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Preview: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue



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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Quantitative literary criticism 1432 Italian manuscript of the complete works of Seneca. MS Lat 47, Houghton Library, Harvard University. By adapting, quoting, and alluding to previous works, authors create links among literary texts, a phenomenon termed intertextuality, which provides grist for literary criticism. Using machine-learning tools and computational analysis of...



An antivascular vaccine to boost self-immunity and strike the tumor [Biological Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family members and their receptors have long been considered suitable anticancer targets (1) because of their role in angiogenesis. Although their full potential remains to be realized, two monoclonal antibodies have been Food and Drug Administration-approved against human cancer: bevacizumab (humanized anti-VEGFA) and ramucirumab (fully...



Reply to Marchio et al.: Antitumor immune regulation by angiostatic therapy [Biological Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

We read with great interest the letter by Marchiò et al. (1) on our recently published paper describing the rational design and testing of a vaccine directed against the major angiogenic growth factor VEGF (2). The letter raises the concern that the potential of the vaccine is limited because of...



Baseball and jet lag: Correlation does not imply causation [Biological Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

My attention was drawn to the recent article by Song at al. entitled “How jet lag impairs Major League Baseball performance” (1), not only by its slightly unusual subject but more importantly because I wondered how one could ever actually prove the effect of jet lag on baseball performance. In...



Reply to Joly: Inferring causation from comprehensive analysis of observation [Biological Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

In our paper, “How jet lag impairs Major League Baseball performance,” we describe performance reductions in teams as a function of travel across time zones and attribute these effects to jet lag (1). The letter by Joly (2) raises the issue of correlation versus causation, implying that we cannot conclude...



QnAs with Christopher Monroe [QnAs]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Classic computing can take credit for technology ranging from mobile phones to supercomputers. But in recent years, a budding counterpart to these conventional devices has emerged: quantum computers. Whereas classic computing sometimes fails to solve complex calculations, such as factoring hundred-digit numbers, quantum computing holds the potential to easily tackle...



Predicting invasion winners and losers under climate change [Ecology]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Invasive plant species are human-introduced, nonnative, and damaging. They can restructure natural habitats, change community composition, disrupt food webs, and degrade ecosystem services. Global climatic changes are often thought to exacerbate invasions (1), but no consensus exists over the generality of this phenomenon (2). As a consequence, anticipating areas of...



Anterior temporal lobe and the representation of knowledge about people [Neuroscience]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Patients with semantic dementia (SD), a neurodegenerative disease affecting the anterior temporal lobes (ATL) (1), present with striking cognitive deficits: they can have difficulties naming objects and familiar people from both pictures and descriptions (2, 3). Furthermore, SD patients make semantic errors (e.g., naming “horse” a picture of a zebra),...



Neuronal androgen receptor: Molecular gateway to polycystic ovary syndrome? [Physiology]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) afflicts ∼15% of women in their reproductive years (1). PCOS women exhibit high circulating levels of testosterone (T), intermittent or absent menstrual cycles, and polycystic ovaries on ultrasound, or at least two of these three diagnostic criteria (2). Hyperandrogenism is at the core of PCOS, its...



Neural pathways for cognitive command and control of hand movements [Neuroscience]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

A piece of fruit—a raisin—swings on a stick in front of a monkey (Fig. 1). He likes raisins; he wants this one. He stretches out his arm, opens his hand with the fingers spread wide apart, and tries to capture it; he misses (bursts B and D). He tries again,...



Nanoparticle amount, and not size, determines chain alignment and nonlinear hardening in polymer nanocomposites [Applied Physical Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Polymer nanocomposites—materials in which a polymer matrix is blended with nanoparticles (or fillers)—strengthen under sufficiently large strains. Such strain hardening is critical to their function, especially for materials that bear large cyclic loads such as car tires or bearing sealants. Although the reinforcement (i.e., the increase in the linear elasticity)...



Structure-metabolism relationships in human-AOX: Chemical insights from a large database of aza-aromatic and amide compounds [Chemistry]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is a metabolic enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of aldehyde and aza-aromatic compounds and the hydrolysis of amides, moieties frequently shared by the majority of drugs. Despite its key role in human metabolism, to date only fragmentary information about the chemical features responsible for AOX susceptibility are reported...



Delivering strong 1H nuclear hyperpolarization levels and long magnetic lifetimes through signal amplification by reversible exchange [Chemistry]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Hyperpolarization turns typically weak NMR and MRI responses into strong signals so that ordinarily impractical measurements become possible. The potential to revolutionize analytical NMR and clinical diagnosis through this approach reflect this area's most compelling outcomes. Methods to optimize the low-cost parahydrogen-based approach signal amplification by reversible exchange with studies...



Quantitative criticism of literary relationships [Computer Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Authors often convey meaning by referring to or imitating prior works of literature, a process that creates complex networks of literary relationships (“intertextuality”) and contributes to cultural evolution. In this paper, we use techniques from stylometry and machine learning to address subjective literary critical questions about Latin literature, a corpus...



Structure of aryl O-demethylase offers molecular insight into a catalytic tyrosine-dependent mechanism [Biochemistry]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Some strains of soil and marine bacteria have evolved intricate metabolic pathways for using environmentally derived aromatics as a carbon source. Many of these metabolic pathways go through intermediates such as vanillate, 3-O-methylgallate, and syringate. Demethylation of these compounds is essential for downstream aryl modification, ring opening, and subsequent assimilation...



Mass spectrometric identification of intermediates in the O2-driven [4Fe-4S] to [2Fe-2S] cluster conversion in FNR [Biochemistry]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

The iron-sulfur cluster containing protein Fumarate and Nitrate Reduction (FNR) is the master regulator for the switch between anaerobic and aerobic respiration in Escherichia coli and many other bacteria. The [4Fe-4S] cluster functions as the sensory module, undergoing reaction with O2 that leads to conversion to a [2Fe-2S] form with...



Structural basis of pH-dependent client binding by ERp44, a key regulator of protein secretion at the ER-Golgi interface [Biochemistry]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

ERp44 retrieves some endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident enzymes and immature oligomers of secretory proteins from the Golgi. Association of ERp44 with its clients is regulated by pH-dependent mechanisms, but the molecular details are not fully understood. Here we report high-resolution crystal structures of human ERp44 at neutral and weakly acidic pH....



Nit1 is a metabolite repair enzyme that hydrolyzes deaminated glutathione [Biochemistry]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

The mammalian gene Nit1 (nitrilase-like protein 1) encodes a protein that is highly conserved in eukaryotes and is thought to act as a tumor suppressor. Despite being ∼35% sequence identical to ω-amidase (Nit2), the Nit1 protein does not hydrolyze efficiently α-ketoglutaramate (a known physiological substrate of Nit2), and its actual...



Structure of the MeCP2-TBLR1 complex reveals a molecular basis for Rett syndrome and related disorders [Biochemistry]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurological disorder caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG–binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene. The majority of RTT missense mutations disrupt the interaction of the MeCP2 with DNA or the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR)/silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid receptors (SMRT) corepressor complex. Here, we...



Facilitated dissociation of transcription factors from single DNA binding sites [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

The binding of transcription factors (TFs) to DNA controls most aspects of cellular function, making the understanding of their binding kinetics imperative. The standard description of bimolecular interactions posits that TF off rates are independent of TF concentration in solution. However, recent observations have revealed that proteins in solution can...



Membrane fission by protein crowding [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Membrane fission, which facilitates compartmentalization of biological processes into discrete, membrane-bound volumes, is essential for cellular life. Proteins with specific structural features including constricting rings, helical scaffolds, and hydrophobic membrane insertions are thought to be the primary drivers of fission. In contrast, here we report a mechanism of fission that...



Conformational equilibria of light-activated rhodopsin in nanodiscs [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-04-18T09:47:27-07:00

Conformational equilibria of G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are intimately involved in intracellular signaling. Here conformational substates of the GPCR rhodopsin are investigated in micelles of dodecyl maltoside (DDM) and in phospholipid nanodiscs by monitoring the spatial positions of transmembrane helices 6 and 7 at the cytoplasmic surface using site-directed spin labeling...



Climate change both facilitates and inhibits invasive plant ranges in New England [Ecology]

2017-04-18T09:47:27-07:00

Forecasting ecological responses to climate change, invasion, and their interaction must rely on understanding underlying mechanisms. However, such forecasts require extrapolation into new locations and environments. We linked demography and environment using experimental biogeography to forecast invasive and native species’ potential ranges under present and future climate in New England,...



Intracellular metabolite {beta}-glucosylceramide is an endogenous Mincle ligand possessing immunostimulatory activity [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-04-18T09:47:27-07:00

Sensing and reacting to tissue damage is a fundamental function of immune systems. Macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) is an activating C-type lectin receptor that senses damaged cells. Notably, Mincle also recognizes glycolipid ligands on pathogens. To elucidate endogenous glycolipids ligands derived from damaged cells, we fractionated supernatants from damaged...



Nimodipine fosters remyelination in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis and induces microglia-specific apoptosis [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-04-18T09:47:27-07:00

Despite continuous interest in multiple sclerosis (MS) research, there is still a lack of neuroprotective strategies, because the main focus has remained on modulating the immune response. Here we performed in-depth analysis of neurodegeneration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and in in vitro studies regarding the effect of the well-established...



Dynamic neural architecture for social knowledge retrieval [Neuroscience]

2017-04-18T09:47:27-07:00

Social behavior is often shaped by the rich storehouse of biographical information that we hold for other people. In our daily life, we rapidly and flexibly retrieve a host of biographical details about individuals in our social network, which often guide our decisions as we navigate complex social interactions. Even...



Parietal neurons encode expected gains in instrumental information [Neuroscience]

2017-04-18T09:47:27-07:00

In natural behavior, animals have access to multiple sources of information, but only a few of these sources are relevant for learning and actions. Beyond choosing an appropriate action, making good decisions entails the ability to choose the relevant information, but fundamental questions remain about the brain’s information sampling policies....



Trk receptor signaling and sensory neuron fate are perturbed in human neuropathy caused by Gars mutations [Neuroscience]

2017-04-18T09:47:27-07:00

Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 2D (CMT2D) is a peripheral nerve disorder caused by dominant, toxic, gain-of-function mutations in the widely expressed, housekeeping gene, GARS. The mechanisms underlying selective nerve pathology in CMT2D remain unresolved, as does the cause of the mild-to-moderate sensory involvement that distinguishes CMT2D from the allelic disorder distal...



Neuroendocrine androgen action is a key extraovarian mediator in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome [Physiology]

2017-04-18T09:47:27-07:00

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex hormonal disorder characterized by reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic abnormalities. As the origins of PCOS remain unknown, mechanism-based treatments are not feasible and current management relies on treatment of symptoms. Hyperandrogenism is the most consistent PCOS characteristic; however, it is unclear whether androgen excess,...



Parathyroid hormone controls paracellular Ca2+ transport in the thick ascending limb by regulating the tight-junction protein Claudin14 [Physiology]

2017-04-18T09:47:27-07:00

Renal Ca2+ reabsorption is essential for maintaining systemic Ca2+ homeostasis and is tightly regulated through the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTHrP receptor (PTH1R) signaling pathway. We investigated the role of PTH1R in the kidney by generating a mouse model with targeted deletion of PTH1R in the thick ascending limb of Henle (TAL)...



Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-binding protein AtPH1 controls the localization of the metal transporter NRAMP1 in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

2017-04-18T09:47:27-07:00

“Too much of a good thing” perfectly describes the dilemma that living organisms face with metals. The tight control of metal homeostasis in cells depends on the trafficking of metal transporters between membranes of different compartments. However, the mechanisms regulating the location of transport proteins are still largely unknown. Developing...



Emerging infectious diseases: A proactive approach [Sustainability Science]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Infectious diseases are now emerging or reemerging almost every year. This trend will continue because a number of factors, including the increased global population, aging, travel, urbanization, and climate change, favor the emergence, evolution, and spread of new pathogens. The approach used so far for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) does...



Origins of house mice in ecological niches created by settled hunter-gatherers in the Levant 15,000 y ago [Anthropology]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Reductions in hunter-gatherer mobility during the Late Pleistocene influenced settlement ecologies, altered human relations with animal communities, and played a pivotal role in domestication. The influence of variability in human mobility on selection dynamics and ecological interactions in human settlements has not been extensively explored, however. This study of mice...



Early human symbolic behavior in the Late Pleistocene of Wallacea [Anthropology]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Wallacea, the zone of oceanic islands separating the continental regions of Southeast Asia and Australia, has yielded sparse evidence for the symbolic culture of early modern humans. Here we report evidence for symbolic activity 30,000–22,000 y ago at Leang Bulu Bettue, a cave and rock-shelter site on the Wallacean island...



Ancient individuals from the North American Northwest Coast reveal 10,000 years of regional genetic continuity [Anthropology]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Recent genomic studies of both ancient and modern indigenous people of the Americas have shed light on the demographic processes involved during the first peopling. The Pacific Northwest Coast proves an intriguing focus for these studies because of its association with coastal migration models and genetic ancestral patterns that are...



Dual bioluminescence and near-infrared fluorescence monitoring to evaluate spherical nucleic acid nanoconjugate activity in vivo [Applied Biological Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene regulation platforms have shown promise as a novel class of therapeutics for the precision treatment of cancer. Techniques in preclinical evaluation of RNAi-based nanoconjugates have yet to allow for optimization of their gene regulatory activity. We have developed spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) as a blood–brain barrier-/blood–tumor...



Inner Workings: 3D printer innovations tackle complexity of metamaterials, living tissue [Applied Physical Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

At 3D printing company Carbon’s headquarters in Redwood City, California, a mechanical arm pulls a miniature model of the Eiffel Tower out of a pool of viscous ooze. The figure grows as patterned light beams projected into the chemical bath solidify the crisscrossing beams and struts of the model, one...



Selective Purcell enhancement of two closely linked zero-phonon transitions of a silicon carbide color center [Applied Physical Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Point defects in silicon carbide are rapidly becoming a platform of great interest for single-photon generation, quantum sensing, and quantum information science. Photonic crystal cavities (PCCs) can serve as an efficient light–matter interface both to augment the defect emission and to aid in studying the defects’ properties. In this work,...



Reach and speed of judgment propagation in the laboratory [Applied Physical Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

In recent years, a large body of research has demonstrated that judgments and behaviors can propagate from person to person. Phenomena as diverse as political mobilization, health practices, altruism, and emotional states exhibit similar dynamics of social contagion. The precise mechanisms of judgment propagation are not well understood, however, because...



Biosynthesis of the pyrrolidine protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin involves novel gene ensemble and cryptic biosynthetic steps [Biochemistry]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

The protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin features a unique benzylpyrrolidine system and exhibits diverse biological and pharmacologic activities. Its biosynthetic origin has remained obscure for more than 60 y, however. Here we report the identification of the biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) of anisomycin in Streptomyces hygrospinosus var. beijingensis by a bioactivity-guided...



CMG-Pol epsilon dynamics suggests a mechanism for the establishment of leading-strand synthesis in the eukaryotic replisome [Biochemistry]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

The replisome unwinds and synthesizes DNA for genome duplication. In eukaryotes, the Cdc45–MCM–GINS (CMG) helicase and the leading-strand polymerase, Pol epsilon, form a stable assembly. The mechanism for coupling DNA unwinding with synthesis is starting to be elucidated, however the architecture and dynamics of the replication fork remain only partially...



Unsaturated fatty acyl recognition by Frizzled receptors mediates dimerization upon Wnt ligand binding [Biochemistry]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Frizzled (FZD) receptors mediate Wnt signaling in diverse processes ranging from bone growth to stem cell activity. Moreover, high FZD receptor expression at the cell surface contributes to overactive Wnt signaling in subsets of pancreatic, ovarian, gastric, and colorectal tumors. Despite the progress in biochemical understanding of Wnt–FZD receptor interactions,...



Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte-binding antigen 175 triggers a biophysical change in the red blood cell that facilitates invasion [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Invasion of the red blood cell (RBC) by the Plasmodium parasite defines the start of malaria disease pathogenesis. To date, experimental investigations into invasion have focused predominantly on the role of parasite adhesins or signaling pathways and the identity of binding receptors on the red cell surface. A potential role...



SMARCE1 is required for the invasive progression of in situ cancers [Cell Biology]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Advances in mammography have sparked an exponential increase in the detection of early-stage breast lesions, most commonly ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). More than 50% of DCIS lesions are benign and will remain indolent, never progressing to invasive cancers. However, the factors that promote DCIS invasion remain poorly understood. Here,...



Bidirectional KCNQ1:{beta}-catenin interaction drives colorectal cancer cell differentiation [Cell Biology]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

The K+ channel KCNQ1 has been proposed as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the molecular mechanisms regulating KCNQ1:β-catenin bidirectional interactions and their effects on CRC differentiation, proliferation, and invasion. Molecular and pharmacologic approaches were used to determine the influence of KCNQ1 expression on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling...



Evidence of low-density and high-density liquid phases and isochore end point for water confined to carbon nanotube [Chemistry]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Possible transition between two phases of supercooled liquid water, namely the low- and high-density liquid water, has been only predicted to occur below 230 K from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. However, such a phase transition cannot be detected in the laboratory because of the so-called “no-man’s land” under deeply supercooled...



Low-symmetry sphere packings of simple surfactant micelles induced by ionic sphericity [Chemistry]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Supramolecular self-assembly enables access to designer soft materials that typically exhibit high-symmetry packing arrangements, which optimize the interactions between their mesoscopic constituents over multiple length scales. We report the discovery of an ionic small molecule surfactant that undergoes water-induced self-assembly into spherical micelles, which pack into a previously unknown, low-symmetry...



Hydration-reduced lattice thermal conductivity of olivine in Earth’s upper mantle [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Earth’s water cycle enables the incorporation of water (hydration) in mantle minerals that can influence the physical properties of the mantle. Lattice thermal conductivity of mantle minerals is critical for controlling the temperature profile and dynamics of the mantle and subducting slabs. However, the effect of hydration on lattice thermal...



Accelerated body size evolution during cold climatic periods in the Cenozoic [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

How ecological and morphological diversity accumulates over geological time is much debated. Adaptive radiation theory has been successful in testing the effects of biotic interactions on the rapid divergence of phenotypes within a clade, but this theory ignores abiotic effects. The role of abiotic drivers on the tempo of phenotypic...



Unraveling the disease consequences and mechanisms of modular structure in animal social networks [Ecology]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Disease risk is a potential cost of group living. Although modular organization is thought to reduce this cost in animal societies, empirical evidence toward this hypothesis has been conflicting. We analyzed empirical social networks from 43 animal species to motivate our study of the epidemiological consequences of modular structure in...



Unveiling the carrier transport mechanism in epitaxial graphene for forming wafer-scale, single-domain graphene [Engineering]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Graphene epitaxy on the Si face of a SiC wafer offers monolayer graphene with unique crystal orientation at the wafer-scale. However, due to carrier scattering near vicinal steps and excess bilayer stripes, the size of electrically uniform domains is limited to the width of the terraces extending up to a...



Genetic signatures of high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans [Genetics]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Indigenous Tibetan people have lived on the Tibetan Plateau for millennia. There is a long-standing question about the genetic basis of high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans. We conduct a genome-wide study of 7.3 million genotyped and imputed SNPs of 3,008 Tibetans and 7,287 non-Tibetan individuals of Eastern Asian ancestry. Using this...



Memory of recent oxygen experience switches pheromone valence in Caenorhabditis elegans [Genetics]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Animals adjust their behavioral priorities according to momentary needs and prior experience. We show that Caenorhabditis elegans changes how it processes sensory information according to the oxygen environment it experienced recently. C. elegans acclimated to 7% O2 are aroused by CO2 and repelled by pheromones that attract animals acclimated to...



Simply put: Vaccination saves lives [Medical Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Few measures in public health can compare with the impact of vaccines. Vaccinations have reduced disease, disability, and death from a variety of infectious diseases. For example, in the United States, children are recommended to be vaccinated against 16 diseases (1). Table 1 highlights the impact in the United States...



Prenatal loss of father during World War One is predictive of a reduced lifespan in adulthood [Medical Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Although early-life stress is known to alter health, its long-term consequences on mortality remain largely unknown. Thanks to unique French legislation established in 1917 for war orphans and children of disabled soldiers, we were able to study the adult mortality of individuals born in 1914–1916 whose fathers were killed during...



NEIL1 protects against aflatoxin-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in mice [Medical Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Global distribution of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) is dominated by its incidence in developing countries, accounting for >700,000 estimated deaths per year, with dietary exposures to aflatoxin (AFB1) and subsequent DNA adduct formation being a significant driver. Genetic variants that increase individual susceptibility to AFB1-induced HCCs are poorly understood. Herein, it...



Effects of systemic multiexon skipping with peptide-conjugated morpholinos in the heart of a dog model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy [Medical Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal genetic disorder caused by an absence of the dystrophin protein in bodywide muscles, including the heart. Cardiomyopathy is a leading cause of death in DMD. Exon skipping via synthetic phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) represents one of the most promising therapeutic options, yet PMOs...



Trio-based exome sequencing arrests de novo mutations in early-onset high myopia [Medical Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

The etiology of the highly myopic condition has been unclear for decades. We investigated the genetic contributions to early-onset high myopia (EOHM), which is defined as having a refraction of less than or equal to −6 diopters before the age of 6, when children are less likely to be exposed...



Identification of specific posttranslational O-mycoloylations mediating protein targeting to the mycomembrane [Microbiology]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

The outer membranes (OMs) of members of the Corynebacteriales bacterial order, also called mycomembranes, harbor mycolic acids and unusual outer membrane proteins (OMPs), including those with α-helical structure. The signals that allow precursors of such proteins to be targeted to the mycomembrane remain uncharacterized. We report here the molecular features...



Emergence of a new Neisseria meningitidis clonal complex 11 lineage 11.2 clade as an effective urogenital pathogen [Microbiology]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) clonal complex 11 (cc11) lineage is a hypervirulent pathogen responsible for outbreaks of invasive meningococcal disease, including among men who have sex with men, and is increasingly associated with urogenital infections. Recently, clusters of Nm urethritis have emerged primarily among heterosexual males in the United States. We...



Recovery sleep after extended wakefulness restores elevated A1 adenosine receptor availability in the human brain [Neuroscience]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Adenosine and functional A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) availability are supposed to mediate sleep–wake regulation and cognitive performance. We hypothesized that cerebral A1AR availability after an extended wake period decreases to a well-rested state after recovery sleep. [18F]CPFPX positron emission tomography was used to quantify A1AR availability in 15 healthy male...



Resistance to action potential depression of a rat axon terminal in vivo [Neuroscience]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

The shape of the presynaptic action potential (AP) has a strong impact on neurotransmitter release. Because of the small size of most terminals in the central nervous system, little is known about the regulation of their AP shape during natural firing patterns in vivo. The calyx of Held is a...



Posterior parietal cortex contains a command apparatus for hand movements [Neuroscience]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Mountcastle and colleagues proposed that the posterior parietal cortex contains a “command apparatus” for the operation of the hand in immediate extrapersonal space [Mountcastle et al. (1975) J Neurophysiol 38(4):871–908]. Here we provide three lines of converging evidence that a lateral region within area 5 has corticospinal neurons that are...



Anomalous Anderson localization behaviors in disordered pseudospin systems [Physics]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

We discovered unique Anderson localization behaviors of pseudospin systems in a 1D disordered potential. For a pseudospin-1 system, due to the absence of backscattering under normal incidence and the presence of a conical band structure, the wave localization behaviors are entirely different from those of conventional disordered systems. We show...



The elaborate route for UDP-arabinose delivery into the Golgi of plants [Plant Biology]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

In plants, L-arabinose (Ara) is a key component of cell wall polymers, glycoproteins, as well as flavonoids, and signaling peptides. Whereas the majority of Ara found in plant glycans occurs as a furanose ring (Araf), the activated precursor has a pyranose ring configuration (UDP-Arap). The biosynthesis of UDP-Arap mainly occurs...



Providing driver’s licenses to unauthorized immigrants in California improves traffic safety [Political Sciences]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

The integration of immigrants presents a major challenge for policymakers in the United States. In an effort to improve integration, several US states recently have implemented laws that provide driver’s licenses to unauthorized immigrants. These new laws have sparked widespread debate, but we lack evidence on the traffic safety impact...



Titling indigenous communities protects forests in the Peruvian Amazon [Sustainability Science]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Developing countries are increasingly decentralizing forest governance by granting indigenous groups and other local communities formal legal title to land. However, the effects of titling on forest cover are unclear. Rigorous analyses of titling campaigns are rare, and related theoretical and empirical research suggests that they could either stem or...



Human health alters the sustainability of fishing practices in East Africa [Sustainability Science]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Understanding feedbacks between human and environmental health is critical for the millions who cope with recurrent illness and rely directly on natural resources for sustenance. Although studies have examined how environmental degradation exacerbates infectious disease, the effects of human health on our use of the environment remains unexplored. Human illness...



Contrasting nitrogen and phosphorus budgets in urban watersheds and implications for managing urban water pollution [Sustainability Science]

2017-04-18T09:47:26-07:00

Managing excess nutrients remains a major obstacle to improving ecosystem service benefits of urban waters. To inform more ecologically based landscape nutrient management, we compared watershed inputs, outputs, and retention for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in seven subwatersheds of the Mississippi River in St. Paul, Minnesota. Lawn fertilizer and...



Correction for Mylvaganam et al., Dynamics of SIV-specific CXCR5+ CD8 T cells during chronic SIV infection [Correction]

2017-04-18T09:47:27-07:00

IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION Correction for “Dynamics of SIV-specific CXCR5+ CD8 T cells during chronic SIV infection,” by Geetha H. Mylvaganam, Daniel Rios, Hadia M. Abdelaal, Smita Iyer, Gregory Tharp, Maud Mavinger, Sakeenah Hicks, Ann Chahroudi, Rafi Ahmed, Steven E. Bosinger, Ifor R. Williams, Pamela J. Skinner, Vijayakumar Velu, and Rama...



Correction for Zhong et al., B vitamins attenuate the epigenetic effects of ambient fine particles in a pilot human intervention trial [Correction]

2017-04-18T09:47:27-07:00

MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for “B vitamins attenuate the epigenetic effects of ambient fine particles in a pilot human intervention trial,” by Jia Zhong, Oskar Karlsson, Guan Wang, Jun Li, Yichen Guo, Xinyi Lin, Michele Zemplenyi, Marco Sanchez-Guerra, Letizia Trevisi, Bruce Urch, Mary Speck, Liming Liang, Brent A. Coull, Petros Koutrakis,...