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pubmed: Thromb Haemost[jour]



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Rivaroxaban for Preventing Venous Thromboembolism in High-Risk Ambulatory Patients with Cancer: Rationale and Design of the CASSINI Trial. Rationale and Design of the CASSINI Trial.
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Rivaroxaban for Preventing Venous Thromboembolism in High-Risk Ambulatory Patients with Cancer: Rationale and Design of the CASSINI Trial. Rationale and Design of the CASSINI Trial.

Thromb Haemost. 2017 Sep 21;117(11):

Authors: Khorana A, Vadhan-Raj S, Kuderer NM, Wun T, Liebman H, Soff G, Belani C, O'Reilly EM, McBane R, Eikelboom J, Damaraju CV, Beyers K, Dietrich F, Kakkar A, Riess H, D'Alpino Peixoto R, Lyman GH

Abstract
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication of cancer associated with morbidity, mortality, increased hospitalizations and higher health care costs. Cancer patients at increased risk for VTE can be identified using a validated risk assessment score, and the incidence of VTE can be reduced in high-risk settings using anticoagulation. Rivaroxaban is a potent, oral, direct, factor Xa inhibitor approved for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic events, including VTE. CASSINI is a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, multicentre study comparing rivaroxaban with placebo in adult ambulatory patients with various cancers who are initiating systemic cancer therapy and are at high risk of VTE (Khorana score ≥ 2). Patients with primary brain tumours or those at risk for bleeding are excluded. Approximately 700 patients will be randomized 1:1 to rivaroxaban 10 mg daily or placebo for up to 6 months if there is no evidence of VTE from compression ultrasonography (CU) during screening or from routine care imaging within 30 days prior to randomization. Mandatory CU will also be performed at weeks 8 and 16 (±7 days), and at study end (±3 days). The primary efficacy hypothesis is that anticoagulation with rivaroxaban reduces the composite of objectively confirmed symptomatic or asymptomatic, lower-extremity, proximal deep-vein thrombosis (DVT); symptomatic, upper-extremity DVT; symptomatic or incidental pulmonary embolism; and VTE-related death compared with placebo. The primary safety objective is to assess major bleeding events (Clinical trial information: NCT02555878).

PMID: 28933799 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Pharmacokinetics of Tecarfarin and Warfarin in Patients with Severe Chronic Kidney Disease.
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Pharmacokinetics of Tecarfarin and Warfarin in Patients with Severe Chronic Kidney Disease.

Thromb Haemost. 2017 Sep 21;117(10):

Authors: Midei M, Albrecht D, Turakhia MP, Ries D, Marbury T, Smith W, Dillon D, Milner PG, Midei MG

Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) complicates warfarin anticoagulation partially through its effect on CYP2C9 activity. Tecarfarin, a novel vitamin K antagonist, is not metabolized by CYP2C9. To evaluate the effect of CKD on their metabolism, we measured PK parameters of warfarin and tecarfarin in subjects with and without CKD. CKD subjects with estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min not on dialysis (n = 13) were matched to healthy volunteers (HVs) (n = 10). Each subject was randomized to either warfarin 10 mg or tecarfarin 30 mg and was later crossed over to the other drug. PK parameters were measured following each drug. Mean plasma concentrations of (S)-warfarin and (R,S)-warfarin were higher (44 and 27%, respectively) in the subjects with CKD than in the healthy subjects. Both of these values fell outside of the 90% confidence interval of equivalence. For tecarfarin, the difference was less than 15% higher. Elimination half-life (t1/2) increased by 20% for (S)-warfarin and by 8% for (R,S)-warfarin and decreased by 8% for tecarfarin. The mean plasma concentration for tecarfarin's inactive metabolite ATI-5900 increased by approximately eightfold. CKD increased the effect of CYP2C9 genetic variation on (S)-warfarin and (R,S)-warfarin metabolism. Tecarfarin exposure was similar between the HVs and the CKD subjects regardless of CYP2C9 genotype. There were neither serious adverse events (SAEs) nor treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) for any subject in the study. CKD inhibits metabolism of (S)-warfarin and (R,S)-warfarin, but not tecarfarin. The safety of repeated dosing of tecarfarin in CKD patients remains unknown. However, if the PK findings of this single-dose study are present with repeated dosing, tecarfarin may lead to dosing that is more predictable than warfarin in CKD patients who require anticoagulation therapy.

PMID: 28933798 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Perivascular Perfusion on Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) Is Associated with Inflammation in Patients with Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis.
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Perivascular Perfusion on Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) Is Associated with Inflammation in Patients with Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis.

Thromb Haemost. 2017 Sep 21;117(11):

Authors: Kaspar M, Imfeld S, Partovi S, Aschwanden M, Baldi T, Dikkes A, Vogt DR, Tsakiris DA, Staub D

Abstract
Background Inflammatory processes of the venous wall in acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) play a role in thrombus formation and resolution. However, direct evaluation of the perivascular inflammation is currently not feasible. Objective To assess perivascular perfusion in acute proximal DVT using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) reflecting perivenous inflammation and its association with systemic inflammatory markers in a single-centre, prospective observational study. Patients/Methods Twenty patients with proximal DVT underwent CEUS imaging in the thrombosed and contralateral popliteal vein at baseline and after 2 weeks and 3 months. Perfusion was quantified by measuring peak enhancement (PE) and wash-in rate (WiR) in a perivenous region after bolus injection of the contrast agent. High-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined at the time of each CEUS imaging. Results PE and WiR were significantly higher in the thrombosed compared with the unaffected leg at baseline (1,007 vs. 34 au and 103 vs. 4 au/s) and 2-week follow-up (903 vs. 35 au and 70 vs. 4 au/s). Compared with baseline, PE and WiR in the thrombosed leg significantly decreased to 217 au and 18 au/s at 3-month follow-up. At baseline, hsCRP and IL-6 were elevated at 20.1 mg/mL and 8.2 pg/mL and decreased significantly to 2.8 mg/mL and 2.6 pg/mL at 2-week follow-up, remaining low after 3 months. There was a weak association between the level of inflammatory markers and the CEUS parameters at baseline on the thrombosed leg. Conclusion Elevated perivascular perfusion assessed by CEUS imaging is associated with the inflammatory response in acute DVT.

PMID: 28933797 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]