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Preview: PNAS - RSS feed of Early Edition articles

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences RSS feed -- Early Edition



 



Future urban land expansion and implications for global croplands [Sustainability Science]

2016-12-27T09:51:19-08:00

Urban expansion often occurs on croplands. However, there is little scientific understanding of how global patterns of future urban expansion will affect the world’s cultivated areas. Here, we combine spatially explicit projections of urban expansion with datasets on global croplands and crop yields. Our results show that urban expansion will...



Global urban signatures of phenotypic change in animal and plant populations [Sustainability Science]

2017-01-03T08:47:11-08:00

Humans challenge the phenotypic, genetic, and cultural makeup of species by affecting the fitness landscapes on which they evolve. Recent studies show that cities might play a major role in contemporary evolution by accelerating phenotypic changes in wildlife, including animals, plants, fungi, and other organisms. Many studies of ecoevolutionary change...



Urban sustainability in an age of enduring inequalities: Advancing theory and ecometrics for the 21st-century city [Perspectives]

2017-01-06T12:50:12-08:00

The environmental fragility of cities under advanced urbanization has motivated extensive efforts to promote the sustainability of urban ecosystems and physical infrastructures. Less attention has been devoted to neighborhood inequalities and fissures in the civic infrastructure that potentially challenge social sustainability and the capacity of cities to collectively address environmental...



Global scenarios of urban density and its impacts on building energy use through 2050 [Sustainability Science]

2017-01-09T12:10:28-08:00

Although the scale of impending urbanization is well-acknowledged, we have a limited understanding of how urban forms will change and what their impact will be on building energy use. Using both top-down and bottom-up approaches and scenarios, we examine building energy use for heating and cooling. Globally, the energy use...



Heterogeneity and scale of sustainable development in cities [Sustainability Science]

2017-05-01T12:09:28-07:00

Rapid worldwide urbanization is at once the main cause and, potentially, the main solution to global sustainable development challenges. The growth of cities is typically associated with increases in socioeconomic productivity, but it also creates strong inequalities. Despite a growing body of evidence characterizing these heterogeneities in developed urban areas,...



Solar thermochemical splitting of water to generate hydrogen [Perspectives]

2017-05-18T11:58:25-07:00

Solar photochemical means of splitting water (artificial photosynthesis) to generate hydrogen is emerging as a viable process. The solar thermochemical route also promises to be an attractive means of achieving this objective. In this paper we present different types of thermochemical cycles that one can use for the purpose. These...



Antimalarials inhibit hematin crystallization by unique drug-surface site interactions [Chemistry]

2017-05-30T09:08:44-07:00

In malaria pathophysiology, divergent hypotheses on the inhibition of hematin crystallization posit that drugs act either by the sequestration of soluble hematin or their interaction with crystal surfaces. We use physiologically relevant, time-resolved in situ surface observations and show that quinoline antimalarials inhibit β-hematin crystal surfaces by three distinct modes...



Tetragonal CH3NH3PbI3 is ferroelectric [Applied Physical Sciences]

2017-06-06T07:25:11-07:00

Halide perovskite (HaP) semiconductors are revolutionizing photovoltaic (PV) solar energy conversion by showing remarkable performance of solar cells made with HaPs, especially tetragonal methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3). In particular, the low voltage loss of these cells implies a remarkably low recombination rate of photogenerated carriers. It was suggested that low...



Water is an active matrix of life for cell and molecular biology [Perspectives]

2017-06-07T12:43:37-07:00

Szent-Győrgi called water the “matrix of life” and claimed that there was no life without it. This statement is true, as far as we know, on our planet, but it is not clear whether it must hold throughout the cosmos. To evaluate that question requires a close consideration of the...



Intraoperative assessment of tumor margins during glioma resection by desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry [Medical Sciences]

2017-06-12T11:50:37-07:00

Intraoperative desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is used to characterize tissue smears by comparison with a library of DESI mass spectra of pathologically determined tissue types. Measurements are performed in the operating room within 3 min. These mass spectra provide direct information on tumor infiltration into white or gray brain...



Crystal structures and atomic model of NADPH oxidase [Biochemistry]

2017-06-12T11:50:37-07:00

NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are the only enzymes exclusively dedicated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Dysregulation of these polytopic membrane proteins impacts the redox signaling cascades that control cell proliferation and death. We describe the atomic crystal structures of the catalytic flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)- and heme-binding domains of Cylindrospermum...



Brain circuit-gene expression relationships and neuroplasticity of multisensory cortices in blind children [Neuroscience]

2017-06-12T11:50:39-07:00

Sensory deprivation reorganizes neurocircuits in the human brain. The biological basis of such neuroplastic adaptations remains elusive. In this study, we applied two complementary graph theory-based functional connectivity analyses, one to evaluate whole-brain functional connectivity relationships and the second to specifically delineate distributed network connectivity profiles downstream of primary sensory...



Family-transmitted stress in a wild bird [Ecology]

2017-06-12T11:50:39-07:00

Recent data suggest that, in animals living in social groups, stress-induced changes in behavior have the potential to act as a source of information, so that stressed individuals could themselves act as stressful stimuli for other individuals with whom they interact repeatedly. Such form of cross-over of stress may be...



Human genome-wide repair map of DNA damage caused by the cigarette smoke carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene [Biochemistry]

2017-06-12T11:50:40-07:00

Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is the major cause of lung cancer. BaP forms covalent DNA adducts after metabolic activation and induces mutations. We have developed a method for capturing oligonucleotides carrying bulky base adducts, including UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and BaP diol epoxide-deoxyguanosine (BPDE-dG), which are removed...



When the appeal of a dominant leader is greater than a prestige leader [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-06-12T11:50:40-07:00

Across the globe we witness the rise of populist authoritarian leaders who are overbearing in their narrative, aggressive in behavior, and often exhibit questionable moral character. Drawing on evolutionary theory of leadership emergence, in which dominance and prestige are seen as dual routes to leadership, we provide a situational and...



Dynamic maps of UV damage formation and repair for the human genome [Biochemistry]

2017-06-12T11:50:41-07:00

Formation and repair of UV-induced DNA damage in human cells are affected by cellular context. To study factors influencing damage formation and repair genome-wide, we developed a highly sensitive single-nucleotide resolution damage mapping method [high-sensitivity damage sequencing (HS–Damage-seq)]. Damage maps of both cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts...



Cu metal embedded in oxidized matrix catalyst to promote CO2 activation and CO dimerization for electrochemical reduction of CO2 [Applied Physical Sciences]

2017-06-12T11:50:42-07:00

We propose and validate with quantum mechanics methods a unique catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 (CO2RR) in which selectivity and activity of CO and C2 products are both enhanced at the borders of oxidized and metallic surface regions. This Cu metal embedded in oxidized matrix (MEOM) catalyst is consistent...



Ca2+-induced movement of tropomyosin on native cardiac thin filaments revealed by cryoelectron microscopy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-06-12T11:50:42-07:00

Muscle contraction relies on the interaction of myosin motors with F-actin, which is regulated through a translocation of tropomyosin by the troponin complex in response to Ca2+. The current model of muscle regulation holds that at relaxing (low-Ca2+) conditions tropomyosin blocks myosin binding sites on F-actin, whereas at activating (high-Ca2+)...



Adaptor protein mediates dynamic pump assembly for bacterial metal efflux [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-06-12T11:50:42-07:00

Multicomponent efflux complexes constitute a primary mechanism for Gram-negative bacteria to expel toxic molecules for survival. As these complexes traverse the periplasm and link inner and outer membranes, it remains unclear how they operate efficiently without compromising periplasmic plasticity. Combining single-molecule superresolution imaging and genetic engineering, we study in living...



Vector development and vitellogenin determine the transovarial transmission of begomoviruses [Agricultural Sciences]

2017-06-12T11:50:43-07:00

The majority of plant viruses are transmitted by insect vectors between hosts, and transovarial transmission of viruses from vector parents to offspring has great significance to their epidemiology. Begomoviruses are transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in a circulative manner and are maintained through a plant–insect–plant cycle. Other routes of...



Carbohydrate microarrays and their use for the identification of molecular markers for plant cell wall composition [Plant Biology]

2017-06-12T11:50:43-07:00

Genetic improvement of the plant cell wall has enormous potential to increase the quality of food, fibers, and fuels. However, the identification and characterization of genes involved in plant cell wall synthesis is far from complete. Association mapping is one of the few techniques that can help identify candidate genes...



Structural studies of viperin, an antiviral radical SAM enzyme [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-06-12T11:50:44-07:00

Viperin is an IFN-inducible radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzyme that inhibits viral replication. We determined crystal structures of an anaerobically prepared fragment of mouse viperin (residues 45–362) complexed with S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) or 5′-deoxyadenosine (5′-dAdo) and l-methionine (l-Met). Viperin contains a partial (βα)6-barrel fold with a disordered N-terminal extension (residues 45–74) and...



Bioengineered silkworms with butterfly cytotoxin-modified silk glands produce sericin cocoons with a utility for a new biomaterial [Agricultural Sciences]

2017-06-12T11:50:44-07:00

Genetically manipulated organisms with dysfunction of specific tissues are crucial for the study of various biological applications and mechanisms. However, the bioengineering of model organisms with tissue-specific dysfunction has not progressed because the challenges of expression of proteins, such as cytotoxins, in living cells of individual organisms need to be...



Weak protein-protein interactions in live cells are quantified by cell-volume modulation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-06-12T11:50:46-07:00

Weakly bound protein complexes play a crucial role in metabolic, regulatory, and signaling pathways, due in part to the high tunability of their bound and unbound populations. This tunability makes weak binding (micromolar to millimolar dissociation constants) difficult to quantify under biologically relevant conditions. Here, we use rapid perturbation of...



Gel-forming mucins form distinct morphologic structures in airways [Physiology]

2017-06-12T11:50:46-07:00

Gel-forming mucins, the primary macromolecular components of airway mucus, facilitate airway clearance by mucociliary transport. In cystic fibrosis (CF) altered mucus properties impair mucociliary transport. Airways primarily secrete two closely related gel-forming mucins, MUC5B and MUC5AC. However, their morphologic structures and associations in airways that contain abundant submucosal glands and...



Selective replication of oncolytic virus M1 results in a bystander killing effect that is potentiated by Smac mimetics [Medical Sciences]

2017-06-12T11:50:46-07:00

Oncolytic virotherapy is a treatment modality that uses native or genetically modified viruses that selectively replicate in and kill tumor cells. Viruses represent a type of pathogen-associated molecular pattern and thereby induce the up-regulation of dozens of cytokines via activating the host innate immune system. Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases...



Prostaglandin E2 is essential for efficacious skeletal muscle stem-cell function, augmenting regeneration and strength [Cell Biology]

2017-06-12T11:50:47-07:00

Skeletal muscles harbor quiescent muscle-specific stem cells (MuSCs) capable of tissue regeneration throughout life. Muscle injury precipitates a complex inflammatory response in which a multiplicity of cell types, cytokines, and growth factors participate. Here we show that Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an inflammatory cytokine that directly targets MuSCs via the...



Pharmacology of the Nav1.1 domain IV voltage sensor reveals coupling between inactivation gating processes [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-06-12T11:50:47-07:00

The Nav1.1 voltage-gated sodium channel is a critical contributor to excitability in the brain, where pathological loss of function leads to such disorders as epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, and autism. This voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel subtype also plays an important role in mechanical pain signaling by primary afferent somatosensory neurons. Therefore,...



Interplay between tolerance mechanisms to copper and acid stress in Escherichia coli [Microbiology]

2017-06-13T08:24:48-07:00

Copper (Cu) is a key antibacterial component of the host innate immune system and almost all bacterial species possess systems that defend against the toxic effects of excess Cu. The Cu tolerance system in Gram-negative bacteria is composed minimally of a Cu sensor (CueR) and a Cu export pump (CopA)....



Ubiquitin S65 phosphorylation engenders a pH-sensitive conformational switch [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-06-13T08:24:49-07:00

Ubiquitin (Ub) is an important signaling protein. Recent studies have shown that Ub can be enzymatically phosphorylated at S65, and that the resulting pUb exhibits two conformational states—a relaxed state and a retracted state. However, crystallization efforts have yielded only the structure for the relaxed state, which was found similar...



RNA target profiles direct the discovery of virulence functions for the cold-shock proteins CspC and CspE [Microbiology]

2017-06-13T08:24:49-07:00

The functions of many bacterial RNA-binding proteins remain obscure because of a lack of knowledge of their cellular ligands. Although well-studied cold-shock protein A (CspA) family members are induced and function at low temperature, others are highly expressed in infection-relevant conditions. Here, we have profiled transcripts bound in vivo by...



Inhibitory engrams in perception and memory [Perspectives]

2017-06-13T08:24:49-07:00

Nervous systems use excitatory cell assemblies to encode and represent sensory percepts. Similarly, synaptically connected cell assemblies or “engrams” are thought to represent memories of past experience. Multiple lines of recent evidence indicate that brain systems create and use inhibitory replicas of excitatory representations for important cognitive functions. Such matched...



Energetics and dynamics of a light-driven sodium-pumping rhodopsin [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-06-13T08:24:50-07:00

The conversion of light energy into ion gradients across biological membranes is one of the most fundamental reactions in primary biological energy transduction. Recently, the structure of the first light-activated Na+ pump, Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2 (KR2), was resolved at atomic resolution [Kato HE, et al. (2015) Nature 521:48–53]. To...



All-angle negative refraction of highly squeezed plasmon and phonon polaritons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures [Engineering]

2017-06-13T08:24:50-07:00

A fundamental building block for nanophotonics is the ability to achieve negative refraction of polaritons, because this could enable the demonstration of many unique nanoscale applications such as deep-subwavelength imaging, superlens, and novel guiding. However, to achieve negative refraction of highly squeezed polaritons, such as plasmon polaritons in graphene and...



Enhanced interplanetary panspermia in the TRAPPIST-1 system [Astronomy]

2017-06-13T08:24:50-07:00

We present a simple model for estimating the probability of interplanetary panspermia in the recently discovered system of seven planets orbiting the ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 and find that panspermia is potentially orders of magnitude more likely to occur in the TRAPPIST-1 system compared with the Earth-to-Mars case. As a...



Reply to Dekel et al.: Preagricultural commensal niches for the house mouse and origins of human sedentism [Letters (Online Only)]

2017-06-13T09:05:37-07:00

In their letter, Dekel et al. (1) comment on our recent findings on the origin of house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) 15,000 y ago, ecological impacts of the first settled hunter-gatherers, and insights that this study provides on early domestication processes (2). They maintain that mice were parasitic with humans...



Mammal domestication and the symbiotic spectrum [Letters (Online Only)]

2017-06-13T09:15:57-07:00

In their paper in PNAS, Weissbrod et al. (1) conclude that mice adapted to the temporary sedentary lifestyle of humans during the Late Pleistocene and underwent a domestication process driven by a competitive advantage for commensal mice in the evolving, long-term human settlements. The authors expand the possibility of an...



Subsurface oxide plays a critical role in CO2 activation by Cu(111) surfaces to form chemisorbed CO2, the first step in reduction of CO2 [Chemistry]

2017-06-14T12:40:40-07:00

A national priority is to convert CO2 into high-value chemical products such as liquid fuels. Because current electrocatalysts are not adequate, we aim to discover new catalysts by obtaining a detailed understanding of the initial steps of CO2 electroreduction on copper surfaces, the best current catalysts. Using ambient pressure X-ray...



A recruiting protein of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase controls metabolic flux toward chlorophyll biosynthesis in rice [Plant Biology]

2017-06-15T13:03:42-07:00

In plants, geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) is produced by plastidic GGPP synthase (GGPPS) and serves as a precursor for vital metabolic branches, including chlorophyll, carotenoid, and gibberellin biosynthesis. However, molecular mechanisms regulating GGPP allocation among these biosynthetic pathways localized in the same subcellular compartment are largely unknown. We found that rice...



Social norms: More details, please [Letters (Online Only)]

2017-06-15T13:03:41-07:00

The words we use matter. The concept of a social norm exists in many social and behavioral science disciplines and research traditions (1). Because the general term “social norm” is a hypernym, an explicit definition is crucial to discussions of its place and usefulness in solving complex social–environmental issues (cf....



Reply to Yang et al.: Coastal wetlands are not well represented by protected areas for endangered birds [Letters (Online Only)]

2017-06-16T11:19:43-07:00

We thank Yang et al. (1) for their perspective. We are aware of the importance of coastal wetland protection for endangered migratory birds. Our paper in PNAS (2) focuses on the general representation of protected areas for endangered species (e.g., endangered birds) and ecosystem services. Thus, we did not emphasize...



Protect coastal wetlands in China to save endangered migratory birds [Letters (Online Only)]

2017-06-16T12:32:31-07:00

Evaluating the significance of protected areas for biodiversity and ecosystem services is important for nature conservation. In a recent issue of PNAS, Xu et al. (1) present valuable information on provision of biodiversity and ecosystem services by China’s nature reserves. They conclude that reserves serve bird populations moderately well. However,...



Correction for Mattei et al., Integrated 3D view of postmating responses by the Drosophila melanogaster female reproductive tract, obtained by micro-computed tomography scanning [Corrections]

2017-06-19T12:47:55-07:00

PHYSIOLOGY Correction for “Integrated 3D view of postmating responses by the Drosophila melanogaster female reproductive tract, obtained by micro-computed tomography scanning,” by Alexandra L. Mattei, Mark L. Riccio, Frank W. Avila, and Mariana F. Wolfner, which appeared in issue 27, July 7, 2015, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (112:8475–8480;...



Correction for Khan et al., Sympathetic innervation controls homeostasis of neuromuscular junctions in health and disease [Corrections]

2017-06-19T12:47:58-07:00

NEUROSCIENCE Correction for “Sympathetic innervation controls homeostasis of neuromuscular junctions in health and disease,” by Muzamil Majid Khan, Danilo Lustrino, Willian A. Silveira, Franziska Wild, Tatjana Straka, Yasmin Issop, Emily O’Connor, Dan Cox, Markus Reischl, Till Marquardt, Dittmar Labeit, Siegfried Labeit, Evelyne Benoit, Jordi Molgó, Hanns Lochmüller, Veit Witzemann, Isis...



Correction for Koch et al., Genetic rescue models refute nonautonomous rod cell death in retinitis pigmentosa [Corrections]

2017-06-19T12:48:02-07:00

NEUROSCIENCE Correction for “Genetic rescue models refute nonautonomous rod cell death in retinitis pigmentosa,” by Susanne F. Koch, Jimmy K. Duong, Chun-Wei Hsu, Yi-Ting Tsai, Chyuan-Sheng Lin, Christian A. Wahl-Schott, and Stephen H. Tsang, which appeared in issue 20, May 16, 2017, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (114:5259–5264; first...



Correction to Supporting Information for Suzuki et al., Behavioral contagion during learning about another agent’s risk-preferences acts on the neural representation of decision-risk [SI Correction]

2017-06-19T12:48:02-07:00

PSYCHOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES, NEUROSCIENCE Correction to Supporting Information for “Behavioral contagion during learning about another agent’s risk-preferences acts on the neural representation of decision-risk,” by Shinsuke Suzuki, Emily L. S. Jensen, Peter Bossaerts, and John P. O’Doherty, which appeared in issue 14, April 5, 2016, of Proc Natl Acad...



Correction for Brumberg et al., Single-crystal Ih ice surfaces unveil connection between macroscopic and molecular structure [Corrections]

2017-06-19T12:48:06-07:00

CHEMISTRY Correction for “Single-crystal Ih ice surfaces unveil connection between macroscopic and molecular structure,” by Alexandra Brumberg, Kevin Hammonds, Ian Baker, Ellen H. G. Backus, Patrick J. Bisson, Mischa Bonn, Charles P. Daghlian, Markus D. Mezger, and Mary Jane Shultz, which appeared in issue 21, May 23, 2017, of Proc...



Correction for Lan et al., Long-read sequencing uncovers the adaptive topography of a carnivorous plant genome [Corrections]

2017-06-19T12:48:08-07:00

EVOLUTION Correction for “Long-read sequencing uncovers the adaptive topography of a carnivorous plant genome,” by Tianying Lan, Tanya Renner, Enrique Ibarra-Laclette, Kimberly M. Farr, Tien-Hao Chang, Sergio Alan Cervantes-Pérez, Chunfang Zheng, David Sankoff, Haibao Tang, Rikky W. Purbojati, Alexander Putra, Daniela I. Drautz-Moses, Stephan C. Schuster, Luis Herrera-Estrella, and Victor...



Retraction for Zimmerman et al., Signaling through hepatocellular A2B adenosine receptors dampens ischemia and reperfusion injury of the liver [Retractions]

2017-06-19T12:48:08-07:00

MEDICAL SCIENCES Retraction for “Signaling through hepatocellular A2B adenosine receptors dampens ischemia and reperfusion injury of the liver,” by Michael A. Zimmerman, Almut Grenz, Eunyoung Tak, Maria Kaplan, Douglas Ridyard, Kelley S. Brodsky, Mercedes Susan Mandell, Igal Kam, and Holger K. Eltzschig, which appeared in issue 29, July 16, 2013,...



Efficient transport of tropospheric aerosol into the stratosphere via the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

2017-06-19T12:47:55-07:00

An enhanced aerosol layer near the tropopause over Asia during the June–September period of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) was recently identified using satellite observations. Its sources and climate impact are presently not well-characterized. To improve understanding of this phenomenon, we made in situ aerosol measurements during summer 2015 from...



Efficient switching of mCherry fluorescence using chemical caging [Chemistry]

2017-06-19T12:47:55-07:00

Fluorophores with dynamic or controllable fluorescence emission have become essential tools for advanced imaging, such as superresolution imaging. These applications have driven the continuing development of photoactivatable or photoconvertible labels, including genetically encoded fluorescent proteins. These new probes work well but require the introduction of new labels that may interfere...



Intact piRNA pathway prevents L1 mobilization in male meiosis [Genetics]

2017-06-19T12:47:55-07:00

The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for retrotransposon silencing. In piRNA-deficient mice, L1-overexpressing male germ cells exhibit excessive DNA damage and meiotic defects. It remains unknown whether L1 expression simply highlights piRNA deficiency or actually drives the germ-cell demise. Specifically, the sheer abundance of genomic L1 copies prevents reliable...



Green mamba peptide targets type-2 vasopressin receptor against polycystic kidney disease [Pharmacology]

2017-06-19T12:47:56-07:00

Polycystic kidney diseases (PKDs) are genetic disorders that can cause renal failure and death in children and adults. Lowering cAMP in cystic tissues through the inhibition of the type-2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) constitutes a validated strategy to reduce disease progression. We identified a peptide from green mamba venom that exhibits...



Childhood social class and cognitive aging in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-06-19T12:47:56-07:00

In this report we analyzed genetically informative data to investigate within-person change and between-person differences in late-life cognitive abilities as a function of childhood social class. We used data from nine testing occasions spanning 28 y in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging and parental social class based on the...



Global Sustainable Development priorities 500 y after Luther: Sola schola et sanitate [Sustainability Science]

2017-06-19T12:47:56-07:00

Martin Luther succinctly summarized his theology in sola statements, such as sola scriptura, viewing the Bible (scriptura) as the only valid source of information about God rather than what he viewed as the extraneous, corrupting church doctrine of the time. As a secular side effect of this focus on individual...



Tetrahydrobiopterin regulates monoamine neurotransmitter sulfonation [Biochemistry]

2017-06-19T12:47:57-07:00

Monoamine neurotransmitters are among the hundreds of signaling small molecules whose target interactions are switched “on” and “off” via transfer of the sulfuryl-moiety (–SO3) from PAPS (3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate) to the hydroxyls and amines of their scaffolds. These transfer reactions are catalyzed by a small family of broad-specificity enzymes—the human cytosolic...



A null model for microbial diversification [Evolution]

2017-06-19T12:47:57-07:00

Whether prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea) are naturally organized into phenotypically and genetically cohesive units comparable to animal or plant species remains contested, frustrating attempts to estimate how many such units there might be, or to identify the ecological roles they play. Analyses of gene sequences in various closely related prokaryotic...



Mercury evidence for pulsed volcanism during the end-Triassic mass extinction [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

2017-06-19T12:47:57-07:00

The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) has long been proposed as having a causal relationship with the end-Triassic extinction event (∼201.5 Ma). In North America and northern Africa, CAMP is preserved as multiple basaltic units interbedded with uppermost Triassic to lowermost Jurassic sediments. However, it has been unclear whether this...



Application of metabolic controls for the maximization of lipid production in semicontinuous fermentation [Applied Biological Sciences]

2017-06-19T12:47:57-07:00

Acetic acid can be generated through syngas fermentation, lignocellulosic biomass degradation, and organic waste anaerobic digestion. Microbial conversion of acetate into triacylglycerols for biofuel production has many advantages, including low-cost or even negative-cost feedstock and environmental benefits. The main issue stems from the dilute nature of acetate produced in such...



Subunit-specific role for the amino-terminal domain of AMPA receptors in synaptic targeting [Neuroscience]

2017-06-19T12:47:58-07:00

The amino-terminal domain (ATD) of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) accounts for approximately 50% of the protein, yet its functional role, if any, remains a mystery. We have discovered that the translocation of surface GluA1, but not GluA2, AMPAR subunits to the synapse requires the ATD. GluA1A2 heteromers in which the ATD...



Hypocretin (orexin) is critical in sustaining theta/gamma-rich waking behaviors that drive sleep need [Neuroscience]

2017-06-19T12:47:58-07:00

Hcrt gene inactivation in mice leads to behavioral state instability, abnormal transitions to paradoxical sleep, and cataplexy, hallmarks of narcolepsy. Sleep homeostasis is, however, considered unimpaired in patients and narcoleptic mice. We find that whereas Hcrtko/ko mice respond to 6-h sleep deprivation (SD) with a slow-wave sleep (SWS) EEG δ...



Bacteria-mediated hypoxia functions as a signal for mosquito development [Developmental Biology]

2017-06-19T12:47:58-07:00

Mosquitoes host communities of microbes in their digestive tract that consist primarily of bacteria. We previously reported that several mosquito species, including Aedes aegypti, do not develop beyond the first instar when fed a nutritionally complete diet in the absence of a gut microbiota. In contrast, several species of bacteria,...



G9a drives hypoxia-mediated gene repression for breast cancer cell survival and tumorigenesis [Genetics]

2017-06-19T12:47:58-07:00

G9a is an epigenetic regulator that methylates H3K9, generally causing repression of gene expression, and participates in diverse cellular functions. G9a is genetically deregulated in a variety of tumor types and can silence tumor suppressor genes and, therefore, is important for carcinogenesis. Although hypoxia is recognized to be an adverse...



Potential high-Tc superconducting lanthanum and yttrium hydrides at high pressure [Physics]

2017-06-19T12:47:59-07:00

A systematic structure search in the La–H and Y–H systems under pressure reveals some hydrogen-rich structures with intriguing electronic properties. For example, LaH10 is found to adopt a sodalite-like face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, stable above 200 GPa, and LaH8 a C2/m space group structure. Phonon calculations indicate both are dynamically...



New perspective on spring vegetation phenology and global climate change based on Tibetan Plateau tree-ring data [Ecology]

2017-06-19T12:47:59-07:00

Phenological responses of vegetation to climate, in particular to the ongoing warming trend, have received much attention. However, divergent results from the analyses of remote sensing data have been obtained for the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the world’s largest high-elevation region. This study provides a perspective on vegetation phenology shifts during...



How members of the human gut microbiota overcome the sulfation problem posed by glycosaminoglycans [Biochemistry]

2017-06-19T12:47:59-07:00

The human microbiota, which plays an important role in health and disease, uses complex carbohydrates as a major source of nutrients. Utilization hierarchy indicates that the host glycosaminoglycans heparin (Hep) and heparan sulfate (HS) are high-priority carbohydrates for Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent member of the human microbiota. The sulfation patterns...



Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers [Engineering]

2017-06-19T12:48:00-07:00

Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional–turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary...



Multiple layers of heterogeneity and subset diversity in human MAIT cell responses to distinct microorganisms and to innate cytokines [Immunology and Inflammation]

2017-06-19T12:48:00-07:00

Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a large innate-like T-cell subset in humans defined by invariant TCR Vα7.2 use and expression of CD161. MAIT cells recognize microbial riboflavin metabolites of bacterial or fungal origin presented by the monomorphic MR1 molecule. The extraordinary level of evolutionary conservation of MR1 and the...



Heat exchange between a bouncing drop and a superhydrophobic substrate [Ecology]

2017-06-19T12:48:00-07:00

The ability to enhance or limit heat transfer between a surface and impacting drops is important in applications ranging from industrial spray cooling to the thermal regulation of animals in cold rain. When these surfaces are micro/nanotextured and hydrophobic, or superhydrophobic, an impacting drop can spread and recoil over trapped...



Nanophotonics-enabled solar membrane distillation for off-grid water purification [Applied Physical Sciences]

2017-06-19T12:48:00-07:00

With more than a billion people lacking accessible drinking water, there is a critical need to convert nonpotable sources such as seawater to water suitable for human use. However, energy requirements of desalination plants account for half their operating costs, so alternative, lower energy approaches are equally critical. Membrane distillation...



Measuring shared variants in cohorts of discordant siblings with applications to autism [Genetics]

2017-06-19T12:48:00-07:00

We develop a method of analysis [affected to discordant sibling pairs (A2DS)] that tests if shared variants contribute to a disorder. Using a standard measure of genetic relation, test individuals are compared with a cohort of discordant sibling pairs (CDS) to derive a comparative similarity score. We ask if a...



QnAs with Tony Hunter and James Allison [QnAs]

2017-06-19T12:48:01-07:00

In the mid-1990s, the miracle drug Gleevec revolutionized cancer treatment, offering terminally ill patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) a new lease on life. Until then, the only weapons in the medical arsenal against cancer were the blunt and brutal triad of surgery, radiation, and conventional chemotherapy. Gleevec, which ushered...



Group augmentation, collective action, and territorial boundary patrols by male chimpanzees [Anthropology]

2017-06-19T12:48:01-07:00

How can collective action evolve when individuals benefit from cooperation regardless of whether they pay its participation costs? According to one influential perspective, collective action problems are common, especially when groups are large, but may be solved when individuals who have more to gain from the collective good or can...



A prokaryotic viral sequence is expressed and conserved in mammalian brain [Microbiology]

2017-06-19T12:48:01-07:00

A natural and permanent transfer of prokaryotic viral sequences to mammals has not been reported by others. Circular “SPHINX” DNAs <5 kb were previously isolated from nuclease-protected cytoplasmic particles in rodent neuronal cell lines and brain. Two of these DNAs were sequenced after Φ29 polymerase amplification, and they revealed significant...



Uncovering BRD4 hyperphosphorylation associated with cellular transformation in NUT midline carcinoma [Cell Biology]

2017-06-19T12:48:01-07:00

The epigenetic reader BRD4 plays a vital role in transcriptional regulation, cellular growth control, and cell-cycle progression. Dysregulation of BRD4 function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide range of cancers. However, how BRD4 is regulated to maintain its normal function in healthy cells and how alteration of...



Targeting reactive nitrogen species suppresses hereditary pancreatic cancer [Medical Sciences]

2017-06-19T12:48:02-07:00

Germline mutation of BRCA2 induces hereditary pancreatic cancer. However, how BRCA2 mutation specifically induces pancreatic tumorigenesis remains elusive. Here, we have examined a mouse model of Brca2-deficiency–induced pancreatic tumors and found that excessive reactive nitrogen species (RNS), such as nitrite, are generated in precancerous pancreases, which induce massive DNA damage,...



Robert Treat Paine III (1933-2016) [Retrospectives]

2017-06-19T12:48:02-07:00

Robert Treat Paine III passed away June 13 in Seattle surrounded by family and friends. RTP, as he was known, was an emeritus Professor at the University of Washington, where he developed a career that helped define the field of community ecology. Ever an avid naturalist who paid close attention...



Recombinant silicateins as model biocatalysts in organosiloxane chemistry [Chemistry]

2017-06-19T12:48:02-07:00

The family of silicatein enzymes from marine sponges (phylum Porifera) is unique in nature for catalyzing the formation of inorganic silica structures, which the organisms incorporate into their skeleton. However, the synthesis of organosiloxanes catalyzed by these enzymes has thus far remained largely unexplored. To investigate the reactivity of these...



Reducing secondary organic aerosol formation from gasoline vehicle exhaust [Environmental Sciences]

2017-06-19T12:48:02-07:00

On-road gasoline vehicles are a major source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in urban areas. We investigated SOA formation by oxidizing dilute, ambient-level exhaust concentrations from a fleet of on-road gasoline vehicles in a smog chamber. We measured less SOA formation from newer vehicles meeting more stringent emissions standards. This...



Chimpanzees return favors at a personal cost [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-06-19T12:48:03-07:00

Humans regularly provide others with resources at a personal cost to themselves. Chimpanzees engage in some cooperative behaviors in the wild as well, but their motivational underpinnings are unclear. In three experiments, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) always chose between an option delivering food both to themselves and a partner and one...



{Delta}20 IFITM2 differentially restricts X4 and R5 HIV-1 [Microbiology]

2017-06-19T12:48:03-07:00

CCR5 (R5)-tropic, but not CXCR4 (X4)-tropic, HIV-1 is associated with primary HIV-1 infection and transmission. Recent studies have shown that IFN-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins, including IFITM1, IFITM2, and IFITM3, restrict a broad range of viruses. Here, we demonstrate that an IFITM2 isoform (Δ20 IFITM2) lacking 20 amino acids at the...



How selective severing by katanin promotes order in the plant cortical microtubule array [Plant Biology]

2017-06-19T12:48:03-07:00

Plant morphogenesis requires differential and often asymmetric growth. A key role in controlling anisotropic expansion of individual cells is played by the cortical microtubule array. Although highly organized, the array can nevertheless rapidly change in response to internal and external cues. Experiments have identified the microtubule-severing enzyme katanin as a...



TCTE1 is a conserved component of the dynein regulatory complex and is required for motility and metabolism in mouse spermatozoa [Developmental Biology]

2017-06-19T12:48:03-07:00

Flagella and cilia are critical cellular organelles that provide a means for cells to sense and progress through their environment. The central component of flagella and cilia is the axoneme, which comprises the “9+2” microtubule arrangement, dynein arms, radial spokes, and the nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC). Failure to properly assemble...



Role of the CBP catalytic core in intramolecular SUMOylation and control of histone H3 acetylation [Biochemistry]

2017-06-19T12:48:04-07:00

The histone acetyl transferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and its paralog p300 play a critical role in numerous cellular processes. Dysregulation of their catalytic activity is associated with several human diseases. Previous work has elucidated the regulatory mechanisms of p300 acetyltransferase activity, but it is not known whether CBP activity is...



Trust is heritable, whereas distrust is not [Social Sciences]

2017-06-19T12:48:04-07:00

Why do people distrust others in social exchange? To what degree, if at all, is distrust subject to genetic influences, and thus possibly heritable, and to what degree is it nurtured by families and immediate peers who encourage young people to be vigilant and suspicious of others? Answering these questions...



Convergent immunological solutions to Argentine hemorrhagic fever virus neutralization [Biochemistry]

2017-06-19T12:48:04-07:00

Transmission of hemorrhagic fever New World arenaviruses from their rodent reservoirs to human populations poses substantial public health and economic dangers. These zoonotic events are enabled by the specific interaction between the New World arenaviral attachment glycoprotein, GP1, and cell surface human transferrin receptor (hTfR1). Here, we present the structural...



Reconstruction and evolutionary history of eutherian chromosomes [Evolution]

2017-06-19T12:48:04-07:00

Whole-genome assemblies of 19 placental mammals and two outgroup species were used to reconstruct the order and orientation of syntenic fragments in chromosomes of the eutherian ancestor and six other descendant ancestors leading to human. For ancestral chromosome reconstructions, we developed an algorithm (DESCHRAMBLER) that probabilistically determines the adjacencies of...



Virus-induced inflammasome activation is suppressed by prostaglandin D2/DP1 signaling [Microbiology]

2017-06-19T12:48:05-07:00

Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), an eicosanoid with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties, is the most abundantly expressed prostaglandin in the brain. Here we show that PGD2 signaling through the D-prostanoid receptor 1 (DP1) receptor is necessary for optimal microglia/macrophage activation and IFN expression after infection with a neurotropic coronavirus. Genome-wide expression...



Toll-like receptor pathway evolution in deuterostomes [Evolution]

2017-06-19T12:48:05-07:00

Animals have evolved an array of pattern-recognition receptor families essential for recognizing conserved molecular motifs characteristic of pathogenic microbes. One such family is the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). On pathogen binding, TLRs initiate specialized cytokine signaling catered to the class of invading pathogen. This signaling is pivotal for activating adaptive immunity...



The case for defined protein folding pathways [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

2017-06-19T12:48:05-07:00

We consider the differences between the many-pathway protein folding model derived from theoretical energy landscape considerations and the defined-pathway model derived from experiment. A basic tenet of the energy landscape model is that proteins fold through many heterogeneous pathways by way of amino acid-level dynamics biased toward selecting native-like interactions....



Annual mass drownings of the Serengeti wildebeest migration influence nutrient cycling and storage in the Mara River [Ecology]

2017-06-19T12:48:05-07:00

The annual migration of ∼1.2 million wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) through the Serengeti Mara Ecosystem is the largest remaining overland migration in the world. One of the most iconic portions of their migration is crossing of the Mara River, during which thousands drown annually. These mass drownings have been noted, but...



Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals [Physics]

2017-06-19T12:48:05-07:00

Electron–electron interactions are the fastest processes in materials, occurring on femtosecond to attosecond timescales, depending on the electronic band structure of the material and the excitation energy. Such interactions can play a dominant role in light-induced processes such as nano-enhanced plasmonics and catalysis, light harvesting, or phase transitions. However, to...



Evolutionary strata on young mating-type chromosomes despite the lack of sexual antagonism [Evolution]

2017-06-19T12:48:06-07:00

Sex chromosomes can display successive steps of recombination suppression known as “evolutionary strata,” which are thought to result from the successive linkage of sexually antagonistic genes to sex-determining genes. However, there is little evidence to support this explanation. Here we investigate whether evolutionary strata can evolve without sexual antagonism using...



Boosting CNS axon regeneration by harnessing antagonistic effects of GSK3 activity [Neuroscience]

2017-06-19T12:48:06-07:00

Implications of GSK3 activity for axon regeneration are often inconsistent, if not controversial. Sustained GSK3 activity in GSK3S/A knock-in mice reportedly accelerates peripheral nerve regeneration via increased MAP1B phosphorylation and concomitantly reduces microtubule detyrosination. In contrast, the current study shows that lens injury-stimulated optic nerve regeneration was significantly compromised in...



QnAs with Robert Townsend [QnAs]

2017-06-19T12:48:06-07:00

Household businesses and small enterprises are a staple of villages in Thailand. In the late 1990s, Robert Townsend, an economic theorist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, ventured into Thai villages to document household finances and sketch the ties linking family and village finances to regional and national economies. For...



The Red Queen and King in finite populations [Evolution]

2017-06-19T12:48:06-07:00

In antagonistic symbioses, such as host–parasite interactions, one population’s success is the other’s loss. In mutualistic symbioses, such as division of labor, both parties can gain, but they might have different preferences over the possible mutualistic arrangements. The rates of evolution of the two populations in a symbiosis are important...



Stem caecilian from the Triassic of Colorado sheds light on the origins of Lissamphibia [Evolution]

2017-06-19T12:48:07-07:00

The origin of the limbless caecilians remains a lasting question in vertebrate evolution. Molecular phylogenies and morphology support that caecilians are the sister taxon of batrachians (frogs and salamanders), from which they diverged no later than the early Permian. Although recent efforts have discovered new, early members of the batrachian...



Self-affirmation facilitates minority middle schoolers' progress along college trajectories [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

2017-06-19T12:48:07-07:00

Small but timely experiences can have long-term benefits when their psychological effects interact with institutional processes. In a follow-up of two randomized field experiments, a brief values affirmation intervention designed to buffer minority middle schoolers against the threat of negative stereotypes had long-term benefits on college-relevant outcomes. In study 1,...



UCP1 deficiency causes brown fat respiratory chain depletion and sensitizes mitochondria to calcium overload-induced dysfunction [Biochemistry]

2017-06-19T12:48:07-07:00

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondria exhibit high oxidative capacity and abundant expression of both electron transport chain components and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). UCP1 dissipates the mitochondrial proton motive force (Δp) generated by the respiratory chain and increases thermogenesis. Here we find that in mice genetically lacking UCP1, cold-induced activation...



Enhancing T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast with internalized gadolinium(III) in a multilayer nanoparticle [Chemistry]

2017-06-19T12:48:07-07:00

Multifunctional nanoparticles for biomedical applications have shown extraordinary potential as contrast agents in various bioimaging modalities, near-IR photothermal therapy, and for light-triggered therapeutic release processes. Over the past several years, numerous studies have been performed to synthesize and enhance MRI contrast with nanoparticles. However, understanding the MRI enhancement mechanism in...