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How do we manage blood donors and recipients after a positive Zika screening result?
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How do we manage blood donors and recipients after a positive Zika screening result?

Transfusion. 2017 Jul 21;:

Authors: Jimenez A, Shaz BH, Kessler D, Bloch EM

Abstract
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic. ZIKV is notable for its severe neurologic sequelae in babies born to infected mothers. High rates of subclinical infection, as evidenced by the finding of ZIKV RNA in asymptomatic donors, raise concerns of risk to the blood supply. To date, a total of four suspected cases of transfusion-transmitted ZIKV have been reported (all in Brazil), none of which were associated with clinical infection in the transfusion recipients. In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a guidance mandating national blood donor screening for ZIKV in the United States. Five days after implementation of donor screening at our facility, we encountered a ZIKV-positive donor. We provide a practical approach to donor, recipient, and blood product management in the setting of a positive donor ZIKV result. Such has been informed by the challenges we faced in the workup of a ZIKV-reactive donation and recipient lookback.

PMID: 28734023 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Influence of cryoprecipitate, Factor XIII, and fibrinogen concentrate on hyperfibrinolysis.
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Influence of cryoprecipitate, Factor XIII, and fibrinogen concentrate on hyperfibrinolysis.

Transfusion. 2017 Jul 21;:

Authors: Cushing MM, Fitzgerald MM, Harris RM, Asmis LM, Haas T

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Hyperfibrinolysis is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with poor clot integrity and excessive bleeding. Although antifibrinolytics are an effective treatment, more liberal use of these drugs may lead to a prothrombotic risk, and an earlier and potentially safer treatment option would be desirable. Hyperfibrinolysis has been shown to be attenuated by in vitro supplementation of purified human Factor (F)XIII concentrate. Cryoprecipitate represents an alternative source of FXIII and the only approved source of concentrated FXIII in some countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cryoprecipitate, FXIII, and fibrinogen concentrate mitigate hyperfibrinolysis.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Ten citrate blood specimens from healthy subjects were spiked with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and subsequently supplemented with cryoprecipitate, FXIII, fibrinogen concentrate, and ɛ-aminocaproic acid (EACA). Thromboelastometry tests were performed at baseline, after t-PA, and after supplementation. Hyperfibrinolysis was assessed using the clot lysis index at 60 minutes (LI60; reciprocal of maximum lysis).
RESULTS: The LI60 was significantly improved (fibrinolysis attenuated) after cryoprecipitate supplementation compared to t-PA alone and compared to FXIII and fibrinogen concentrate. Hyperfibrinolysis was only fully reversed using EACA. In addition, cryoprecipitate demonstrated the least variability in the attenuation of hyperfibrinolysis among 10 healthy subjects, compared to FXIII and fibrinogen concentrate.
CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that cryoprecipitate is able to significantly mitigate hyperfibrinolysis in an in vitro model. Further investigations are warranted to determine whether cryoprecipitate may have a previously unrecognized benefit and should be administered earlier in resuscitation protocols.

PMID: 28734018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]