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Preview: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue



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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

Listeners prefer new over old violins in blind tests New violins found to project sound better than Old Italian violins in halls. Image courtesy of Panoramio/Jiaqian AirplaneFan. Previous blind tests have found that seasoned violinists largely failed to distinguish new violins from Old Italian violins, such as Stradivari violins, preferring...



Further evidence for localized, short-term anthropogenic forest alterations across pre-Columbian Amazonia [Social Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

By generating soil phytolith and charcoal data from a region of geoglyph construction in southwest Amazonia, Watling et al. (1) provide important evidence on a current debate over the scale and intensity of pre-Columbian modification of Amazonia (e.g., refs. 2–6). The clear evidence for human activity in their study region...



Reply to Piperno et al.: It is too soon to argue for localized, short-term human impacts in interfluvial Amazonia [Social Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

We welcome the debate opened by Piperno et al. (1) in response to our recent article (2), and thank the editors of PNAS for the opportunity to reply. Although acknowledging that we detected localized human impacts in our study area, Piperno et al. (1) downplay the increases in palms observed...



Fast folding and slow unfolding of a resurrected Precambrian protein [Biological Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Tzul et al. (1) report different unfolding rates and similar folding rates for a number of thioredoxins. The authors interpret this result as evidence of the principle of minimal frustration. Their study includes several resurrected Precambrian thioredoxins that we have previously prepared and characterized (2–5). We agree that the principle...



Reply to Candel et al.: Evidence for evolutionary conservation of folding kinetics in the thioredoxin protein family [Biological Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

The letter by Candel et al. (1) does not address a potential problem with their own experimental set-up. In particular, the use of guanidinium hydrochloride (GdnHCl) is not the best choice of denaturant for studying a folding reaction. There is an ample amount of evidence to suggest that the variations...



Overexplaining or underexplaining methane’s role in climate change [Environmental Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

Methane lies at the nexus of climate and air quality, being both a major anthropogenic greenhouse gas—causing about one-half of the warming of carbon dioxide—and a precursor of tropospheric ozone pollution. Over the industrial era, atmospheric methane abundances rose from about 720 parts per billion (ppb) (10−9 mole fraction) to...



Trust and the poverty trap [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

Myopia for the future, especially in relation to economic decisions, has long been associated with low socioeconomic status (SES). Indeed, the use of the word “myopic” to describe the poor in this context dates back over a hundred years in economics (1). Although we all tend to discount future rewards...



Assembly and function of bHLH-PAS complexes [Biochemistry]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

The basic helix–loop–helix-PER-ARNT-SIM (bHLH–PAS) family of transcription factors coordinates the expression of distinct transcriptional programs to control processes from development to the hypoxia response and beyond. Despite differences in their target genes and modes of regulation, these transcription factors share a common domain architecture, consisting of a bHLH DNA-binding domain...



Ab initio dynamics and photoionization mass spectrometry reveal ion-molecule pathways from ionized acetylene clusters to benzene cation [Chemistry]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

The growth mechanism of hydrocarbons in ionizing environments, such as the interstellar medium (ISM), and some combustion conditions remains incompletely understood. Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations and molecular beam vacuum-UV (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry experiments were performed to understand the ion–molecule growth mechanism of small acetylene clusters (up to...



Body sway reflects leadership in joint music performance [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

The cultural and technological achievements of the human species depend on complex social interactions. Nonverbal interpersonal coordination, or joint action, is a crucial element of social interaction, but the dynamics of nonverbal information flow among people are not well understood. We used joint music making in string quartets, a complex,...



Polyketide mimetics yield structural and mechanistic insights into product template domain function in nonreducing polyketide synthases [Biochemistry]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Product template (PT) domains from fungal nonreducing polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs) are responsible for controlling the aldol cyclizations of poly-β-ketone intermediates assembled during the catalytic cycle. Our ability to understand the high regioselective control that PT domains exert is hindered by the inaccessibility of intrinsically unstable poly-β-ketones for in vitro studies....



Fold-change detection and scale invariance of cell-cell signaling in social amoeba [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Cell–cell signaling is subject to variability in the extracellular volume, cell number, and dilution that potentially increase uncertainty in the absolute concentrations of the extracellular signaling molecules. To direct cell aggregation, the social amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum collectively give rise to oscillations and waves of cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) under a...



String method solution of the gating pathways for a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels control synaptic neurotransmission by converting chemical signals into electrical signals. Agonist binding leads to rapid signal transduction via an allosteric mechanism, where global protein conformational changes open a pore across the nerve cell membrane. We use all-atom molecular dynamics with a swarm-based string method to solve...



Atypical interactions of integrin {alpha}V{beta}8 with pro-TGF-{beta}1 [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Integrins αVβ6 and αVβ8 are specialized for recognizing pro-TGF-β and activating its growth factor by releasing it from the latency imposed by its surrounding prodomain. The integrin αVβ8 is atypical among integrins in lacking sites in its cytoplasmic domain for binding to actin cytoskeleton adaptors. Here, we examine αVβ8 for...



Dynamic microtubules regulate cellular contractility during T-cell activation [Cell Biology]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

T-cell receptor (TCR) triggering and subsequent T-cell activation are essential for the adaptive immune response. Recently, multiple lines of evidence have shown that force transduction across the TCR complex is involved during TCR triggering, and that the T cell might use its force-generation machinery to probe the mechanical properties of...



Ectopic protein interactions within BRD4-chromatin complexes drive oncogenic megadomain formation in NUT midline carcinoma [Genetics]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

To investigate the mechanism that drives dramatic mistargeting of active chromatin in NUT midline carcinoma (NMC), we have identified protein interactions unique to the BRD4–NUT fusion oncoprotein compared with wild-type BRD4. Using cross-linking, affinity purification, and mass spectrometry, we identified the EP300 acetyltransferase as uniquely associated with BRD4 through the...



Hsp104 disaggregase at normal levels cures many [PSI+] prion variants in a process promoted by Sti1p, Hsp90, and Sis1p [Genetics]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Overproduction or deficiency of many chaperones and other cellular components cure the yeast prions [PSI+] (formed by Sup35p) or [URE3] (based on Ure2p). However, at normal expression levels, Btn2p and Cur1p eliminate most newly arising [URE3] variants but do not cure [PSI+], even after overexpression. Deficiency or overproduction of Hsp104...



Selective targeting of point-mutated KRAS through artificial microRNAs [Genetics]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Mutated protein-coding genes drive the molecular pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer. Specifically, mutated KRAS is a documented driver for malignant transformation, occurring early during the pathogenesis of cancers such as lung and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Therapeutically, the indiscriminate targeting of wild-type and point-mutated transcripts represents an important limitation. Here, we...



Aggregation of thrombin-derived C-terminal fragments as a previously undisclosed host defense mechanism [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Effective control of endotoxins and bacteria is crucial for normal wound healing. During injury, the key enzyme thrombin is formed, leading to generation of fibrin. Here, we show that human neutrophil elastase cleaves thrombin, generating 11-kDa thrombin-derived C-terminal peptides (TCPs), which bind to and form amorphous amyloid-like aggregates with both...



Structural basis for cancer immunotherapy by the first-in-class checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Rational modulation of the immune response with biologics represents one of the most promising and active areas for the realization of new therapeutic strategies. In particular, the use of function blocking monoclonal antibodies targeting checkpoint inhibitors such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 have proven to be highly effective for the systemic...



Erythritol is a pentose-phosphate pathway metabolite and associated with adiposity gain in young adults [Medical Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Metabolomic markers associated with incident central adiposity gain were investigated in young adults. In a 9-mo prospective study of university freshmen (n = 264). Blood samples and anthropometry measurements were collected in the first 3 d on campus and at the end of the year. Plasma from individuals was pooled...



Hypoxia treatment reverses neurodegenerative disease in a mouse model of Leigh syndrome [Medical Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

The most common pediatric mitochondrial disease is Leigh syndrome, an episodic, subacute neurodegeneration that can lead to death within the first few years of life, for which there are no proven general therapies. Mice lacking the complex I subunit, Ndufs4, develop a fatal progressive encephalopathy resembling Leigh syndrome and die...



Coronavirus nonstructural protein 15 mediates evasion of dsRNA sensors and limits apoptosis in macrophages [Microbiology]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Coronaviruses are positive-sense RNA viruses that generate double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) intermediates during replication, yet evade detection by host innate immune sensors. Here we report that coronavirus nonstructural protein 15 (nsp15), an endoribonuclease, is required for evasion of dsRNA sensors. We evaluated two independent nsp15 mutant mouse coronaviruses, designated N15m1 and...



mTORC1 promotes proliferation of immature Schwann cells and myelin growth of differentiated Schwann cells [Neuroscience]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

The myelination of axons in peripheral nerves requires precisely coordinated proliferation and differentiation of Schwann cells (SCs). We found that the activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a key signaling hub for the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation, is progressively extinguished as SCs differentiate during...



Maturation arrest in early postnatal sensory receptors by deletion of the miR-183/96/182 cluster in mouse [Neuroscience]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

The polycistronic miR-183/96/182 cluster is preferentially and abundantly expressed in terminally differentiating sensory epithelia. To clarify its roles in the terminal differentiation of sensory receptors in vivo, we deleted the entire gene cluster in mouse germline through homologous recombination. The miR-183/96/182 null mice display impairment of the visual, auditory, vestibular,...



Common general anesthetic propofol impairs kinesin processivity [Pharmacology]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Propofol is the most widely used i.v. general anesthetic to induce and maintain anesthesia. It is now recognized that this small molecule influences ligand-gated channels, including the GABAA receptor and others. Specific propofol binding sites have been mapped using photoaffinity ligands and mutagenesis; however, their precise target interaction profiles fail...



Exclusion of alternative exon 33 of CaV1.2 calcium channels in heart is proarrhythmogenic [Physiology]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Alternative splicing changes the CaV1.2 calcium channel electrophysiological property, but the in vivo significance of such altered channel function is lacking. Structure–function studies of heterologously expressed CaV1.2 channels could not recapitulate channel function in the native milieu of the cardiomyocyte. To address this gap in knowledge, we investigated the role...



Chromosome-level genome assembly and transcriptome of the green alga Chromochloris zofingiensis illuminates astaxanthin production [Plant Biology]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Microalgae have potential to help meet energy and food demands without exacerbating environmental problems. There is interest in the unicellular green alga Chromochloris zofingiensis, because it produces lipids for biofuels and a highly valuable carotenoid nutraceutical, astaxanthin. To advance understanding of its biology and facilitate commercial development, we present a...



The wisdom of crowds for visual search [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Decision-making accuracy typically increases through collective integration of people’s judgments into group decisions, a phenomenon known as the wisdom of crowds. For simple perceptual laboratory tasks, classic signal detection theory specifies the upper limit for collective integration benefits obtained by weighted averaging of people’s confidences, and simple majority voting can...



Hybridizing transgenic Bt cotton with non-Bt cotton counters resistance in pink bollworm [Agricultural Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

Extensive cultivation of crops genetically engineered to produce insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has suppressed some major pests, reduced insecticide sprays, enhanced pest control by natural enemies, and increased grower profits. However, these benefits are being eroded by evolution of resistance in pests. We report a strategy...



In vivo engineering of bone tissues with hematopoietic functions and mixed chimerism [Applied Biological Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

Synthetic biomimetic matrices with osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity have been developed to regenerate bone tissues. However, whether such systems harbor donor marrow in vivo and support mixed chimerism remains unknown. We devised a strategy to engineer bone tissues with a functional bone marrow (BM) compartment in vivo by using a synthetic...



H2O2-responsive liposomal nanoprobe for photoacoustic inflammation imaging and tumor theranostics via in vivo chromogenic assay [Biochemistry]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

Abnormal H2O2 levels are closely related to many diseases, including inflammation and cancers. Herein, we simultaneously load HRP and its substrate, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), into liposomal nanoparticles, obtaining a Lipo@HRP&ABTS optical nanoprobe for in vivo H2O2-responsive chromogenic assay with great specificity and sensitivity. In the presence of H2O2, colorless ABTS...



Cap-binding protein 4EHP effects translation silencing by microRNAs [Biochemistry]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in a broad variety of biological processes by inhibiting translation initiation and by destabilizing target mRNAs. The CCR4–NOT complex effects miRNA-mediated silencing, at least in part through interactions with 4E-T (eIF4E transporter) protein, but the precise mechanism is unknown. Here we show that the cap-binding...



Structural hierarchy controlling dimerization and target DNA recognition in the AHR transcriptional complex [Biochemistry]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) belongs to the PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) family transcription factors and mediates broad responses to numerous environmental pollutants and cellular metabolites, modulating diverse biological processes from adaptive metabolism, acute toxicity, to normal physiology of vascular and immune systems. The AHR forms a transcriptionally active heterodimer with ARNT...



Adaptation of cone pigments found in green rods for scotopic vision through a single amino acid mutation [Biochemistry]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

Most vertebrate retinas contain a single type of rod for scotopic vision and multiple types of cones for photopic and color vision. The retinas of certain amphibian species uniquely contain two types of rods: red rods, which express rhodopsin, and green rods, which express a blue-sensitive cone pigment (M1/SWS2 group)....



Mechanism of duplex DNA destabilization by RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease during target interrogation [Biochemistry]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

The prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated 9 (Cas9) endonuclease cleaves double-stranded DNA sequences specified by guide RNA molecules and flanked by a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and is widely used for genome editing in various organisms. The RNA-programmed Cas9 locates the target site by scanning genomic DNA....



Dynamic remodeling of the dynamin helix during membrane constriction [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Dynamin is a dimeric GTPase that assembles into a helix around the neck of endocytic buds. Upon GTP hydrolysis, dynamin breaks these necks, a reaction called membrane fission. Fission requires dynamin to first constrict the membrane. It is unclear, however, how dynamin helix constriction works. Here we undertake a direct...



Entropic forces drive self-organization and membrane fusion by SNARE proteins [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

SNARE proteins are the core of the cell’s fusion machinery and mediate virtually all known intracellular membrane fusion reactions on which exocytosis and trafficking depend. Fusion is catalyzed when vesicle-associated v-SNAREs form trans-SNARE complexes (“SNAREpins”) with target membrane-associated t-SNAREs, a zippering-like process releasing ∼65 kT per SNAREpin. Fusion requires several...



High-throughput biochemical profiling reveals sequence determinants of dCas9 off-target binding and unbinding [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

The bacterial adaptive immune system CRISPR–Cas9 has been appropriated as a versatile tool for editing genomes, controlling gene expression, and visualizing genetic loci. To analyze Cas9’s ability to bind DNA rapidly and specifically, we generated multiple libraries of potential binding partners for measuring the kinetics of nuclease-dead Cas9 (dCas9) interactions....



Single-crystal Ih ice surfaces unveil connection between macroscopic and molecular structure [Chemistry]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

Physics and chemistry of ice surfaces are not only of fundamental interest but also have important impacts on biological and environmental processes. As ice surfaces—particularly the two prism faces—come under greater scrutiny, it is increasingly important to connect the macroscopic faces with the molecular-level structure. The microscopic structure of the...



Development of an optimized synthetic Notch receptor as an in vivo cell-cell contact sensor [Developmental Biology]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Detection and manipulation of direct cell–cell contact in complex tissues is a fundamental and challenging problem in many biological studies. Here, we report an optimized Notch-based synthetic receptor (synNQ) useful to study direct cell–cell interactions in Drosophila. With the synNQ system, cells expressing a synthetic receptor, which contains Notch activation...



Carbon dioxide sources from Alaska driven by increasing early winter respiration from Arctic tundra [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

High-latitude ecosystems have the capacity to release large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere in response to increasing temperatures, representing a potentially significant positive feedback within the climate system. Here, we combine aircraft and tower observations of atmospheric CO2 with remote sensing data and meteorological products to derive...



Opinion: On being an advisor to today’s ȷunior scientists [Economic Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

Young scientists often have the same long-term goal: use one’s smarts and drive to gain insights into a problem of interest. Typically, these scientists draw upon a long-standing and time-tested scientific process: formulate a hypothesis, design experiments to test this hypothesis, collect data, interpret the data, revisit and modify the...



Listener evaluations of new and Old Italian violins [Engineering]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

Old Italian violins are routinely credited with playing qualities supposedly unobtainable in new instruments. These qualities include the ability to project their sound more effectively in a concert hall—despite seeming relatively quiet under the ear of the player—compared with new violins. Although researchers have long tried to explain the “mystery”...



Enhanced CO2 uptake at a shallow Arctic Ocean seep field overwhelms the positive warming potential of emitted methane [Environmental Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

Continued warming of the Arctic Ocean in coming decades is projected to trigger the release of teragrams (1 Tg = 106 tons) of methane from thawing subsea permafrost on shallow continental shelves and dissociation of methane hydrate on upper continental slopes. On the shallow shelves (<100 m water depth), methane...



Ambiguity in the causes for decadal trends in atmospheric methane and hydroxyl [Environmental Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

Methane is the second strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gas and its atmospheric burden has more than doubled since 1850. Methane concentrations stabilized in the early 2000s and began increasing again in 2007. Neither the stabilization nor the recent growth are well understood, as evidenced by multiple competing hypotheses in recent literature....



Role of atmospheric oxidation in recent methane growth [Environmental Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

The growth in global methane (CH4) concentration, which had been ongoing since the industrial revolution, stalled around the year 2000 before resuming globally in 2007. We evaluate the role of the hydroxyl radical (OH), the major CH4 sink, in the recent CH4 growth. We also examine the influence of systematic...



Shelterin components mediate genome reorganization in response to replication stress [Genetics]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

The dynamic nature of genome organization impacts critical nuclear functions including the regulation of gene expression, replication, and DNA damage repair. Despite significant progress, the mechanisms responsible for reorganization of the genome in response to cellular stress, such as aberrant DNA replication, are poorly understood. Here, we show that fission...



Uric acid priming in human monocytes is driven by the AKT-PRAS40 autophagy pathway [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Metabolic triggers are important inducers of the inflammatory processes in gout. Whereas the high serum urate levels observed in patients with gout predispose them to the formation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, soluble urate also primes for inflammatory signals in cells responding to gout-related stimuli, but also in other common...



Autoantibody-induced internalization of CNS AQP4 water channel and EAAT2 glutamate transporter requires astrocytic Fc receptor [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel-specific IgG distinguishes neuromyelitis optica (NMO) from multiple sclerosis and causes characteristic immunopathology in which central nervous system (CNS) demyelination is secondary. Early events initiating the pathophysiological outcomes of IgG binding to astrocytic AQP4 are poorly understood. CNS lesions reflect events documented in vitro following IgG interaction...



Microbiota promotes systemic T-cell survival through suppression of an apoptotic factor [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Symbiotic microbes impact the severity of a variety of diseases through regulation of T-cell development. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms by which this is accomplished. Here we report that a secreted factor, Erdr1, is regulated by the microbiota to control T-cell apoptosis. Erdr1 expression was identified by...



Combined HMG-COA reductase and prenylation inhibition in treatment of CCM [Medical Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common vascular anomalies that develop in the central nervous system and, more rarely, the retina. The lesions can cause headache, seizures, focal neurological deficits, and hemorrhagic stroke. Symptomatic lesions are treated according to their presentation; however, targeted pharmacological therapies that improve the outcome of CCM...



Structural basis for spumavirus GAG tethering to chromatin [Microbiology]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

The interactions between a retrovirus and host cell chromatin that underlie integration and provirus expression are poorly understood. The prototype foamy virus (PFV) structural protein GAG associates with chromosomes via a chromatin-binding sequence (CBS) located within its C-terminal region. Here, we show that the PFV CBS is essential and sufficient...



Social propinquity in rodents as measured by tube cooccupancy differs between inbred and outbred genotypes [Neuroscience]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Existing assays of social interaction are suboptimal, and none measures propinquity, the tendency of rodents to maintain close physical proximity. These assays are ubiquitously performed using inbred mouse strains and mutations placed on inbred genetic backgrounds. We developed the automatable tube cooccupancy test (TCOT) based on propinquity, the tendency of...



Heritability analysis with repeat measurements and its application to resting-state functional connectivity [Neuroscience]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Heritability, defined as the proportion of phenotypic variation attributable to genetic variation, provides important information about the genetic basis of a trait. Existing heritability analysis methods do not discriminate between stable effects (e.g., due to the subject’s unique environment) and transient effects, such as measurement error. This can lead to...



Metaplasticity mechanisms restore plasticity and associativity in an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease [Neuroscience]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Dynamic regulation of plasticity thresholds in a neuronal population is critical for the formation of long-term plasticity and memory and is achieved by mechanisms such as metaplasticity. Metaplasticity tunes the synapses to undergo changes that are necessary prerequisites for memory storage under physiological and pathological conditions. Here we discovered that,...



Intersectin 1 is a component of the Reelin pathway to regulate neuronal migration and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus [Neuroscience]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Brain development and function depend on the directed and coordinated migration of neurons from proliferative zones to their final position. The secreted glycoprotein Reelin is an important factor directing neuronal migration. Loss of Reelin function results in the severe developmental disorder lissencephaly and is associated with neurological diseases in humans....



Functional genomics in Brugia malayi reveal diverse muscle nAChRs and differences between cholinergic anthelmintics [Pharmacology]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Many techniques for studying functional genomics of important target sites of anthelmintics have been restricted to Caenorhabditis elegans because they have failed when applied to animal parasites. To overcome these limitations, we have focused our research on the human nematode parasite Brugia malayi, which causes elephantiasis. Here, we combine single-cell...



Anomalous thermal diffusivity in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x [Physics]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

The thermal diffusivity in the ab plane of underdoped YBCO crystals is measured by means of a local optical technique in the temperature range of 25–300 K. The phase delay between a point heat source and a set of detection points around it allows for high-resolution measurement of the thermal...



Competing magnetic orders in the superconducting state of heavy-fermion CeRhIn5 [Physics]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

Applied pressure drives the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeRhIn5 toward a quantum critical point that becomes hidden by a dome of unconventional superconductivity. Magnetic fields suppress this superconducting dome, unveiling the quantum phase transition of local character. Here, we show that 5% magnetic substitution at the Ce site in CeRhIn5, either by...



Evidence from Fermi surface analysis for the low-temperature structure of lithium [Physics]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

The low-temperature crystal structure of elemental lithium, the prototypical simple metal, is a several-decades-old problem. At 1 atm pressure and 298 K, Li forms a body-centered cubic lattice, which is common to all alkali metals. However, a low-temperature phase transition was experimentally detected to a structure initially identified as having...



Biological origins of color categorization [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants’ categorization of...



Community trust reduces myopic decisions of low-income individuals [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

Why do the poor make shortsighted choices in decisions that involve delayed payoffs? Foregoing immediate rewards for larger, later rewards requires that decision makers (i) believe future payoffs will occur and (ii) are not forced to take the immediate reward out of financial need. Low-income individuals may be both less...



Preferences for group dominance track and mediate the effects of macro-level social inequality and violence across societies [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

Whether and how societal structures shape individual psychology is a foundational question of the social sciences. Combining insights from evolutionary biology, economy, and the political and psychological sciences, we identify a central psychological process that functions to sustain group-based hierarchies in human societies. In study 1, we demonstrate that macrolevel...



Identifying the landscape drivers of agricultural insecticide use leveraging evidence from 100,000 fields [Sustainability Science]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

Agricultural landscape intensification has enabled food production to meet growing demand. However, there are concerns that more simplified cropland with lower crop diversity, less noncrop habitat, and larger fields results in increased use of pesticides due to a lack of natural pest control and more homogeneous crop resources. Here, we...



Modeling the response of a tumor-suppressive network to mitogenic and oncogenic signals [Systems Biology]

2017-05-23T12:19:03-07:00

Intrinsic tumor-suppressive mechanisms protect normal cells against aberrant proliferation. Although cellular signaling pathways engaged in tumor repression have been largely identified, how they are orchestrated to fulfill their function still remains elusive. Here, we built a tumor-suppressive network model composed of three modules responsible for the regulation of cell proliferation,...



Correction for Zastrow, News Feature: Is video game addiction really an addiction? [Correction]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

NEWS FEATURE Correction for “News Feature: Is video game addiction really an addiction?” by Mark Zastrow, which appeared in issue 17, April 25, 2017, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (114:4268–4272; 10.1073/pnas.1705077114). The editors note that Tae Kyung Lee was originally misidentified as a psychologist and should be identified as...



Correction for Xu et al., BCL6 promotes glioma and serves as a therapeutic target [Correction]

2017-05-23T12:19:04-07:00

MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for “BCL6 promotes glioma and serves as a therapeutic target,” by Liang Xu, Ye Chen, Marina Dutra-Clarke, Anand Mayakonda, Masaharu Hazawa, Steve E. Savinoff, Ngan Doan, Jonathan W. Said, William H. Yong, Ashley Watkins, Henry Yang, Ling-Wen Ding, Yan-Yi Jiang, Jeffrey W. Tyner, Jianhong Ching, Jean-Paul Kovalik,...