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Preview: pubmed: Curr Op Hem[Jour]

pubmed: Curr Op Hem[Jour]



NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="Current Opinion in Hematology"[Jour]



 



Role of SHP2 in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis.
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Role of SHP2 in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis.

Curr Opin Hematol. 2017 Mar 16;:

Authors: Pandey R, Saxena M, Kapur R

Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2), encoded by PTPN11 plays an important role in regulating signaling from cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases during normal development as well as oncogenesis. Herein we review recently discovered roles of SHP2 in normal and aberrant hematopoiesis along with novel strategies to target it.
RECENT FINDINGS: Cell autonomous role of SHP2 in normal hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis has long been recognized. The review will discuss the newly discovered role of SHP2 in lineage specific differentiation. Recently, a noncell autonomous role of oncogenic SHP2 has been reported in which activated SHP2 was shown to alter the bone marrow microenvironment resulting in transformation of donor derived normal hematopoietic cells and development of myeloid malignancy. From being considered as an 'undruggable' target, recent development of allosteric inhibitor has made it possible to specifically target SHP2 in receptor tyrosine kinase driven malignancies.
SUMMARY: SHP2 has emerged as an attractive target for therapeutic targeting in hematological malignancies for its cell autonomous and microenvironmental effects. However a better understanding of the role of SHP2 in different hematopoietic lineages and its crosstalk with signaling pathways activated by other genetic lesions is required before the promise is realized in the clinic.

PMID: 28306669 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




A role for intracellular and extracellular DEK in regulating hematopoiesis.
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A role for intracellular and extracellular DEK in regulating hematopoiesis.

Curr Opin Hematol. 2017 Mar 16;:

Authors: Capitano ML, Broxmeyer HE

Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell fate decision during hematopoiesis is regulated by intracellular and extracellular signals such as transcription factors, growth factors, and cell-to-cell interactions. In this review, we explore the function of DEK, a nuclear phosphoprotein, on gene regulation. We also examine how DEK is secreted and internalized by cells, and discuss how both endogenous and extracellular DEK regulates hematopoiesis. Finally, we explore what currently is known about the regulation of DEK during inflammation.
RECENT FINDINGS: DEK negatively regulates the proliferation of early myeloid progenitor cells but has a positive effect on the differentiation of mature myeloid cells. Inflammation regulates intracellular DEK concentrations with inflammatory stimuli enhancing DEK expression. Inflammation-induced nuclear factor-kappa B activation is regulated by DEK, resulting in changes in the production of other inflammatory molecules such as IL-8. Inflammatory stimuli in turn regulates DEK secretion by cells of hematopoietic origin. However, how inflammation-induced expression and secretion of DEK regulates hematopoiesis remains unknown.
SUMMARY: Understanding how DEK regulates hematopoiesis under both homeostatic and inflammatory conditions may lead to a better understanding of the biology of HSCs and HPCs. Furthering our knowledge of the regulation of hematopoiesis will ultimately lead to new therapeutics that may increase the efficacy of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

PMID: 28306668 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




An enlightening year in vascular biology.
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An enlightening year in vascular biology.

Curr Opin Hematol. 2017 Mar 16;:

Authors: Plow EF

PMID: 28306667 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




New biomarkers and imaging approaches for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis.
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New biomarkers and imaging approaches for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis.

Curr Opin Hematol. 2017 Mar 16;:

Authors: Schaefer JK, Jacobs B, Wakefield TW, Sood SL

Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Symptoms suggestive of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are extremely common in clinical practice, but unfortunately nonspecific. In both ambulatory and inpatient settings, clinicians are often tasked with evaluating these concerns. Here, we review the most recent advances in biomarkers and imaging to diagnose lower extremity DVT.
RECENT FINDINGS: The modified Wells score remains the most supported clinical decision rule for risk stratifying patients. In uncomplicated patients, the D-dimer can be utilized with risk stratification to reasonably exclude lower extremity DVT in some patients. Although numerous biomarkers have been explored, soluble P-selectin has the most promise as a novel marker for DVT. Imaging will be required for many patients and ultrasound is the primary modality. Nuclear medicine techniques are under development, and computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance venography are reasonable alternatives in select patients.
SUMMARY: D-dimer is the only clinically applied biomarker for DVT diagnosis, with soluble P-selectin a promising novel biomarker. Recent studies have identified several other potential biomarkers. Ultrasound remains the imaging modality of choice, but CT, MRI, or nuclear medicine tests can be considered in select scenarios.

PMID: 28306666 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Molecular mechanisms that mediate invasion and egress of malaria parasites from red blood cells.
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Molecular mechanisms that mediate invasion and egress of malaria parasites from red blood cells.

Curr Opin Hematol. 2017 Mar 16;:

Authors: Alaganan A, Singh P, Chitnis CE

Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malaria parasites invade and multiply in diverse host cells during their complex life cycle. Some blood stage parasites transform into male and female gametocytes that are transmitted by female anopheline mosquitoes. The gametocytes are activated in the mosquito midgut to form male and female gametes, which egress from RBCs to mate and form a zygote. Here, we will review our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that mediate invasion and egress by malaria parasites at different life cycle stages.
RECENT FINDINGS: A number of key effector molecules such as parasite protein ligands for receptor-engagement during invasion as well as proteases and perforin-like proteins that mediate egress have been identified. Interestingly, these parasite-encoded effectors are located in internal, vesicular organelles and are secreted in a highly regulated manner during invasion and egress. Here, we will review our current understanding of the functional roles of these effectors as well as the signaling pathways that regulate their timely secretion with accurate spatiotemporal coordinates.
SUMMARY: Understanding the molecular basis of key processes such as host cell invasion and egress by malaria parasites could provide novel targets for development of inhibitors to block parasite growth and transmission.

PMID: 28306665 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Krüppel-like factors in endothelial cell biology.
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Krüppel-like factors in endothelial cell biology.

Curr Opin Hematol. 2017 Mar 16;:

Authors: Chang E, Nayak L, Jain MK

Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate integral functions of endothelial cells including inflammation, proliferation, growth, apoptosis, cell differentiation and plasticity, and migration. This review will focus on the role of KLFs in physiological activity and their loss in vascular pathology.
RECENT FINDINGS: New studies have pointed at the role of microRNAs as repressors of KLFs in atherosclerotic areas providing another level of signaling regulation of KLFs.
SUMMARY: KLFs are important regulators of almost all facets of endothelial biology, making them a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Further research is needed to fully characterize their functions.

PMID: 28306664 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]