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Preview: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences recent issues

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences recent issues



Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences RSS feed -- recent issues



 



In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Trade in the pre-Columbian Andes Vaquerías ware, Cajón Valley. The long-distance exchange of goods and resources is a key factor in the development of complex societies. To improve understanding of ancient trade practices, Marisa Lazzari et al. (pp. E3917–E3926) examined the exchange of ceramics, obsidian artifacts, and volcanic rock tools...



Failure to replicate a genetic signal for sex bias in the steppe migration into central Europe [Biological Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Goldberg et al. (1) used genome-wide ancient DNA data (2) from central European Bronze Age (BA) populations and their three ancestral sources of steppe pastoralists (SP), Anatolian farmers (AF), and European hunter-gatherers (HG) to investigate whether the SP migration into central Europe after 5,000 years ago (3, 4) was sex-biased....



Reply to Lazaridis and Reich: Robust model-based inference of male-biased admixture during Bronze Age migration from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe [Biological Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

By comparing the sex-specifically inherited X chromosome to the autosomes in ancient genetic samples, we (1) studied sex-specific admixture for two prehistoric migrations. For each migration we used several admixture estimation procedures—including ADMIXTURE model-based clustering (2)—to compare X-chromosomal and autosomal ancestry in contemporaneous Central Europeans and we interpreted greater admixture...



B vitamins and pollution, an interesting, emerging, yet incomplete picture of folate and the exposome [Biological Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

We read the interesting article by Zhong et al. (1) describing how B-vitamin supplementation reduces the adverse epigenetic response to fine particles associated with air pollution. However, we feel it is extremely premature to suggest, as the authors do, that “individual-level prevention” via vitamin supplements “might be used as prevention...



Reply to Lucock et al.: Significance of interpretation and misinterpretation of a small mechanistic study [Biological Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

The aim of our small mechanistic study (1) was to test the biologic plausibility that ambient particle pollution might have epigenetic effects on DNA methylation that could be modulated by methyl donor supplements. We acknowledge in this letter and in our paper that generalizability of our results is limited not...



QnAs with Angel Rubio [QnAs]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Just as physics requires a different set of tools to explore phenomena at the quantum scale, chemistry requires a quantum paradigm. At the macroscale, the interaction of light with chemical entities can be observed in processes such as photosynthesis. But the actual interaction between photons and other matter occurs in...



Supersaturated proteins in ALS [Biochemistry]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by rapidly progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Although most forms of ALS are sporadic (sALS), ∼10% of cases are inherited in families (fALS). More than 50 ALS genes have been identified, with 16 of...



Long reach of inclusive fitness [Evolution]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Inclusive fitness theory is one of the central paradigms of behavioral ecology (1, 2). Initially developed to explain the effect of genetic relatedness on prosocial behaviors such as altruism and cooperation, the power of inclusive fitness thinking became even more evident when modifications to the original models were applied to...



Compass in the data ocean: Toward chronotherapy [Systems Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

In the globalized modern society, the world is continuously moving 24 h a day 7 d a week. Prominent cities on the earth can be seen brightly lit at night from outer space. People on earth have daily (circadian) rhythms based more on their social circumstances than on natural cycles...



Cell geometry dictates TNF{alpha}-induced genome response [Applied Physical Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Cells in physiology integrate local soluble and mechanical signals to regulate genomic programs. Whereas the individual roles of these signals are well studied, the cellular responses to the combined chemical and physical signals are less explored. Here, we investigated the cross-talk between cellular geometry and TNFα signaling. We stabilized NIH...



Shape-driven solid-solid transitions in colloids [Applied Physical Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Solid–solid phase transitions are the most ubiquitous in nature, and many technologies rely on them. However, studying them in detail is difficult because of the extreme conditions (high pressure/temperature) under which many such transitions occur and the high-resolution equipment needed to capture the intermediate states of the transformations. These difficulties...



Stability of bound species during alkene reactions on solid acids [Engineering]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

This study reports the thermodynamics of bound species derived from ethene, propene, n-butene, and isobutene on solid acids with diverse strength and confining voids. Density functional theory (DFT) and kinetic data indicate that covalently bound alkoxides form C–C bonds in the kinetically relevant step for dimerization turnovers on protons within...



Minimizing irreversible losses in quantum systems by local counterdiabatic driving [Physics]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

Counterdiabatic driving protocols have been proposed [Demirplak M, Rice SA (2003) J Chem Phys A 107:9937–9945; Berry M (2009) J Phys A Math Theor 42:365303] as a means to make fast changes in the Hamiltonian without exciting transitions. Such driving in principle allows one to realize arbitrarily fast annealing protocols...



Compositional data supports decentralized model of production and circulation of artifacts in the pre-Columbian south-central Andes [Anthropology]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

The circulation and exchange of goods and resources at various scales have long been considered central to the understanding of complex societies, and the Andes have provided a fertile ground for investigating this process. However, long-standing archaeological emphasis on typological analysis, although helpful to hypothesize the direction of contacts, has...



Molecular mechanism of multispecific recognition of Calmodulin through conformational changes [Biochemistry]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

Calmodulin (CaM) is found to have the capability to bind multiple targets. Investigations on the association mechanism of CaM to its targets are crucial for understanding protein–protein binding and recognition. Here, we developed a structure-based model to explore the binding process between CaM and skMLCK binding peptide. We found the...



Spinal motor neuron protein supersaturation patterns are associated with inclusion body formation in ALS [Biochemistry]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a heterogeneous degenerative motor neuron disease linked to numerous genetic mutations in apparently unrelated proteins. These proteins, including SOD1, TDP-43, and FUS, are highly aggregation-prone and form a variety of intracellular inclusion bodies that are characteristic of different neuropathological subtypes of the disease. Contained within...



Different phosphoisoforms of RNA polymerase II engage the Rtt103 termination factor in a structurally analogous manner [Biochemistry]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

The carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) orchestrates dynamic recruitment of specific cellular machines during different stages of transcription. Signature phosphorylation patterns of Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7 heptapeptide repeats of the CTD engage specific “readers.” Whereas phospho-Ser5 and phospho-Ser2 marks are ubiquitous, phospho-Thr4 is reported to...



Pre/pro-B cells generate macrophage populations during homeostasis and inflammation [Cell Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

Most tissue-resident macrophages (Mφs) are believed to be derived prenatally and are assumed to maintain themselves throughout life by self-proliferation. However, in adult mice we identified a progenitor within bone marrow, early pro-B cell/fraction B, that differentiates into tissue Mφs. These Mφ precursors have non-rearranged B-cell receptor genes and coexpress...



{Delta}Np63{alpha} is a common inhibitory target in oncogenic PI3K/Ras/Her2-induced cell motility and tumor metastasis [Cell Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), Ras, and Her2 signaling plays a critical role in cancer development. Hotspot constitutive activating mutations in oncogenes, such as PIK3CA encoding the p110α catalytic subunit or RAS, as well as overexpression of Her2, are frequently found in human tumors and cancers. It has been...



Molecular codes for cell type specification in Brn3 retinal ganglion cells [Developmental Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

Visual information is conveyed from the eye to the brain by distinct types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). It is largely unknown how RGCs acquire their defining morphological and physiological features and connect to upstream and downstream synaptic partners. The three Brn3/Pou4f transcription factors (TFs) participate in a combinatorial code...



Structural variants caused by Alu insertions are associated with risks for many human diseases [Genetics]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

Interspersed repeat sequences comprise much of our DNA, although their functional effects are poorly understood. The most commonly occurring repeat is the Alu short interspersed element. New Alu insertions occur in human populations, and have been responsible for several instances of genetic disease. In this study, we sought to determine...



Brd4 modulates the innate immune response through Mnk2-eIF4E pathway-dependent translational control of I{kappa}B{alpha} [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

Bromodomain-containing factor Brd4 has emerged as an important transcriptional regulator of NF-κB–dependent inflammatory gene expression. However, the in vivo physiological function of Brd4 in the inflammatory response remains poorly defined. We now demonstrate that mice deficient for Brd4 in myeloid-lineage cells are resistant to LPS-induced sepsis but are more susceptible...



SP and IL-33 together markedly enhance TNF synthesis and secretion from human mast cells mediated by the interaction of their receptors [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

The peptide substance P (SP) and the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) have been implicated in inflammatory processes. Mast cells are recognized as important in inflammatory responses. Here, we report that IL-33 (30 ng/mL), a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines, administered in combination with SP (1 µM), markedly...



Inducible Fgf13 ablation enhances caveolae-mediated cardioprotection during cardiac pressure overload [Medical Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) homologous factor FGF13, a noncanonical FGF, has been best characterized as a voltage-gated Na+ channel auxiliary subunit. Other cellular functions have been suggested, but not explored. In inducible, cardiac-specific Fgf13 knockout mice, we found—even in the context of the expected reduction in Na+ channel current—an...



GRP78 haploinsufficiency suppresses acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, signaling, and mutant Kras-driven pancreatic tumorigenesis in mice [Medical Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a highly lethal disease in critical need of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we report that the stress-inducible 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78/HSPA5), a key regulator of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis and PI3K/AKT signaling, is overexpressed in the acini and PDAC of Pdx1-Cre;KrasG12D/+;p53f/+ (PKC) mice as early as...



Suppressors and activators of JAK-STAT signaling at diagnosis and relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Down syndrome [Medical Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

Children with Down syndrome (DS) are prone to development of high-risk B-cell precursor ALL (DS-ALL), which differs genetically from most sporadic pediatric ALLs. Increased expression of cytokine receptor-like factor 2 (CRLF2), the receptor to thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), characterizes about half of DS-ALLs and also a subgroup of sporadic “Philadelphia-like”...



Protein-mediated viral latency is a novel mechanism for Merkel cell polyomavirus persistence [Microbiology]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

Viral latency, in which a virus genome does not replicate independently of the host cell genome and produces no infectious particles, is required for long-term virus persistence. There is no known latency mechanism for chronic small DNA virus infections. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) causes an aggressive skin cancer after prolonged...



MEF2D haploinsufficiency downregulates the NRF2 pathway and renders photoreceptors susceptible to light-induced oxidative stress [Neuroscience]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

Gaining mechanistic insight into interaction between causative factors of complex multifactorial diseases involving photoreceptor damage might aid in devising effective therapies. Oxidative stress is one of the potential unifying mechanisms for interplay between genetic and environmental factors that contribute to photoreceptor pathology. Interestingly, the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2d...



Universal transition from unstructured to structured neural maps [Neuroscience]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

Neurons sharing similar features are often selectively connected with a higher probability and should be located in close vicinity to save wiring. Selective connectivity has, therefore, been proposed to be the cause for spatial organization in cortical maps. Interestingly, orientation preference (OP) maps in the visual cortex are found in...



Evolutionarily conserved TRH neuropeptide pathway regulates growth in Caenorhabditis elegans [Neuroscience]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

In vertebrates thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a highly conserved neuropeptide that exerts the hormonal control of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels as well as neuromodulatory functions. However, a functional equivalent in protostomian animals remains unknown, although TRH receptors are conserved in proto- and deuterostomians. Here we identify a TRH-like neuropeptide precursor...



Opposing roles of primate areas 25 and 32 and their putative rodent homologs in the regulation of negative emotion [Neuroscience]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

Disorders of dysregulated negative emotion such as depression and anxiety also feature increased cardiovascular mortality and decreased heart-rate variability (HRV). These disorders are correlated with dysfunction within areas 25 and 32 of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), but a causal relationship between dysregulation of these areas and such symptoms has...



A normalization model suggests that attention changes the weighting of inputs between visual areas [Neuroscience]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

Models of divisive normalization can explain the trial-averaged responses of neurons in sensory, association, and motor areas under a wide range of conditions, including how visual attention changes the gains of neurons in visual cortex. Attention, like other modulatory processes, is also associated with changes in the extent to which...



Folate rescues vitamin B12 depletion-induced inhibition of nuclear thymidylate biosynthesis and genome instability [Physiology]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

Clinical vitamin B12 deficiency can result in megaloblastic anemia, which results from the inhibition of DNA synthesis by trapping folate cofactors in the form of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF) and subsequent inhibition of de novo thymidylate (dTMP) biosynthesis. In the cytosol, vitamin B12 functions in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, which...



Evidence of strain structure in Plasmodium falciparum var gene repertoires in children from Gabon, West Africa [Population Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

Existing theory on competition for hosts between pathogen strains has proposed that immune selection can lead to the maintenance of strain structure consisting of discrete, weakly overlapping antigenic repertoires. This prediction of strain theory has conceptual overlap with fundamental ideas in ecology on niche partitioning and limiting similarity between coexisting...



Maize defective kernel mutant generated by insertion of a Ds element in a gene encoding a highly conserved TTI2 cochaperone [Agricultural Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

We have used the newly engineered transposable element Dsg to tag a gene that gives rise to a defective kernel (dek) phenotype. Dsg requires the autonomous element Ac for transposition. Upon excision, it leaves a short DNA footprint that can create in-frame and frameshift insertions in coding sequences. Therefore, we...



Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of the Markovian Mpemba effect and its inverse [Applied Physical Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Under certain conditions, it takes a shorter time to cool a hot system than to cool the same system initiated at a lower temperature. This phenomenon—the “Mpemba effect”—was first observed in water and has recently been reported in other systems. Whereas several detail-dependent explanations were suggested for some of these...



Chemotaxis and autochemotaxis of self-propelling droplet swimmers [Applied Physical Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Chemotaxis and autochemotaxis play an important role in many essential biological processes. We present a self-propelling artificial swimmer system that exhibits chemotaxis as well as negative autochemotaxis. Oil droplets in an aqueous surfactant solution are driven by interfacial Marangoni flows induced by micellar solubilization of the oil phase. We demonstrate...



Single-stranded nucleic acid elasticity arises from internal electrostatic tension [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Understanding of the conformational ensemble of flexible polyelectrolytes, such as single-stranded nucleic acids (ssNAs), is complicated by the interplay of chain backbone entropy and salt-dependent electrostatic repulsions. Molecular elasticity measurements are sensitive probes of the statistical conformation of polymers and have elucidated ssNA conformation at low force, where electrostatic repulsion...



The role of momentum transfer during incoherent neutron scattering is explained by the energy landscape model [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

We recently introduced a model of incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) that treats the neutrons as wave packets of finite length and the protein as a random walker in the free energy landscape. We call the model ELM for “energy landscape model.” In ELM, the interaction of the wave packet...



Mechanism of signal propagation in Physarum polycephalum [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Complex behaviors are typically associated with animals, but the capacity to integrate information and function as a coordinated individual is also a ubiquitous but poorly understood feature of organisms such as slime molds and fungi. Plasmodial slime molds grow as networks and use flexible, undifferentiated body plans to forage for...



Efficient assignment and NMR analysis of an intact virus using sequential side-chain correlations and DNP sensitization [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

An experimental strategy has been developed to increase the efficiency of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in solid-state NMR studies. The method makes assignments simpler, faster, and more reliable via sequential correlations of both side-chain and Cα resonances. The approach is particularly suited to complex biomolecules and systems with significant chemical-shift...



Golgi apparatus self-organizes into the characteristic shape via postmitotic reassembly dynamics [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

The Golgi apparatus is a membrane-bounded organelle with the characteristic shape of a series of stacked flat cisternae. During mitosis in mammalian cells, the Golgi apparatus is once fragmented into small vesicles and then reassembled to form the characteristic shape again in each daughter cell. The mechanism and details of...



Sequential allosteric mechanism of ATP hydrolysis by the CCT/TRiC chaperone is revealed through Arrhenius analysis [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Knowing the mechanism of allosteric switching is important for understanding how molecular machines work. The CCT/TRiC chaperonin nanomachine undergoes ATP-driven conformational changes that are crucial for its folding function. Here, we demonstrate that insight into its allosteric mechanism of ATP hydrolysis can be achieved by Arrhenius analysis. Our results show...



Limitations of ex vivo measurements for in vivo neuroscience [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

A long history of postmortem studies has provided significant insight into human brain structure and organization. Cadavers have also proven instrumental for the measurement of artifacts and nonneural effects in functional imaging, and more recently, the study of biophysical properties critical to brain stimulation. However, death produces significant changes in...



Vimentin fibers orient traction stress [Cell Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

The intermediate filament vimentin is required for cells to transition from the epithelial state to the mesenchymal state and migrate as single cells; however, little is known about the specific role of vimentin in the regulation of mesenchymal migration. Vimentin is known to have a significantly greater ability to resist...



Human phosphatase CDC14A regulates actin organization through dephosphorylation of epithelial protein lost in neoplasm [Cell Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

CDC14 is an essential dual-specificity phosphatase that counteracts CDK1 activity during anaphase to promote mitotic exit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Surprisingly, human CDC14A is not essential for cell cycle progression. Instead, it regulates cell migration and cell adhesion. Little is known about the substrates of hCDC14A and the counteracting kinases. Here,...



Enantiomerically enriched, polycrystalline molecular sieves [Chemistry]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Zeolite and zeolite-like molecular sieves are being used in a large number of applications such as adsorption and catalysis. Achievement of the long-standing goal of creating a chiral, polycrystalline molecular sieve with bulk enantioenrichment would enable these materials to perform enantioselective functions. Here, we report the synthesis of enantiomerically enriched...



Biocompatible and totally disintegrable semiconducting polymer for ultrathin and ultralightweight transient electronics [Chemistry]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Increasing performance demands and shorter use lifetimes of consumer electronics have resulted in the rapid growth of electronic waste. Currently, consumer electronics are typically made with nondecomposable, nonbiocompatible, and sometimes even toxic materials, leading to serious ecological challenges worldwide. Here, we report an example of totally disintegrable and biocompatible semiconducting...



Impact of backbone fluorination on nanoscale morphology and excitonic coupling in polythiophenes [Chemistry]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Fluorination represents an important strategy in developing high-performance conjugated polymers for photovoltaic applications. Here, we use regioregular poly(3-ethylhexylthiophene) (P3EHT) and poly(3-ethylhexyl-4-fluorothiophene) (F-P3EHT) as simplified model materials, using single-molecule/aggregate spectroscopy and molecular dynamic simulations, to elucidate the impacts of backbone fluorination on morphology and excitonic coupling on the molecular scale. Despite...



Elucidating interplay of speed and accuracy in biological error correction [Chemistry]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

One of the most fascinating features of biological systems is the ability to sustain high accuracy of all major cellular processes despite the stochastic nature of underlying chemical processes. It is widely believed that such low error values are the result of the error-correcting mechanism known as kinetic proofreading. However,...



Paper-based plasma sanitizers [Engineering]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

This work describes disposable plasma generators made from metallized paper. The fabricated plasma generators with layered and patterned sheets of paper provide a simple and flexible format for dielectric barrier discharge to create atmospheric plasma without an applied vacuum. The porosity of paper allows gas to permeate its bulk volume...



Photonic hypercrystals for control of light-matter interactions [Engineering]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Photonic crystals (PCs) have emerged as one of the most widely used platforms for controlling light–matter interaction in solid-state systems. They rely on Bragg scattering from wavelength-sized periodic modulation in the dielectric environment for manipulating the electromagnetic field. A complementary approach to manipulate light–matter interaction is offered by artificial media...



Explaining negative kin discrimination in a cooperative mammal society [Evolution]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Kin selection theory predicts that, where kin discrimination is possible, animals should typically act more favorably toward closer genetic relatives and direct aggression toward less closely related individuals. Contrary to this prediction, we present data from an 18-y study of wild banded mongooses, Mungos mungo, showing that females that are...



African genomes illuminate the early history and transition to selfing in Arabidopsis thaliana [Evolution]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Over the past 20 y, many studies have examined the history of the plant ecological and molecular model, Arabidopsis thaliana, in Europe and North America. Although these studies informed us about the recent history of the species, the early history has remained elusive. In a large-scale genomic analysis of African...



High-density lipoprotein receptor SCARB1 is required for carotenoid coloration in birds [Evolution]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Yellow, orange, and red coloration is a fundamental aspect of avian diversity and serves as an important signal in mate choice and aggressive interactions. This coloration is often produced through the deposition of diet-derived carotenoid pigments, yet the mechanisms of carotenoid uptake and transport are not well-understood. The white recessive...



Nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALTs) support the recall but not priming of influenza virus-specific cytotoxic T cells [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

The lymphoid tissue that drains the upper respiratory tract represents an important induction site for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immunity to airborne pathogens and intranasal vaccines. Here, we investigated the role of the nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALTs), which are mucosal-associated lymphoid organs embedded in the submucosa of the nasal passage,...



CXCR4 signaling and function require the expression of the IgD-class B-cell antigen receptor [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Mature B cells coexpress both IgM and IgD B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) classes, which are organized on the cell surface in distinct protein islands. The specific role of the IgD–BCR is still enigmatic, but it is colocalized with several other receptors on the B-cell surface, including the coreceptor CD19. Here,...



Conditional knockin of Dnmt3a R878H initiates acute myeloid leukemia with mTOR pathway involvement [Medical Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

DNMT3A is frequently mutated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To explore the features of human AML with the hotspot DNMT3A R882H mutation, we generated Dnmt3a R878H conditional knockin mice, which developed AML with enlarged Lin−Sca1+cKit+ cell compartments. The transcriptome and DNA methylation profiling of bulk leukemic cells and the single-cell...



High spatial correspondence at a columnar level between activation and resting state fMRI signals and local field potentials [Neuroscience]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Although blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has been widely used to map brain responses to external stimuli and to delineate functional circuits at rest, the extent to which BOLD signals correlate spatially with underlying neuronal activity, the spatial relationships between stimulus-evoked BOLD activations and local correlations of BOLD signals in...



Genetic rescue models refute nonautonomous rod cell death in retinitis pigmentosa [Neuroscience]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease, in which the death of mutant rod photoreceptors leads secondarily to the non-cell autonomous death of cone photoreceptors. Gene therapy is a promising treatment strategy. Unfortunately, current methods of gene delivery treat only a fraction of diseased cells, yielding retinas that are...



Inner Workings: In search for “magic” nuclei, theory catches up to experiments [Physics]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

The bundle of 78 nucleons in a single nickel-78 nucleus are infinitesimal. And yet, calculating that nucleus’s structure entailed an enormous computing effort: 5 million CPU hours on the most powerful supercomputer in the United States. The results could offer key insights into the potential existence of the long-sought “island...



Novel quantum phase transition from bounded to extensive entanglement [Physics]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

The nature of entanglement in many-body systems is a focus of intense research with the observation that entanglement holds interesting information about quantum correlations in large systems and their relation to phase transitions. In particular, it is well known that although generic, many-body states have large, extensive entropy, ground states...



Revealing the frictional transition in shear-thickening suspensions [Physics]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Shear thickening in dense particulate suspensions was recently proposed to be driven by the activation of friction above an onset stress needed to overcome repulsive forces between particles. Testing this scenario represents a major challenge because classical rheological approaches do not provide access to the frictional properties of suspensions. Here...



Lsd1 prevents age-programed loss of beige adipocytes [Physiology]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Aging is accompanied by major changes in adipose tissue distribution and function. In particular, with time, thermogenic-competent beige adipocytes progressively gain a white adipocyte morphology. However, the mechanisms controlling the age-related transition of beige adipocytes to white adipocytes remain unclear. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) is an epigenetic eraser enzyme positively...



ILDR1 is important for paracellular water transport and urine concentration mechanism [Physiology]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Whether the tight junction is permeable to water remains highly controversial. Here, we provide evidence that the tricellular tight junction is important for paracellular water permeation and that Ig-like domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1) regulates its permeability. In the mouse kidney, ILDR1 is localized to tricellular tight junctions of the...



Short tandem target mimic rice lines uncover functions of miRNAs in regulating important agronomic traits [Plant Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Improvements in plant agricultural productivity are urgently needed to reduce the dependency on limited natural resources and produce enough food for a growing world population. Human intervention over thousands of years has improved the yield of important crops; however, it is increasingly difficult to find new targets for genetic improvement....



Interspecies hormonal control of host root morphology by parasitic plants [Plant Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Parasitic plants share a common anatomical feature, the haustorium. Haustoria enable both infection and nutrient transfer, which often leads to growth penalties for host plants and yield reduction in crop species. Haustoria also reciprocally transfer substances, such as RNA and proteins, from parasite to host, but the biological relevance for...



Molecular link between auxin and ROS-mediated polar growth [Plant Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Root hair polar growth is endogenously controlled by auxin and sustained by oscillating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These cells extend several hundred-fold their original size toward signals important for plant survival. Although their final cell size is of fundamental importance, the molecular mechanisms that control it remain largely...



Brain connectivity dynamics during social interaction reflect social network structure [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Social ties are crucial for humans. Disruption of ties through social exclusion has a marked effect on our thoughts and feelings; however, such effects can be tempered by broader social network resources. Here, we use fMRI data acquired from 80 male adolescents to investigate how social exclusion modulates functional connectivity...



Complexity and compositionality in fluid intelligence [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Compositionality, or the ability to build complex cognitive structures from simple parts, is fundamental to the power of the human mind. Here we relate this principle to the psychometric concept of fluid intelligence, traditionally measured with tests of complex reasoning. Following the principle of compositionality, we propose that the critical...



Variation in the {beta}-endorphin, oxytocin, and dopamine receptor genes is associated with different dimensions of human sociality [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

There is growing evidence that the number and quality of social relationships have substantial impacts on health, well-being, and longevity, and, at least in animals, on reproductive fitness. Although it is widely recognized that these outcomes are mediated by a number of neuropeptides, the roles these play remain debated. We...



Visual working memory buffers information retrieved from visual long-term memory [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Human memory is thought to consist of long-term storage and short-term storage mechanisms, the latter known as working memory. Although it has long been assumed that information retrieved from long-term memory is represented in working memory, we lack neural evidence for this and need neural measures that allow us to...



Effect of media presentations on willingness to commit to organ donation [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

We examine how presentations of organ donation cases in the media may affect people's willingness to sign organ donation commitment cards, donate the organs of a deceased relative, support the transition to an “opt-out” policy, or donate a kidney while alive. We found that providing identifying information about the prospective...



Oxytocin under opioid antagonism leads to supralinear enhancement of social attention [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

To provide new preclinical evidence toward improving the efficacy of oxytocin (OT) in treating social dysfunction, we tested the benefit of administering OT under simultaneously induced opioid antagonism during dyadic gaze interactions in monkeys. OT coadministered with a μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, invoked a supralinear enhancement of prolonged and selective...



Optimal incentives for collective intelligence [Social Sciences]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Collective intelligence is the ability of a group to perform more effectively than any individual alone. Diversity among group members is a key condition for the emergence of collective intelligence, but maintaining diversity is challenging in the face of social pressure to imitate one’s peers. Through an evolutionary game-theoretic model...



CYCLOPS reveals human transcriptional rhythms in health and disease [Systems Biology]

2017-05-16T09:59:09-07:00

Circadian rhythms modulate many aspects of physiology. Knowledge of the molecular basis of these rhythms has exploded in the last 20 years. However, most of these data are from model organisms, and translation to clinical practice has been limited. Here, we present an approach to identify molecular rhythms in humans...



Correction for Dixon et al., Highly efficient delivery of functional cargoes by the synergistic effect of GAG binding motifs and cell-penetrating peptides [Correction]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

CELL BIOLOGY Correction for “Highly efficient delivery of functional cargoes by the synergistic effect of GAG binding motifs and cell-penetrating peptides,” by James E. Dixon, Gizem Osman, Gavin E. Morris, Hareklea Markides, Michael Rotherham, Zahia Bayoussef, Alicia J. El Haj, Chris Denning, and Kevin M. Shakesheff, which appeared in issue...



Correction for Chen et al., Intestinal NCoR1, a regulator of epithelial cell maturation, controls neonatal hyperbilirubinemia [Correction]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Correction for “Intestinal NCoR1, a regulator of epithelial cell maturation, controls neonatal hyperbilirubinemia,” by Shujuan Chen, Wenqi Lu, Mei-Fei Yueh, Eva Rettenmeier, Miao Liu, Johan Auwerx, Ruth T. Yu, Ronald M. Evans, Kepeng Wang, Michael Karin, and Robert H. Tukey, which appeared in issue 8, February 21, 2017,...



Correction for Hobbie et al., Contrasting nitrogen and phosphorus budgets in urban watersheds and implications for managing urban water pollution [Correction]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES, SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Correction for “Contrasting nitrogen and phosphorus budgets in urban watersheds and implications for managing urban water pollution,” by Sarah E. Hobbie, Jacques C. Finlay, Benjamin D. Janke, Daniel A. Nidzgorski, Dylan B. Millet, and Lawrence A. Baker, which appeared in issue 16, April 18, 2017, of...



Correction for Burak and Fiete, Fundamental limits on persistent activity in networks of noisy neurons [Correction]

2017-05-16T09:59:10-07:00

NEUROSCIENCE, PHYSICS Correction for “Fundamental limits on persistent activity in networks of noisy neurons,” by Yoram Burak and Ila R. Fiete, which appeared in issue 43, October 23, 2012, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (109:17645–17650; first published October 9, 2012; 10.1073/pnas.1117386109). The authors note that, due to a printer’s...



In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

Emissions from Canadian oil sand mining Aircraft coming in for landing from mission flight in oil sands region. Image courtesy of Andrew Elford (Environment and Climate Change Canada, Gatineau, Canada). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are associated with ozone and aerosol formation. VOC emission estimates from oil sands facilities are reported...



Can processing demands explain toddlers’ performance in false-belief tasks? [Social Sciences]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

Two-and-a-half-year-olds normally fail standard false-belief tasks. In the classic version, children have to say where a protagonist will look for an apple that, unbeknownst to her, was moved to a new location. Children under 4 generally predict that the protagonist will look for her apple in its current location, rather...



Reply to Rubio-Fernandez et al.: Different traditional false-belief tasks impose different processing demands for toddlers [Social Sciences]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

Setoh, Scott, and Baillargeon (1) propose that children may fail a false-belief task for one of two reasons: They may lack sufficient skill at one or more of the processes involved in the task, or they may be capable of executing each individual process but lack sufficient information-processing resources to...



Infants’ inferences about language are social [Social Sciences]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

The recent paper by Begus, Gliga, and Southgate (1) provides compelling evidence that infants make inferences about speakers of their native language as being optimal informants. This interesting finding advances an understanding of infants’ early social cognition. The paper’s (1) title “Infants’ preferences for native speakers are associated with an...



Reply to Kinzler and Liberman: Neural correlate provides direct evidence that infant's social preferences are about information [Social Sciences]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

In their response to our article (1), Kinzler and Liberman (2) challenge our proposal that the primary basis for infants’ preference for native speakers stems from a preference for social partners, who are perceived as the best teachers. Instead, the authors propose that, in addition to infants perceiving native speakers...



Melvin M. Grumbach 1925-2016 [Retrospectives]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

Generations of clinicians have been faced with often striking developmental and acquired hormonal syndromes associated with reproductive, growth, and metabolic phenotypes. These syndromes have included ambiguous genitalia, anomalies of sexual development, intersex forms, accelerated or delayed puberty, gigantism, and short stature. Although clinical phenotypes of these disorders have been well-established,...



Profile of Ian A. Wilson [Profiles]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

Viewed up close, antibodies, cellular receptors, and viral proteins may look like sloppy piles of spaghetti, fettucine, and fusilli to the untrained eye, but that’s not what Ian Wilson sees. “Protein structures are things of beauty, with their complex web of intricately positioned and interlocking elements that fold up precisely...



Modeling language shift [Social Sciences]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

It is estimated that there are as many as 6,000 distinct languages currently spoken, but this cultural diversity is rapidly disappearing. In terms of the fraction of the total being lost, the estimated current rate of language extinction exceeds the rate of loss of biodiversity (1–3). Small geographical ranges and...



Discrete mobility on the surface of glasses [Physics]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

From an applications perspective, the glass transition temperature (Tg)—conceptually, the point at which a liquid transitions into a disordered solid—is perhaps the most important parameter of a glass because it sets the conditions under which it can be successfully exploited as an enabling material. Some time ago, 1991 to be...



Innovating glycoside hydrolase activity on a same structural scaffold [Biochemistry]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

Carbohydrates play many fundamental roles in the cell physiology and development of plants, animals, and microbes. They can take the form of glycoproteins, glycolipids, and polysaccharides and represent the largest reservoir of carbon resources that are fueling microbial communities as well as free-living microorganisms. The structural diversity of naturally occurring...



Differences between measured and reported volatile organic compound emissions from oil sands facilities in Alberta, Canada [Environmental Sciences]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

Large-scale oil production from oil sands deposits in Alberta, Canada has raised concerns about environmental impacts, such as the magnitude of air pollution emissions. This paper reports compound emission rates (E) for 69–89 nonbiogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for each of four surface mining facilities, determined with a top-down approach...



Mutant p53 perturbs DNA replication checkpoint control through TopBP1 and Treslin [Biochemistry]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

Accumulating evidence supports the gain-of-function of mutant forms of p53 (mutp53s). However, whether mutp53 directly perturbs the DNA replication checkpoint remains unclear. Previously, we have demonstrated that TopBP1 forms a complex with mutp53s and mediates their gain-of-function through NF-Y and p63/p73. Akt phosphorylates TopBP1 and induces its oligomerization, which inhibits...



Structure of Myo7b/USH1C complex suggests a general PDZ domain binding mode by MyTH4-FERM myosins [Biochemistry]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

Unconventional myosin 7a (Myo7a), myosin 7b (Myo7b), and myosin 15a (Myo15a) all contain MyTH4-FERM domains (myosin tail homology 4-band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin; MF) in their cargo binding tails and are essential for the growth and function of microvilli and stereocilia. Numerous mutations have been identified in the MyTH4-FERM tandems...



On the permeation of large organic cations through the pore of ATP-gated P2X receptors [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

Pore dilation is thought to be a hallmark of purinergic P2X receptors. The most commonly held view of this unusual process posits that under prolonged ATP exposure the ion pore expands in a striking manner from an initial small-cation conductive state to a dilated state, which allows the passage of...



Epithelial EZH2 serves as an epigenetic determinant in experimental colitis by inhibiting TNF{alpha}-mediated inflammation and apoptosis [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

Epithelial barrier disruption is a major cause of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, the mechanism through which epigenetic regulation modulates intestinal epithelial integrity remains largely undefined. Here we show that EZH2, the catalytic subunit of polycomb repressive complex (PRC2), is indispensable for maintaining epithelial cell barrier integrity and homeostasis under...



Biliary epithelial injury-induced regenerative response by IL-33 promotes cholangiocarcinogenesis from peribiliary glands [Medical Sciences]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

The carcinogenic mechanism of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) is unclear, due at least in part to the lack of an appropriate mouse model. Because human studies have reported frequent genetic alterations in the Ras- and TGFβ/SMAD-signaling pathways in ECC, mice with tamoxifen-inducible, duct-cell–specific Kras activation and a TGFβ receptor type 2...



Estrogen receptor {beta}, a regulator of androgen receptor signaling in the mouse ventral prostate [Medical Sciences]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

As estrogen receptor β−/− (ERβ−/−) mice age, the ventral prostate (VP) develops increased numbers of hyperplastic, fibroplastic lesions and inflammatory cells. To identify genes involved in these changes, we used RNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry to compare gene expression profiles in the VP of young (2-mo-old) and aging (18-mo-old) ERβ−/− mice...



The SP100 component of ND10 enhances accumulation of PML and suppresses replication and the assembly of HSV replication compartments [Microbiology]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

Nuclear domain 10 (ND10) bodies are small (0.1–1 μM) nuclear structures containing both constant [e.g., promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), SP100, death domain-associated protein (Daxx)] and variable proteins, depending on the function of the cells or the stress to which they are exposed. In herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cells, ND10 bodies...



Astrocytes locally translate transcripts in their peripheral processes [Neuroscience]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

Local translation in neuronal processes is key to the alteration of synaptic strength necessary for long-term potentiation, learning, and memory. Here, we present evidence that regulated de novo protein synthesis occurs within distal, perisynaptic astrocyte processes. Astrocyte ribosomal proteins are found adjacent to synapses in vivo, and immunofluorescent detection of...



Early immune responses are independent of RGC dysfunction in glaucoma with complement component C3 being protective [Neuroscience]

2017-05-09T09:06:52-07:00

Various immune response pathways are altered during early, predegenerative stages of glaucoma; however, whether the early immune responses occur secondarily to or independently of neuronal dysfunction is unclear. To investigate this relationship, we used the Wlds allele, which protects from axon dysfunction. We demonstrate that DBA/2J.Wlds mice develop high intraocular...