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Poverty and Family Composition Since 1940

Wed, 24 May 2017 09:52:32 PDT




Closing Session

Sat, 25 Feb 2017 15:45:00 PST

Robert Fox, University of Oxford

Universal Knowledge as Utopia and Myth

The Baconian aphorism that knowledge is power has been amply vindicated since the seventeenth century, as political, economic, and cultural leaders have sought to control access to information, typically in opposition to advocates of openness. In the period treated in this conference, those who believed that knowledge should be open to all faced the challenge of an unprecedented acceleration in the pace of publication, followed by a distinct "national turn" after the Great War as nations appropriated science in pursuit of their various interests. Contrary voices, in the International Committee on International Co-operation and H. G. Wells's idea of a universally accessible "World Brain", were frail. But after the second world war they found new expression in UNESCO. The history of universalist sentiment in science and scholarship reflects both the travails and the resilience of a dream that has endured against the odds. In our own age of the Internet and the World Wide Web, might the dream now have another hope of realization?




Session 7: Universalism and War

Sat, 25 Feb 2017 14:15:00 PST

Alistair Black, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

"All information flows toward it, or returns to it in a form worked up into shape": The Intelligence Branch and Libraries of the British War Office, 1873-1914

Intelligence has always been an aspect of organized warfare. It was not until the 1873, however, that the British Army effectively recognised this formally by establishing a dedicated division, under the auspices of the War Office, named the "Intelligence Branch," whose work was to be supported by collections of printed materials in libraries spread across a number of locations. Based on documents held in the National Archives (UK), this paper explores the ways in which the work of the War Office Intelligence Branch developed before the First World War in response to imperial and foreign-military challenges. Specifically, attention is paid to the type of information management methods that were employed. Significantly, these methods pre-dated those that emerged around the turn of the century in the first large multinational corporations, in counter-intelligence agencies like MI5 (1908) and in the Board of Trade, which inaugurated a Commercial Intelligence Branch in 1899. They also pre-dated, though subsequently paralleled, the late-nineteenth century emergence of a science of management, which included an identifiable information dimension.

Kathy Peiss, University of Pennsylvania

Information as Warfare: The American Transformation of the Internationalist Vision in WWII

Americans participated in the internationalist information movement of the interwar years, albeit with their own quirks and obsessions, especially a strange faith in microfilm. The descent into the Second World War exposed the weaknesses of the internationalist vision and resistances to universalization: the international book trade ended, scholarly exchange broke down, and nations concealed information to make war. In the United States, the first civilian intelligence agency, the Coordinator of Information--soon renamed the Office of Strategic Services--gathered librarians, archivists, and scholars to establish storage and retrieval systems for classified information. Strikingly, these were not primarily leading documentalists or scientists, but rather experts in the social sciences and humanities; their prior experience lay in Ivy League universities, research libraries, and New Deal cultural programs. Out of the wartime experience, a specifically American (and nationalist) version of internationalism and information emerged.




Session 6: Universalism by Design

Sat, 25 Feb 2017 11:30:00 PST

Robert Kargon, Johns Hopkins University

The Geography of Knowledge: William Pepper, Jr. and the Advancement of Learning in Philadelphia 1870-1900

William Pepper, Jr. MD was the provost of the University of Pennsylvania and brought it and its medical school into the scientific age. Inspired by the successes of South Kensington's "Albertopolis" and by his role at the 1876 Philadelphia World's Fair, Pepper planned to create a knowledge city in Philadelphia, including advanced research and teaching institutions, laboratories, libraries, and museums.

Nader Vossoughian, New York Institute of Technology

Internationalism under National Socialism: Architects' Data and the Standardization of Knowledge (1933-1945)

The intimate ties between internationalist and pacifist movements in modern European history is fairly well-established. Lesser known, however, is the fact that fascist and imperialist governments have often affiliated themselves with internationalist and globalizing causes as well. Hendrik Christian Andersen appealed to Mussolini in an effort to realize the building of his World Center of Communication. Ernst Neufert appealed to Albert Speer and to Adolf Hitler in order to realize his dream of developing a universal language of design. He joined Speer's architectural office in 1938, he became an advisor to the Organisation Todt in 1942, and he headed DIN's (the German Institute for Standardization's) Construction Standards Committee between 1944 and 1945. Arguably, Neufert is best remembered today for authoring Architects' Data (Bauentwurfslehre). After eighty years, it is still the most influential standards handbook in the world. In this presentation, I document the genesis and evolution of this important publication. I concentrate on the graphic design and conceptual aims of the first edition. (I use it to explore the links between imperialism, modernism, and internationalism.) I historicize its 1943 and 1944 editions. (I show that these help flesh out Neufert's utopian aims and aspirations.) I narrate Neufert's stewardship of DIN's Construction Standards Committee. (This is in order to underline the links between internationalism, imperialism, and standardization.) I discuss the important role that standards continue to play in the organization of knowledge today. (I argue that we still need to historicize what some are calling the "Internet of things.")




Session 5: Ordering the Universe of Information (cont)

Sat, 25 Feb 2017 09:45:00 PST

Steven Witt, Center for Global Studies, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Creating the International Mind: Promoting Peace and the Global Society through Books, Dialogue, and Cultural exchange 1917-1938

In 1918, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) worked to disseminate legal, cultural, and historical knowledge throughout the world. These efforts aimed to put an end to war by encouraging international understanding and developing cosmopolitan perspectives that emphasized transnational connections and de-emphasized nationalism. This global educational program was part of a well-funded and highly organized operation aimed to universalize global perspectives through an internationalism that would yield peace through cultural understanding and new forms of global governance. This paper will examine the role of the CEIP in developing transnational networks through libraries, publishers, and universities, anticipating the rise in the power of information networks and civil society groups to effect change on a global level.

Lynn Ransom, University of Pennsylvania Libraries

Ernest Cushing Richardson: An American Librarian in an Internationalist Age

In 1897 at the 2nd International Library Conference held in London, the American librarian Ernest Cushing Richardson claimed "the evolution of mankind was ... an evolution in mind or knowledge. Since this evolution was characterized not by individual action but by coordinated action among many as represented in books, collections of books (i.e. libraries) were the instrument of cooperative knowledge and therefore the primary factor in human evolution." This sentiment captures in a nutshell how Richardson, one of the foundational leaders of modern librarianship, understood the transformative power of libraries in propelling mankind toward the highest standards of human development and social order by making the human knowledge accessible to every citizen of the world. His beliefs, largely shaped by such figures of the internationalist movement as Paul Otlet and Henry La Fontaine, made him a natural leader in the efforts to internationalize the practices of library and information science. His great success, the realization of the National Union Catalog in the 1920-30s, was a direct product of those efforts. Despite his successes, however, few today have heard of Richardson. Not long after the successful completion of the National Union Catalog project, Richardson and his ideas for universal access to the world's knowledge fell out of favor, and he was more or less forgotten by the profession he served so passionately for much of his life until his death in 1939.

This paper will consider the arc of Richardson's career as it paralleled the rise and demise of internationalist utopian ideals that were crushed in the years leading up to the second World War. It will look specifically at one of Richardson's greatest failures, a project to catalog the world's premodern manuscript books, and contextualize it in the context of internationalist thought and practice in order to shed light on what happened to an idealism shared by many in Richardson's time that arguably shaped librarianship as we know it today.




Session 4: Ordering the Universe of Information

Fri, 24 Feb 2017 15:30:00 PST

Peter Lor, University of Pretoria In the Background: The Development of International Librarianship during the Period 1870 - 1945 A great deal has been written and much more will no doubt be written, on the rise of documentation during the Belle époque and on the close association of key figures such as Otlet and La Fontaine with universalism and utopianism. Their heroic and ultimately unsuccessful project to create a universal database of scientific literature, and similar initiatives by the Royal Society and others, have overshadowed the international activities of librarians during the same period, which also saw the beginnings of international librarianship as a field of activity. Library activities across borders have a long history, but the word "international" was only invented by Jeremy Bentham in 1789, well more than a century after the creation of the Westphalian system. The word "internationalism" followed in 1843. International library activities in the form of international schemes for the exchange of publications started during the 19th Century and from mid-century gained impetus through national and international meetings of librarians held in conjunction with universal exhibitions. The second half of the 19th Century saw the advent of international conferences of librarians, bibliographers and bibliophiles. The first Anglo-American cataloguing code of 1908 was a product of formal library cooperation between two national library associations. The inter-war period 1918-1939 saw a significant growth in international librarianship. The series of international library and bibliographic conferences culminated in the founding of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) in 1927/9. It was also a period of growing US influence in Europe, Latin America and Africa through various processes and carried out by various agents. These included visitors to US libraries who went back to their countries to spread American library ideas, the American Library Association, involved in post-war reconstruction of library services, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, and the US State Department. The intention of this paper is to paint a broad canvas of the development of international library activity as a backdrop to developments in documentation. I will also pose questions about the relationship between the two fields. What links were there? What were the differences between the protagonists in terms of their professional backgrounds and institutional settings? How did their concerns and emphasis differ, e.g. in terms of bibliographic control? Was this the period of bifurcation, in which documentation, the precursor of information science, drifted away from librarianship? W. Boyd Rayward Paul Otlet and the Organization of Knowledge For fifty years Paul Otlet devoted himself to the study of how the social and epistemic benefits of the knowledge that was buried within what he called "documents" could be identified, extracted and potentiated for world-wide use. His approach was two pronged. First was technical: the creation, rationalisation and international promotion of new techniques for the processing of information. Second was organisational: the deployment of national and international associations and societies which would assume information-related tasks to support the emergence of a new information based global polity. Despite the sudden and shocking disruption of World War I, this new era seemed for a moment to be the inevitable outcome of the pre-war international arbitration and peace movements that culminated in the emergence of the post-War League of Nations and its associated agencies. Like so many, Otlet was soon disillusioned in the League of Nations. During the 1920s and 1930s, he devoted himself to promoting the idea a World City. The Cité Mondiale was to be both a symbolical representation of his vision of a new international polity but also an archite[...]



Session 3: Universal Words

Fri, 24 Feb 2017 14:00:00 PST

Rachel Sagner Buurma, Swarthmore College Henry Wheatley's General Index: Knowledge Organization, Fictional Representation, and Information Utopianism in the 1870s Henry Wheatley's idea for a General Index can seem like an early prototype of grander, better-known universal knowledge projects like those of Otlet and La Fontaine. It can also read as a local, British precursor of the larger, more international, and better-organized projects to come. Yet Wheatley's focus on the proposed General Index's partiality, extensibility, and engagement with practices of personal knowledge collection and organization sets it apart from later, more universalizing and totalizing knowledge organization projects. Wheatley's design for the General Index imagined it knitting together the fragmented notes of all types of researchers; he planned for it to connect individual and idiosyncratic knowledge creation practices with the practices and standards of emerging institutions of knowledge organization. After describing Wheatley's vision of the General Index in the context of mid-Victorian ideas about indexing, knowledge organization, and bibliographic control, I will briefly consider how this extensible, partial, index-based knowledge organization system was implemented by best-selling (and now nearly forgotten) Victorian novelist Charles Reade. Examining Reade's engagement with existing theories and practices of knowledge organization like those Wheatley embodied in the idea of the General Index, I will reveal the significant social and cultural presence of this alternate information utopianism by tracking it through theories of fictional representation as well as everyday practices of list-making. What might past models of knowledge organization like the General Index - models that center individual agents and do not necessarily align information utopianism with universalism and totality - offer our thinking about contemporary information utopianisms? Evan Hepler-Smith, Harvard University Chemical Nomenclature, International Chemistry, and the Particulars of Universalism, 1910-1930 In the field of organic chemistry, around the turn of the twentieth century, universalism in disciplinary politics and information management went hand-in-hand. Across Europe and America, tens of thousands of new synthetic compounds were transforming chemistry and commerce, and reform-minded chemists saw the development of international rules of nomenclature as the key to putting both chemicals and chemists in order. The standardization of nomenclature and terminology is often taken for granted as typical subject matter for international cooperation. But what were the affinities that bound nomenclature reform and international organizations together in the first place? Members of the upper echelons of European academic chemistry, dissatisfied with the fragmented, contentious character of many international chemical meetings, made nomenclature the centerpiece of a different sort of organization. Crucially, such chemists saw nomenclature as something that mattered to everyone in their field, but did not matter too much to anyone. In the decades preceding World War I, chemical naming became the central problem around which a transnational chemical elite built institutions for intimate and wide-ranging intellectual exchange. Nomenclature reform played a different role within the international chemical organizations of the 1920s. Attending carefully to the official and unofficial work of the members of the nomenclature commission of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, I demonstrate that international cooperation was not a default state to which science reverted when political tensions ebbed, nor a fragile compromise shattered once and for all by war. For some, chemical naming was a means for establishing the legitimacy of an institution riven by political divisions, while for others, [...]



Session 2: Codifying Universalism

Fri, 24 Feb 2017 11:15:00 PST

Teresa Davis, Princeton University

Universalism at the Margins: Codifying International Law in South America, 1889-1930

Between 1888 and 1928 the American continent saw widespread mobilization amongst North and South American jurists to codify private international law, that is, the set of rules and conventions governing the international relationships between private persons--whether individuals or corporations--and between these persons and the state. Coming as it did at a moment of increasing expansion of US trade and investment in Latin America, this was perhaps the world's first conversation between "north" and "south" over the rules governing the international economy. As such, the intellectual debates over private international law that took place across the Americas in this period raise key questions about the relationship between international mobility, sovereignty and economic development. At the center of the debate was the encounter between a utopian, "scientific" vision of a universal code, promoted by jurists affiliated with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, on the one hand, and, on the other, projects which sought to preserve a wide margin of sovereign power, even as they strove to promote investment and trade through the gradual establishment of clear international rules.

Eva Hemmungs Wirtén, University of Linköping

A Dangerous Utopia: the Curious Case of Scientific Property

When the League of Nation's Commission Internationale de Coopération Intellectuelle (CICI) had its first meeting in Geneva in 1922, the members of the group quickly identified three topics of special importance. Interuniversity relations, bibliography, and intellectual property were considered so crucial to the group's mandate -- securing future peace by international collaboration -- that they warranted the setting up of separate sub-committees. In her talk, Eva Hemmungs Wirtén will take the CICI's controversial report on scientific property, written by the Italian Senator Ruffini in 1923, as her starting point for a discussion on the role of intellectual property in the context of the CICI and beyond. Looking ahead, she will especially consider how the sciences of information and utopian internationalist movements may provide a creative framing for a new kind of intellectual property history: the bibliographical history of patents.




Session 1: Universal Science

Fri, 24 Feb 2017 09:45:00 PST

Geert Somsen, Maastricht University

Unscathed Universalism. Scientific Internationalism through the Krieg der Gelehrten

The history of scientific internationalism through World War I, even though it has been studied many times, presents a startling dilemma. On the one hand, it has often been claimed that after August 1914, scientists of the belligerent nations quickly surrendered their belief in internationalist values to an all-out embrace of nationalism. This chauvinism exploded in the manifestoes of the Krieg der Gelehrten, and persisted into the creation of new (and nationally exclusive) international organizations after 1919. On the other hand, it seems that the internationalist rhetoric celebrating the universal and fraternizing nature of science re-emerged, phoenix-style, in the early 1920s, e.g. the work of George Sarton and in the establishment of the League of Nations' Commission Internationale de Coopération Intellectuelle. It was as if the war had never happened and as if the scientists' guerre des manifestes had not taken place. How can we explain the apparent lack of impact of wartime chauvinism? And how do we account for the co-existence of national exclusion and internationalist pontification after 1919? In this paper, I will try to answer these questions by revisiting our understanding of internationalism and postwar disillusionment.




Welcome

Fri, 24 Feb 2017 09:30:00 PST




Speaking Scientific Internationalism

Thu, 23 Feb 2017 18:00:00 PST

The lecture began with a welcome by Carin Berkowitz, Director, Beckman Center, and opening remarks by Evan Hepler-Smith, Harvard University.

Abstract: Speaking Scientific Internationalism

The years between 1870 and 1945 were a watershed for the universalization of knowledge along several axes: the establishment of international scientific organizations, the rapid expansion of library and information management, and the striking cross-cutting among scientific disciplines (the unification of biology under genetics and natural selection, the grouping of the physical sciences under quantum theory, and more). A diverse group of European and North American scientists, however, perceived this same era as one of an incipient fragmentation caused by this very unification. They argued that as increasing numbers of nations and peoples, speaking a diversity of languages, were drawn into a scientific community that had been principally organized around the triad of English, French, and German, both the information sciences and the natural sciences faced a formidable, perhaps fatal, challenge. This presentation focuses on a set of solutions proposed by an array of natural scientists to adapt one technique of information management -- the constructed reference scheme (e.g., the Dewey Decimal System) -- into constructed "international languages" that would enable scientific communication during this oncoming Neo-Babel. Such constructed languages (Esperanto, Ido, Novial, Gloro, Interglossa, Latino sine Flexione, etc.) represent an often-neglected bridge across the various sciences of this internationalizing moment.




HOW PROFESSIONAL PROVIDERS ADDRESS THE SELF-ESTEEM OF AFRICAN AMERICAN ADOLESCENT GIRLS LIVING IN LOW-INCOME COMMUNITIES

Tue, 23 May 2017 13:51:08 PDT

HOW PROFESSIONAL PROVIDERS ADDRESS THE SELF-ESTEEM OF AFRICAN AMERICAN ADOLESCENT GIRLS LIVING IN LOW-INCOME COMMUNITIES

Khidhra Smith Poole MSW, LCSW Dr. Joretha Bourjolly MSW, PhD., Dissertation Chair

Objective: This study aimed to explore how professionals are addressing the self-esteem of African American girls living in low-income communities. Factors such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status play a significant role in the development of a healthy self-esteem. Given the disproportionately high representation of African American youth among individuals living in poverty, their increased exposure to stress in the context of poverty, and the association between stress and psychological symptoms for African American girls, the search for protective factors that foster resilience for low-income African American girls is particularly important.

Methods: A modified grounded theory approach was used to analyze audiotaped transcribed focus group discussions, self-esteem written intervention materials, and direct observation notes from self-esteem interventions conducted by study participants. Fennell’s cognitive model of low self-esteem was used as a theoretical framework for this study to help understand which factors contribute to low self-esteem and as a result need to be considered when improving overall self-esteem among African American adolescent girls living in low-income communities.

Results: Teaching skills and providing opportunities for girls to practice new skills, guided group discussions and talks, exposure to new experiences, addressing basic needs, healthy relationship building, the positive use of self, spiritual/cultural approaches and the lack of family involvement were all themes that emerged when professionals addressed the self-esteem of African American adolescent girls living in low-income communities. The study also discovered that professionals should find ways to include the primary caregiver when addressing self-esteem with this group.

Conclusions: The findings suggest that addressing self-esteem with this group begins with understanding their culture, listening to what they need and observing obstacles faced by these girls to sustain a healthy self-esteem. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

Keywords: African American girls, African American youth, Self-Esteem.




Firearm Violence in America: A Growing Health Problem

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:33:40 PDT

Firearm injury is a disease that afflicts many individuals in the United States, either directly or indirectly. Trauma and critical care nurses have direct experience with this life-threatening disease and recognize the high lethality and life-altering consequences of these injuries. The magnitude of this health problem requires a focus on primary prevention. We recognize that any focus on firearm injury is often contentious and political; however, nurses bring a ready-made credibility and focus on evidence-based practice to the prevention of this disease.




Cultivating Responsive Systems for the Care of Acutely and Critically Ill Older Adults

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:33:35 PDT

This article examines the importance of creating acute care systems that are responsive to the needs of acutely and critically ill and injured older adults. Four attributes of the responsive system are examined: elasticity, enabling, ease, and equanimity. An analytic literature review provides the basis for recommended practices by responsive professionals in responsive systems. Implications for practice, research, education, and policy are provided.




Outcome From Serious Injury in Older Adults

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:33:31 PDT

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the research published in peer-reviewed journals between 1996 and 2005 that examine factors affecting the physical outcomes of older adults after serious traumatic injury.

Organizing Construct: 27 primary research studies published in the last 10 years describe in-hospital and long-term outcomes of serious injury among older adults. Research specific to isolated hip injury, traumatic brain injury and burn trauma was excluded.

Methods: An integrative review of research published between January 1996 and January 2005 was carried out to examine the relationship between older age and outcome from severe injury. MEDLINE, BIOSIS previews, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases were searched using the MeSH terms: injury, serious injury, trauma and multiple trauma, and crossed with type, severity, medical/surgical management, complication, outcome, mortality, morbidity, survival, disability, quality of life, functional status, functional recovery, function, and placement.

Findings: Older adults experience higher short and long-term mortality when compared to younger adults. The relationship between older age and poorer outcome persists when adjusting for injury severity, number of injuries, comorbidities, and complications. At the same time, injury severity, number of injuries, complications, and gender each independently correlate to increased mortality among older adults. The body of research is limited by over-reliance on retrospective data and heterogeneity in definitional criteria for the older adult population.

Conclusions: Additional research is needed to clarify the contributory effect of variables such as psychosocial sequelae and physiologic resilience on injury outcome. The field of geriatric trauma would benefit from further population-based prospective investigation of the determinants of injury outcome in older adults in order to guide interventions and acute care treatment.




Ethical Issues of Recruitment and Enrollment of Critically Ill and Injured Patients for Research

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:33:26 PDT

The ethical issues of recruitment and enrollment of critically ill and injured patients into research studies is central to the conduct of nursing research in critical care settings. Nurse scientists can anticipate and plan for the challenges that arise during the recruitment and enrollment of these vulnerable patients into research studies.




A Model to Advance Nursing Science in Trauma Practice and Injury Outcomes Research

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:33:22 PDT

Aims: This discussion paper reports development of a model to advance nursing science and practice in trauma care based on an analysis of the literature and expert opinion.

Background: The continuum of clinical care provided to trauma patients extends from the time of injury through to long-term recovery and final outcomes. Nurses bring a unique expertise to meet the complex physical and psychosocial needs of trauma patients and their families to influence outcomes across this entire continuum.

Data Sources: Literature was obtained by searching CINAHL, PubMed and OvidMedline databases for 1990 – 2010. Search terms included trauma, nursing, scope of practice and role, with results restricted to those published in English. Manual searches of relevant journals and websites were undertaken.

Discussion: Core concepts in this trauma outcomes model include environment, person/family, structured care settings, long term outcomes and nursing interventions. The relationships between each of these concepts extend across all phases of care. Intermediate outcomes are achieved in each phase of care and influence and have congruence with long term outcomes.

Implications for Policy and Practice: This model is intended to provide a framework to assist trauma nurses and researchers to consider the injured person in the context of the social, economic, cultural and physical environment from which they come and the long term goals that each person has during recovery. The entire model requires testing in research and assessment of its practical contribution to practice.

Conclusion: Planning and integrating care across the trauma continuum, as well as recognition of the role of the injured person’s background, family and resources, will lead to improved long term outcomes.




A Delphi Study on Research Priorities for Trauma Nursing

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:33:17 PDT

Objectives: To identify and prioritize research questions of importance to trauma patient care and of interest to trauma nurses.

Methods: A three-round Delphi technique was used to solicit, identify, and prioritize problems for trauma nursing research. In round 1, experienced trauma nurses (N = 208) generated 513 problems, which were analyzed, categorized, and collapsed into 111 items for subsequent rounds. Round 2 participants rated each research question on a 1 to 7 scale on two criteria: impact on patient welfare and value for practicing nurses. Group median scores provided by 166 round 2 respondents and respondents' individual round 2 scores were indicated on the round 3 questionnaire. Subjects rated the questions again on the same criteria and indicated whether nurses, independently or in collaboration with other health professionals, should assume responsibility for that research. Median and mean scores and rank order were determined for each item.

Results: Respondents who completed all three rounds (n = 137) had a mean of 8.3 years of trauma experience. Nine research questions ranked within the top 20 on both criteria. The two research questions that ranked highest on both criteria were: What are the most effective nursing interventions in the prevention of pulmonary and circulatory complications in trauma patients? and What are the most effective methods for preventing aspiration in trauma patients during the postoperative phase? The third-ranked question regarding patient welfare was: What psychological and lifestyle changes result from traumatic injury? Regarding value for practicing nurses, What are the most effective educational methods to prepare and maintain proficiency in trauma care providers? ranked third.

Conclusion: These research priorities provide impetus and direction for nursing and collaborative investigation in trauma care.




Journey Towards Recovery Following Physical Trauma

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:33:13 PDT

Convalescence and recovery following illness are of central importance to nursing. These themes have been explored increasingly in the literature. The focus, however, has been primarily on the process of integrating chronic illness into one’s life. Recovery from physical injury is rarely addressed. A body of work focusing on physical trauma demonstrates that recovery is often not complete after injuries that have not been viewed as disabling. To illuminate understanding of recovery following physical trauma, the purpose of our 1997 study was to describe more thoroughly the nature of recovery. A total of 63 adults, in a convenience sample, who survived serious physical trauma, were interviewed 2·5 years after injury using an open-ended semistructured interview guide. Three themes were identified: event, fallout, and moving-on. These themes provided the organizing structure for exploring the journey to recovery. This journey, as disclosed by the seriously injured, does not necessarily correspond with the views of most trauma clinicians. Traumatic events create a line of demarcation, separating lives into before and after. The event becomes the starting point of a journey to resume one’s life. The event itself is more than the trauma; it is the perceptual and contextual experience that needs to be incorporated into a person’s essence. Fallout from the injury is multifaceted and includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual dimensions. Moving-on in this journey is nonlinear as survivors recognize their lives are forever different. The survivors’ accounts suggest that nurses should carefully consider the question, ‘What is successful recovery?’




Characteristics and Outcomes of Serious Traumatic Injury in Older Adults

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:33:09 PDT

Objectives: The aims were to: 1) describe the seriously injured older adult; 2) characterize and compare the differences in injury characteristics and outcomes in three subgroups of seriously injured older adults: 65-74 years, 75-84 years, and >85 years of age; 3) identify risk factors for death, complications, and discharge placement at hospital discharge.

Design: A retrospective secondary analysis of a statewide trauma data set from 1988-1997.

Setting: Data submitted from all designated trauma centers in Pennsylvania.

Participants: The data set yielded 38,707 patients with a mean age of 77.5 years with serious injury (mean number of injuries = 3.6, mean number of body systems involved = 2).

Measurements: Key outcomes were mortality, complications, and discharge placement. Abbreviated Injury Score categorized injuries and Injury Severity Score (ISS) quantified anatomic severity of injury.

Results: Mortality was 10%. Mean length of stay 11.5 days. 52.2% of survivors were discharged home and 25.4% to a skilled nursing facility. Injury severity, total number of injuries, complications and increasing age were predictors of mortality (p<.01). The presence of pre-existing co-morbid medical conditions increased the odds of experiencing a complication over three-fold. Increasing age, total number of injuries, injury to extremities or abdominal contents, injuries due to falls, and lower functional level predicted discharge to a skilled nursing facility (p<.01).

Conclusions: Traumatic injury in older adults are typically multisystem, life-threatening, and affects older adults of all ages. The standard ISS does not fully capture the potential for mortality in older adults and does not predict discharge placement. The majority of older adults survive multisystem injury. Our findings indicate the need to examine outcomes beyond mortality and to make the identification and management of co-morbid conditions a priority. A geriatric consultation service could be an important additional to the interdisciplinary trauma team.




Early Predictors of Long-Term Disability After Injury

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:33:05 PDT

Background: Improving outcomes after serious injury is important to patients, patients’ families, and healthcare providers. Identifying early risk factors for long-term disability after injury will help critical care providers recognize patients at risk.

Objectives: To identify early predictors of long-term disability after injury and to ascertain if age, level of disability before injury, posttraumatic psychological distress, and social network factors during hospitalization and recovery significantly contribute to long-term disability after injury.

Methods: A prospective, correlational design was used. Injury-specific information on 63 patients with serious, non–central nervous system injury was obtained from medical records; all other data were obtained from interviews (3 per patient) during a 2½-year period. A model was developed to test the theoretical propositions of the disabling process. Predictors of long-term disability were evaluated using path analysis in the context of structural equation modeling.

Results: Injuries were predominately due to motor vehicle crashes (37%) or violent assaults (21%). Mean Injury Severity Score was 13.46, and mean length of stay was 12 days. With structural equation modeling, 36% of the variance in long-term disability was explained by predictors present at the time of injury (age, disability before injury), during hospitalization (psychological distress), or soon after discharge (psychological distress, short-term disability after injury).

Conclusions: Disability after injury is due partly to an interplay between physical and psychological factors that can be identified soon after injury. By identifying these early predictors, patients at risk for suboptimal outcomes can be detected.




Effective Trauma Center Partnerships to Address Firearm Injury: A New Paradigm

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:33:01 PDT

Background: Firearm violence is the second leading cause of injury-related death. This study examined the use of local trauma centers as lead organizations in their communities to address firearm injury.

Methods: Three trauma centers in cities with populations less than 100,000 were linked with a university-based firearm injury research center. A trauma surgeon director and coordinator partnered with communities, recruited and directed advisory boards, established a local firearm injury surveillance system, and informed communities using community-specific profiles. Primary process and outcome measures included completeness of data, development of community-specific profiles, number of data-driven consumer media pieces, number of meetings to inform policy makers, and an analysis of problems encountered.

Results: Local trauma centers in smaller communities implemented a firearm injury surveillance system, produced community-specific injury profiles, and engaged community leaders and policy makers to address firearm injury. Community-specific profiles demonstrated consistent firearm suicide rates (6.58–6.82 per 100,000) but variation in firearm homicide rates (1.08–12.5 per 100,000) across sites. There were 63 data-driven media pieces and 18 forums to inform community leaders and policy makers. Completeness of data elements ranged from 57.1% to 100%. Problems experienced were disconnected data sources, multiple data owners, potential for political fallout, limited trauma center data, skills sets of medical professionals, and sustainability.

Conclusion: Trauma centers, when provided resources and support, with the model described, can function as lead organizations in partnering with the community to acquire and use community-specific data for local firearm injury prevention.




The Case for Enhanced Data Collection of Gun Type

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:32:56 PDT

Background: National surveillance systems have differentiated long guns into rifles and shotguns but fail to do so for handgun type. We sought to determine whether specific gun type data could be collected and whether knowledge of specific gun types (rifle, shotgun, pistol, revolver) could be used to distinguish gun homicide victims with respect to important injury parameters such as number of wounds.

Methods: Data on gun fatalities over a 5-year period in three communities were abstracted from medical examiner/coroner, police, and crime laboratory records.

Results: Gun type was obtained for 92% of 490 guns linked to 405 gun homicides. Handguns were associated with more wounds per gun than long guns (p = 0.001) and more entry wounds per gun than long guns (p = 0.002). Among handguns, pistols were associated with more wounds per gun (p < 0.001) and entry wounds per gun (p = 0.001) than revolvers. These same associations were not found among specific long gun types (i.e., rifles and shotguns).

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that information about gun type can be obtained and that significant differences exist in wounds per gun between long guns and handguns and between pistols and revolvers. Classification of long guns into rifles and shotguns and handguns into pistols and revolvers should be included in local, regional, and national data collection systems.




Characteristics and Outcomes of Injured Older Adults After Hospital Admission

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:32:51 PDT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the seriously injured adult population aged 65 and older; compare the differences in injury characteristics and outcomes in three subgroups aged 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85 and older; and identify predictors of death, complications, and hospital discharge destination.

DESIGN: Retrospective secondary analysis of data from the Queensland Trauma Registry (QTR) using all patients aged 65 and older admitted from 2003 through 2006.

SETTING: Data from 15 regional and tertiary hospitals throughout Queensland, Australia.

PARTICIPANTS: Six thousand sixty-nine patients: 2,291 (37.7%) aged 65 to 74, 2,265 (37.3%) aged 75 to 84, and 1,513 (24.9%) aged 85 and older.

MEASUREMENTS: Outcome variables included mortality, complications, and discharge destination (usual residence, rehabilitation, nursing home, convalescence). Predictive factors incorporated demographic details, injury characteristics, and acute care factors.

RESULTS: Hospital survival was 95.0%, with a median length of hospital stay of 8 days (interquartile range 5–15), and 33.8% of cases with a major injury developed a complication. Predictors of death included older age, male sex, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), greater Injury Severity Score (ISS), injury caused by a fall, and two or more injuries; those who had surgery were less likely to die. Predictors of complications included ICU admission, older age, longer hospital stay, and two or more injuries. Predictors of discharge to a nursing home included older age, greater ISS, longer hospital stay, and injury caused by a fall, among others.

CONCLUSION: Older adults with severe injuries are at risk of poor outcomes. These findings suggest opportunities for improving geriatric trauma care that could lead to better outcomes.




The Global Burden of Non-Conflict Related Firearm Mortality

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:32:46 PDT

Objective: Understanding global firearm mortality is hindered by data availability, quality, and comparability. This study assesses the adequacy of publicly available data, examines populations for whom firearm mortality data are not publicly available, and estimates the global burden of non-conflict related firearm mortality.

Design: The design is a secondary analysis of existing data. A dataset of countries, populations, economic development, and geographic regions was created, using United Nations 2000 world population data and World Bank classifications of economic development and global regions. Firearm mortality data were obtained from governmental vital statistics reported by the World Health Organization and published survey data. A qualitative review of literature informed estimates for the 15 most populous countries without firearm death data. For countries without data, estimates of firearm deaths were made using quartiles of observed rates and peer reviewed literature.

Main outcome measures: Non-conflict related firearm deaths.

Results: Global non-conflict related firearm deaths were estimated to fall between 196 000 and 229 000, adjusted to the year 2000. 162 800 firearm deaths adjusted for the year 2000 came from countries reporting data and represent 35% of the world’s 186 countries. Public data are not available for 122 of these 186 countries, representing more than three billion (54%) of the world’s population, predominately in lower and lower middle income countries. Estimates of firearm death for those countries without data range from 33 200 to 66 200.

Conclusions: This study provides evidence that the burden of firearm related mortality poses a substantial threat to local and global health.




A Feasibility Study of Methodological Issues and Short-Term Outcomes in Seriously Injured Older Adults

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:32:41 PDT

Background: For any given traumatic injury, older adults experience a longer hospitalization, more complications, and higher mortality than do younger patients.

Objectives: To prospectively identify problems in designing follow-up studies in seriously injured older adults without head injury and to examine outcomes after serious trauma in older adults who were sent to a level I trauma center.

Methods: A short-term descriptive follow-up design was used in which each patient served as his or her baseline. Eligible patients had injuries that required admission to an intensive care unit, a hospital length of stay longer than 72 hours, or surgery. Patients with isolated hip fractures, central nervous system injuries, and burn injuries were excluded. Data were collected by using standardized instruments during the acute hospital stay and 3 months after discharge from the hospital.

Results: During a representative 2-month period, 21% of a potential 77 subjects died in the hospital, 44% had cognitive impairment that precluded participation, and 17% declined to participate. Twenty older adults (mean age 73.5 years) who were injured in motor vehicle crashes (45%), falls (35%), or pedestrian accidents (15%) or who had gunshot wounds (5%) were enrolled. Ten percent died after discharge. Levels of physical disability at 3 months after discharge were higher than those before the injury (score on Sickness Impact Profile physical subscale 24.5 vs 10.9, P = .02), and psychological distress (Impact of Event Scale score 20.9) remained elevated.

Conclusion: Mortality, disability, and posttraumatic psychological distress after discharge are problems in seriously injured older adults.




Years of Life Lost Because of Gunshot Injury to the Brain and Spinal Cord

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:32:37 PDT

Objective: A recent study (Lemaire) estimated the life expectancy loss attributable to gun deaths at 103.6 days for the overall U.S. population: 150.7 days for white males and 361.5 days for black males. This study estimates the life expectancy loss attributable to the premature death of individuals who initially survived gun-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI) in the United States.

Design: Interpersonal TBI data were drawn from a surveillance system, and self-inflicted TBI data were obtained from the Web-based Injury Statistics and Reporting System. SCI data were obtained from a national database. Multiple decrement analysis was used to calculate the days of life lost to gunshot wounds to the brain and spinal cord, by race and gender, in the United States.

Results: On average, across age, gender, and race, life expectancy in the United States is reduced by 3.1 days because of the shorter lifespan for individuals who survive an initial gunshot wound to the brain or spinal cord. Black males bear a disproportionate burden, losing 9.5 days, whereas white males lose 4.6 days. Black and white females lose 1.5 and 1.0 days, respectively.

Conclusions: We add these findings to the Lemaire study, resulting in a total of 106.7 days of life expectancy loss from gunshot wounds for the U.S. population, with 371.0 days of life lost for black males.




Recruitment of Community-Residing Youth Into Studies on Aggression

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:32:32 PDT

Recruitment of community-based youth into studies is challenging. We examined access issues, minority status, and personal costs of participation for a study of children with aggressive behaviors, designed to identify which ones are at risk for future violent behaviors, to identify protective factors, and to test interventions to reduce aggression. Of 1,038 contacts, 112 declined, 239 could not be re-contacted, and 124 were ineligible. Three hundred and fifty of 563 scheduled child-parent dyads completed intake assessment. Most were recruited through targeted mailings (33%) and community flyers (22%), 12% through regional news advertisement, 8% by Craigslist, and 5% through healthcare providers/clinics. Factors contributing to enrollment rates by zip code showed the percentage of Black residents per zip code and targeted mailings positively contributed (Beta = .200 & .419, respectively) and estimated transit travel time negatively contributed (Beta =.299) to enrollment rates (R2 = 0.562). Targeted mailings proved to be the most efficient strategy in successful recruitment.




Health Related Quality of Life and Return to Work After Minor Extremity Injuries: a Longitudinal Study Comparing Upper Versus Lower Extremity Injuries

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:32:28 PDT

Purpose: To investigate the impact on health related quality of life (HRQL) during the first year after minor extremity injury and to determine whether there is a difference in recovery patterns and return to work between upper extremity injuries (UEI) and lower extremity injuries (LEI).

Method: A total of 181 adults’ age 18 years or older randomly selected from patients admitted to an emergency department with minor injuries were studied. HRQL was measured using the Functional Status Questionnaire (FSQ) at 1–2 weeks, 3, 6, and 12-months post-injury. Pre-injury FSQ scores were measured retrospectively at admission. A quasi-least square (QLS) model was constructed to examine differences of FSQ scores at each measuring point for UEI and LEI.

Results: Fractures of the knee/lower leg (25%) were the most frequently injured body area. Slips or falls (57%) and traffic-related events (22%) were the most common injury causes. The mean ISS was 4.2 (SD 0.86). Both groups had significant declines in the FSQ scores physical and social functioning at 1–2 weeks after injury. Patients with UEI made larger improvements in the first 3 months post-injury versus patients with LEI whose improvements extended over the first 6 months. None of the groups reached the pre-injury FSQ scores during the first post-injury year except in the subscale work performance where UEI exceeded the pre-injury scores. At 12 months post-injury, significant lower FSQ scores remained in the LEI group compared to the UEI group in intermediate activities of daily living (p = 0.036, d 0.4) and work performance (p = 0.004, d 0.7). The return to work at 3 months and 12 months were 76% and 88% for UEI and 58% and 77% for LEI. No significant differences were found between groups in the FSQ scale mental health and social interaction.

Conclusions: LEI had the highest impact on HRQL and return to work during the first year which exceeded the consequences of UEI. These findings contribute to the information about the consequences of injury in order to give sufficient prognostic information to patients and different stakeholders. Future investigations should aim to investigate specific minor extremity injuries and identify factors that facilitate recovery and return to work.




Seriously Injured Urban Black Men’s Perceptions of Clinical Research Participation

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:32:23 PDT

Purpose: Black men are uniquely vulnerable in American society and our health care system: they bear a disproportionate burden of injury, yet are underrepresented in clinical research. This study aimed to explore the reasons why urban Black men with serious injuries chose to participate in clinical research and their concerns about research participation.

Methods: This qualitative study was conducted within the context of a larger study focused on psychological effects of serious injury in urban Black men; 83 Black men with serious injuries were recruited while hospitalized in an urban trauma center. Informed consent was obtained. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in participants’ homes three months after discharge from the hospital and were audiotaped, transcribed, and de-identified. Thematic content analysis was used to identify themes about perceptions of participating in clinical research.

Results: The mean age of our sample was 38.2 years, and the mean injury severity score was 10.7 (SD 9.6). The majority (53.2 %) of injuries was due to interpersonal violence, and 47 % were due to unintentional mechanisms. Eight reasons for research participation emerged from the data: human connection, altruism/community, self-improvement, compensation, gaining knowledge, curiosity/interest, low risk, and reciprocity.

Conclusions: A major finding was that injured urban Black men participated in clinical research for the opportunity for human and therapeutic connection. Despite some expressions of mistrust, participants were willing to participate for altruistic reasons rooted in community priorities, and as part of their recovery process post-injury.




Clinical Fellowship for an Innovative, Integrated BSN-PhD Program: An Academic and Practice Partnership

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:32:18 PDT

Opportunities for research-focused doctoral education must be available to nurses early in their careers in order to ensure the further development of nursing science. Early entry into the research doctorate through an integrated BSN-PhD program is one innovative approach. This approach highlights the value of integrating post-licensure clinical training into the doctoral curriculum. To better prepare innovative nurse scientists early in their careers we developed a clinical nurse fellowship within an integrated BSN-PhD program in partnership with an affiliated health system. The aims of this clinical fellowship are to integrate post-licensure clinical experience with academic preparation, cultivate scholarly reflection on the connections between research and practice, educate nurse researchers to work effectively in interdisciplinary teams, and develop nurses' contributions to health care innovation. Major considerations for the development of similar clinical training opportunities include clarifying and articulating the major aims of the fellowship, enlisting the support of executive clinical leadership, and placing fellows on nursing units with experienced and advanced nursing teams and management that supports the fellowship's aims. We emphasize the fully integrated and collaborative activities, decision-making, and commitment required of both academic and health system partners to successfully implement similar clinical training opportunities.




Road Safety Perspectives Among Employees of a Multinational Corporation in Urban India: Local Context for Global Injury Prevention

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:32:14 PDT

In rapidly developing economies, like urban India, where road traffic injury rates are among the world's highest, the corporate workplace offers a non-traditional venue for road safety interventions. In partnership with a major multinational corporation (MNC) with a large Indian workforce, this study aimed to elicit local employee perspectives on road safety to inform a global corporate health platform. The safety attitudes and behaviours of 75 employees were collected through self-report survey and focus groups in the MNC offices in Bangalore and Pune. Analysis of these data uncovered incongruity between employee knowledge of safety strategies and their enacted safety behaviours and identified local preference for interventions and policy-level actions. The methods modelled by this study offer a straightforward approach for eliciting employee perspective for local road safety interventions that fit within a global strategy to improve employee health. Study findings suggest that MNCs can employ a range of strategies to improve the road traffic safety of their employees in settings like urban India including: implementing corporate traffic safety policy, making local infrastructure changes to improve road and traffic conditions, advocating for road safety with government partners and providing employees with education and access to safety equipment and safe transportation options.




The Effect of Early Psychological Symptom Severity on Long-term Functional Recovery: A Secondary Analysis of Data from a Cohort Study of Minor Injury Patients

Mon, 22 May 2017 10:32:09 PDT

Background: The mental health consequences of injuries can interfere with recovery to pre-injury levels of function and long term wellbeing.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between psychological symptoms after minor injury and long-term functional recovery and disability.

Design: This exploratory study uses secondary data derived from a longitudinal cohort study of psychological outcomes after minor injury.

Setting: Participants were recruited from the Emergency Department of an urban hospital in the United States.

Participants: A cohort of 275 patients was randomly selected from 1100 consecutive emergency department admissions for minor injury. Potential participants were identified as having sustained minor injury by the combination of three standard criteria including: presentation to the emergency department for medical care within 24 h of a physical injury, evidence of anatomical injury defined as minor by an injury severity score between 2 and 8 and normal physiology as defined by a triage-Revised Trauma Score of 12. Patients with central nervous system injuries, injury requiring medical care in the past 2 years and/or resulting from domestic violence, and those diagnosed with major depression or psychotic disorders were excluded.

Methods: Psychological symptom severity was assessed within 2 weeks of injury, and outcome measures for functional limitations and disability were collected at 3, 6 and 12 months. A quasi-least squares approach was used to examine the relationship between psychological symptom scores at intake and work performance and requirement for bed rest in the year after injury.

Results: Adjusting for demographic and injury covariates, depression symptoms at the time of injury predicted (p ≤ 0.05) both poorer work performance and increased number of days in bed due to health in the year after injury. Anxiety symptoms predicted (p ≤ 0.05) bed days at 3, 6, and 12 months and work performance at 3 months.

Conclusions: Depression and anxiety soon after minor injury may help predict important markers of long-term recovery. With further research, simple assessment tools for psychological symptoms may be useful to screen for patients who are at higher risk for poor long-term recoveries and who may benefit from targeted interventions.




State Leadership Development Policies An Analysis of 50 States and Territories

Fri, 19 May 2017 12:24:16 PDT

State education systems to support leadership development have received relatively scant attention and resources, despite the demonstrated importance of leadership to school improvement. This need spurred the National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE) to form a study group with its members and partner with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) to examine the problem from a state policy perspective; to offer a framework, guidance, and resources to help states develop and keep effective leaders; provide examples of practices for states; and share insights from partner organizations. The report, Successful Leaders for Successful Schools: Building and Maintaining a Quality Workforce, details findings that emerged from this work. As a companion piece to this work, State Leadership Development Policies -An Analysis of 50 States and Territories, presents a comprehensive picture of school leadership development policies across all 50 states and US territories. CPRE Researchers Bobbi Newman, Jonathan Supovitz, and Greg Collins, in collaboration with NASBE's Robert Hull and Stephen Prociw, produced an interactive report that seeks to operationalize the framework developed for state education agencies to improve the school leadership pipeline.

Researchers interviewed state board members and staff members from state education agencies to learn about their states' school leadership development policies and practices. Data collection questions focused on identifying the organizational and individual supports that states have established. State Leadership Development Policies -An Analysis of 50 States and Territories provides a wealth of information for state leaders interested in learning about a sample of each state's policies and programs that support the school leadership pipeline.




Evidence for Early Literacy Intervention: The Impacts of Reading Recovery

Fri, 19 May 2017 12:17:51 PDT

Research increasingly links low literacy levels in the early grades with a range of poor outcomes; for instance, students who read below grade level at the end of third grade are about four times less likely than their higher-achieving peers to graduate from high school (Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2010, 2011; Balfanz, Bridgeland, Bruce & Fox, 2012). In a four-year study, researchers from the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania and the Center for Research on Education and Social Policy (CRESP) at the University of Delaware examined the effectiveness of Reading Recovery—a widely used 1st grade literacy program—at helping struggling early readers catch up. The study’s findings offer promise for intensive early literacy intervention.




An Inquiry into Pennsylvania's Early Childhood Quality Rating and Improvement System

Fri, 19 May 2017 12:01:20 PDT

High-quality care in the earliest years of life has been shown to relate to positive developmental outcomes for children, including improved early academic skills, social-emotional competencies, and cognitive functioning. Unfortunately, the early care experiences of many children are not always high quality; rather, research suggests that high-quality care is the exception. The growing evidence relating quality care to improved learning outcomes, the variability in quality across care settings, and the failure of existing approaches to improve child care have led to a national call to enhance the quality of early care and education programs. In response to this call, states have created Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRISs).




Penn: Worlds in a Small Room

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:26:50 PDT




Hockings: Principles of Visual Anthropology

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:26:47 PDT







Cultural Influence on Perception

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:26:38 PDT







Volume 4 Number 1

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:26:32 PDT







Briefly Noted

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:10:41 PDT




Ekman: Emotion in the Human Face

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:10:38 PDT




Kertesz: On Reading

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:10:35 PDT













Filmmaking by "Young Filmmakers"

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:10:23 PDT










The Photographic Work of E.J. Marey

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:10:13 PDT




Volume 9 Number 4

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:10:11 PDT




Lesbian Photography--Seeing through Our Own Eyes

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:05:03 PDT
















Volume 9 Number 2

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:04:43 PDT







Briefly Noted

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:03:24 PDT




Golding and Elliot: Making the News

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:03:21 PDT



















Volume 7 Number 4

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:03:04 PDT




Cumulative Index, Volumes 1-11 (1974-1985)

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:01:57 PDT
















An Interpretation of "Man with the Movie Camera"

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:01:42 PDT




Francis L. Cooper, Spruce Hill Photographer

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:01:38 PDT







Volume 11 Number 4

Fri, 19 May 2017 11:01:32 PDT




Briefly Noted

Fri, 19 May 2017 10:11:11 PDT







Strong: The English Renaissance Miniature

Fri, 19 May 2017 10:11:03 PDT






















Graphics in Demography

Fri, 19 May 2017 10:10:40 PDT




Volume 11 Number 3

Fri, 19 May 2017 10:10:37 PDT




Bernd Lohse, Photojournalist

Fri, 19 May 2017 10:06:25 PDT




Harald Lechenperg, Photojournalist

Fri, 19 May 2017 10:06:22 PDT




Forming a Profession

Fri, 19 May 2017 10:06:19 PDT




Emil Hoppé, Pictorialist

Fri, 19 May 2017 10:06:16 PDT




Introduction: Editor's Note

Fri, 19 May 2017 10:06:13 PDT




Volume 11 Number 2 Images of the U.S.A.

Fri, 19 May 2017 10:06:10 PDT




The Point of View of the "Characters"

Fri, 19 May 2017 10:06:02 PDT




"Chronicle of a Summer": The Film

Fri, 19 May 2017 10:05:59 PDT




#COMMONCORE Project (2017) How Social Media is Changing the Politics of Education

Fri, 19 May 2017 10:05:59 PDT

Fueled by impassioned social media activists, the Common Core State Standards have been a persistent flashpoint in the debate over the direction of American education. In this innovative and interactive website we explore the Common Core debate on Twitter. Using a distinctive combination of social network analyses and psychological investigations we reveal both the underlying social structure of the conversation and the motivations of the participants. The central question guiding our investigation is: How are social mediaenabled social networks changing the discourse in American politics that produces and sustains social policy? ABOUT #COMMONCORE PROJECT In the #commoncore Project, authors Jonathan Supovitz, Alan Daly, Miguel del Fresno and Christian Kolouch examine the intense debate surrounding the Common Core State Standards education reform as it played out on Twitter. The Common Core, one of the major education policy initiatives of the early 21st century, sought to strengthen education systems across the United States through a set of specific and challenging education standards. Once enjoying bipartisan support, the controversial standards have become the epicenter of a heated national debate about this approach to educational improvement. By studying the Twitter conversation surrounding the Common Core, we shed light on the ways that social media social networks are influencing the political discourse that, in [...]



The Cinema of the Future?

Fri, 19 May 2017 10:05:56 PDT




Chronicle of a Film

Fri, 19 May 2017 10:05:53 PDT