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Preview: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue



Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences RSS feed -- current issue



 



In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

Tuberculosis and HIV coinfection SIV-infected cells in lung granuloma from macaque with extensive TB. One in three people harbor latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB), but latent Mtb can trigger active TB. Coinfection with HIV can speed the progression of latent TB to active TB, a...



Biophotons and intelligence are not related [Biological Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Despite enormous efforts, any correlation between “intelligence” and cognitive or physiological/anatomical properties of animal brains is still poorly understood because intelligence depends on multiple factors in parallel and not a single determinant (1). The study by Wang et al. (2) is both novel and intriguing, but we believe that the...



Biophotons related to human intelligence [Biological Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

We would like to thank Salari et al. for their interest in our paper (1) and to give a response to their concerns on the causation of spectral redshift of biophotons related to human intelligence (2). First, it is inappropriate to consider a brain slice (or whole brain) as a...



How monocytes guard the glomerulus [Immunology and Inflammation]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

In most tissues the leukocyte response to inflammatory stimuli takes place in postcapillary venules (1). Leukocytes and endothelial cells undergo a coordinated and stereotyped series of increasingly tight adhesive interactions designed to capture leukocytes from the bloodstream (2–5). This process generally culminates in migration of leukocytes across the endothelial cells...



Biomolecular archaeology of prehistoric hearths [Anthropology]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

In the last decades, organic residue analysis of ceramic artifacts has advanced our understanding of culinary practices and economies in the past. Current approaches, deploying lipid residue analysis, have allowed a wide range of prehistoric commodities processed in pottery to be identified (1, 2). Recently, organic residues analysis has allowed...



Angiogenic neovessels promote tissue hypoxia [Physiology]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

The generation of blood vessels is a key early event during embryonic development that ensures the proper formation of the vasculature to supply oxygen and nutrients to the tissue. This occurs via two processes: vasculogenesis, whereby vessels are formed de novo, and angiogenesis, whereby new vessels sprout from preexisting ones...



TDRD3 promotes Top3{beta}{#x2019}s topoisomerase activities [Biochemistry]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Topoisomerase 3β (Top3β) can associate with the mediator protein Tudor domain-containing protein 3 (TDRD3) to participate in two gene expression processes of transcription and translation. Despite the apparent importance of TDRD3 in binding with Top3β and directing it to cellular compartments critical for gene expression, the biochemical mechanism of how...



Autoregulation of the F-BAR protein Nwk [Cell Biology]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Membrane remodeling by Fes/Cip4 homology-Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs167 (F-BAR) proteins is regulated by autoinhibitory interactions between their SRC homology 3 (SH3) and F-BAR domains. The structural basis of autoregulation, and whether it affects interactions of SH3 domains with other cellular ligands, remain unclear. Here we used single-particle electron microscopy to determine the structure...



Selenoprotein H, redox, and tumor formation [Developmental Biology]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Selenium, an essential micronutrient known for its cancer prevention properties, is incorporated into a class of selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins). Selenoprotein H (SepH) is a recently identified nucleolar oxidoreductase whose function is not well understood. Here we report that seph is an essential gene regulating organ development in zebrafish. Metabolite profiling...



Spiny plants and mammal browsers [Ecology]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Savannas first began to spread across Africa during the Miocene. A major hypothesis for explaining this vegetation change is the increase in C4 grasses, promoting fire. We investigated whether mammals could also have contributed to savanna expansion by using spinescence as a marker of mammal herbivory. Looking at the present...



Explosive ice age diversification of kiwi [Evolution]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Molecular dating largely overturned the paradigm that global cooling during recent Pleistocene glacial cycles resulted in a burst of species diversification although some evidence exists that speciation was commonly promoted in habitats near the expanding and retracting ice sheets. Here, we used a genome-wide dataset of more than half a...



Editing Arg codons shows rules for codon choice [Genetics]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

The degeneracy of the genetic code allows nucleic acids to encode amino acid identity as well as noncoding information for gene regulation and genome maintenance. The rare arginine codons AGA and AGG (AGR) present a case study in codon choice, with AGRs encoding important transcriptional and translational properties distinct from...



Mitochondrial enzyme GPT2 in neurological disease [Genetics]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Mutations that cause neurological phenotypes are highly informative with regard to mechanisms governing human brain function and disease. We report autosomal recessive mutations in the enzyme glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2 (GPT2) in large kindreds initially ascertained for intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). GPT2 [also known as alanine transaminase 2 (ALT2)]...



Class II MHC mutants alter CD4 T-cell V region use [Immunology and Inflammation]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

The interaction of αβ T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) with peptides bound to MHC molecules lies at the center of adaptive immunity. Whether TCRs have evolved to react with MHC or, instead, processes in the thymus involving coreceptors and other molecules select MHC-specific TCRs de novo from a random repertoire is...



PDGF-BB-induced PFT promotes cancer metastasis [Medical Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Vascular pericytes, an important cellular component in the tumor microenvironment, are often associated with tumor vasculatures, and their functions in cancer invasion and metastasis are poorly understood. Here we show that PDGF-BB induces pericyte–fibroblast transition (PFT), which significantly contributes to tumor invasion and metastasis. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrate that...



Cardiac endothelial Brg1 control heart hypertrophy [Medical Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Genes encoding angiotensin-converting enzymes (Ace and Ace2) are essential for heart function regulation. Cardiac stress enhances Ace, but suppresses Ace2, expression in the heart, leading to a net production of angiotensin II that promotes cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. The regulatory mechanism that underlies the Ace2-to-Ace pathological switch, however, is unknown....



Immune control of reactivation of latent TB [Microbiology]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

The synergy between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and HIV in coinfected patients has profoundly impacted global mortality because of tuberculosis (TB) and AIDS. HIV significantly increases rates of reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI) to active disease, with the decline in CD4+ T cells believed to be the major causality. In...



GluA1 signal peptide determines AMPAR assembly [Neuroscience]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission and predominantly assemble as heterotetramers in the brain. Recently, the crystal structures of homotetrameric GluA2 demonstrated that AMPARs are assembled with two pairs of conformationally distinct subunits, in a dimer of dimers formation. However, the structure of heteromeric AMPARs remains unclear. Guided...



TRiC rescues BDNF and striatal atrophy in HD [Neuroscience]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Corticostriatal atrophy is a cardinal manifestation of Huntington’s disease (HD). However, the mechanism(s) by which mutant huntingtin (mHTT) protein contributes to the degeneration of the corticostriatal circuit is not well understood. We recreated the corticostriatal circuit in microfluidic chambers, pairing cortical and striatal neurons from the BACHD model of HD...



CCR2 monocytes infiltrate after status epilepticus [Neuroscience]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

The generalized seizures of status epilepticus (SE) trigger a series of molecular and cellular events that produce cognitive deficits and can culminate in the development of epilepsy. Known early events include opening of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and astrocytosis accompanied by activation of brain microglia. Whereas circulating monocytes do not...



Design of GPCR allosteric modulators [Pharmacology]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Design of ligands that provide receptor selectivity has emerged as a new paradigm for drug discovery of G protein-coupled receptors, and may, for certain families of receptors, only be achieved via identification of chemically diverse allosteric modulators. Here, the extracellular vestibule of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) is targeted...



Cyclic AMP regulation of SCAP/SREBP [Pharmacology]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates steroidogenesis largely through a surge in cyclic AMP (cAMP). Steroidogenic rates are also critically dependent on the availability of cholesterol at mitochondrial sites of synthesis. This cholesterol is provided by cellular uptake of lipoproteins, mobilization of intracellular lipid, and de novo synthesis. Whether and how these...



High-efficiency metasurfaces for visible spectrum [Applied Physical Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

Metasurfaces are planar optical elements that hold promise for overcoming the limitations of refractive and conventional diffractive optics. Original dielectric metasurfaces are limited to transparency windows at infrared wavelengths because of significant optical absorption and loss at visible wavelengths. Thus, it is critical that new materials and nanofabrication techniques be...



Biaxial ferromagnetic liquid crystal colloids [Applied Physical Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

The design and practical realization of composite materials that combine fluidity and different forms of ordering at the mesoscopic scale are among the grand fundamental science challenges. These composites also hold a great potential for technological applications, ranging from information displays to metamaterials. Here we introduce a fluid with coexisting...



Crystal structure of the Bor1 SLC4 transporter [Biochemistry]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

Boron is essential for plant growth because of its incorporation into plant cell walls; however, in excess it is toxic to plants. Boron transport and homeostasis in plants is regulated in part by the borate efflux transporter Bor1, a member of the solute carrier (SLC) 4 transporter family with homology...



Active conformation of the APC/C requires Apc1WD40 [Biochemistry]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multimeric cullin–RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that orchestrates cell-cycle progression by targeting cell-cycle regulatory proteins for destruction via the ubiquitin proteasome system. The APC/C assembly comprises two scaffolding subcomplexes: the platform and the TPR lobe that together coordinate the juxtaposition of the catalytic and...



Nucleosome ubiquitination by Rad6-Bre1 [Biochemistry]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Cotranscriptional ubiquitination of histone H2B is key to gene regulation. The yeast E3 ubiquitin ligase Bre1 (human RNF20/40) pairs with the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Rad6 to monoubiquitinate H2B at Lys123. How this single lysine residue on the nucleosome core particle (NCP) is targeted by the Rad6–Bre1 machinery is unknown....



Side-chain snorkeling in transmembrane helices [Biochemistry]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Cotranslational translocon-mediated insertion of membrane proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum is a key process in membrane protein biogenesis. Although the mechanism is understood in outline, quantitative data on the energetics of the process is scarce. Here, we have measured the effect on membrane integration efficiency of nonproteinogenic analogs of the...



Protein quake after CO dissociation in myoglobin [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

“Protein quake” denotes the dissipation of excess energy across a protein, in response to a local perturbation such as the breaking of a chemical bond or the absorption of a photon. Femtosecond time-resolved small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (TR-SWAXS) is capable of tracking such ultrafast protein dynamics. However, because the...



PI5P4K{alpha} generates a PIP2 pool that regulates Akt [Cell Biology]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinases (PI5P4Ks) are enigmatic lipid kinases with physiological functions that are incompletely understood, not the least because genetic deletion and cell transfection have led to contradictory data. Here, we used the genetic tractability of DT40 cells to create cell lines in which endogenous PI5P4Kα was removed, either stably...



P31comet in rice meiosis [Cell Biology]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

The human mitotic arrest-deficient 2 (Mad2) binding protein p31comet participates in the spindle checkpoint and coordinates cell cycle events in mitosis although its function in meiosis remains unknown in all organisms. Here, we reveal P31comet as a synaptonemal complex (SC) protein in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In p31comet, homologous pairing...



Zone of anisotropy in colloidal crystallization [Chemistry]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

In this work, we present a joint experimental and molecular dynamics simulations effort to understand and map the crystallization behavior of polyhedral nanoparticles assembled via the interaction of DNA surface ligands. In these systems, we systematically investigated the interplay between the effects of particle core (via the particle symmetry and...



Covalent bonds against magnetism [Chemistry]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

Magnetism in transition metal compounds is usually considered starting from a description of isolated ions, as exact as possible, and treating their (exchange) interaction at a later stage. We show that this standard approach may break down in many cases, especially in 4d and 5d compounds. We argue that there...



Kinetic barriers to SNAREpin assembly [Chemistry]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

Neurotransmission is achieved by soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-driven fusion of readily releasable vesicles that are docked and primed at the presynaptic plasma membrane. After neurotransmission, the readily releasable pool of vesicles must be refilled in less than 100 ms for subsequent release. Here we show that the initial...



Minibrain and Wings apart inhibit Capicua [Developmental Biology]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

The transcriptional repressor Capicua (Cic) controls tissue patterning and restricts organ growth, and has been recently implicated in several cancers. Cic has emerged as a primary sensor of signaling downstream of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, but how Cic activity is regulated in different cellular contexts...



Nutrients drive DOC accumulation at surface [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

The inventories of carbon residing in organic matter dissolved in the ocean [dissolved organic carbon (DOC)] and in the atmosphere as CO2 are of the same order of magnitude, such that small changes in the DOC pool could have important consequences in atmospheric carbon and thus climate. DOC in the...



Olivine anisotropy and the base of the lithosphere [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

Tectonic plates are a key feature of Earth’s structure, and their behavior and dynamics are fundamental drivers in a wide range of large-scale processes. The operation of plate tectonics, in general, depends intimately on the manner in which lithospheric plates couple to the convecting interior. Current debate centers on whether...



Thermal landscape determines thermoregulation [Ecology]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Although most organisms thermoregulate behaviorally, biologists still cannot easily predict whether mobile animals will thermoregulate in natural environments. Current models fail because they ignore how the spatial distribution of thermal resources constrains thermoregulatory performance over space and time. To overcome this limitation, we modeled the spatially explicit movements of animals...



Can single molecules bind entire ecosystems? [Environmental Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

Off the coast of California, puffy slug-like creatures—named sea hares (Aplysia californica) for their bunny ear-like tentacles—chomp their way across underwater fields of red-brown algae. The algae produce mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), chemicals that give the sea hares their murky maroon hues. The animals deploy these same molecules for defense....



Oxygen kinetics of ammonium and nitrite oxidation [Environmental Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

A major percentage of fixed nitrogen (N) loss in the oceans occurs within nitrite-rich oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) via denitrification and anammox. It remains unclear to what extent ammonium and nitrite oxidation co-occur, either supplying or competing for substrates involved in nitrogen loss in the OMZ core. Assessment of the...



Responses of grassland production to global change [Environmental Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Global changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and pollutants are altering ecosystems and the goods and services they provide. Among approaches for predicting ecosystem responses, long-term observations and manipulative experiments can be powerful approaches for resolving single-factor and interactive effects of global changes on key metrics such as net primary production...



Variation in the molecular clock of primates [Evolution]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Events in primate evolution are often dated by assuming a constant rate of substitution per unit time, but the validity of this assumption remains unclear. Among mammals, it is well known that there exists substantial variation in yearly substitution rates. Such variation is to be expected from differences in life...



Convergence of caffeine biosynthesis in plants [Evolution]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Convergent evolution is a process that has occurred throughout the tree of life, but the historical genetic and biochemical context promoting the repeated independent origins of a trait is rarely understood. The well-known stimulant caffeine, and its xanthine alkaloid precursors, has evolved multiple times in flowering plant history for various...



Cooperation of eIF4B with eIF4A and Ded1 in vivo [Genetics]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

DEAD-box RNA helicases eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) and Ded1 promote translation by resolving mRNA secondary structures that impede preinitiation complex (PIC) attachment to mRNA or scanning. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B) is a cofactor for eIF4A but also might function independently of eIF4A. Ribosome profiling of mutants...



PAXX C-NHEJ functions masked by XLF [Genetics]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Classical nonhomologous end joining (C-NHEJ) is a major mammalian DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway. Core C-NHEJ factors, such as XRCC4, are required for joining DSB intermediates of the G1 phase-specific V(D)J recombination reaction in progenitor lymphocytes. Core factors also contribute to joining DSBs in cycling mature B-lineage cells, including...



Identification of a lenalidomide target molecule [Immunology and Inflammation]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) are a family of compounds derived from thalidomide. Binding of the IMiD molecule to the Lon protease Cereblon initiates the degradation of substrates via the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Here, we show that Cereblon forms a complex with Rabex-5, a regulator of immune homeostasis. Treatment with lenalidomide prevented...



Effector CD8+ T-cell regulation by DNMT3a [Immunology and Inflammation]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

DNMT3a is a de novo DNA methyltransferase expressed robustly after T-cell activation that regulates plasticity of CD4+ T-cell cytokine expression. Here we show that DNMT3a is critical for directing early CD8+ T-cell effector and memory fate decisions. Whereas effector function of DNMT3a knockout T cells is normal, they develop more...



Leptin promotes SLE [Immunology and Inflammation]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Leptin is an adipocytokine that plays a key role in the modulation of immune responses and the development and maintenance of inflammation. Circulating levels of leptin are elevated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, but it is not clear whether this association can reflect a direct influence of leptin on...



Molecular profiles of lymphatics [Immunology and Inflammation]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Afferent lymphatic vessels bring antigens and diverse populations of leukocytes to draining lymph nodes, whereas efferent lymphatics allow only lymphocytes and antigens to leave the nodes. Despite the fundamental importance of afferent vs. efferent lymphatics in immune response and cancer spread, the molecular characteristics of these different arms of the...



Mannose receptor-induced T-cell tolerance [Immunology and Inflammation]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

The mannose receptor (MR) is an endocytic receptor involved in serum homeostasis and antigen presentation. Here, we identify the MR as a direct regulator of CD8+ T-cell activity. We demonstrate that MR expression on dendritic cells (DCs) impaired T-cell cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. This regulatory effect of the...



Sufficient trial size to inform clinical practice [Medical Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

Medical research has evolved conventions for choosing sample size in randomized clinical trials that rest on the theory of hypothesis testing. Bayesian statisticians have argued that trials should be designed to maximize subjective expected utility in settings of clinical interest. This perspective is compelling given a credible prior distribution on...



MicroRNA panel for diagnosis of prostate cancer [Medical Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

We report the identification of a molecular signature using the Scano-miR profiling platform based on the differential expression of circulating microRNAs (miRNA, miR) in serum samples specific to patients with very high-risk (VHR) prostate cancer (PCa). Five miRNA PCa biomarkers (miR-200c, miR-605, miR-135a*, miR-433, and miR-106a) were identified as useful...



CRISPR-Cas9 creates HPFH in HSPCs [Medical Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is a condition in some individuals who have a high level of fetal hemoglobin throughout life. Individuals with compound heterozygous β-thalassemia or sickle cell disease (SCD) and HPFH have milder clinical manifestations. Using RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) genome-editing technology,...



Act D and RG7787 synergize to kill cancer cells [Medical Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

RG7787 is a mesothelin-targeted immunotoxin designed to have low-immunogenicity, high-cytotoxic activity and fewer side effects. RG7787 kills many types of mesothelin-expressing cancer cells lines and causes tumor regressions in mice. Safety and immunogenicity of RG7787 is now being assessed in a phase I trial. To enhance the antitumor activity of...



Mutations in pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma [Medical Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH) is a benign tumor with two cell populations (epithelial and stromal cells), for which genomic profiles remain unknown. We conducted exome sequencing of 44 PSHs and identified recurrent somatic mutations of AKT1 (43.2%) and β-catenin (4.5%). We used a second subset of 24 PSHs to confirm...



Innate antiviral gene signature after childbirth [Microbiology]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Maternal innate and adaptive immune responses are modulated during pregnancy to concurrently defend against infection and tolerate the semiallogeneic fetus. The restoration of these systems after childbirth is poorly understood. We reasoned that enhanced innate immune activation may extend beyond gestation while adaptive immunity recovers. To test this hypothesis, the...



Genetic determinants of postpartum HCV control [Microbiology]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by exhaustion of virus-specific T-cells and stable viremia. Pregnancy is an exception. Viremia gradually climbs during gestation but sometimes declines sharply in the months following delivery. Here, we demonstrated that postpartum HCV control was associated with enhanced virus-specific T-cell immunity. Women with...



Genetic basis for hypervirulence of Campylobacter [Microbiology]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Infections due to clonal expansion of highly virulent bacterial strains are clear and present threats to human and animal health. Association of genetic changes with disease is now a routine, but identification of causative mutations that enable disease remains difficult. Campylobacter jejuni is an important zoonotic pathogen transmitted to humans...



Unique pH dynamics in GABAergic synaptic vesicles [Neuroscience]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

GABA acts as the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, shaping neuronal and circuit activity. For sustained synaptic transmission, synaptic vesicles (SVs) are required to be recycled and refilled with neurotransmitters using an H+ electrochemical gradient. However, neither the mechanism underlying vesicular GABA uptake nor the kinetics of GABA...



Atom interactions in a photonic crystal waveguide [Physics]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

Tailoring the interactions between quantum emitters and single photons constitutes one of the cornerstones of quantum optics. Coupling a quantum emitter to the band edge of a photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) provides a unique platform for tuning these interactions. In particular, the cross-over from propagating fields E(x)∝e±ikxx outside the bandgap...



Ultrathin 2D superconductivity with strong SOC [Physics]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

We report on a study of epitaxially grown ultrathin Pb films that are only a few atoms thick and have parallel critical magnetic fields much higher than the expected limit set by the interaction of electron spins with a magnetic field, that is, the Clogston–Chandrasekhar limit. The epitaxial thin films...



Flowering regulation by chloroplasts [Plant Biology]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Light is a major environmental factor regulating flowering time, thus ensuring reproductive success of higher plants. In contrast to our detailed understanding of light quality and photoperiod mechanisms involved, the molecular basis underlying high light-promoted flowering remains elusive. Here we show that, in Arabidopsis, a chloroplast-derived signal is critical for...



Galactolipid transfer in chloroplast envelopes [Plant Biology]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Galactolipids [monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG)] are the hallmark lipids of photosynthetic membranes. The galactolipid synthases MGD1 and DGD1 catalyze consecutive galactosyltransfer reactions but localize to the inner and outer chloroplast envelopes, respectively, necessitating intermembrane lipid transfer. Here we show that the N-terminal sequence of DGD1 (NDGD1) is required for...



DUS16 plays essential role in pri-miRNA processing [Plant Biology]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Canonical microRNAs (miRNAs) are embedded in duplexed stem–loops in long precursor transcripts and are excised by sequential cleavage by DICER nuclease(s). In this miRNA biogenesis pathway, dsRNA-binding proteins play important roles in animals and plants by assisting DICER. However, these RNA-binding proteins are poorly characterized in unicellular organisms. Here we...



Coordination failures in intergroup conflict [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

Intergroup conflict persists when and because individuals make costly contributions to their group’s fighting capacity, but how groups organize contributions into effective collective action remains poorly understood. Here we distinguish between contributions aimed at subordinating out-groups (out-group aggression) from those aimed at defending the in-group against possible out-group aggression (in-group...



Neural signature of a specificity induction [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

Recent behavioral work suggests that an episodic specificity induction—brief training in recollecting the details of a past experience—enhances performance on subsequent tasks that rely on episodic retrieval, including imagining future experiences, solving open-ended problems, and thinking creatively. Despite these far-reaching behavioral effects, nothing is known about the neural processes impacted...



Extracting screening rules from online dating data [Social Sciences]

2016-09-20T08:46:00-07:00

This paper presents a statistical framework for harnessing online activity data to better understand how people make decisions. Building on insights from cognitive science and decision theory, we develop a discrete choice model that allows for exploratory behavior and multiple stages of decision making, with different rules enacted at each...



Correction for Kopp et al., Temperature-driven global sea-level variability in the Common Era [Correction]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Correction for “Temperature-driven global sea-level variability in the Common Era,” by Robert E. Kopp, Andrew C. Kemp, Klaus Bittermann, Benjamin P. Horton, Jeffrey P. Donnelly, W. Roland Gehrels, Carling C. Hay, Jerry X. Mitrovica, Eric D. Morrow, and Stefan Rahmstorf, which appeared in issue 11, March 15, 2016,...



Correction for Miyoshi et al., Erasure of DNA methylation, genomic imprints, and epimutations in a primordial germ-cell model derived from mouse pluripotent stem cells [Correction]

2016-09-20T08:46:01-07:00

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Correction for “Erasure of DNA methylation, genomic imprints, and epimutations in a primordial germ-cell model derived from mouse pluripotent stem cells,” by Norikatsu Miyoshi, Jente M. Stel, Keiko Shioda, Na Qu, Junko Odahima, Shino Mitsunaga, Xiangfan Zhang, Makoto Nagano, Konrad Hochedlinger, Kurt J. Isselbacher, and Toshi Shioda, which...