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Preview: pubmed: Thromb Haemost[jour]

pubmed: Thromb Haemost[jour]



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New paradigms in venous thromboprophylaxis of medically ill patients.
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New paradigms in venous thromboprophylaxis of medically ill patients.

Thromb Haemost. 2017 Jun 22;117(9):

Authors: Spyropoulos AC, Spyropoulos A, Raskob GE

Abstract
Acutelly-ill hospitalised medical patients are at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), both in-hospital and in the immediate post-discharge period, and mortality from VTE is thought to be particularly high in this patient population. However, despite previous mandates from international antithrombotic guidelines such as those of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) for the "universal" use of thromboprophylaxis in hospitalised medical patients, global audits suggest that implementation of thromboprophylaxis continues to be challenging because of the perceived higher risk of bleeding and lower risk of VTE than that reported in clinical trials. Recent population-based studies also reveal that a "universal" hospital-only thromboprophylactic strategy does not reduce the community burden of VTE from this population, which may constitute nearly one quarter of the attributable risk of VTE. Lastly, four large randomised placebo-controlled trials of extended thromboprophylaxis have failed to show a definitive net clinical benefit in hospitalised medical patients. Recent large-scale efforts in deriving and validating scored VTE and bleed risk assessment models (RAMs) have been completed in the medically-ill population. In addition, an elevated D-dimer as a new biomarker to identify at-VTE risk medically ill patients has also undergone prospective evaluation. This paper will review current concepts of VTE and bleed risk in hospitalised medical patients, both in the hospital as well as the post-hospital discharge period, and will discuss new paradigms of thromboprophylaxis in this population using an individualised, patient-centered approach.

PMID: 28640324 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Lys 42/43/44 and Arg 12 of thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor comprise a thrombomodulin exosite essential for its antifibrinolytic potential.
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Lys 42/43/44 and Arg 12 of thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor comprise a thrombomodulin exosite essential for its antifibrinolytic potential.

Thromb Haemost. 2017 Jun 22;117(8):

Authors: Wu C, Stafford AR, Fredenburgh JC, Weitz JI, Gils A, Declerck PJ, Kim PY

Abstract
The thrombin-thrombomodulin (TM) complex activates thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) more efficiently than thrombin alone. The exosite on TAFI required for its TM-dependent activation by thrombin has not been identified. Based on previous work by us and others, we generated TAFI variants with one or more of residues Lys 42, Lys 43, Lys 44 and Arg 12 within the activation peptide mutated to alanine. Mutation of one, two, or three Lys residues or the Arg residue alone decreased the catalytic efficiency of TAFI activation by thrombin-TM by 2.4-, 3.2-, 4.7-, and 15.0-fold, respectively, and increased the TAFI concentrations required for half-maximal prolongation of clot lysis times (K1/2) by 3-, 4,- 15-, and 24-fold, respectively. Mutation of all four residues decreased the catalytic efficiency of TAFI activation by 45.0-fold, increased the K1/2 by 130-fold, and abolished antifibrinolytic activity in a clot lysis assay at physiologic levels of TAFI. Similar trends in the antifibrinolytic activity of the TAFI variants were observed when plasma clots were formed using HUVECs as the source of TM. When thrombin was used as the activator, mutation of all four residues reduced the rate of activation by 1.1-fold compared with wild-type TAFI, suggesting that these mutations only impacted activation kinetics in the presence of TM. Surface plasmon resonance data suggest that mutation of the four residues abrogates TM binding with or without thrombin. Therefore, Lys 42, Lys 43, Lys 44 and Arg 12 are critical for the interaction of TAFI with the thrombin-TM complex, which modulates its antifibrinolytic potential.

PMID: 28640323 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin for treatment and prevention of recurrence of venous thromboembolism.
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Effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin for treatment and prevention of recurrence of venous thromboembolism.

Thromb Haemost. 2017 Jun 22;117(9):

Authors: Coleman CI, Coleman C, Bunz TJ, Turpie AGG

Abstract
The efficacy and safety or rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin/vitamin K antagonist for treatment and prevention recurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) was demonstrated in the randomised EINSTEIN trials. We assessed the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin in VTE patients managed in routine practice. Using US MarketScan claims from 1/2012-6/2015, we included adults with a primary diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) during a hospitalisation/emergency department visit, newly-initiated on rivaroxaban or warfarin within 30-days after the VTE and with ≥180-days of continuous medical/prescription benefits prior to the VTE (baseline). Patients with a claim for anticoagulation at baseline were excluded. Recurrent VTE, major bleeding, intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) were assessed. Differences in baseline characteristics between cohorts were adjusted for using inverse probability of treatment weights based on propensity-scores. Patients had a maximum of 12-months period of follow-up post-VTE or until endpoint occurrence, switch/discontinuation of index anticoagulation, insurance disenrollment or end-of-follow-up. Cox regression was performed and reported as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). In total, 13,609 rivaroxaban and 32,244 warfarin users experiencing VTE were included. Rivaroxaban was associated with an 19 % (95 %CI=10-27 %) reduction in recurrent VTE and a 21 % (95 %CI=4-35 %) reduction in major bleeding hazard versus warfarin. Rivaroxaban was also associated with significantly decreased hazards of ICH (HR=0.40) and GIB (HR=0.72). Rivaroxaban appears to reduce patients' hazard of both recurrent VTE and major bleeding in routine practice. These results appear consistent with EINSTEIN and post-marketing registry studies.

PMID: 28640322 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Effects of direct oral anticoagulants on lupus anticoagulant assays in a real-life setting.
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Effects of direct oral anticoagulants on lupus anticoagulant assays in a real-life setting.

Thromb Haemost. 2017 Jun 22;117(9):

Authors: Antovic A, Norberg EM, Berndtsson M, Rasmuson A, Malmström RE, Skeppholm M, Antovic J

Abstract
Laboratory diagnosis of lupus anticoagulant (LA) is based on prolongation in at least one coagulation assay (diluted Russell's viper venom time - dRVVT or activated partial thromboplastin time - aPTT), which normalises after addition of phospholipids. Both assays may be influenced by anticoagulants and therefore LA should not be tested during warfarin or heparin treatment. It has been shown (primarily in vitro) that direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs - dabigatran [DAB], rivaroxaban [RIV] and apixaban [API]) may also influence LA testing. We tested the effects of DOACs on assays routinely used for the diagnosis of LA in patients treated with these drugs in a real-life setting. Plasma from patients with atrial fibrillation treated with DAB (n=30), RIV (n=20) and API (n=17) and not known to have LA were tested using dRVVT (LA-screen and LA-confirm, Life Diagnostics) and aPTT (PTT-LA, Diagnostica Stago and aPTT Actin FS, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics) assays. According to the diagnostics algorithm, dRVVT and aPTT ratios of <1.2 were considered negative, ratios of >1.4 positive, while if the ratios were 1.2-1.4 LA could not be ruled out. Plasma concentrations varied between 8-172 µg/l for DAB, 8-437 µg/l for RIV and 36-178 µg/l for API. LA diagnosis was negative in only eight (27 %) plasma samples from patients treated with DAB, and in five (25 %) and four samples (24 %) from patients treated with RIV and API, respectively. LA Positivity (dRVVT and aPTT ratios >1.4) was found in 5 cases (17 %) among patients treated with DAB, in 10 cases (50 %) treated with RIV and in 7 cases (41 %) treated with API. A concentration-dependent effect of DOACs on dRVVT-based parameters was observed, particularly as regards DAB. At lower concentrations, RIV and API had only minor effects on the confirmatory tests (below 100 µg/l and 70 µg/l, respectively). Our results suggest that a risk of overestimation of LA detection is present in samples from patients treated with DOACs. Therefore, LA testing should not be performed during treatment with DOACs. Prolongation in confirmatory assays may be helpful for the recognition of false positivity, especially as regards DAB.

PMID: 28640321 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Molecular signature of coronary stent thrombosis: oxidative stress and innate immunity cells.
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Molecular signature of coronary stent thrombosis: oxidative stress and innate immunity cells.

Thromb Haemost. 2017 Jun 22;117(9):

Authors: Cubedo J, Blasco A, Padro T, Ramaiola I, Juan-Babot O, Goicolea J, Fernández-Díaz JA, Oteo JF, Badimon L

Abstract
The clinical impact of in-stent thrombosis is high because it is associated with high mortality and 20 % of the patients suffer a recurrent event within the two following years. The aim of this study was to characterise the morphologic and proteomic profile of in-stent thrombi (IST) in comparison to thrombi developed on native coronary arteries (CT) to identify a differential molecular signature. The study included 45 patients with ST-elevation-myocardial-infarction (STEMI) treated by primary-percutaneous-intervention and thrombus aspiration: 21 had IST and 24 had CT. Thrombi were characterised by morphologic immunohistochemical analysis and differential proteomic profiling (2-DE+MALDI-TOF/TOF). Bioinformatic analysis revealed differences in proteins related to oxidative-stress and cell death/survival. IST showed a higher content of structural proteins (gelsolin, actin-cytoplasmic-1, tropomyosin, and myosin) together with an imbalance in redox-homeostasis related proteins (increased superoxide-dismutase and decreased peroxiredoxin-2 thrombus content), and a coordinated increase of chaperones (HSP60 and HSC70) and cellular quality control-related proteins (26S-protease-regulatory-subunit-7). These changes were reflected into a significant decrease in HSC70 systemic levels and a significant increase in advanced-oxidation-protein-products (AOPP) indicative of increased oxidative stress-mediated protein damage in IST. Our results reveal an imbalance in redox-related proteins indicative of an exacerbated oxidative-stress that leads to an accumulation of AOPP serum levels in IST. Moreover, the coordinated increase in chaperones and regulatory proteins reflects the activation of intracellular protection mechanisms to maintain protein integrity in IST. The failure to counterbalance the stress situation could trigger cellular apoptosis leading to the destabilization of the thrombus and to a worse prognosis of IST-STEMI-patients.

PMID: 28640320 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]