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The six-minute walk test in patients with AL amyloidosis: a single centre case series.

The six-minute walk test in patients with AL amyloidosis: a single centre case series.

Br J Haematol. 2017 Mar 24;:

Authors: Pulido V, Doros G, Berk JL, Sanchorawala V

Abstract
The six-minute walk test (6MWT) has been widely used as an objective evaluation of functional exercise capacity and response to medical intervention in cardiopulmonary diseases. However, little is known about the 6MWT in evaluating patients with AL amyloidosis. We performed a retrospective study of 120 adults with systemic AL amyloidosis (60 with cardiac involvement and 60 without cardiac involvement) who had their initial evaluation at the Amyloidosis Center between 2013 and 2015 and had undergone 6MWT as a measure of functional exercise capacity. Forty-seven patients with cardiac involvement and 41 patients without cardiac involvement were included in the final analysis. The six-minute walk distances (6MWD) were 368 ± 105 m and 420 ± 116 m (mean ± SD), respectively (P = 0·03). Among AL amyloidosis patients with cardiac involvement, the 6MWD was associated with New York Heart Association class (P < 0·001), B-type natriuretic peptide (P = 0·003) and overall survival (hazard ratio 0·381, 95% confidence interval 0·215-0·676, P = 0·001). In conclusion, the 6MWT is a valuable tool in assessing functional exercise capacity in patients with AL amyloidosis.

PMID: 28340285 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Comparative analysis of pulmonary hypertension in patients treated with imatinib, nilotinib and dasatinib.

Comparative analysis of pulmonary hypertension in patients treated with imatinib, nilotinib and dasatinib.

Br J Haematol. 2017 Mar 24;:

Authors: Minami M, Arita T, Iwasaki H, Muta T, Aoki T, Aoki K, Yamasaki S, Matsushima T, Kato K, Takenaka K, Tanimoto K, Kamimura T, Ogawa R, Akashi K, Miyamoto T

Abstract
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rare, but life-threatening, adverse event in patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as dasatinib, but has not been fully evaluated in patients treated with imatinib or nilotinib. We used echocardiography to noninvasively assess the incidence of PH in 105 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) treated with imatinib (n = 37), nilotinib (n = 30) or dasatinib (n = 38). The mean triscupid regurgitation peak gradient (TRPG), which reflects pulmonary arterial pressure, was 22·7 mmHg in the imatinib group, 23·1 mmHg in the nilotinib group and 23·4 mmHg for dasatinib group. These values were not significantly different, but higher than those (19·0 mmHg) in newly diagnosed CML patients. A TRPG > 31 mmHg, marking possible PH onset, was detected in 9 of 105 patients: one (2·7%) treated with imatinib, three (10·0%) with nilotinib and five (13·2%) with dasatinib. Only three patients complained of dyspnoea, whereas the other six were asymptomatic. In addition, there was a tendency toward correlation of TRPG value and age or TKI treatment duration. These results suggested that treatment with not only dasatinib, but also imatinib and nilotinib, can be associated with subclinical PH. Noninvasive echocardiography is useful for screening, especially in older patients with long-term TKI treatment.

PMID: 28340283 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Carfilzomib induces leukaemia cell apoptosis via inhibiting ELK1/KIAA1524 (Elk-1/CIP2A) and activating PP2A not related to proteasome inhibition.

Carfilzomib induces leukaemia cell apoptosis via inhibiting ELK1/KIAA1524 (Elk-1/CIP2A) and activating PP2A not related to proteasome inhibition.

Br J Haematol. 2017 Mar 24;:

Authors: Liu CY, Hsieh FS, Chu PY, Tsai WC, Huang CT, Yu YB, Huang TT, Ko PS, Hung MH, Wang WL, Shiau CW, Chen KF

Abstract
Enhancing the tumour suppressive activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) has been suggested to be an anti-leukaemic strategy. KIAA1524 (also termed CIP2A), an oncoprotein inhibiting PP2A, is associated with disease progression in chronic myeloid leukaemia and may be prognostic in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemia. Here we demonstrated that the selective proteasome inhibitor, carfilzomib, induced apoptosis in sensitive primary leukaemia cells and in sensitive leukaemia cell lines, associated with KIAA1524 protein downregulation, increased PP2A activity and decreased p-Akt, but not with the proteasome inhibition effect of carfilzomib. Ectopic expression of KIAA1524, or pretreatment with the PP2A inhibitor, okadaic acid, suppressed carfilzomib-induced apoptosis and KIAA1524 downregulation in sensitive cells, whereas co-treatment with the PP2A agonist, forskolin, enhanced carfilzomib-induced apoptosis in resistant cells. Mechanistically, carfilzomib affected KIAA1524 transcription through disturbing ELK1 (Elk-1) binding to the KIAA1524 promoter. Moreover, the drug sensitivity and mechanism of carfilzomib in xenograft mouse models correlated well with the effects of carfilzomib on KIAA1524 and p-Akt expression, as well as PP2A activity. Our data disclosed a novel drug mechanism of carfilzomib in leukaemia cells and suggests the potential therapeutic implication of KIAA1524 in leukaemia treatment.

PMID: 28340282 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




High ten-year remission rates following rituximab, fludarabine, mitoxantrone and dexamethasone (R-FND) with interferon maintenance in indolent lymphoma: Results of a randomized Study.

High ten-year remission rates following rituximab, fludarabine, mitoxantrone and dexamethasone (R-FND) with interferon maintenance in indolent lymphoma: Results of a randomized Study.

Br J Haematol. 2017 Mar 24;:

Authors: Nastoupil LJ, McLaughlin P, Feng L, Neelapu SS, Samaniego F, Hagemeister FB, Ayala A, Romaguera JE, Goy AH, Neal E, Wang M, Fayad L, Fanale MA, Oki Y, Westin JR, Rodriguez MA, Cabanillas F, Fowler NH

Abstract
We report a single-centre, randomized study evaluating the efficacy and safety of concurrent fludarabine, mitoxantrone, dexamethasone (FND) and rituximab versus sequential FND followed by rituximab in 158 patients with advanced stage, previously untreated indolent lymphoma, enrolled between 1997 and 2002. Patients were randomized to 6-8 cycles of FND followed by 6 monthly doses of rituximab or 6 doses of rituximab given concurrently with FND. All patients who achieved at least a partial response received 12 months of interferon (IFN) maintenance. Median ages were 54 and 55 years. The two groups were comparable with the exception of a higher percentage of females (65% vs. 43%) and baseline anaemia (23% vs. 11%) in the FND followed by rituximab group. Complete response/unconfirmed complete response rates were 89% and 93%. The most frequent grade ≥ 3 toxicity was neutropenia (86% vs. 96%). Neutropenic fever occurred in 21% and 16%. Late toxicity included myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 3) and acute myeloid leukaemia (n = 5). With 12·5 years of follow-up, no significant differences based on treatment schedule were observed. 10-year overall survival estimates were 76% and 73%. 10-year progression-free survival estimates were 52% and 51%. FND with concurrent or sequential rituximab, and IFN maintenance in indolent lymphoma demonstrated high response rates and robust survival.

PMID: 28340281 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Pathogenesis and management of antiphospholipid syndrome.

Pathogenesis and management of antiphospholipid syndrome.

Br J Haematol. 2017 Mar 24;:

Authors: Arachchillage DR, Laffan M

Abstract
Antiphospholipid antibodies are a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies that have clear associations with thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity, and which together constitute the 'antiphospholipid syndrome' (APS). However, the pathophysiology of these complications is not well understood and their heterogeneity suggests that more than one pathogenic process may be involved. Diagnosis remains a combination of laboratory analysis and clinical observation but there have been significant advances in identifying specific pathogenic features, such as domain I-specific anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies. This in turn has pointed to endothelial and complement activation as important factors in the pathogenesis of APS. Consequently, although anticoagulation remains the standard treatment for thrombotic APS and during pregnancy, the realisation that these additional pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of APS has significant implications for treatment: agents acting outside the coagulation system, such as hydroxychloroquine for pregnancy complications and sirolimus as an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, are now under evaluation and represent a radical change in thinking for haematologists. Conventional anticoagulation is also under challenge from new, direct acting anticoagulants. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the evolving understanding of APS pathogenesis and how this and novel therapeutics will alter diagnosis and management.

PMID: 28339096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]