images of the Roman Republic are created and exploited by the Augustan poets. Our subject immediately suggests two obvious strategies:- on the one hand, emphasis on a strictly historical project; on the other, concentration on versions of literary history. The latter has been more popular and influential in recent Latin scholarship, but the former has not been without its adherents, as the lively debate in recent historical research has fought over the value of ancient literary sources for reconstructing the early history of Rome and, crucially, for the origins of the Republic and the struggle of the orders. Simultaneously, recent work on Livy has provided strong support for a pre-Actian dating for the beginning of the composition of his history, and so has vastly improved our appreciation of the complexity and subtlety of this extraordinarily ambitious and influential historiographical project. In addition, more sophisticated readings of Roman historians in general that are themselves influenced by the application of New Critical techniques of dose reading developed by critics of poetic texts, have begun in turn to impinge on the ways in which the Latin poetry of the Augustan age is interpreted. Just as historical writers employ the materials of poetry and what we now call fiction-myth and metaphor, artful structuration, and the careful activation of intertextual possibilities involving models in both prose and verse-Augustan poets reveal their keen awareness of and interest in different historiographical modes, such as those of universal history, regal chronicles, and the tropes of annalistic writing. They are also interested in some of the characteristic themes and devices of historical writing, such as battle narrative, civil conflict, ethnography, speeches, and debates, even as they too engage intertextually with precise historiographical models in pointed and influential ways. The challenge for this volume, then, is not so much to ask whether the Augustan poets are concerned with Roman history, but to gain greater clarity with regard to the questions of how and to what end they may be seen as presenting their past as a specifically Republican history. In setting out to think about this vast topic, one which can only be treated in a highly selective manner in a book such as this, a series of obvious questions comes immediately to mind. Are there any particular aspects of the Republic that Augustan poets seem to remember with particular frequency and immediacy? Equally, are there any aspects they seem to prefer to forget? How do they shape the past in relation to the present: do they favour narratives of continuity, rupture, or repetition? What other forms of periodization do they adopt? And finally, how are we to define any given poet as 'Augustan'? Amidst such a bewildering array of questions, it seems advisable to attempt to seek some solid ground as a starting point.
Mon, 09 Jan 2017 09:05:13 PST
Schedule disturbances in public transport operations have a tendency to intensify along the line and propagate to successive vehicles due to the uneven accumulation of passengers. This phenomenon, affecting efficiency and reliability of service, occurs frequently with surface services due to street congestion, as well as with rapid transit when It approaches capacity volumes. In recent years, considerable attention has been given to this problem.
Newell and Potts  (*), using a deterministic model, derived an expression for the behavior of delays both along the line and of subsequent vehicles at individual stations due to passenger accumulation. They gave a theoretical explanation of the phenomenon of pairing of buses, which later Potts and Tamlin tried to verify through observations of bus operations . While they did observe the tendency for pairing of vehicles, their experiment indicated that numerous other factors in street operation (signals, traffic, etc.) make it difficult to distinguish individual causes of delays. Rapid transit is more convenient for these observations since passenger boarding is the dominant variable factor in operation. Tiercin  described a new method of schedule control tested by RATP in Paris for one of the principal « Metro » lines, and London Transport, in planning for « Victoria Line», used computer simulation of rapid transit operation at minimum intervals to derive operational measures to increase stability of service. This work was reported by Welding and Day (4) and in an unpublished Research Report . Recently, Lehmann  and Sudmeyer  gave an Interesting theoretical analysis of propagation of delays along the line; their discussion was followed by a paper by this author  which is incorporated and somewhat expanded here.
In this paper a theoretical analysis of the behavior of disturbances is extended to include the changes of disturbances with time (for subsequent vehicles at any given station). Practical implications are discussed and measures to minimize this phenomenon in public transport operations are suggested. A diagram for easy evaluation of stability of any service is also given here.
Mon, 09 Jan 2017 09:05:09 PST
Increase of transit speeds is one of the most effective ways of increasing the attractiveness of transit for urban travel. While surface transit in particular suffers from low speed, the desirability of higher speeds is not limited to it. Rapid transit has adequate speed for short to medium-distance trips in urban areas. However, for longer. trips, particularly when there is a competing freeway facility, the requirement for speed is rather high. Since many station spacings are adopted on the basis of area coverage, high operating speed of the trains often cannot be achieved. Thus, typical lines of urban rapid transit with average interstation spacings of approximately 800 metres have only limited length on which their speeds are satisfactory; for distances longer than, typically, 8-10 km, they often become too slow.
This is becoming an increasing problem with· the spatial spread of cities. This article describes the main alternative solutions to this problem and then focuses on the skip-stop operation, presenting a methodology for its analysis and evaluation of its applicability. The article refers to rail services, but the basic aspects of the problem are common for any technology. For example, there are light rail and bus services for which skip-stop service could be considered utilizing the methodology developed here.
Mon, 09 Jan 2017 09:05:05 PST
Inadequate organization of public transport services in urban areas, particularly in the large ones, is one of the major reasons for the unsatisfactory level of service and economic problems of the operating companies. Despite the current trend toward mergers of transit operators into large public agencies, the services in most cities remain fragmented in various degrees; integration is often not in sight due to organizational problems which appear insurmountable. Losses to the users, the operators, and the city from this situation are often very significant.
This article briefly analyzes the reasons for this situation, explores its consequences and their importance. A number of solutions for the problem are possible, but none of them is simple and easy to achieve. The federation of transit organizations introduced recently in Hamburg, Germ any, has proved to be so successful that it has received wide attention in international professional circles. This solution therefore deserves a careful study by transit operators as well as government officials of metropolitan areas in the United States and other countries.
Mon, 09 Jan 2017 09:05:01 PST
Mr. Vukan R. Vuchic deals with the latest developments of metro networks and with their future state in the 21st century.
He recalls the basic characteristics of metro and the positive and stimulating role it can play in large cities. While its first networks were opened more than a century ago, metro still knows an important growth: for example, it is the best adapted means of transport in some large cities in developing countries. Furthermore, technical improvements and a diversification of existing systems allow an ideal adaptation to the particular conditions of each city.
At the end of the article, the author goes on with the debate begun in the issue 3/1986 of the Revue following the World Bank study.