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Preview: PNAS - RSS feed of Early Edition articles

PNAS - RSS feed of Early Edition articles



Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences RSS feed -- Early Edition



 



Future urban land expansion and implications for global croplands [Sustainability Science]

2016-12-27T09:51:19-08:00

Urban expansion often occurs on croplands. However, there is little scientific understanding of how global patterns of future urban expansion will affect the world’s cultivated areas. Here, we combine spatially explicit projections of urban expansion with datasets on global croplands and crop yields. Our results show that urban expansion will...



Global urban signatures of phenotypic change in animal and plant populations [Sustainability Science]

2017-01-03T08:47:11-08:00

Humans challenge the phenotypic, genetic, and cultural makeup of species by affecting the fitness landscapes on which they evolve. Recent studies show that cities might play a major role in contemporary evolution by accelerating phenotypic changes in wildlife, including animals, plants, fungi, and other organisms. Many studies of ecoevolutionary change...



Urban sustainability in an age of enduring inequalities: Advancing theory and ecometrics for the 21st-century city [Perspectives]

2017-01-06T12:50:12-08:00

The environmental fragility of cities under advanced urbanization has motivated extensive efforts to promote the sustainability of urban ecosystems and physical infrastructures. Less attention has been devoted to neighborhood inequalities and fissures in the civic infrastructure that potentially challenge social sustainability and the capacity of cities to collectively address environmental...



Global scenarios of urban density and its impacts on building energy use through 2050 [Sustainability Science]

2017-01-09T12:10:28-08:00

Although the scale of impending urbanization is well-acknowledged, we have a limited understanding of how urban forms will change and what their impact will be on building energy use. Using both top-down and bottom-up approaches and scenarios, we examine building energy use for heating and cooling. Globally, the energy use...



Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression [Genetics]

2017-01-23T11:41:09-08:00

Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an...



Control of DEMETER DNA demethylase gene transcription in male and female gamete companion cells in Arabidopsis thaliana [Plant Biology]

2017-01-27T13:41:25-08:00

The DEMETER (DME) DNA glycosylase initiates active DNA demethylation via the base-excision repair pathway and is vital for reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana. DME-mediated DNA demethylation is preferentially targeted to small, AT-rich, and nucleosome-depleted euchromatic transposable elements, influencing expression of adjacent genes and leading to imprinting in the endosperm. In the...



Alterations of p11 in brain tissue and peripheral blood leukocytes in Parkinson’s disease [Neuroscience]

2017-01-30T11:52:47-08:00

Individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) often suffer from comorbid depression. P11 (S100A10), a member of the S100 family of proteins, is expressed widely throughout the body and is involved in major depressive disorder and antidepressant response. Central p11 levels are reduced in postmortem tissue from depressed individuals; however, p11 has...



Glucagon receptor inhibition normalizes blood glucose in severe insulin-resistant mice [Physiology]

2017-01-23T11:41:14-08:00

Inactivating mutations in the insulin receptor results in extreme insulin resistance. The resulting hyperglycemia is very difficult to treat, and patients are at risk for early morbidity and mortality from complications of diabetes. We used the insulin receptor antagonist S961 to induce severe insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and ketonemia in mice....



Angptl4 does not control hyperglucagonemia or {alpha}-cell hyperplasia following glucagon receptor inhibition [Physiology]

2017-01-31T11:16:37-08:00

Genetic disruption or pharmacologic inhibition of glucagon signaling effectively lowers blood glucose but results in compensatory glucagon hypersecretion involving expansion of pancreatic α-cell mass. Ben-Zvi et al. recently reported that angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4) links glucagon receptor inhibition to hyperglucagonemia and α-cell proliferation [Ben-Zvi et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad...



Oxidative DNA damage is epigenetic by regulating gene transcription via base excision repair [Biochemistry]

2017-01-31T11:16:37-08:00

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as important cellular-signaling agents for cellular survival. Herein, we demonstrate that ROS-mediated oxidation of DNA to yield 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) in gene promoters is a signaling agent for gene activation. Enhanced gene expression occurs when OG is formed in guanine-rich, potential G-quadruplex–forming sequences (PQS) in...



Neuronal migration is mediated by inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 via {alpha}-actinin and focal adhesion kinase [Neuroscience]

2017-02-02T12:39:36-08:00

Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1), which generates 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7), physiologically mediates numerous functions. We report that IP6K1 deletion leads to brain malformation and abnormalities of neuronal migration. IP6K1 physiologically associates with α-actinin and localizes to focal adhesions. IP6K1 deletion disrupts α-actinin’s intracellular localization and function. The IP6K1 deleted cells...



Biosynthesis of cabbage phytoalexins from indole glucosinolate [Biochemistry]

2017-02-02T12:39:37-08:00

Brassica crop species are prolific producers of indole–sulfur phytoalexins that are thought to have an important role in plant disease resistance. These molecules are conspicuously absent in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and little is known about the enzymatic steps that assemble the key precursor brassinin. Here, we report the...



TIR-only protein RBA1 recognizes a pathogen effector to regulate cell death in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

2017-01-30T11:52:47-08:00

Detection of pathogens by plants is mediated by intracellular nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptor proteins. NLR proteins are defined by their stereotypical multidomain structure: an N-terminal Toll–interleukin receptor (TIR) or coiled-coil (CC) domain, a central nucleotide-binding (NB) domain, and a C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR). The plant innate immune system...



Multiple functional self-association interfaces in plant TIR domains [Plant Biology]

2017-02-03T11:48:39-08:00

The self-association of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance protein (TIR) domains has been implicated in signaling in plant and animal immunity receptors. Structure-based studies identified different TIR-domain dimerization interfaces required for signaling of the plant nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) L6 from flax and disease resistance protein RPS4 from Arabidopsis. Here we show...



Systematic identification of anti-interferon function on hepatitis C virus genome reveals p7 as an immune evasion protein [Microbiology]

2017-02-03T11:48:40-08:00

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes mechanisms to evade the multilayered antiviral actions of the host immune system. Great progress has been made in elucidating the strategies HCV employs to down-regulate interferon (IFN) production, impede IFN signaling transduction, and impair IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. However, there is a limited understanding of...



Dynamics of SIV-specific CXCR5+ CD8 T cells during chronic SIV infection [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-02-03T11:48:40-08:00

A significant challenge to HIV eradication is the elimination of viral reservoirs in germinal center (GC) T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. However, GCs are considered to be immune privileged for antiviral CD8 T cells. Here, we show a population of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CD8 T cells express CXCR5 (C-X-C...



AXL-dependent infection of human fetal endothelial cells distinguishes Zika virus from other pathogenic flaviviruses [Microbiology]

2017-02-06T11:49:58-08:00

Although a causal relationship between Zika virus (ZIKV) and microcephaly has been established, it remains unclear why ZIKV, but not other pathogenic flaviviruses, causes congenital defects. Here we show that when viruses are produced in mammalian cells, ZIKV, but not the closely related dengue virus (DENV) or West Nile virus...



Cross-cultural regularities in the cognitive architecture of pride [Evolution]

2017-02-06T11:49:58-08:00

Pride occurs in every known culture, appears early in development, is reliably triggered by achievements and formidability, and causes a characteristic display that is recognized everywhere. Here, we evaluate the theory that pride evolved to guide decisions relevant to pursuing actions that enhance valuation and respect for a person in...



Profile of Lily and Yuh Nung Jan, winners of the 2017 Vilcek Prize in Biomedical Science [Profiles]

2017-02-06T11:49:59-08:00

The 2017 Vilcek Prize in Biomedical Science has been awarded to Lily Y. Jan and Yuh Nung Jan, professors in the department of physiology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), and Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigators. The Jans are being recognized for demonstrating how ion channels contribute to...



Northward extent of East Asian monsoon covaries with intensity on orbital and millennial timescales [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

2017-02-06T11:49:59-08:00

The magnitude, rate, and extent of past and future East Asian monsoon (EAM) rainfall fluctuations remain unresolved. Here, late Pleistocene–Holocene EAM rainfall intensity is reconstructed using a well-dated northeastern China closed-basin lake area record located at the modern northwestern fringe of the EAM. The EAM intensity and northern extent alternated...



Conformational disruption of PI3K{delta} regulation by immunodeficiency mutations in PIK3CD and PIK3R1 [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-02-06T11:49:59-08:00

Activated PI3K Delta Syndrome (APDS) is a primary immunodeficiency disease caused by activating mutations in either the leukocyte-restricted p110δ catalytic (PIK3CD) subunit or the ubiquitously expressed p85α regulatory (PIK3R1) subunit of class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks). There are two classes of APDS: APDS1 that arises from p110δ mutations that are...



Climate change is projected to have severe impacts on the frequency and intensity of peak electricity demand across the United States [Sustainability Science]

2017-02-06T11:49:59-08:00

It has been suggested that climate change impacts on the electric sector will account for the majority of global economic damages by the end of the current century and beyond [Rose S, et al. (2014) Understanding the Social Cost of Carbon: A Technical Assessment]. The empirical literature has shown significant...



MicroRNA-10a is crucial for endothelial response to different flow patterns via interaction of retinoid acid receptors and histone deacetylases [Physiology]

2017-02-06T11:50:00-08:00

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) and microRNAs (miRs) have emerged as two important epigenetic factors in the regulation of vascular physiology. This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between HDACs and miRs in the hemodynamic modulation of endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction. We found that miR-10a has the lowest expression among all examined...



Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulation suppresses pathogenic astrocyte activation and chronic progressive CNS inflammation [Medical Sciences]

2017-02-06T11:50:00-08:00

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS that causes disability in young adults as a result of the irreversible accumulation of neurological deficits. Although there are potent disease-modifying agents for its initial relapsing-remitting phase, these therapies show limited efficacy in secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Thus,...



Global socioeconomic material stocks rise 23-fold over the 20th century and require half of annual resource use [Sustainability Science]

2017-02-06T11:50:00-08:00

Human-made material stocks accumulating in buildings, infrastructure, and machinery play a crucial but underappreciated role in shaping the use of material and energy resources. Building, maintaining, and in particular operating in-use stocks of materials require raw materials and energy. Material stocks create long-term path-dependencies because of their longevity. Fostering a...



Timing and tempo of the Great Oxidation Event [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

2017-02-06T11:50:01-08:00

The first significant buildup in atmospheric oxygen, the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), began in the early Paleoproterozoic in association with global glaciations and continued until the end of the Lomagundi carbon isotope excursion ca. 2,060 Ma. The exact timing of and relationships among these events are debated because of poor...



HY5, a positive regulator of light signaling, negatively controls the unfolded protein response in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

2017-02-06T11:50:01-08:00

Light influences essentially all aspects of plant growth and development. Integration of light signaling with different stress response results in improvement of plant survival rates in ever changing environmental conditions. Diverse environmental stresses affect the protein-folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), thus evoking ER stress in plants. Consequently, the...



Low Hesperian PCO2 constrained from in situ mineralogical analysis at Gale Crater, Mars [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

2017-02-06T11:50:02-08:00

Carbon dioxide is an essential atmospheric component in martian climate models that attempt to reconcile a faint young sun with planetwide evidence of liquid water in the Noachian and Early Hesperian. In this study, we use mineral and contextual sedimentary environmental data measured by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover...



Genome-wide transcription-coupled repair in Escherichia coli is mediated by the Mfd translocase [Biochemistry]

2017-02-06T11:50:02-08:00

We used high-throughput sequencing of short, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer-containing ssDNA oligos generated during repair of UV-induced damage to study that process at both mechanistic and systemic levels in Escherichia coli. Numerous important insights on DNA repair were obtained, bringing clarity to the respective roles of UvrD helicase and Mfd translocase...



Full atomistic reaction mechanism with kinetics for CO reduction on Cu(100) from ab initio molecular dynamics free-energy calculations at 298 K [Chemistry]

2017-02-06T11:50:03-08:00

A critical step toward the rational design of new catalysts that achieve selective and efficient reduction of CO2 to specific hydrocarbons and oxygenates is to determine the detailed reaction mechanism including kinetics and product selectivity as a function of pH and applied potential for known systems. To accomplish this, we...



High-resolution imaging and quantification of plasma membrane cholesterol by NanoSIMS [Medical Sciences]

2017-02-06T11:50:03-08:00

Cholesterol is a crucial lipid within the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. Recent biochemical studies showed that one pool of cholesterol in the plasma membrane is “accessible” to binding by a modified version of the cytolysin perfringolysin O (PFO*), whereas another pool is sequestered by sphingomyelin and cannot be bound...



Interaction between top-down and bottom-up control in marine food webs [Environmental Sciences]

2017-02-06T11:50:03-08:00

Climate change and resource exploitation have been shown to modify the importance of bottom-up and top-down forces in ecosystems. However, the resulting pattern of trophic control in complex food webs is an emergent property of the system and thus unintuitive. We develop a statistical nondeterministic model, capable of modeling complex...



iPSCs and fibroblast subclones from the same fibroblast population contain comparable levels of sequence variations [Genetics]

2017-02-06T11:50:04-08:00

Genome integrity of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has been extensively studied in recent years, but it is still unclear whether iPSCs contain more genomic variations than cultured somatic cells. One important question is the origin of genomic variations detected in iPSCs–whether iPSC reprogramming induces such variations. Here, we undertook...



Spatially resolved air-water emissions tradeoffs improve regulatory impact analyses for electricity generation [Sustainability Science]

2017-02-06T11:50:04-08:00

Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) generate air, water, and solids emissions that impose substantial human health, environmental, and climate change (HEC) damages. This work demonstrates the importance of accounting for cross-media emissions tradeoffs, plant and regional emissions factors, and spatially variation in the marginal damages of air emissions when performing regulatory...



Female sociality and sexual conflict shape offspring survival in a Neotropical primate [Anthropology]

2017-02-06T11:50:05-08:00

Most mammals live in social groups in which members form differentiated social relationships. Individuals may vary in their degree of sociality, and this variation can be associated with differential fitness. In some species, for example, female sociality has a positive effect on infant survival. However, investigations of such cases are...



Probing equilibrium of molecular and deprotonated water on TiO2(110) [Chemistry]

2017-02-06T11:50:05-08:00

Understanding adsorbed water and its dissociation to surface hydroxyls on oxide surfaces is key to unraveling many physical and chemical processes, yet the barrier for its deprotonation has never been measured. In this study, we present direct evidence for water dissociation equilibrium on rutile-TiO2(110) by combining supersonic molecular beam, scanning...



Barcoded nanoparticles for high throughput in vivo discovery of targeted therapeutics [Engineering]

2017-02-06T11:50:06-08:00

Nucleic acid therapeutics are limited by inefficient delivery to target tissues and cells and by an incomplete understanding of how nanoparticle structure affects biodistribution to off-target organs. Although thousands of nanoparticle formulations have been designed to deliver nucleic acids, most nanoparticles have been tested in cell culture contexts that do...



Integrity of the human centromere DNA repeats is protected by CENP-A, CENP-C, and CENP-T [Cell Biology]

2017-02-06T11:50:06-08:00

Centromeres are highly specialized chromatin domains that enable chromosome segregation and orchestrate faithful cell division. Human centromeres are composed of tandem arrays of α-satellite DNA, which spans up to several megabases. Little is known about the mechanisms that maintain integrity of the long arrays of α-satellite DNA repeats. Here, we...



A distinct subset of plasmacytoid dendritic cells induces activation and differentiation of B and T lymphocytes [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-02-06T11:50:06-08:00

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are known mainly for their secretion of type I IFN upon viral encounter. We describe a CD2hiCD5+CD81+ pDC subset, distinguished by prominent dendrites and a mature phenotype, in human blood, bone marrow, and tonsil, which can be generated from CD34+ progenitors. These CD2hiCD5+CD81+ cells express classical...



Vera C. Rubin: Pioneering American astronomer (1928-2016) [Retrospectives]

2017-02-06T11:50:07-08:00

Vera Cooper Rubin, an icon of astronomy whose work revolutionized our understanding of the universe by confirming the existence of dark matter, passed away on December 25, 2016 at the age of 88. Vera had a lifelong love of the cosmos. “How could you possibly live on this Earth and...



Ahmed Zewail: A force for Egyptian science [Retrospectives]

2017-02-06T11:50:07-08:00

Undoubtedly, Dr. Ahmed Zewail, who passed away on August 2, 2016, had a strong, positive impact on science in the Middle East and in the West. I knew Zewail as one of his mentors and close friends. Zewail wanted to come from Egypt (Alexandria University) to get his PhD in...



Functional importance of stripping in NF{kappa}B signaling revealed by a stripping-impaired I{kappa}B{alpha} mutant [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-02-06T11:50:08-08:00

Stress-response transcription factors such as NFκB turn on hundreds of genes and must have a mechanism for rapid cessation of transcriptional activation. We recently showed that the inhibitor of NFκB signaling, IκBα, dramatically accelerates the dissociation of NFκB from transcription sites, a process we have called “stripping.” To test the...



Up-regulation of CD81 inhibits cytotrophoblast invasion and mediates maternal endothelial cell dysfunction in preeclampsia [Developmental Biology]

2017-02-06T11:50:08-08:00

Preeclampsia (PE) is initiated by abnormal placentation in the early stages of pregnancy, followed by systemic activation of endothelial cells of the maternal small arterioles in the late second or third trimester (TM) of pregnancy. During normal pregnancy, placental cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) invade the maternal uterine wall and spiral arteries, whereas...



Crystal structure of the adenosine A2A receptor bound to an antagonist reveals a potential allosteric pocket [Pharmacology]

2017-02-06T11:50:08-08:00

The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has long been implicated in cardiovascular disorders. As more selective A2AR ligands are being identified, its roles in other disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, are starting to emerge, and A2AR antagonists are important drug candidates for nondopaminergic anti-Parkinson treatment. Here we report the crystal structure...



Quon 3D language for quantum information [Physics]

2017-02-06T11:50:09-08:00

We present a 3D topological picture-language for quantum information. Our approach combines charged excitations carried by strings, with topological properties that arise from embedding the strings in the interior of a 3D manifold with boundary. A quon is a composite that acts as a particle. Specifically, a quon is a...



Impact of pre-Columbian “geoglyph” builders on Amazonian forests [Sustainability Science]

2017-02-06T11:50:09-08:00

Over 450 pre-Columbian (pre-AD 1492) geometric ditched enclosures (“geoglyphs”) occupy ∼13,000 km2 of Acre state, Brazil, representing a key discovery of Amazonian archaeology. These huge earthworks were concealed for centuries under terra firme (upland interfluvial) rainforest, directly challenging the “pristine” status of this ecosystem and its perceived vulnerability to human...



Ghrelin affects stopover decisions and food intake in a long-distance migrant [Ecology]

2017-02-06T11:50:09-08:00

Billions of birds migrate long distances to either reach breeding areas or to spend the winter at more benign places. On migration, most passerines frequently stop over to rest and replenish their fuel reserves. To date, we know little regarding how they decide that they are ready to continue their...



Modular assembly of thick multifunctional cardiac patches [Applied Biological Sciences]

2017-02-06T11:50:10-08:00

In cardiac tissue engineering cells are seeded within porous biomaterial scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. Here, we report on a bottom-up approach to assemble a modular tissue consisting of multiple layers with distinct structures and functions. Albumin electrospun fiber scaffolds were laser-patterned to create microgrooves for engineering aligned cardiac...



Redox chemistry changes in the Panthalassic Ocean linked to the end-Permian mass extinction and delayed Early Triassic biotic recovery [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

2017-02-06T11:50:11-08:00

The end-Permian mass extinction represents the most severe biotic crisis for the last 540 million years, and the marine ecosystem recovery from this extinction was protracted, spanning the entirety of the Early Triassic and possibly longer. Numerous studies from the low-latitude Paleotethys and high-latitude Boreal oceans have examined the possible...



Cell population structure prior to bifurcation predicts efficiency of directed differentiation in human induced pluripotent cells [Developmental Biology]

2017-02-06T11:50:11-08:00

Steering the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) toward specific cell types is crucial for patient-specific disease modeling and drug testing. This effort requires the capacity to predict and control when and how multipotent progenitor cells commit to the desired cell fate. Cell fate commitment represents a critical state...



Role of vascular normalization in benefit from metronomic chemotherapy [Engineering]

2017-02-07T08:59:34-08:00

Metronomic dosing of chemotherapy—defined as frequent administration at lower doses—has been shown to be more efficacious than maximum tolerated dose treatment in preclinical studies, and is currently being tested in the clinic. Although multiple mechanisms of benefit from metronomic chemotherapy have been proposed, how these mechanisms are related to one...



Quantifying antiviral activity optimizes drug combinations against hepatitis C virus infection [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-02-07T08:59:34-08:00

With the introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), treatment against hepatitis C virus (HCV) has significantly improved. To manage and control this worldwide infectious disease better, the “best” multidrug treatment is demanded based on scientific evidence. However, there is no method available that systematically quantifies and compares the antiviral efficacy and...



Hippo signaling promotes JNK-dependent cell migration [Developmental Biology]

2017-02-07T08:59:35-08:00

Overwhelming studies show that dysregulation of the Hippo pathway is positively correlated with cell proliferation, growth, and tumorigenesis. Paradoxically, the detailed molecular roles of the Hippo pathway in cell invasion remain debatable. Using a Drosophila invasion model in wing epithelium, we show herein that activated Hippo signaling promotes cell invasion...



K isotopes as a tracer of seafloor hydrothermal alteration [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

2017-02-07T08:59:36-08:00

At ocean spreading ridges, circulation of seawater through rock at elevated temperatures alters the chemical and isotopic composition of oceanic crust. Samples obtained from drilling into ocean floor and from ophiolites have demonstrated that certain isotope systems, such as 18O/16O and 87Sr/86Sr, are systematically modified in hydrothermally altered oceanic crust....



Failure to reproduce period-dependent song cycles in Drosophila is due to poor automated pulse-detection and low-intensity courtship [Genetics]

2017-02-07T08:59:36-08:00

Stern has criticized a body of work from several groups that have independently studied the so-called “Kyriacou and Hall” courtship song rhythms of male Drosophila melanogaster, claiming that these ultradian ∼60-s cycles in the interpulse interval (IPI) are statistical artifacts that are not modulated by mutations at the period (per)...



Distributed representation of context by intrinsic subnetworks in prefrontal cortex [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-02-07T08:59:36-08:00

Human prefrontal cortex supports goal-directed behavior by representing abstract information about task context. The organizational basis of these context representations, and of representations underlying other higher-order processes, is unknown. Here, we use multivariate decoding and analyses of spontaneous correlations to show that context representations are distributed across subnetworks within prefrontal...



Quantum chaos on a critical Fermi surface [Physics]

2017-02-07T08:59:36-08:00

We compute parameters characterizing many-body quantum chaos for a critical Fermi surface without quasiparticle excitations. We examine a theory of N species of fermions at nonzero density coupled to a U(1) gauge field in two spatial dimensions and determine the Lyapunov rate and the butterfly velocity in an extended random-phase...



Reelin transiently promotes N-cadherin-dependent neuronal adhesion during mouse cortical development [Neuroscience]

2017-02-07T08:59:37-08:00

Reelin is an essential glycoprotein for the establishment of the highly organized six-layered structure of neurons of the mammalian neocortex. Although the role of Reelin in the control of neuronal migration has been extensively studied at the molecular level, the mechanisms underlying Reelin-dependent neuronal layer organization are not yet fully...



Pure circular polarization electroluminescence at room temperature with spin-polarized light-emitting diodes [Applied Physical Sciences]

2017-02-07T08:59:37-08:00

We report the room-temperature electroluminescence (EL) with nearly pure circular polarization (CP) from GaAs-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes (spin-LEDs). External magnetic fields are not used during device operation. There are two small schemes in the tested spin-LEDs: first, the stripe-laser-like structure that helps intensify the EL light at the cleaved side...



H3K4me3 induces allosteric conformational changes in the DNA-binding and catalytic regions of the V(D)J recombinase [Biochemistry]

2017-02-07T08:59:37-08:00

V(D)J recombination is initiated by the recombination-activating gene (RAG) recombinase, consisting of RAG-1 and RAG-2 subunits. The susceptibility of gene segments to cleavage by RAG is associated with histone modifications characteristic of active chromatin, including trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3). Binding of H3K4me3 by a plant homeodomain...



Synergistic antileukemic therapies in NOTCH1-induced T-ALL [Medical Sciences]

2017-02-07T08:59:38-08:00

The Notch1 gene is a major oncogenic driver and therapeutic target in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). However, inhibition of NOTCH signaling with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) has shown limited antileukemic activity in clinical trials. Here we performed an expression-based virtual screening to identify highly active antileukemic drugs that synergize with...



Detection of vulnerable neurons damaged by environmental insults in utero [Neuroscience]

2017-01-25T13:21:04-08:00

Development of prognostic biomarkers for the detection of prenatally damaged neurons before manifestations of postnatal disorders is an essential step for prevention and treatment of susceptible individuals. We have developed a versatile fluorescence reporter system in mice enabling detection of Heat Shock Factor 1 activation in response to prenatal cellular...



A statics-dynamics equivalence through the fluctuation-dissipation ratio provides a window into the spin-glass phase from nonequilibrium measurements [Physics]

2017-02-08T13:02:54-08:00

We have performed a very accurate computation of the nonequilibrium fluctuation–dissipation ratio for the 3D Edwards–Anderson Ising spin glass, by means of large-scale simulations on the special-purpose computers Janus and Janus II. This ratio (computed for finite times on very large, effectively infinite, systems) is compared with the equilibrium probability...



Shining a light on early stress responses and late-onset disease vulnerability [Commentaries]

2017-02-08T13:02:51-08:00

There is increasing evidence that neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders have developmental components to pathogenesis that encompass a prodromal phase associated with regional impairments in neural cell maturation and maintenance, neural network connectivity, and oscillatory synchrony (1, 2). These abnormal developmental states elicit a spectrum of homeostatic mechanisms and predispose to...



High-resolution imaging of cellular dopamine efflux using a fluorescent nanosensor array [Neuroscience]

2017-02-08T13:02:52-08:00

Intercellular communication via chemical signaling proceeds with both spatial and temporal components, but analytical tools, such as microfabricated electrodes, have been limited to just a few probes per cell. In this work, we use a nonphotobleaching fluorescent nanosensor array based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) rendered selective to dopamine to...



Serpin1 and WSCP differentially regulate the activity of the cysteine protease RD21 during plant development in Arabidopsis thaliana [Biochemistry]

2017-02-08T13:02:52-08:00

Proteolytic enzymes (proteases) participate in a vast range of physiological processes, ranging from nutrient digestion to blood coagulation, thrombosis, and beyond. In plants, proteases are implicated in host recognition and pathogen infection, induced defense (immunity), and the deterrence of insect pests. Because proteases irreversibly cleave peptide bonds of protein substrates,...



Architected cellular ceramics with tailored stiffness via direct foam writing [Engineering]

2017-02-08T13:02:53-08:00

Hierarchical cellular structures are ubiquitous in nature because of their low-density, high-specific properties, and multifunctionality. Inspired by these systems, we created lightweight ceramic architectures composed of closed-cell porous struts patterned in the form of hexagonal and triangular honeycombs by direct foam writing. The foam ink contains bubbles stabilized by attractive...



Spectrin {beta}V adaptive mutations and changes in subcellular location correlate with emergence of hair cell electromotility in mammalians [Neuroscience]

2017-02-08T13:02:54-08:00

The remarkable hearing capacities of mammals arise from various evolutionary innovations. These include the cochlear outer hair cells and their singular feature, somatic electromotility, i.e., the ability of their cylindrical cell body to shorten and elongate upon cell depolarization and hyperpolarization, respectively. To shed light on the processes underlying the...



Role of eruption season in reconciling model and proxy responses to tropical volcanism [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

2017-02-08T13:02:54-08:00

The response of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) to tropical volcanic eruptions has important worldwide implications, but remains poorly constrained. Paleoclimate records suggest an “El Niño-like” warming 1 year following major eruptions [Adams JB, Mann ME, Ammann CM (2003) Nature 426:274–278] and “La Niña-like” cooling within the eruption year [Li...



Entirely plasmid-based reverse genetics system for rotaviruses [Microbiology]

2017-01-30T11:52:42-08:00

Rotaviruses (RVs) are highly important pathogens that cause severe diarrhea among infants and young children worldwide. The understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying RV replication and pathogenesis has been hampered by the lack of an entirely plasmid-based reverse genetics system. In this study, we describe the recovery of recombinant RVs...



Reverse genetics of rotavirus [Commentaries]

2017-02-09T13:10:57-08:00

The genetics of viruses are determined by mutations of their nucleic acid. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be produced by physical or chemical means: for example, the application of different temperatures or mutagens (such as hydroxylamine, nitrous acid, or alkylating agents) that alter the nucleic acid. The classic way to...



Ca2+-binding protein 2 inhibits Ca2+-channel inactivation in mouse inner hair cells [Neuroscience]

2017-02-09T13:10:57-08:00

Ca2+-binding protein 2 (CaBP2) inhibits the inactivation of heterologously expressed voltage-gated Ca2+ channels of type 1.3 (CaV1.3) and is defective in human autosomal-recessive deafness 93 (DFNB93). Here, we report a newly identified mutation in CABP2 that causes a moderate hearing impairment likely via nonsense-mediated decay of CABP2-mRNA. To study the...



Farming and public goods production in Caenorhabditis elegans populations [Ecology]

2017-02-09T13:10:57-08:00

The ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations are shaped by the strategies they use to produce and use resources. However, our understanding of the interplay between the genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors driving these strategies is limited. Here, we report on a Caenorhabditis elegans–Escherichia coli (worm–bacteria) experimental system in which...



Spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking induces inverse energy cascade in 3D active fluids [Applied Mathematics]

2017-02-13T11:51:05-08:00

Classical turbulence theory assumes that energy transport in a 3D turbulent flow proceeds through a Richardson cascade whereby larger vortices successively decay into smaller ones. By contrast, an additional inverse cascade characterized by vortex growth exists in 2D fluids and gases, with profound implications for meteorological flows and fluid mixing....



Contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to variation in cancer risk among tissues [Biochemistry]

2017-02-13T11:51:06-08:00

Recently, it was suggested that tissue variation in cancer risk originates from differences in the number of stem-cell divisions underlying each tissue, leading to different mutation loads. We show that this variation is also correlated with the degree of aberrant CpG island DNA methylation in normal cells. Methylation accumulates during...



Mass spectrometry-based cross-linking study shows that the Psb28 protein binds to cytochrome b559 in Photosystem II [Biochemistry]

2017-02-13T11:51:06-08:00

Photosystem II (PSII), a large pigment protein complex, undergoes rapid turnover under natural conditions. During assembly of PSII, oxidative damage to vulnerable assembly intermediate complexes must be prevented. Psb28, the only cytoplasmic extrinsic protein in PSII, protects the RC47 assembly intermediate of PSII and assists its efficient conversion into functional...



Senescent cells expose and secrete an oxidized form of membrane-bound vimentin as revealed by a natural polyreactive antibody [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-02-13T11:51:07-08:00

Studying the phenomenon of cellular senescence has been hindered by the lack of senescence-specific markers. As such, detection of proteins informally associated with senescence accompanies the use of senescence-associated β-galactosidase as a collection of semiselective markers to monitor the presence of senescent cells. To identify novel biomarkers of senescence, we...



Genetic regulatory signatures underlying islet gene expression and type 2 diabetes [Genetics]

2017-02-13T11:51:07-08:00

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >100 independent SNPs that modulate the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related traits. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of most of these SNPs remain elusive. Here, we examined genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic profiles in human pancreatic islets to understand the links between genetic...



Investigations of human myosin VI targeting using optogenetically controlled cargo loading [Biochemistry]

2017-02-13T11:51:07-08:00

Myosins play countless critical roles in the cell, each requiring it to be activated at a specific location and time. To control myosin VI with this specificity, we created an optogenetic tool for activating myosin VI by fusing the light-sensitive Avena sativa phototropin1 LOV2 domain to a peptide from Dab2...



Galectin-3 directs antimicrobial guanylate binding proteins to vacuoles furnished with bacterial secretion systems [Microbiology]

2017-02-13T11:51:08-08:00

Many invasive bacteria establish pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) as intracellular niches for microbial growth. Immunity to these infections is dependent on the ability of host cells to recognize PVs as targets for host defense. The delivery of several host defense proteins to PVs is controlled by IFN-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs),...



Differential modulation of global and local neural oscillations in REM sleep by homeostatic sleep regulation [Neuroscience]

2017-02-13T11:51:08-08:00

Homeostatic rebound in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep normally occurs after acute sleep deprivation, but REM sleep rebound settles on a persistently elevated level despite continued accumulation of REM sleep debt during chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Using high-density EEG in mice, we studied how this pattern of global regulation is...



Modular electron-transport chains from eukaryotic organelles function to support nitrogenase activity [Microbiology]

2017-02-13T11:51:09-08:00

A large number of genes are necessary for the biosynthesis and activity of the enzyme nitrogenase to carry out the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), which requires large amounts of ATP and reducing power. The multiplicity of the genes involved, the oxygen sensitivity of nitrogenase, plus the demand for...



Ontogeny of collective behavior reveals a simple attraction rule [Ecology]

2017-02-13T11:51:09-08:00

The striking patterns of collective animal behavior, including ant trails, bird flocks, and fish schools, can result from local interactions among animals without centralized control. Several of these rules of interaction have been proposed, but it has proven difficult to discriminate which ones are implemented in nature. As a method...



Periodic assembly of nanoparticle arrays in disclinations of cholesteric liquid crystals [Applied Physical Sciences]

2017-02-13T11:50:53-08:00

An important goal of the modern soft matter science is to discover new self-assembly modalities to precisely control the placement of small particles in space. Spatial inhomogeneity of liquid crystals offers the capability to organize colloids in certain regions such as the cores of the topological defects. Here we report...



The ETS-5 transcription factor regulates activity states in Caenorhabditis elegans by controlling satiety [Genetics]

2017-02-13T11:50:53-08:00

Animal behavior is shaped through interplay among genes, the environment, and previous experience. As in mammals, satiety signals induce quiescence in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we report that the C. elegans transcription factor ETS-5, an ortholog of mammalian FEV/Pet1, controls satiety-induced quiescence. Nutritional status has a major influence on C. elegans...



Genetic signature of natural selection in first Americans [Anthropology]

2017-02-13T11:50:54-08:00

When humans moved from Asia toward the Americas over 18,000 y ago and eventually peopled the New World they encountered a new environment with extreme climate conditions and distinct dietary resources. These environmental and dietary pressures may have led to instances of genetic adaptation with the potential to influence the...



Dopamine in the medial amygdala network mediates human bonding [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-02-13T11:50:54-08:00

Research in humans and nonhuman animals indicates that social affiliation, and particularly maternal bonding, depends on reward circuitry. Although numerous mechanistic studies in rodents demonstrated that maternal bonding depends on striatal dopamine transmission, the neurochemistry supporting maternal behavior in humans has not been described so far. In this study, we...



Perplexing cooperative folding and stability of a low-sequence complexity, polyproline 2 protein lacking a hydrophobic core [Chemistry]

2017-02-13T11:50:55-08:00

The burial of hydrophobic side chains in a protein core generally is thought to be the major ingredient for stable, cooperative folding. Here, we show that, for the snow flea antifreeze protein (sfAFP), stability and cooperativity can occur without a hydrophobic core, and without α-helices or β-sheets. sfAFP has low...



Disruption of quercetin metabolism by fungicide affects energy production in honey bees (Apis mellifera) [Agricultural Sciences]

2017-02-13T11:50:55-08:00

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, detoxify phytochemicals in honey and pollen. The flavonol quercetin is found ubiquitously and abundantly in pollen and frequently at lower concentrations in honey. Worker jelly consumed during the first 3 d of larval development typically contains flavonols at very low...



Optimizing virtual reality for all users through gaze-contingent and adaptive focus displays [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-02-13T11:50:55-08:00

From the desktop to the laptop to the mobile device, personal computing platforms evolve over time. Moving forward, wearable computing is widely expected to be integral to consumer electronics and beyond. The primary interface between a wearable computer and a user is often a near-eye display. However, current generation near-eye...



NF{kappa}B-Pim-1-Eomesodermin axis is critical for maintaining CD8 T-cell memory quality [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-02-13T11:50:55-08:00

T-cell memory is critical for long-term immunity. However, the factors involved in maintaining the persistence, function, and phenotype of the memory pool are undefined. Eomesodermin (Eomes) is required for the establishment of the memory pool. Here, we show that in T cells transitioning to memory, the expression of high levels...



Two types of amorphous protein particles facilitate crystal nucleation [Applied Physical Sciences]

2017-02-13T11:50:56-08:00

Nucleation, the primary step in crystallization, dictates the number of crystals, the distribution of their sizes, the polymorph selection, and other crucial properties of the crystal population. We used time-resolved liquid-cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to perform an in situ examination of the nucleation of lysozyme crystals. Our TEM images...



Six centuries of geomagnetic intensity variations recorded by royal Judean stamped jar handles [Anthropology]

2017-02-13T11:50:56-08:00

Earth’s magnetic field, one of the most enigmatic physical phenomena of the planet, is constantly changing on various time scales, from decades to millennia and longer. The reconstruction of geomagnetic field behavior in periods predating direct observations with modern instrumentation is based on geological and archaeological materials and has the...



Spontaneous expression of mirror self-recognition in monkeys after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-02-13T11:50:56-08:00

Mirror self-recognition (MSR) is generally considered to be an intrinsic cognitive ability found only in humans and a few species of great apes. Rhesus monkeys do not spontaneously show MSR, but they have the ability to use a mirror as an instrument to find hidden objects. The mechanism underlying the...



Origin of microbial biomineralization and magnetotaxis during the Archean [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

2017-02-13T11:50:57-08:00

Microbes that synthesize minerals, a process known as microbial biomineralization, contributed substantially to the evolution of current planetary environments through numerous important geochemical processes. Despite its geological significance, the origin and evolution of microbial biomineralization remain poorly understood. Through combined metagenomic and phylogenetic analyses of deep-branching magnetotactic bacteria from the...



THADA fusion is a mechanism of IGF2BP3 activation and IGF1R signaling in thyroid cancer [Genetics]

2017-02-13T11:50:57-08:00

Thyroid cancer development is driven by known point mutations or gene fusions found in ∼90% of cases, whereas driver mutations in the remaining tumors are unknown. The insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) plays an important role in cancer, yet the mechanisms of its activation in cancer cells...



Correction for Holm et al., Arginine substitution of a cysteine in transmembrane helix M8 converts Na+,K+-ATPase to an electroneutral pump similar to H+,K+-ATPase [Corrections]

2017-02-13T11:50:57-08:00

BIOCHEMISTRY Correction for “Arginine substitution of a cysteine in transmembrane helix M8 converts Na+,K+-ATPase to an electroneutral pump similar to H+,K+-ATPase,” by Rikke Holm, Jaanki Khandelwal, Anja P. Einholm, Jens P. Andersen, Pablo Artigas, and Bente Vilsen, which appeared in issue 2, January 10, 2017, of Proc Natl Acad Sci...



Spatial and temporal dynamics of superspreading events in the 2014-2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic [Medical Sciences]

2017-02-13T11:50:57-08:00

The unprecedented scale of the Ebola outbreak in Western Africa (2014–2015) has prompted an explosion of efforts to understand the transmission dynamics of the virus and to analyze the performance of possible containment strategies. Models have focused primarily on the reproductive numbers of the disease that represent the average number...



Strong signal increase in STED fluorescence microscopy by imaging regions of subdiffraction extent [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-02-13T11:50:58-08:00

Photobleaching remains a limiting factor in superresolution fluorescence microscopy. This is particularly true for stimulated emission depletion (STED) and reversible saturable/switchable optical fluorescence transitions (RESOLFT) microscopy, where adjacent fluorescent molecules are distinguished by sequentially turning them off (or on) using a pattern of light formed as a doughnut or a...



Neuronal hyperexcitability in a mouse model of SCN8A epileptic encephalopathy [Neuroscience]

2017-02-13T11:50:58-08:00

Patients with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE) experience severe seizures and cognitive impairment and are at increased risk for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). EIEE13 [Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) # 614558] is caused by de novo missense mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene SCN8A. Here, we...