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Preview: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue



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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

2017-07-18T09:05:06-07:00

Barley gene might hold a key to improving beer quality Altering redox conditions might improve beer quality. Image courtesy of iStockphoto/Givaga. Malting, which involves the enzymatic breakdown of proteins and starch found in barley grains during beer production, is known to be under genetic control, but few of the underlying...



Community land titles alone will not protect forests [Social Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Blackman et al. (1) assess the forest cover impacts of providing indigenous Peruvian communities with formal title to land they have long inhabited. We applaud the authors’ use of high-quality forest change data and rigorous causal methods; both are critical gaps in the land tenure and forest change literature (2)....



Reply to Robinson et al.: Building the evidence base on the forest cover effects of community titling [Social Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

We thank Robinson et al. (1) for their thoughtful comments on our article (2). We agree with their main point, which is that our findings about the link between titling and forest cover change are context- and time-specific, and do not necessarily generalize to other countries and other periods. However,...



Structure of the C1 complex of complement [Biological Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

In PNAS, Mortensen et al. (1) propose a model of the C1 complex of complement derived from small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and electron microscopy (EM) analyses that contradicts previously published models and suggests an intermolecular activation process. This proposal is largely derived from a conjectural structure of C1r2C1s2, the catalytic...



Reply to Arlaud et al.: Structure of the C1 complex and the unbound C1r2s2 tetramer [Biological Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Arlaud et al. (1) raised concerns regarding our small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and EM models of the unbound C1r2s2 tetramer (2). They reference studies supporting an interaction of two C1rs dimers via C1r CCP1–serine protease (SP) interactions. In response, we conducted refinements against our SAXS data by imposing distance restraints...



Mildred S. Dresselhaus (1930-2017): A fierce force of harmony [Retrospectives]

2017-07-18T09:05:06-07:00

Prof. Mildred S. Dresselhaus, fondly known as “Millie” and “Queen of Carbon Science,” passed away at age 86 on February 20, 2017. She was a pioneer in the research of carbon nanomaterials, a giant in experimental condensed matter physics, a fine musician, a compassionate mentor and role model to young...



Energetic redistribution in allostery to execute protein function [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-07-18T09:05:06-07:00

A perturbation at one site of the protein could cause an effect at a distant site. This important biological phenomenon, termed the “allosteric effect,” is essential for protein regulation and cell signaling, playing an important role in cellular function. Its fundamental functional significance has inspired numerous works aiming to understand...



Quinolines block every step of malaria heme crystal growth [Chemistry]

2017-07-18T09:05:06-07:00

Malaria is a lethal zoonotic disease that has impacted human survival and indeed, the history of human civilizations worldwide. The first effective treatment for malaria was reported in 1632 with the use of quinine extracts from the bark of the cinchona tree. Since that time, quinoline compounds have been used...



Advancing values affirmation as a scalable strategy for mitigating identity threats and narrowing national achievement gaps [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:06-07:00

Since the publication of the landmark “Coleman Report,” Equality of Educational Opportunity, in 1966 (1) through more than 40 y of historical trend data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) (2), the academic performance gaps separating black and Latino students from their white counterparts have remained substantial and...



How large herbivores subsidize aquatic food webs in African savannas [Ecology]

2017-07-18T09:05:06-07:00

Mass migration—the periodic, synchronized movement of large numbers of animals from one place to another—is an important part of the life cycle of many species. Such migrations are variously a means of avoiding climatic stress, escaping food and water scarcity, and satiating predators (thereby reducing individuals’ risk of being eaten)....



Cross-talk between topological defects in different fields revealed by nematic microfluidics [Applied Physical Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Topological defects are singularities in material fields that play a vital role across a range of systems: from cosmic microwave background polarization to superconductors and biological materials. Although topological defects and their mutual interactions have been extensively studied, little is known about the interplay between defects in different fields—especially when...



Glacial/interglacial wetland, biomass burning, and geologic methane emissions constrained by dual stable isotopic CH4 ice core records [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Atmospheric methane (CH4) records reconstructed from polar ice cores represent an integrated view on processes predominantly taking place in the terrestrial biogeosphere. Here, we present dual stable isotopic methane records [δ13CH4 and δD(CH4)] from four Antarctic ice cores, which provide improved constraints on past changes in natural methane sources. Our...



Rapid phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing using nanoliter arrays [Engineering]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Antibiotic resistance is a major global health concern that requires action across all sectors of society. In particular, to allow conservative and effective use of antibiotics clinical settings require better diagnostic tools that provide rapid determination of antimicrobial susceptibility. We present a method for rapid and scalable antimicrobial susceptibility testing...



Quadrupling efficiency in production of genetically modified pigs through improved oocyte maturation [Agricultural Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Assisted reproductive technologies in all mammals are critically dependent on the quality of the oocytes used to produce embryos. For reasons not fully clear, oocytes matured in vitro tend to be much less competent to become fertilized, advance to the blastocyst stage, and give rise to live young than their...



Hepatic ZIP14-mediated zinc transport is required for adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum stress [Applied Biological Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Extensive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress damages the liver, causing apoptosis and steatosis despite the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Restriction of zinc from cells can induce ER stress, indicating that zinc is essential to maintain normal ER function. However, a role for zinc during hepatic ER stress is...



Distinct VASP tetramers synergize in the processive elongation of individual actin filaments from clustered arrays [Biochemistry]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Ena/VASP proteins act as actin polymerases that drive the processive elongation of filament barbed ends in membrane protrusions or at the surface of bacterial pathogens. Based on previous analyses of fast and slow elongating VASP proteins by in vitro total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) and kinetic and thermodynamic measurements,...



Hidden electrostatic basis of dynamic allostery in a PDZ domain [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Allosteric effect implies ligand binding at one site leading to structural and/or dynamical changes at a distant site. PDZ domains are classic examples of dynamic allostery without conformational changes, where distal side-chain dynamics is modulated on ligand binding and the origin has been attributed to entropic effects. In this work,...



Changes in E-cadherin rigidity sensing regulate cell adhesion [Cell Biology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Mechanical cues are sensed and transduced by cell adhesion complexes to regulate diverse cell behaviors. Extracellular matrix (ECM) rigidity sensing by integrin adhesions has been well studied, but rigidity sensing by cadherins during cell adhesion is largely unexplored. Using mechanically tunable polyacrylamide (PA) gels functionalized with the extracellular domain of...



E-cadherin and LGN align epithelial cell divisions with tissue tension independently of cell shape [Cell Biology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Tissue morphogenesis requires the coordinated regulation of cellular behavior, which includes the orientation of cell division that defines the position of daughter cells in the tissue. Cell division orientation is instructed by biochemical and mechanical signals from the local tissue environment, but how those signals control mitotic spindle orientation is...



Myosin-independent cytokinesis in Giardia utilizes flagella to coordinate force generation and direct membrane trafficking [Cell Biology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Devoid of all known canonical actin-binding proteins, the prevalent parasite Giardia lamblia uses an alternative mechanism for cytokinesis. Unique aspects of this mechanism can potentially be leveraged for therapeutic development. Here, live-cell imaging methods were developed for Giardia to establish division kinetics and the core division machinery. Surprisingly, Giardia cytokinesis...



Phylogenomics reveals rapid, simultaneous diversification of three maȷor clades of Gondwanan frogs at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary [Evolution]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Frogs (Anura) are one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates and comprise nearly 90% of living amphibian species. Their worldwide distribution and diverse biology make them well-suited for assessing fundamental questions in evolution, ecology, and conservation. However, despite their scientific importance, the evolutionary history and tempo of frog diversification...



Disruption of a horizontally transferred phytoene desaturase abolishes carotenoid accumulation and diapause in Tetranychus urticae [Genetics]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Carotenoids underlie many of the vibrant yellow, orange, and red colors in animals, and are involved in processes ranging from vision to protection from stresses. Most animals acquire carotenoids from their diets because de novo synthesis of carotenoids is primarily limited to plants and some bacteria and fungi. Recently, sequencing...



Inhibition of acute lethal pulmonary inflammation by the IDO-AhR pathway [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

The lung is a prototypic organ that was evolved to reduce immunopathology during the immune response to potentially hazardous endogenous and exogenous antigens. In this study, we show that donor CD4+ T cells transiently induced expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in lung parenchyma in an IFN-γ–dependent manner early after allogeneic...



Ionic CD3-Lck interaction regulates the initiation of T-cell receptor signaling [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Antigen-triggered T-cell receptor (TCR) phosphorylation is the first signaling event in T cells to elicit adaptive immunity against invading pathogens and tumor cells. Despite its physiological importance, the underlying mechanism of TCR phosphorylation remains elusive. Here, we report a key mechanism regulating the initiation of TCR phosphorylation. The major TCR...



Delineation of an immunosuppressive gradient in hepatocellular carcinoma using high-dimensional proteomic and transcriptomic analyses [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

The recent development of immunotherapy as a cancer treatment has proved effective over recent years, but the precise dynamics between the tumor microenvironment (TME), nontumor microenvironment (NTME), and the systemic immune system remain elusive. Here, we interrogated these compartments in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using high-dimensional proteomic and transcriptomic analyses. By...



Sec61 blockade by mycolactone inhibits antigen cross-presentation independently of endosome-to-cytosol export [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Although antigen cross-presentation in dendritic cells (DCs) is critical to the initiation of most cytotoxic immune responses, the intracellular mechanisms and traffic pathways involved are still unclear. One of the most critical steps in this process, the export of internalized antigen to the cytosol, has been suggested to be mediated...



Synergistic effects of treating the spinal cord and brain in CLN1 disease [Medical Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL, or CLN1 disease) is an inherited neurodegenerative storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1). It was widely believed that the pathology associated with INCL was limited to the brain, but we have now found unexpectedly profound pathology...



BRAFV600 inhibition alters the microRNA cargo in the vesicular secretome of malignant melanoma cells [Medical Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

The BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib can be used to treat patients with metastatic melanomas harboring BRAFV600 mutations. Initial antitumoral responses are often seen, but drug-resistant clones with reactivation of the MEK–ERK pathway soon appear. Recently, the secretome of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been ascribed important functions in cancers....



FANCM, BRCA1, and BLM cooperatively resolve the replication stress at the ALT telomeres [Medical Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

In the mammalian genome, certain genomic loci/regions pose greater challenges to the DNA replication machinery (i.e., the replisome) than others. Such known genomic loci/regions include centromeres, common fragile sites, subtelomeres, and telomeres. However, the detailed mechanism of how mammalian cells cope with the replication stress at these loci/regions is largely...



Four-stranded mini microtubules formed by Prosthecobacter BtubAB show dynamic instability [Microbiology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Microtubules, the dynamic, yet stiff hollow tubes built from αβ-tubulin protein heterodimers, are thought to be present only in eukaryotic cells. Here, we report a 3.6-Å helical reconstruction electron cryomicroscopy structure of four-stranded mini microtubules formed by bacterial tubulin-like Prosthecobacter dejongeii BtubAB proteins. Despite their much smaller diameter, mini microtubules...



Chromosome segregation drives division site selection in Streptococcus pneumoniae [Microbiology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Accurate spatial and temporal positioning of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ is key for proper bacterial cell division. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is an oval-shaped, symmetrically dividing opportunistic human pathogen lacking the canonical systems for division site control (nucleoid occlusion and the Min-system). Recently, the early division protein MapZ was identified and...



Genome-wide screen for genes involved in eDNA release during biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus [Microbiology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of both nosocomial and community-acquired infection. Biofilm formation at the site of infection reduces antimicrobial susceptibility and can lead to chronic infection. During biofilm formation, a subset of cells liberate cytoplasmic proteins and DNA, which are repurposed to form the extracellular matrix that binds...



Coherent alpha oscillations link current and future receptive fields during saccades [Neuroscience]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Oscillations are ubiquitous in the brain, and they can powerfully influence neural coding. In particular, when oscillations at distinct sites are coherent, they provide a means of gating the flow of neural signals between different cortical regions. Coherent oscillations also occur within individual brain regions, although the purpose of this...



Highly selective inhibition of IMPDH2 provides the basis of antineuroinflammation therapy [Pharmacology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) of human is an attractive target for immunosuppressive agents. Currently, small-molecule inhibitors do not show good selectivity for different IMPDH isoforms (IMPDH1 and IMPDH2), resulting in some adverse effects, which limit their use. Herein, we used a small-molecule probe specifically targeting IMPDH2 and identified Cysteine residue...



Cytokinin induces genome-wide binding of the type-B response regulator ARR10 to regulate growth and development in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

The plant hormone cytokinin affects a diverse array of growth and development processes and responses to the environment. How a signaling molecule mediates such a diverse array of outputs and how these response pathways are integrated with other inputs remain fundamental questions in plant biology. To this end, we characterized...



Unearthing a sesterterpene biosynthetic repertoire in the Brassicaceae through genome mining reveals convergent evolution [Plant Biology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Sesterterpenoids are a rare terpene class harboring untapped chemodiversity and bioactivities. Their structural diversity originates primarily from the scaffold-generating sesterterpene synthases (STSs). In fungi, all six known STSs are bifunctional, containing C-terminal trans-prenyltransferase (PT) and N-terminal terpene synthase (TPS) domains. In plants, two colocalized PT and TPS gene pairs from...



Diatom centromeres suggest a mechanism for nuclear DNA acquisition [Plant Biology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Centromeres are essential for cell division and growth in all eukaryotes, and knowledge of their sequence and structure guides the development of artificial chromosomes for functional cellular biology studies. Centromeric proteins are conserved among eukaryotes; however, centromeric DNA sequences are highly variable. We combined forward and reverse genetic approaches with...



Starch granule evidence for the earliest potato use in North America [Anthropology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

The prehistory of wild potato use, leading to its domestication and diversification, has been well-documented in, and confined to, South America. At least 20 tuber-bearing, wild species of Solanum are known from North and Central America, yet their importance in ancient diets has never been assessed from the archaeological record....



Social and physical environments early in development predict DNA methylation of inflammatory genes in young adulthood [Anthropology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Chronic inflammation contributes to a wide range of human diseases, and environments in infancy and childhood are important determinants of inflammatory phenotypes. The underlying biological mechanisms connecting early environments with the regulation of inflammation in adulthood are not known, but epigenetic processes are plausible candidates. We tested the hypothesis that...



Host-mediated impairment of parasite maturation during blood-stage Plasmodium infection [Applied Mathematics]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Severe malaria and associated high parasite burdens occur more frequently in humans lacking robust adaptive immunity to Plasmodium falciparum. Nevertheless, the host may partly control blood-stage parasite numbers while adaptive immunity is gradually established. Parasite control has typically been attributed to enhanced removal of parasites by the host, although in...



Effective temperature concept evaluated in an active colloid mixture [Applied Physical Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:06-07:00

Thermal energy agitates all matter, and its competition with ordering tendencies is a fundamental organizing principle in the physical world; this observation suggests that an effective temperature might emerge when external energy input enhances agitation. However, despite the repeated proposal of this concept based on kinetics for various nonequilibrium systems,...



Origin of long lifetime of band-edge charge carriers in organic-inorganic lead iodide perovskites [Applied Physical Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:06-07:00

Long carrier lifetime is what makes hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites high-performance photovoltaic materials. Several microscopic mechanisms behind the unusually long carrier lifetime have been proposed, such as formation of large polarons, Rashba effect, ferroelectric domains, and photon recycling. Here, we show that the screening of band-edge charge carriers by rotation of...



Inner Workings: Networks of cameras are tracking meteorites with unprecedented precision [Astronomy]

2017-07-18T09:05:06-07:00

Around the globe, networks of camera lenses are trained upward. They scan the night skies, aiming to catch streaks of bright light: meteorites as they fall to Earth. Searching for these space rocks is not new. But the precision and resolution with which increasingly expansive networks of Earth-bound cameras are...



Mechanism-based inactivator of isocitrate lyases 1 and 2 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis [Biochemistry]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Isocitrate lyase (ICL, types 1 and 2) is the first enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, an essential pathway for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) during the persistent phase of human TB infection. Here, we report 2-vinyl-d-isocitrate (2-VIC) as a mechanism-based inactivator of Mtb ICL1 and ICL2. The enzyme-catalyzed retro-aldol cleavage of 2-VIC...



Clusters of calcium release channels harness the Ising phase transition to confine their elementary intracellular signals [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-07-18T09:05:06-07:00

Intracellular Ca signals represent a universal mechanism of cell function. Messages carried by Ca are local, rapid, and powerful enough to be delivered over the thermal noise. A higher signal-to-noise ratio is achieved by a cooperative action of Ca release channels such as IP3 receptors or ryanodine receptors arranged in...



Mutant p53 potentiates the oncogenic effects of insulin by inhibiting the tumor suppressor DAB2IP [Cell Biology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Obesity and type 2 diabetes are significant risk factors for malignancies, being associated with chronic inflammation and hyperinsulinemia. In this context, insulin can synergize with inflammation to promote proliferation, survival, and dissemination of cancer cells. Point mutation of p53 is a frequent event and a significant factor in cancer development...



BAK {alpha}6 permits activation by BH3-only proteins and homooligomerization via the canonical hydrophobic groove [Cell Biology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

BAK and BAX are the essential effectors of apoptosis because without them a cell is resistant to most apoptotic stimuli. BAK and BAX undergo conformation changes to homooligomerize then permeabilize the mitochondrial outer membrane during apoptosis. How BCL-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only proteins bind to activate BAK and BAX is unclear....



Antimalarials inhibit hematin crystallization by unique drug-surface site interactions [Chemistry]

2017-07-18T09:05:06-07:00

In malaria pathophysiology, divergent hypotheses on the inhibition of hematin crystallization posit that drugs act either by the sequestration of soluble hematin or their interaction with crystal surfaces. We use physiologically relevant, time-resolved in situ surface observations and show that quinoline antimalarials inhibit β-hematin crystal surfaces by three distinct modes...



Trends in mica-mica adhesion reflect the influence of molecular details on long-range dispersion forces underlying aggregation and coalignment [Chemistry]

2017-07-18T09:05:06-07:00

Oriented attachment of nanocrystalline subunits is recognized as a common crystallization pathway that is closely related to formation of nanoparticle superlattices, mesocrystals, and other kinetically stabilized structures. Approaching particles have been observed to rotate to achieve coalignment while separated by nanometer-scale solvent layers. Little is known about the forces that...



Insight into the mechanism of nonenzymatic RNA primer extension from the structure of an RNA-GpppG complex [Chemistry]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

The nonenzymatic copying of RNA templates with imidazole-activated nucleotides is a well-studied model for the emergence of RNA self-replication during the origin of life. We have recently discovered that this reaction can proceed through the formation of an imidazolium-bridged dinucleotide intermediate that reacts rapidly with the primer. To gain insight...



Computer vision uncovers predictors of physical urban change [Computer Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Which neighborhoods experience physical improvements? In this paper, we introduce a computer vision method to measure changes in the physical appearances of neighborhoods from time-series street-level imagery. We connect changes in the physical appearance of five US cities with economic and demographic data and find three factors that predict neighborhood...



Network analysis reveals strongly localized impacts of El Nino [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Climatic conditions influence the culture and economy of societies and the performance of economies. Specifically, El Niño as an extreme climate event is known to have notable effects on health, agriculture, industry, and conflict. Here, we construct directed and weighted climate networks based on near-surface air temperature to investigate the...



Annual mass drownings of the Serengeti wildebeest migration influence nutrient cycling and storage in the Mara River [Ecology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

The annual migration of ∼1.2 million wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) through the Serengeti Mara Ecosystem is the largest remaining overland migration in the world. One of the most iconic portions of their migration is crossing of the Mara River, during which thousands drown annually. These mass drownings have been noted, but...



Traffic is a major source of atmospheric nanocluster aerosol [Environmental Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

In densely populated areas, traffic is a significant source of atmospheric aerosol particles. Owing to their small size and complicated chemical and physical characteristics, atmospheric particles resulting from traffic emissions pose a significant risk to human health and also contribute to anthropogenic forcing of climate. Previous research has established that...



ATM loss leads to synthetic lethality in BRCA1 BRCT mutant mice associated with exacerbated defects in homology-directed repair [Genetics]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

BRCA1 is essential for homology-directed repair (HDR) of DNA double-strand breaks in part through antagonism of the nonhomologous end-joining factor 53BP1. The ATM kinase is involved in various aspects of DNA damage signaling and repair, but how ATM participates in HDR and genetically interacts with BRCA1 in this process is...



MRG15-mediated tethering of PALB2 to unperturbed chromatin protects active genes from genotoxic stress [Genetics]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

The partner and localiser of BRCA2 (PALB2) plays important roles in the maintenance of genome integrity and protection against cancer. Although PALB2 is commonly described as a repair factor recruited to sites of DNA breaks, recent studies provide evidence that PALB2 also associates with unperturbed chromatin. Here, we investigated the...



Genome sequence of a diabetes-prone rodent reveals a mutation hotspot around the ParaHox gene cluster [Genetics]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

The sand rat Psammomys obesus is a gerbil species native to deserts of North Africa and the Middle East, and is constrained in its ecology because high carbohydrate diets induce obesity and type II diabetes that, in extreme cases, can lead to pancreatic failure and death. We report the sequencing...



FSIP1 binds HER2 directly to regulate breast cancer growth and invasiveness [Medical Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Fibrous sheath interacting protein 1 (FSIP1), a spermatogenesis-related testicular antigen, is expressed in abundance in breast cancers, particularly in those overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2); however, little is known about its role in regulating the growth and metastasis of breast cancer cells. We and others have shown...



Identification of pathogenic gene mutations in LMNA and MYBPC3 that alter RNA splicing [Medical Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Genetic variants that cause haploinsufficiency account for many autosomal dominant (AD) disorders. Gene-based diagnosis classifies variants that alter canonical splice signals as pathogenic, but due to imperfect understanding of RNA splice signals other variants that may create or eliminate splice sites are often clinically classified as variants of unknown significance...



High serum serotonin in sudden infant death syndrome [Medical Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), the leading cause of postneonatal infant mortality, likely comprises heterogeneous disorders with the common phenotype of sudden death without explanation upon postmortem investigation. Previously, we reported that ∼40% of SIDS deaths are associated with abnormalities in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in regions of the brainstem critical...



MinE conformational dynamics regulate membrane binding, MinD interaction, and Min oscillation [Microbiology]

2017-07-18T09:05:06-07:00

In Escherichia coli MinE induces MinC/MinD to oscillate between the ends of the cell, contributing to the precise placement of the Z ring at midcell. To do this, MinE undergoes a remarkable conformational change from a latent 6β-stranded form that diffuses in the cytoplasm to an active 4β-stranded form bound...



RsmA and AmrZ orchestrate the assembly of all three type VI secretion systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa [Microbiology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a weapon of bacterial warfare and host cell subversion. The Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has three T6SSs involved in colonization, competition, and full virulence. H1-T6SS is a molecular gun firing seven toxins, Tse1–Tse7, challenging survival of other bacteria and helping P. aeruginosa to...



Fibroblast growth factor signaling instructs ensheathing glia wrapping of Drosophila olfactory glomeruli [Neuroscience]

2017-07-18T09:05:06-07:00

The formation of complex but highly organized neural circuits requires interactions between neurons and glia. During the assembly of the Drosophila olfactory circuit, 50 olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) classes and 50 projection neuron (PN) classes form synaptic connections in 50 glomerular compartments in the antennal lobe, each of which represents...



Endogenous orienting in the archer fish [Neuroscience]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

The literature has long emphasized the neocortex’s role in volitional processes. In this work, we examined endogenous orienting in an evolutionarily older species, the archer fish, which lacks neocortex-like cells. We used Posner’s classic endogenous cuing task, in which a centrally presented, spatially informative cue is followed by a target....



Improved color constancy in honey bees enabled by parallel visual projections from dorsal ocelli [Neuroscience]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

How can a pollinator, like the honey bee, perceive the same colors on visited flowers, despite continuous and rapid changes in ambient illumination and background color? A hundred years ago, von Kries proposed an elegant solution to this problem, color constancy, which is currently incorporated in many imaging and technological...



LGI1 tunes intrinsic excitability by regulating the density of axonal Kv1 channels [Neuroscience]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features results from mutations in leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1), a soluble glycoprotein secreted by neurons. Animal models of LGI1 depletion display spontaneous seizures, however, the function of LGI1 and the mechanisms by which deficiency leads to epilepsy are unknown. We investigated the effects of pure...



Elucidating reaction mechanisms on quantum computers [Physics]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

With rapid recent advances in quantum technology, we are close to the threshold of quantum devices whose computational powers can exceed those of classical supercomputers. Here, we show that a quantum computer can be used to elucidate reaction mechanisms in complex chemical systems, using the open problem of biological nitrogen...



Observing a quantum Maxwell demon at work [Physics]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

In apparent contradiction to the laws of thermodynamics, Maxwell’s demon is able to cyclically extract work from a system in contact with a thermal bath, exploiting the information about its microstate. The resolution of this paradox required the insight that an intimate relationship exists between information and thermodynamics. Here, we...



Spontaneous fine-tuning to environment in many-species chemical reaction networks [Physics]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

A chemical mixture that continually absorbs work from its environment may exhibit steady-state chemical concentrations that deviate from their equilibrium values. Such behavior is particularly interesting in a scenario where the environmental work sources are relatively difficult to access, so that only the proper orchestration of many distinct catalytic actors...



Redox-dependent interaction between thaumatin-like protein and {beta}-glucan influences malting quality of barley [Plant Biology]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Barley is the cornerstone of the malting and brewing industry. It is known that 250 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of the grain are associated with 19 malting-quality phenotypes. However, only a few of the contributing genetic components have been identified. One of these, on chromosome 4H, contains a major malting...



Changes in ventromedial prefrontal and insular cortex support the development of metamemory from childhood into adolescence [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Metamemory monitoring, or the ability to introspect on the accuracy of one’s memories, improves considerably during childhood, but the underlying neural changes and implications for intellectual development are largely unknown. The present study examined whether cortical changes in key brain areas hypothesized to support metacognition contribute to the development of...



Brain regions and functional interactions supporting early word recognition in the face of input variability [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Perception and cognition in infants have been traditionally investigated using habituation paradigms, assuming that babies’ memories in laboratory contexts are best constructed after numerous repetitions of the very same stimulus in the absence of interference. A crucial, yet open, question regards how babies deal with stimuli experienced in a fashion...



Self-affirmation facilitates minority middle schoolers' progress along college trajectories [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Small but timely experiences can have long-term benefits when their psychological effects interact with institutional processes. In a follow-up of two randomized field experiments, a brief values affirmation intervention designed to buffer minority middle schoolers against the threat of negative stereotypes had long-term benefits on college-relevant outcomes. In study 1,...



Last name analysis of mobility, gender imbalance, and nepotism across academic systems [Statistics]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

In biology, last names have been used as proxy for genetic relatedness in pioneering studies of neutral theory and human migrations. More recently, analyzing the last name distribution of Italian academics has raised the suspicion of nepotism, with faculty hiring their relatives for academic posts. Here, we analyze three large...



Core Concept: Phytoremediation advances in the lab but lags in the field [Sustainability Science]

2017-07-18T09:05:06-07:00

In the early 2000s, homeowners in Washington, DC’s leafy Spring Valley neighborhood received some unwelcome news. The Army Corps of Engineers had discovered that the soil on 177 of the Spring Valley properties contained unsafe levels of arsenic, a remnant of World War I-era weapons testing in the area (1)....



Quantification of habitat fragmentation reveals extinction risk in terrestrial mammals [Sustainability Science]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Although habitat fragmentation is often assumed to be a primary driver of extinction, global patterns of fragmentation and its relationship to extinction risk have not been consistently quantified for any major animal taxon. We developed high-resolution habitat fragmentation models and used phylogenetic comparative methods to quantify the effects of habitat...



Global priorities for conservation across multiple dimensions of mammalian diversity [Sustainability Science]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

Conservation priorities that are based on species distribution, endemism, and vulnerability may underrepresent biologically unique species as well as their functional roles and evolutionary histories. To ensure that priorities are biologically comprehensive, multiple dimensions of diversity must be considered. Further, understanding how the different dimensions relate to one another spatially...



Limits of Brazil’s Forest Code as a means to end illegal deforestation [Sustainability Science]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

The 2012 Brazilian Forest Code governs the fate of forests and savannas on Brazil’s 394 Mha of privately owned lands. The government claims that a new national land registry (SICAR), introduced under the revised law, could end illegal deforestation by greatly reducing the cost of monitoring, enforcement, and compliance. This...



Correction for Kang et al., Identification and characterization of high methane-emitting abandoned oil and gas wells [Correction]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES, SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Correction for “Identification and characterization of high methane-emitting abandoned oil and gas wells,” by Mary Kang, Shanna Christian, Michael A. Celia, Denise L. Mauzerall, Markus Bill, Alana R. Miller, Yuheng Chen, Mark E. Conrad, Thomas H. Darrah, and Robert B. Jackson, which was first published November...



Correction for Bahari-Javan et al., HDAC1 links early life stress to schizophrenia-like phenotypes [Correction]

2017-07-18T09:05:07-07:00

NEUROSCIENCE Correction for “HDAC1 links early life stress to schizophrenia-like phenotypes,” by Sanaz Bahari-Javan, Hristo Varbanov, Rashi Halder, Eva Benito, Lalit Kaurani, Susanne Burkhardt, Heike Anderson-Schmidt, Ion Anghelescu, Monika Budde, Roman M. Stilling, Joan Costa, Juan Medina, Detlef E. Dietrich, Christian Figge, Here Folkerts, Katrin Gade, Urs Heilbronner, Manfred Koller,...