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Mapping the intellectual landscape of communication studies: An evaluation of its disciplinary status

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:45:56 PST

The field of communication has experienced phenomenal growth in the past 30 years. However, many scholars in the field have been quite concerned about the status of communication studies. This study attempts to provide some empirical information for the understanding of the present situation of the field by means of various methods including citation analysis, factor analysis, connectivity analysis, dispersion analysis, and survey of elite communication scholars. Specifically, this study tries to (1) construct a "map" of the intellectual landscape in the field of communication; (2) develop some indicators for measuring the research group structure of the field of communication; and (3) evaluate the developmental status of communication studies in terms of various research areas' structural cohesiveness and cognitive consensus. Data used in the study include ICA conference papers, communication journal article titles, and core scholars' evaluations of the field. Most cited journals, authors, documents and research groups were identified for individual ICA divisions as well as for the whole field. Results show that institutional development of communication studies had been quite satisfactory and there were some evidence of integration in research activities (as shown by various indices). However, its theoretical development was rather weak. Future research efforts are called for to monitor and compare the development of the field by means of some quantitative indicators developed in this study. ^




Control and measurement of gas transport in thin organic films

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:45:53 PST

The objective of this thesis is to study gas transport in extremely thin films. Changes in transport properties are used to infer changes in film structure; conversely, film fabrication is modified to modify transport. The ability to engineer films with specified transport properties would have application in designing membranes for gas separation or coatings for gas detectors. Studying transport in ultrathin films requires an extremely sensitive mass detector, so that both the mass of the film and the even smaller mass of the absorbed gas can be detected. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is a mass balance sensitive to mass changes as small as nanograms per square centimeter. It consists of an oscillating quartz crystal whose resonant frequency changes as mass is added to the surface. Films were fabricated with polymers by spin coating, amphiphilic multilayers by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition and monolayers by self assembly. LB films are highly ordered, stratified materials formed by transferring amphiphiles from a water surface onto a substrate. This method of fabrication allows great versatility in engineering the structure of a thin film on a molecular level and the main focus of the thesis has been investigating these films. By careful experimental design, the remarkable sensitivity of the QCM has been exploited to both investigate the transport properties of the films and characterize their fabrication. Diffusivity, surface adsorption and solubility of various vapors into the films has been determined by examining films of different thickness. The transport in LB films is shown to be sensitive to deposition, ageing and annealing. Vapor absorption in LB films depends on the polarity and size but not the shape of the penetrants studied. The control of gas transport by changing film structure was examined by modifying LB films of fatty acids. Modifications consisted of depositing fatty acids of different chain length, depositing a film consisting of a mixture of fatty acids and pruning a pure fatty acid film in a process known as skeletonization. Chain length did not affect the uptake of water and pentane. The mixed film absorbed similar amounts of water but four times as much alkanes as the pure LB film. Skeletonizing the film dramatically increases alkane absorption but not the water absorption. Unlike the pure and mixed LB film, the mass uptake in the skeletonized film did not depend on the shape or size of the alkanes studied. These experiments demonstrated the feasibility of varying gas transport by modifying film structure. ^




Identification and functional analysis of a locus control region for the human growth hormone gene

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:45:49 PST

The human growth hormone/chorionic somatomammotropin (hGH/hCS) gene cluster contains five highly homologous genes displaying mutually exclusive expression in two tissues. hGH-N is expressed solely in the pituitary; transcription of hCS-L, hCS-A, hCS-B, and hGH-V is restricted to the placenta. hGH-N, hCS-A, and hCS-B are expressed at extremely high levels in vivo; however hGH-N and hCS-A, when accompanied by all previously defined regulatory sequences, are not expressed well after introduction into the germline of transgenic mice. Mice often fail to express these genes; only low levels of transgene transcription are detected in expressing mice, suggesting that these genes are subject to positional effects, governed by where they integrate into the host genome. In order to identify additional regulatory elements, that would consistently direct high-level expression of the hGH/hCS genes, DNase I hypersensitive sites were mapped in pituitary and placental chromatin. 40kb of 5$\sp\prime$ flanking sequence, that includes all identified 5$\sp\prime$ DNase I hypersensitive sites, consistently directs high-level, position-independent, copy number-dependent expression of hGH-N in the transgenic mouse pituitary. Two different hypersensitive site containing regions mediate position-independent hGH-N expression in the pituitary, one of which strongly enhances hGH-N expression in the transgenic mouse pituitary but is relatively inactive in transfected rat pituitary cells. Neither hypersensitive site region alone functions as effectively as the intact 40kb 5$\sp\prime$ flanking domain. One hypersensitive site region, when linked directly to the hGH-N gene, consistently directs high-level expression of the transgene in the kidney, suggesting that synergistic interactions between regulatory sequences are required to restrict hGH-N transcription to the pituitary. These results establish the presence of a locus control region for the hGH-N gene cluster, and indicate that full activity requires the cooperative interaction of multiple regulatory elements. ^




Why CEOs lose their jobs: The role of alignment and discipline mechanisms in CEO forced exit

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:45:46 PST

Forced CEO exit has received limited attention as a unique form of CEO succession. Empirical work rarely discriminates between various types of succession. Theory building has generally been limited to an agency theory perspective which fails to address several interesting aspects of forced exit. The purpose of this work is to develop a comprehensive model of forced exit which improves the understanding of this unique phenomenon and its relationship to the overall governance process. The model extends several distinct branches of work on corporate governance by synthesizing agency theory concepts developed in economics, organizations literature on the board and CEO and prescriptive work on optimal governance practices. The model rests upon the premise that forced exit is generally preceded by poor corporate performance. However, several factors intervene between poor performance and forced exit. The components of the model include alignment mechanisms, CEO power relative to the board, board structure and owner power. The model is tested using a matched pair sample of sixty-seven forced exits which occurred from 1988 to 1992. Results support the significance of the overall model. CEO power, board structure and owners power are found to be significantly related to forced exit. No support is found for the alignment component of the model. Two additional concepts tested separately from the full model investigate the relationship between CEO skills and forced exit, and the actions taken by board and CEOs in the two years prior to the ouster. Results suggest that a deficiency of CEO skills is a driver of forced exit. In addition, the level of activity prior to ouster supports the presence of a board alignment function while casting doubt on opportunistic behavior by the CEO as a cause of forced exit. It may be concluded that several factors intervene between poor corporate performance and forced CEO exit. Forced exit should be viewed as one potential mechanism of the governance process which includes several alignment and discipline mechanisms used to control CEO behavior. ^




Protein and peptide structure and interactions studied by hydrogen exchanger and NMR

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:45:41 PST

Hydrogen exchange is widely used, especially in the study of protein stability and dynamics, folding, and interactions. Most applications require quenching of the exchange. Some of the methods have limitations due to insufficient quench. We studied the quenching properties of solvent mixtures. The pH dependence of the exchange rates in DMSO/D$\sb2$O mixtures is the same as that in water, but with suppressed minimum rate, k$\sb{\rm min}$, and elevated optimal pH. The decrease of k$\sb{\rm min}$ is due to the dramatic reduction of the base catalyzed exchange caused mainly by the changes in the relevant pKa's. By solvent quenching, it is possible to measure exchange rates for peptides in situations where direct NMR measurement is not applicable due to overlap in 1D and exchange during 2D experiments. This new approach was used to measure the exchange rates of monomeric melittin in aqueous solution and when bound to calmodulin. Our results indicate that the C-terminal half of melittin binds calmodulin more tightly then the N-terminal half. The protection pattern is consistent with bound melittin being $\alpha$-helical. The new method allows more detailed mapping of the binding sites involved in protein-protein interactions since one can now observe the protected amide protons on protein surface, which exchange rapidly in the free protein.^ A synthetic peptide (CHIGPGRAFC), derived from the V3 region of gp120 of HIV-1, in aqueous solution was investigated by NMR. The spectrum of the reduced peptide is characteristic of an unstructured, highly flexible coil. Disulfide bond cyclization results in major changes in chemical shifts and gives rise to NOE's indicative of well-defined turns. The presence of these turns is supported by the low temperature coefficients of the chemical shift of the amide protons of Arg7 and Phe9. The conformation of the peptide is in good agreement with that reported for this sequence as part of a longer peptide bound to an HIV neutralizing antibody, which might be similar to that of the corresponding fragment on the surface of the intact virus. The artificially introduced disulfide bond appears to reinforce the inherent structural tendencies. ^




Riot and resistance: English power in the colonial port of Madras, 1700 to 1810

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:45:37 PST

From their arrival on the Coromandel Coast, the English rulers of Fort St. George found themselves enmeshed in an intense antagonism between two Indian political alliances known as the Left and Right. While the port's streets formed the backdrop of their ancient rivalry; ritual and insignia provided its idiom. Weddings, funerals and temple festivals, with their associated elaborate cavalcades proved particular flash points. The thesis examines the English entanglement in this violent politic from 1700 until 1810. Possessing little understanding of local political idiom, the Company initially struggled to shelter its commercial affairs from the ramifications of local conflicts. After their victory over the French in 1749, the Company employed its increasing strength to establish itself as the dominant local power. Despite this, the Right and Left alliances maintained a considerable amount of autonomy. No longer engaged in direct resistance, they married elements of English political idiom to their own violent brand of street politics. In the opening years of the nineteenth century, a reorganized Company disrupted the festive aspects of Madrasi political life. A new municipal police force vigorously enforced prohibitions on temple festivals and forcibly intervened in disputes over ritual displays. Simultaneously, an expanded colonial magistracy provided an alternative venue for Indian conflicts over property, religious endowments, ceremonial privileges and caste entitlements that had fueled the pursuit of honor, social prestige and economic advantage in the streets. In sum, the completion of colonial hegemony required, both military power and bureaucratic sophistication. The combination of the two in the early nineteenth century emptied Madras's streets of their political meaning. As social disputes shifted from the port's busy thoroughfares to the attractive venues offered by local administrative offices and the courts, the political idiom of insignia and ceremony gradually lost its power and authority. Its decay rendered the Left and Right allegiances, so long a central feature of Madrasi life, irrelevant. ^




The stable four-dimensional geometry of the real Grassmann manifolds

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:45:33 PST

In their fundamental paper on Calibrated geometries in 1982, Reese Harvey and Blaine Lawson, discussing future global applications, posed the problem of determining the subvarieties of the real Grassmann manifolds $G\sb{k}R\sp{n}$ of oriented k-planes through the origin in $R\sp{n},$ which can be shown to be volume-minimizing in their homology classes by using as calibrations the invariant forms representing the universal Pontryagin classes.^ We carry out this program here for the first Pontryagin form, using it as a calibration to determine volume-minimizing 4-dimensional cycles in all real Grassmann manifolds, and learning that the 4-dimensional geometry of the real Grassmann manifolds, as expressed through their volume-minimizing 4-dimensional subvarieties, varies just like their 4-dimensional topology ... rising to a crescendo at $G\sb4R\sp8,$ then immediately diminishing and stabilizing forever after. ^




Two essays in time nonseparable preferences

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:45:28 PST

My dissertation analyzes asset pricing in a general equilibrium representative agent model in which preferences exhibit endogenous shifts. In addition to current consumption, current wealth, as a proxy for a consumer's standard of living, is an argument in the within-period direct utility function. As wealth changes over time, marginal utility expressed as a function of consumption shifts over time. One may view this utility specification as displaying habit persistence. When optimizing intertemporally, the agent takes the wealth effect into account. Moreover, the wealth-dependent preference function includes CRRA utility as a special case and permits easy comparisons.^ In my theoretical paper, I combine the assumptions of isoelastic utility and lognormal endowment to derive closed-form solutions for equilibrium asset prices, which are functions of preference and technology parameters. The property defined risk premium increases with risk aversion and the variance of the log shock. Properties of equilibrium are analyzed in terms of the effects on asset returns of changes in the first two moments of endowment growth. I decompose these total effects into their essential components and relate them to the basic properties of the value function. I find that risk aversion, precautionary motives and the magnitude of preference shifts jointly determine asset returns.^ In my empirical paper, I investigate the testable restrictions implied by the wealth-dependent preference function and the role played by this form of utility in consumption-based asset pricing models. Here, some of the assumptions made in my theoretical paper are relaxed. Using the generalized method of moments, I estimate model parameters and test the Euler equation in terms of conditional and unconditional moments. In addition, I fit the marginal rates of substitution implied by the different utility models into the Hansen-Jagannathan bound. I find that the preference shift parameter is insensitive to the choice of instruments and the consumption measure. Switching from the CRRA to the wealth-dependent utility model, although the variance of the marginal rate of substitution increases, the mean tends to decrease. In general, the wealth-dependent utility model matches the data well. ^




To live in the new world: Adaptations for *America in A. J. Downing's theory of landscape gardening

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:45:19 PST

Andrew Jackson Downing's (1815-1852) theory of landscape gardening was set forth in his Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America (1841), its revisions of 1844 and 1849, and in the series of monthly editorials for the Horticulturist, which he edited from July 1846 until his death in July 1852. This dissertation considers the significant differences among the three editions of the Treatise, and it provides the first thorough chronological analysis of the Horticulturist, without which Downing's views on landscape gardening can be only partially and imperfectly known. It is proposed that Downing achieved his reputation as the popularizer of an "American landscape gardening," by placing this rural art under the light of ideas and values that many Americans could embrace.^ The Horticulturist editorial of January 1849--the month Downing wrote the introduction to his last revision of the Treatise--and those that followed until his death, are particularly important because they present his most mature treatment of the subject. The extensive changes in Sections I and II in the 1844 and 1849 Treatise editions, when studied in conjunction with these Horticulturist editorials, show that Downing moved toward a more realistic assessment of American capabilities and resources, and adjusted his theory accordingly.^ While claiming to be adapted to North America, the Treatise was a less fertile "new starting ground" for American landscape gardening than the Horticulturist proved to be. Downing made successive additions to the Treatise that gave it a more national interest, and its theoretical framework was modified to take advantage of the expressive potentialities in native landscape materials. Nevertheless, this work remained true to Downing's early aspirations: a nation of country gentlemen with enough money, time, and taste to live amidst perfect pleasure grounds. It was the Horticulturist that ultimately accommodated an American "republican" rural art. In familiar language, Downing offered a message of moderation and simplicity to men and women who could rest content with a little cottage and a few fine trees--with an economy of time and expense, and the efficient, yet artful, use of America's natural resources. ^




Essays in legal and economic theory

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:45:12 PST

This dissertation examines the consequences for economic theory of relaxing the assumption that actors are motivated exclusively by self interest. Chapter One examines the problem of institutional design with responsible agents. Responsible behavior is defined and contrasted with self interested behavior, and results concerning the optimal design of institutions are presented. The fundamental result is that optimal institutional design may depend on what assumption is made concerning the motivation of actors. Specifically, it is shown that small departures from self interested behavior can lead to important changes in the optimal design of institutions. This is so because institutions that are designed to give self interested actors an incentive to behave in a socially desirable way may create strong conflicts between responsibility and self interest and lead to worse outcomes than institutions that are explicitly designed to rely on responsible behavior. This result is illustrated with an application to the employment relation. The remainder of the dissertation assesses the new economic theory of tort law by comparing it to a traditional theory of law. The theories differ most fundamentally in the views of human motivation that they rely upon. The economic theory presupposes that individuals are narrowly self interested. The traditional theory assumes that individuals are motivated to live with others on mutually acceptable terms and have a limited willingness to regulate their behavior according to mutually acceptable rules for the general regulation of conduct. The theories are shown to give different answers to three fundamental questions about law: What values should judges attempt to promote when they assign liability for accidents and pollution?, What values have guided the law making of judges in the past and thus help to explain the pattern of liability in the law today?, and What is the social function of law and the relationship between individuals and the laws to which they are subject? The traditional theory of law is argued to provide more satisfactory answers to all three questions about law than the economic theory. ^




Cognitive therapy: Intervention with the depressed elderly

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:45:06 PST

This study examines the use of cognitive therapy with the depressed elderly. Sixty-five individuals ranging in age from 65 to 102 participated in cognitive therapy for twenty sessions in their homes. Twenty-three elderly individuals composed the control group. The basis of cognitive therapy for depression lies in the cognitive restructuring goals which focus on two areas: coping and underlying beliefs. Cognitive and behavioral techniques are taught during therapy to address these goals. The Beck Depression Inventory was used as a pre-test/post-test/and follow-up test in order to screen for depression, compare between groups and compare within groups. Results indicated that the experimental group experienced a significant decrease in depression while the control group exhibited no significant change in depression. Cognitive therapy appears to be a major contributor towards the decrease in depression in this study. ^




Studies examining the role of insulin-like growth factor I on oligodendrocyte development and myelination {\it in vivo\/}

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:45:00 PST

Three different transgenic mouse models were used to examine the role of Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on oligodendrocyte development and the subsequent process of myelination in vivo. We observed that in mice which carried the IGF-I transgene (IGF-I mice) and which expressed higher than normal levels of IGF-I in the brain (2-fold higher) and in the serum (1.5 fold-higher), brain weight and myelin content per brain were both greater than in nontransgenic littermates, 1.6-fold higher and nearly 2-fold higher, respectively. Because the difference in DNA content per brain was less than the difference in brain weight between IGF-I mice and control mice, the increase in brain weight was inferred to be due to both increases in cell number and in cell mass. Histological examinations of two different brain regions, revealed that the percentage of oligodendrocytes was the same in both nontransgenic mice and their IGF-I transgenic littermates; however, the total number of oligodendrocytes was increased by up to 65% in IGF-I mice as compared to control mice. Because myelin content per brain was increased by 100% in the IGF-I mice, oligodendrocytes in the brains of IGF-I mice must produce more myelin per oligodendrocyte than those in control mice. IGF-I also reversed the hypomyelination, associated with growth hormone deficiency. Mice carrying a transgene which caused growth hormone deficiency (dwarf mice), were IGF-I-deficient and had 62% less myelin per cerebrum than nontransgenic littermates. In contrast, dwarf mice which also carried the IGF-I transgene had myelin levels slightly higher than normal. Conversely, brain weight and myelin content per brain were similar in IGF-I mice and IGF-I mice which also carried a transgene causing growth hormone overexpression. Thus the overexpression of growth hormone neither potentiated or suppressed the effects of IGF-I overexpression. Together these results indicate that IGF-I is a potent regulator of IGF-I in vivo, and that IGF-I probably mediates most of the major effects of growth hormone in vivo. ^




Young children's understanding of deception: A key to their theory of mind

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:44:56 PST

A "theory of mind" is a naive understanding of: the types of things that constitute the mind, in other words, mental states like intentions, beliefs, motives, and emotions; the relation between mental states and the real world; and the relation between mental states and behavior. Preschoolers resemble adults in some of these understandings, but not in others. An analysis of the components of successful deception was used to look more systematically at preschoolers' theory of mind.^ One component that may present problems for 3- and 4-year-olds is the understanding that people can believe something that's not true (infallibility account). Evidence that is used to support this claim can alternatively be interpreted as showing that children don't understand how anyone could believe something that contradicts what they themselves now believe (egocentrism account). A standard false belief task was modified to distinguish between these accounts. The child was shown a crayon box which first contained glue, then plastic letters, and had to say what he originally thought the closed box contained, and what another child would now think. In this way, when children incorrectly described their prior belief, they would respond differently if they were infallibly making the previous belief true for its time, than if they were egocentrically making it match their current beliefs. Error patterns supported the infallibility claim, suggesting that 3- and 4-year-olds have a problem understanding how people can believe things that are not true.^ Another problem that preschoolers may have is with understanding the relation between perception and knowledge. Children were asked to demonstrate this understanding by assessing the plausibility of various lies in the context of different kinds of evidence about the truth. The data suggest that 4- and 5-year-olds understand that there is a relationship between perception and knowledge, and, more specifically, they know that seeing a box gives information about the size of its contents, and seeing a small part of the contents reveals color, but not necessarily identity, information.^ Ways of extending this plausibility task to address questions about other components of deception are discussed. ^




Applications of singular differential equations to Riemannian geometry

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:44:51 PST

In this dissertation, we shall illustrate two applications of singular differential equations to Riemannian geometry.^ First, we exhibit the uniqueness of global rotationally symmetric metrics with prescribed (rotationally symmetric) Ricci curvature tensors on spheres and balls. Moreover, we find counterexamples to global existence of such metrics with prescribed negative definite Ricci curvature tensors. The main observation is that, in this case, the nonsingular Ricci system can be simplified to an uncoupled singular ordinary differential equation of the first order.^ In part II, we will show the existence of generalized isothermal coordinates for higher dimensional Riemannian manifolds; i.e., for any given point p in a Riemannian manifold (M, g$\sb{\rm o}$), there is a local metric g which is conformal to g$\sb{\rm o}$ and in which the g-geodesic sphere centered at p of radius r has constant mean curvature $1\over{\rm r}$ for all sufficiently small r. Furthermore, the exponential map of g at p is a measure preserving map in a small ball around p. The existence of such coordinates can be used to estimate the best constant in the critical Sobolev inequality which is related to the Yamabe problem. Lee and Parker simplified the proof of the Yamabe conjecture, by showing infinitesimal existence. We find the existence of generalized isothermal coordinates by studying some singular elliptic partial differential equations. ^




Magic realism in non -Fascist literature during the Third Reich

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:44:46 PST

Departing from Franz Roh's definition of Magic Realism for the visual arts in 1925, this study traces the concept's manifestations in non-fascist German literature during the Third Reich. For the purpose of this study, the concept is placed within the socio-political context of the early twentieth century, especially of the Weimar Republic. Textual analysis of non-fascist prose of the thirties and forties is based on a discussion of the concept's genesis for German literature from the twenties to the eighties. The study focuses on four representative writers and their major works during the thirties and forties: Marie Luise Kaschnitz, Elissa; Horst Lange, Schwarze Weide; Friedo Lampe, Septembergwitter, Am Rande der Nacht, "Laterna Magica"; Eugen Gottlob Winkler, "Die Insel", "Im Gewachshaus", "Gedenken an Trinakria".^ The writers' obvious and widespread fascination with aspects of Magic Realism during the twenties, thirties and forties flourished independently of political allegiances--especially independently of the polarization between left and right--and of larger literary movements. It is precisely this neutrality which renders the concept a powerful tool in the analysis of the controversial and multi-facetted time period of the early twentieth century. The concept's inherent melancholia and introspection link it with similar trends in German literature around the turn-of-the-century as well as with international currents during the thirties and forties. While the concept's international side cannot be the main focus of this study, its acknowledgement is vital for its understanding within the German context. Evidence of Magic Realism's existence internationally defeats the assumption that its focus on melancholia and the individual's alienation was a direct result of socio-political and cultural developments within Germany. The failure of the Weimar Republic with all its implications for the intellectuals and writers as well as some of the early manifestations of national-socialist rule are reflected in Magic Realism. However, the concept transcends these direct political borders and includes the "sense of ending" prevalent in other parts of the western world at the time. ^




Learning to read in two languages

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:44:41 PST

This study investigates what it means to learn to read in two languages. Twelve students' reading behaviors were examined, both as they read text and made in-process reading reports, and as they interacted around text in the classroom. Data was collected for this research using protocol analysis, classroom observation, taping and interviews with teachers and students. The research site was a school in Madrid, Spain in which reading instruction takes place in both Spanish and English.^ Three types of findings are reported here. This study revealed that when making protocols in two languages, each student demonstrated individual styles of reading that were different from other students but consistent within each individual in both Spanish and English. Secondly, students reading in this two-language environment were able to perceive that different reading behaviors were necessary in the Spanish and English classrooms, and adapted to these demands in highly individualized ways. Finally, teachers' instruction appeared to have had an influence on students' approach to text and attitude toward reading. The latter two findings suggest that the students' attitudes and approaches to reading were largely influenced by the instructional climate of the school and classroom. In regard to individual students they indicated that despite the school's and students' committment to biliteracy, most children favored English over Spanish in their choice of reading materials and this preference was influenced by classroom instruction. This suggests some implications for encouraging biliteracy through free-time reading materials in both languages. ^




THE IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL LABOR REGULATION ON LABOR LEGISLATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION'S CONVENTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS (FREEDOM, ASSOCIATION)

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:44:33 PST

The dissertation examines the ILO's conventions and recommendations on freedom of association, the right to organize and collective bargaining, and presents a critical analysis of the impact of these standards on developing countries', especially the African countries', labor laws. The study restricts itself to the legal aspects of basic trade union rights.^ The dissertation adopts the systems approach to international labor law, emphasizing on the interaction of the ILO and its African Members in formulating labor legislation. The influence of the standards on African countries' labor legislation is studied by utilizing (a) statistical package programs, and (b) comparative content analysis.^ The study's data base is drawn from the ILO's ratification charts, the Legislative Series, and the World Bank's statistical indicators. The data are initially examined by utilizing exploratory data analysis. The hypotheses are, then, tested by correlation and regression analysis.^ The hypotheses of the study are confirmed, supporting the general conclusion that the ILO has a major impact on the development of labor laws in African countries. This influence is more in the economic growth years and when the progressive political parties are in power. The ILO has less significant impact on the development of labor laws in developing countries when there are worldwide and national economic problems and when the political rulers are not sympathetic to the workers and to their organizations. Repressive political regimes and unfavorable economic conditions result in non-implementation of the freedom of association standards.^ The analysis showed that the ILO freedom of association standards and the labor laws of the colonial period significantly influenced the newly enacted laws of the independent African countries. Unionization and the ILO assistance had less influence on the laws enacted. The study proved that the ILO standards as well as the economic and political factors had a significant impact on freedom of association laws in developing countries. ^




THE TURN OF THE CENTURY: A STUDY IN THE INTELLECTUAL HISTORY OF BRITAIN 1895-1919

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:44:22 PST

This is an interdisciplinary analysis of the thought of a broad range of leading authors, philosophers, scientists, artists, social critics, and theologians working in Britain between 1895 and 1919. It isolates and discusses six recurrent themes in their work, devoting one chapter to each.^ (Ch. 1) In response to the decline of Victorian religious belief, there was a broad Edwardian movement to reconcile religion and reason, reflected in the rise of Idealist philosophy, psychical research, an assortment of pantheistic surrogate religions, and the novels of Joyce, Conrad, and Virginia Woolf, as well as a general intellectual tendency to dissolve the distinction between worldly and spiritual things. (Ch. 2) Personal relationships were elevated to the level of a surrogate religion by G. E. Moore, the Bloomsbury Group, Bertrand Russell, Joseph Conrad, and Henry James. Similarly, many social reformers made a cult of "fellowship," arguing that class barriers could be overcome through friendship with the poor. (Ch. 3) Others found a surrogate religion in "Life," a popular catch-word which meant different things to different Edwardians--the worship of a "Life Force," an affirmation of free will, realism in art, or a hunger for experience and personal freedom. (Ch. 4) Another common Edwardian cliche was "Efficiency," which pervaded discussions of social reform, imperial policy, eugenics, religion, and even literary style. It was promoted by a new and rising class of professional workers who advocated a planned welfare state governed by a trained managerial elite--that is, themselves. (Ch. 5) Rejecting the Victorian work ethic and late Victorian "decadence," the Edwardians emphasized the value of youth, humor, and "clean fun." Bernard Shaw and many others made it fashionable to treat serious intellectual issues humorously. This play ethic was rooted in a nostalgia for childhood reflected in the children's literature and child welfare legislation of the day. (Ch. 6) Compared to the Victorian and postwar generations, most Edwardian intellectuals were able to achieve a remarkable sense of inner peace and contentment, but only at the expense of intellectual honesty. It was a contentment based on the comfortable assumption that all conflicts could be reconciled, an assumption which did not survive the First World War. ^




THE MEDIEVAL DEBATE BETWEEN WINE AND WATER IN THE ROMANCE LANGUAGES: TRADITION AND TRANSFORMATION

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:44:16 PST

Ten poems based on the theme of the debate between Wine and Water remain extant in the Romance languages. Of these, two poems, dating back to the twelfth century, are in Latin: the Denudata Veritate and the Goliae Dialogus inter Aquam et Vinum. Two are in Spanish: the Razon de amor y denuestos del agua y el vino, one of the few examples of thirteenth-century Castilian lyric poetry, and the Pleyto del Agua con el Vino, a much later composition, preserved on an eighteenth-century broadside. In French there is the thirteenth-century Desputoison du Vin et de l'Iaue, as well as the fifteenth- or sixteenth-century Debat du Vin et de l'Eaue. There are three Italian forms preserved in fifteenth- and sixteenth-century manuscripts and prints: version A, which bears the Latin Incepit Desputatio Aque et Vini in lieu of a title; version B, the Historia della disputatione del Vino e del'Acqua; and version C, El Contrasto del'Acqua e del Vino. Finally, there exists a debate on the same topic in two Rheto-Romanic dialects, both of which are translations of a sixteenth-century German version found in a Nurnberg print of before 1529.^ The purpose of the present study is to establish the relationships between these poems and to discuss their merit as works of literature. Three of the poems can be seen to have a very close correspondence, and they constitute what may be considered the "central" tradition of the Wine and Water theme in the Romance languages: the Denudata Veritate, the Razon de amor y denuestos del agua y el vino, and the Debat du Vin et de l'Eaue. The Goliae Dialogus inter Aquam et Vinum, which leans heavily on scriptural references, is somewhat marginal to this tradition, as represented by the three poems just mentioned. The Desputoison du Vin et de l'Iaue, since it is principally a debate between different wines, rather than a dispute between Wine and Water, also stands somewhat aside from the main tradition. The three Italian poems, all of which clearly belong to oral tradition, form a separate group, though they possess motifs in common with the principal poems. The Rheto-Romanic text, since it is a translation from the German, is not really connected to the Romance tradition, except in so far as the German tradition may be.^ Of the ten poems, the Razon de amor y denuestos del agua y el vino is undoubtedly the most interesting from a literary point of view, for here the debate proper is prefaced by an extensive lyrical love poem, and the work offers a variety of interpretative possibilities. The attempts of scholars to interpret the text are analyzed, and the poem's debts to the Goliardic, popular and courtois traditions are discussed.^ An edition of each of the poems is provided, as well as that of a modern French song on the same theme, l'Eau et le Vin, recorded by Jean Boudet in Metz. ^













Heterogeneity in Major Depression: Influence on Treatment Outcomes and Processes-Outcome Relations

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:42:12 PST

Some have proposed that all psychotherapies for depression, as well as for other common mental disorders, are equally efficacious and that they all work through common processes, especially a relationship with a therapist. One reason it may be difficult to discern differential efficacy among treatments, as well as how they exert their effects, is that depression and other disorders are heterogeneous in both presentation and prognosis. The studies presented in the dissertation aimed to explore how heterogeneity in depression may moderate treatment effects and process-outcome relations. In study 1, a prognostic index (PI) was developed and treatment differences along the PI were explored in a sample of patients (N = 622) randomized to treatment as usual (TAU) or stepped care starting with brief therapy (BT) or with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The PI comprised five variables: unemployment status, depression severity, hostility, sleep problems, and lower positive emotionality, all of which predicted a lower likelihood of recovery. For patients whose PI indicated a high likelihood of recovery (73% of the sample), recovery rates were similarly high across the treatments. Among patients whose PI indicated a lower likelihood of recovery, patients in the CBT condition experienced a substantially higher recovery rate (65%) than patients in TAU (40%) or BT (44%). In study 2, variability in the predictive relationship between the therapeutic alliance and depressive symptom change was explored in a sample of patients receiving cognitive therapy (CT) for depression (N = 60). The alliance predicted outcome in the subgroup of clients with 0–2 prior episodes (r = .52), but not in those with 3 or more prior episodes (r = -.02). In study 3, these findings were replicated in an independent sample of patients receiving CBT for depression, but they did not extend to patients in a psychodynamic therapy condition. Taken together, these findings suggest that there may be identifiable subgroups of patients for whom factors common to all treatments will promote symptom change. By contrast, complementary subgroups, such as those with poorer prognoses or more recurrent histories of depression, may reveal differences in the efficacies of treatments and their active mechanisms.^




Applying Social Norms Theory in CATS Programming

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 06:47:44 PST




Improving Supplier Engagement as a Means to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions of a Global Company

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 06:21:05 PST

The primary objective of this research is to provide a resource for corporations on how they can reduce their overall environmental impact and risk related to climate change by extending their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategy to include partnerships with suppliers, for instance third-party logistics contractors. A secondary objective is to create a management strategy for how companies can better align the environmental impact of third party contractors with those of the corporation as a whole. A detailed literature review was conducted to identify current CSR strategies for green supply chain management, including commonly used reporting platforms, accounting strategies, trends and drivers for Scope 3 emissions. Furthermore, a guidance for industry professionals is provided in the format of a case study using FMC Corporation (FMC). The case study included interviews with industry experts, a survey sent to individuals from prominent corporations based in the United States of America (US) with global footprints, benchmarking across the chemical sector and an evaluation of supplier engagement. The conclusion of the case study demonstrates the initial steps corporations should take to develop partnerships with organizations and their suppliers thereby identifying risks and opportunities to align their environmental goals and reduce their overall impacts.




A Transcription, History, and Analysis of the Pennsylvania Declaration of Rights and Constitution of 1776

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 06:15:39 PST

An examination of the editing process of the Pennsylvania Declaration of Rights of 1776 and how this process reflects and influenced both Pennsylvania politics and the American government as a whole.




Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Letters, 1868: A Study

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 06:15:35 PST

This project examines two letters written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, one dated 1868; the other undated. The 1868 letter is personal correspondence sent from Charleston, South Carolina and reveals a surprising connection between Stowe and the Tyler family of Philadelphia (for whom Temple University’s Tyler School of Art is named). The undated letter is addressed to Stowe’s editor and publisher, James T. Fields. In it she includes detailed input on the cover art for the forthcoming Little Pussy Willow (1870), and updates on various shorter writing projects under contract. While the contents of both letters contain rather quotidian details and information, they nevertheless offer a glimpse of Stowe and the business of writing professionally in the nineteenth century—including the packaging, marketing, and promotion of her books, as well as brief insights on her financial compensation for contributions to various periodicals.




Confessions of a Palaeographer

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 06:15:30 PST




Religion, Writing, and Romantic Science in John Syng Dorsey’s Poems, 1805-1818

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 06:15:26 PST

John Syng Dorsey (1783-1818) was a Philadelphia surgeon and the author of The Elements of Surgery (1813), the first American textbook of surgery. He was also the author of Poems, 1805-1818 (UPenn MS Coll. 251), a forty-page collection that reveals his interests in spirituality, the history of science, and classical and eighteenth-century English poetry. Decades after his death, his son Robert Ralston Dorsey (1808-1869) revised his father’s poems, identified classical sources with Latin and Italian quotations, and completed Dorsey’s final, unfinished poem. This annotated transcription and critical introduction analyzes Dorsey’s literary, scientific, and biblical allusions and contextualizes his Poems within early nineteenth-century literary history and Romantic science.




‘Not Essentially Different From [Her] Sex:’ A Literary Reading of the Rebecca Buckley Ferguson Letters

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 06:15:22 PST

The Rebecca Buckley Ferguson Letters, a collection of letters at the University of Pennsylvania’s Kislak Center for Rare Books & Manuscripts, detail an important eighteenth century correspondence between a young woman in Philadelphia and her family members at home and abroad. Spanning seventy-two years (1747-1819) and multiple cities, the letters provide important insight into the lives of eighteenth century American women and the slaves they held. The letters discuss major life events within the Buckley family, including births, marriages, and deaths, life on the plantation in British Guinea in the eighteenth century, exchanges and interactions among family slaves, and revolutionary sentiments, especially surrounding the ratification of the constitution in 1788. The letters also hold an especial significance at the University of Pennsylvania for their geographical situation as a part of Philadelphia cultural heritage.

This project constitutes a critical re-reading of the letters, applying techniques from comparative literature to these historical documents in order to see what might be gleaned if they were creatively re-read as if they were an American womens’ epistolary novel. The effort draws inspiration from M. NourbeSe Philip’s Zong! and R. Mac Jones and Ray McManus’s Found Anew, hoping to build upon their suggestions of the powers of creative writing – and reading – to reinvigorate difficult historical materials. It responds to recent criticisms of the epistolary genre by Julie Gilbert, Anna Hulseberg, and Jeff Jenson, who argue for the “imagination ... of the reader” as scholarly lens. Sharon Harris and Theresa Gaul have also influenced the project; they write a “[rejection of] the view of letters as historical documents valuable only for revealing information about famous people or events,” rather “[according] letters an independent literary status.”




The “Art of Scraping”: Knife Erasures in Seventeenth Century English Manuscript Plays

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 06:15:17 PST

This article investigates an erasure technique present in the seventeenth century English manuscript play, The Royal Merchant. It maps out a brief history of the modern scholarly awareness of this European scribal practice, then compares examples of knife erasure in The Royal Merchant with examples in the survey I completed of over 40 seventeenth century English manuscript plays from the Folger and British Libraries.




On Tinkering

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 06:15:13 PST




What is the Penn Manuscript Collective?

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 06:15:08 PST




"It Gets Easier, Not Better": Ambiguous Loss and Resiliency in Adult Children Caring for Their Parent with Alzheimer's Disease

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 06:01:36 PST

ABSTRACT AMBIGUOUS LOSS AND RESILIENCY IN ADULT CHILDREN CAREGIVING FOR THEIR PARENT WITH ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE Maria Balintona, LCSW Ram Cnaan, PhD Background Alzheimer’s Disease is characterized by a decline in cognitive function, memory retention, and thinking skills directly affecting one’s ability to perform activities of daily living. Alzheimer’s disease is fatal, though for many this is its lesser curse. The loss of humanity and the emotional pain of caregiving can be devastating. Today, an estimated 15 million American adults provide uncompensated personal care to their loved ones with Alzheimer’s Disease (Alzheimer’s Association, 2017). As life expectancy increases, the number of elderly are expected to grow and consequently an increase in incidence of Alzheimer’s Disease is anticipated. Alzheimer’s Disease impacts both the individual diagnosed and the family caregivers. Caregivers are profoundly impacted by increasing care requirements as the disease advances. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) progresses imperceptibly and creates unforeseen challenges to partners, adult children, family systems, loved ones, and friends. Caregivers often face years helping their loved one and experience a multitude of emotional responses ranging from anger to sadness, not to mention the physical and financial strain of the disease on the family system. Often, adult children simultaneously strive to raise their own families, face job-related demands, and limited fiscal resources. With no known cure, this problem has led me to the question of how adult children, providing care for their parent with Alzheimer’s Disease, experience ambiguous loss and resilience. Methods This study employed qualitative methods and the outcomes may be used to further enhance our understanding of their experience. Twelve in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews lasting 60-90 minutes were conducted with adult children who have served as caregivers to their parent. Results Key results of the research suggest that feelings of loss change through the disease trajectory and increased social supports are needed early in the disease trajectory to address emotional loss, and adjustments in the shared attachment. Resilience was experienced as increased self-knowledge, self-care, and improved adaptive capabilities. Additional use of social supports and family connections increased resilience in the face of day-to-day care challenges and coordination. Discussion This research points to the need to bolster social supports and information for the caregiver when their parent is in the early stages of Alzheimer’s Disease. Increasing social support, self-care strategies, and education early on can mitigate feelings of isolation and ambiguous loss. Limitations include the homogeneity of the participants, different ranges in their parent’s stage of Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, this study was conducted in a rural area. Keywords: Ambiguous loss, caregiving, Alzheimer’s Disease, adult children, qualitative research, phenomenological theory. [...]



A Graphical Approach to Analysis of Individual GSI Project Stormwater Mitigation in Urban Settings

Fri, 12 Jan 2018 12:17:08 PST

Within the field of Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI), a generalized, data-driven, quantitative approach into analyzing the stormwater mitigation efficiency of individual GSI projects with regard to their cost has not yet been published. Previous attempts have been made to determine the costs and benefits of using green infrastructure in certain municipalities, but these analyses quantify multiple aspects of green infrastructure, not just stormwater mitigation, and their conclusions are often specific to that municipality. To produce this missing component, a data table was created to break down the technical characteristics of interest for GSI projects and a graphing approach was used to compare the GSI projects to each other with the hopes of being able to make conclusions regarding the efficiency of certain projects at mitigating stormwater. Two types of linear-linear scale graphs were constructed: stormwater mitigation capacity vs. cost, and stormwater mitigation capacity vs. area of BMP. The goal of the stormwater mitigation capacity vs. cost graph is to determine which GSI projects are better at mitigating stormwater for their cost. This would prove useful for developers who desire to meet certain stormwater goals and want to have an understanding of how GSI project cost can vary, and why. The goal of the stormwater mitigation capacity vs. area of BMP graph is to determine whether GSI projects with deeper substrates or better technology are more efficient at mitigating stormwater despite having a smaller footprint, irrespective of cost. This would be useful for understanding how the stormwater mitigation efficacy of smaller, but higher quality projects varies compared to projects with a larger footprint, and would be of particular interest to those who desire to meet certain stormwater goals but have space constraints. Both graph types demonstrate clear variation between different GSI projects and their efficiency. Their relationships to each other coincide well with the respective GSI projects’ intent and physical characteristics.










Beprexit: Rethinking Repository Services in a Changing Scholarly Communication Landscape

Fri, 12 Jan 2018 10:47:13 PST

The scholarly communication landscape has changed significantly over the past few years: open access continues to grow, more people expect to be able to read articles for free online, and researchers are creating and disseminating new types of digital scholarship. The University of Pennsylvania (Penn) Libraries has seen these changes reflected in our institutional repository (IR), ScholarlyCommons: this past fiscal year saw more than 2 million documents downloaded worldwide and a 280% increase in contributions compared to 4 years ago. Within the last 2 years, management of our IR moved from Collections to a newly formed Digital Scholarship department, which also supports digital humanities, data curation, and GIS. Within this context, the unexpected acquisition of bepress by Elsevier in August opened questions of how to proceed with our suite of library repositories and platforms. In response to this acquisition, and to libraries' experiences with Elsevier in the past, Penn Libraries, a bepress Digital Commons customer, released a statement announcing that we are exploring new options for our IR platform in order to exit bepress ("Operation beprexit"). We see beprexit as an opportunity to rethink the range of repository services we offer our community, taking into consideration the functionality previously offered by bepress, the capacities in the new Samvera-based repository our IT department is developing, and the lessons learned from the rest of the digital scholarship activities, including Data Refuge. This opportunity will allow us to reshape our growing scholarly communications program as we expand to house new types of data and scholarly publications and increase our footprint of open access publications. In this briefing, we will discuss our plan to re-imagine what an IR should and could do and what beprexit means for the larger digital scholarship landscape. We will present the process through which we plan to:

  • assess our community needs and capacities
  • identify alternatives to bepress
  • engage the larger community in this as a collaborative effort




Essays on Monetary Theory and Policy

Fri, 12 Jan 2018 08:32:12 PST

This dissertation consists of two essays concerning Monetary Theory and Policy. Essay 1, "Monetary Policy and Asset Prices", develops a dynamic model in which money and a financial asset compete as media of exchange. We show that money circulates if and only if real assets are scarce, in the sense that their supply is not sufficient to satisfy the demand for liquidity. Our model also generates a connection between asset prices and monetary policy. When money grows at a higher rate, inflation is higher and the return on money decreases. In equilibrium, no arbitrage amounts to equating the real return of both objects. Thus, the price of the asset increases in order to lower its real return. Essay 2, "Monetary Policy and Interest Rates with Collateralized Borrowing", proposes a model of money that analyzes collateral and its interaction with monetary policy and interest rates. The value of the asset that serves as collateral, which is specific to each agent, plays a crucial role. This asset is different from fiat money and a standard financial asset. Therefore, its valuation is not standard. I prove existence and uniqueness of equilibrium in an environment where the Mundell-Tobin effect is not present. Heterogeneity of borrowers has a relevant effect on the impact of changes in the interest rates.




Manding Reflexive Verb Constructions and Registers in Jula of Burkina Faso

Thu, 11 Jan 2018 06:25:13 PST

This article explores one structural way in which Jula differs from other Manding varieties: the forgoing of formally reflexive constructions in favor of formally ambiguous intransitive constructions and more rarely innovative idiomatic transitive constructions. To do so, I draw on contextually elicited forms from 2012 fieldwork with 9 Jula speakers in Burkina Faso. Given the limitations of elicitation, I explore wider acceptability judgments and text artifacts to reveal that Jula speakers in Burkina frequently recognize and in fact use formally reflexive constructions typically attributed to other Manding varieties such as Bamanan. These findings suggest that these so-called Bamanan constructions are enregistered (Agha 2007) for a certain social domain as sociolinguistic high-forms. This study thereby reveals the limitations of a traditional dialectology approach to understanding how various Manding forms circulate across isomorphic boundaries.




Orthography, Standardization, and Register: The Case of Manding

Thu, 11 Jan 2018 06:25:10 PST

Since at least the rise of nineteenth-century European nationalism, Westerners have in large part judged languages by whether they are written and standardized (Anderson 2006; Bauman and Briggs 2000; Blommaert 2006; Flores 2014). As the colonial era came to an end across much of the world in the 1960s, this tendency intermingled with the rising interest in development: what would be the place of the long minoritized indigenous languages of Africa, Asia and Latin America in the educational and political projects of postcolonial states? In Africa in particular, this led to a flourish-ing of orthographies for a large number of languages which had previously been excluded from domains of government and schooling. The initiatives of the post-independence period, however, did not lead to one single orthography, script or standard for many of these languages. This chapter examines one such case, the West African trade language of Manding, which is written in at least three distinct scripts today: Arabic, N’ko (ߏߞߒ) and Latin. Emerging respectively from before, during and after colonial rule, these three writing systems are variably embraced and wielded by distinct West African actors today.




Coaching Competencies Deconstructed

Wed, 10 Jan 2018 14:46:13 PST

The purpose of this capstone is to explore four qualities considered essential to professional coaching: authenticity, coaching presence, empathy, and openness. Through research in psychology and coaching literature, as well as interviews with experienced coach practitioners, this study first deconstructs each quality, and then creates a reconceptualization of each to enhance their use and understanding by novice and experienced professionals alike. As practitioners who are focused on human development, professional coaches are committed to developing ongoing mastery. One way to cultivate coaching competence is through Mindfulness Meditation. The attitudinal foundations of Mindfulness Meditation are highly relevant to coaching. Mindfulness Meditation, in particular, facilitates integration of several coaching qualities, and ultimately leads us to maximum resourcefulness and creativity for our clients.




Observing Women: Doris Lessing, Christa Wolf, Marguerite Duras

Wed, 10 Jan 2018 11:54:59 PST

This dissertation uses a model of observation derived from Michel Foucault's "Discipline and Punish" to examine the relationship between writing and seeing in each of the writers discussed. The disciplinary model of the Panopticon, as Foucault outlines it, constructs a neutral observer, a figure supposedly "without qualities" but nevertheless implicitly male, in part because Western tradition has always constructed men as observers and women as objects of observation. But what happens when a woman takes up this observational position and attempts to become the subject of her own gaze? In "Prisons We Choose to Live Inside", Doris Lessing explicitly develops a theory of the writer as observer. Close reading of moments of observation in "Particularly Cats", "Going Home", "African Laughter", and "The Fifth Child" shows that Lessing's model of observation assumes she can freely take up a "neutral" position of observation without addressing the history of that position, whether in general philosophical terms or in terms of the particular experiences which allowed her to assume that position. In contrast, Christa Wolf is quite conscious of the structures of observational power in which she would construct herself as an observer. If the figure of a woman observing a woman observing which appears in "Kindheitsmuster", "Kassandra", and "Was bleibt" allows her to depict how the gendering of power controls and contains alternative perspectives, it does not allow her to overcome the structures of that power. Finally, Marguerite Duras' active manipulation of women's passive position in "Le boa" and "L'Amant" breaks the structures of disciplinary observation and allows her to construct a nondisciplinary woman observer. Duras also creates women, however, who are unable to transform the passive position of waiting which war compels them to occupy. This one position, which appears in "Hiroshima mon amour" and "La Douleur", is not susceptible to the transformation from passivity to activity with which Duras' figures otherwise construct themselves as observing women.