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Preview: Diabetes Mellitus: Overview, Causes, Risk Factors, Treatment

Diabetes Mellitus: Overview, Causes, Risk Factors, Treatment





 



OneTouch Via enabled diabetes patients to report improved insulin dose compliance

2016-06-11T22:46:31+00:00

People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes who used the new OneTouch Via™ mealtime, on-demand insulin delivery system reported they missed fewer doses and felt less stress about dosing compared to multiple daily injections, according to research presented by Calibra Medical, Inc., one of the Johnson & Johnson Diabetes Care Companies, at the annual American Diabetes Association (ADA) conference. Results of the Market Acceptance Evaluation (MAE) study also demonstrated that physicians were more likely to recommend the innovative insulin delivery device to patients who are not at A1C goals or who are new to rapid-acting insulin (RAI) therapy. The new OneTouch Via™ is a wearable, on-demand insulin delivery system in development that allows patients to discreetly deliver rapid-acting, or bolus, insulin at mealtimes by simply pressing two buttons on the device, accessible even through clothing. The thin, water-resistant patch can be worn continuously for up to three days, providing injection-free delivery of insulin when needed. “People with diabetes can often feel embarrassment or discomfort when they need to inject insulin at mealtimes or when snacking. In a social situation, they may choose to miss a dose so they don’t have to take themselves out of the moment, but avoiding needed insulin doses may lead to serious health complications over time,” said Dr. Brian Levy, Chief Medical Officer, Lifescan, Inc. “Because patients in the study were empowered to dose discreetly with the OneTouch Via™, they felt encouraged to dose more often - and ultimately, they reported missing fewer doses and better adherence to their treatment regimen.”



Rice study details stress-diabetes link

2016-06-07T07:49:18+00:00

A Rice University study has found a link between emotional stress and diabetes, with roots in the brain’s ability to control anxiety. That control lies with the brain’s executive functions, processes that handle attention, inhibition, working memory and cognitive flexibility and are also involved in reasoning, problem-solving and planning. The study published in Psychoneuroendocrinology establishes a metabolic chain reaction that starts with low inhibition, aka attention control, which leaves a person vulnerable to tempting or distracting information, objects, thoughts or activities. Previous studies have shown that such vulnerability can lead to more frequent anxiety, and anxiety is known to activate a metabolic pathway responsible for the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, signaling proteins that include interleukin-6 (IL-6).



Liraglutide may help nondiabetic overweight and obese adults lose weight and lower risks

2016-04-04T18:52:28+00:00

For people with prediabetes who are overweight or obese, adding 3.0 mg of liraglutide for three years to a diet and exercise plan may lead to major health improvements, new industry-sponsored research suggests. The results will be presented Monday, April 4, at ENDO 2016, the annual meeting of the Endocrine Society, in Boston. “Treatment with subcutaneous liraglutide 3.0 mg for three years, combined with a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity, can help people to not only lose weight, but also reduce the risk of Type 2 diabetes and improve cardiometabolic risk factors, which may ultimately reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease - the number one cause of death globally,” said lead study author Ken Fujioka, MD, director of nutrition and metabolic research, and director for weight management at Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California. “Type 2 diabetes is a major cause of death in the US. Both obesity, a chronic disease with serious health consequences, and prediabetes, typically defined as blood glucose concentrations that are higher than normal but lower than diabetes thresholds, increase the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes,” Fujioka said. “For people with overweight or obesity and prediabetes, losing between 5 and 10 percent of their body weight can reduce their risk of Type 2 diabetes and other obesity-related health consequences.”



Seaweed capsules may lead to an injection-free life for diabetic patients

2015-12-28T19:58:39+00:00

Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death. Patients with type 1 diabetes have their insulin secreting cells destroyed by the immune system and require daily insulin injections. Pancreatic islet transplantation is an effective treatment that can dramatically reduce daily doses or even eliminate dependence on external insulin. Insulin producing cells are injected into a recipient liver. After an adaptation period they start to produce sufficient hormone needed by diabetic patients. However, while the transplantation procedure itself has been greatly improved in recent years, collection, preservation, and transportation of these cells are still very challenging. Research published in Advanced Healthcare Materials by the scientists from the Okinawa Institute of Technology and Science Graduate University (OIST) in collaboration with the University of Washington and Wuhan University of Technology offers a solution for some of these problems. Production and secretion of insulin occur in the pancreas - an endocrine gland in the digestive system. Cells secreting insulin are clustered in pancreatic islets. Despite their crucial role in organismal wellbeing these islets comprise only a few percent of the pancreatic tissue. The islet transplantation does not require major surgical intervention and is often done under local anaesthesia. It is also cheaper and might be safer than transplantation of the entire pancreas. Unfortunately, so far, only human islets can be transplanted and their supply is but a trickle.



Plant hormone may play a vital role in blood sugar control and diabetes management

2015-12-02T00:09:36+00:00

A treatment for managing blood sugar levels might be as close as the local health food store, suggests a new research report published in the December 2015 issue of The FASEB Journal. Specifically scientists from Italy have found that when the plant and mammal hormone, abscisic acid, is taken in low doses, glycemia in both rats and humans is reduced. This suggests that by reducing the chronic stimulation by hyperglycemia of β-cells to the release of insulin, chronic low-dose abscisic acid administration may prolong the survival and function of these cells. “These results warrant further studies, aimed at developing new pharmacologic approaches to diabetes prevention and/or treatment,” said Mirko Magnone, Ph.D., a researcher involved in the work from the Department of Experimental Medicine at the University of Genova School of Medicine in Genova, Italy. Scientists examined the presence of abscisic acid in plants and fruits and explored the effect of abscisic acid-rich vegetable extracts on glycemia in rats and in humans. Synthetic abscisic acid, an abscisic acid-rich fruit extract, or placebo were administered to rats together with an oral glucose load. Then glycemia and insulinemia profiles were compared. Then a fruit extract or placebo was administered to human volunteers together with an oral glucose load or with a standard breakfast and lunch. Glucose and insulin levels were then compared with and without abscisic acid. Glycemia and insulinemia profiles from the human oral glucose tolerance tests were also compared with those from 12 normal subjects undergoing a standard oral glucose tolerance test.



Genetic variant shown to influence women’s body shape and diabetes risk

2015-10-12T17:41:51+00:00

A genetic variant near the KLF14 gene regulates hundreds of genes that govern how and where women’s bodies store fat, which affects their risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, according to research presented at the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) 2015 Annual Meeting in Baltimore. Specifically, different alleles, or versions, of the variant cause fat-storing cells to function differently. “At the whole-body level, these differences between alleles are not associated with changes to overall weight or body mass index, but they do affect women’s hip circumference,” explained Kerrin Small, PhD, Head of the Genomics of Regulatory Variation Research Group at King’s College London and lead author on the study. “Previous studies have shown that on average, women who carry fat in their hips - those with a ‘pear-shaped’ body type - are significantly less likely to develop diabetes than those with smaller hips. Looking at the variant we studied, large-scale genome-wide association studies show that women with one allele tend to have larger hips than women with the other one, which would have a protective effect against diabetes,” she said.



Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays significant role in type 2 diabetes

2015-10-01T18:04:44+00:00

A new research report published in the October 2015 issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology, suggests that the endoplasmic reticulum plays a more important role in type 2 diabetes and its complications than previously believed. Specifically, when this cell compartment undergoes disruptions (stress) patients experienced poor glycemic control, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and inflammatory and oxidative stress. Targeting ER stress might be an effective treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. “In a way, we observed a ‘disharmonious stress signaling alliance’ in diabetes,” said Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam, a senior researcher and disease-biologist involved in the work from the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation in Chennai, India. “The future of potential practical applications of our research is that this would lead to the development of ‘chemical chaperones’ as a new generation class of anti-diabetic agents that should improve ER folding capacity, help to stabilize protein conformation and ameliorate ER stress,” he added. To make their discovery, scientists identified several endoplasmic reticulum stress markers increased in cells from patients with type 2 diabetes as compared to healthy control subjects.



Identifying the ‘dimmer switch’ of diabetes

2015-09-22T15:20:07+00:00

Patrick MacDonald has dedicated much of his life to diabetes research. It’s a job he knows is far too large and complex for any one person, but with his latest publication, he knows his work is playing a part. MacDonald, a Canada Research Chair in Islet Biology, associate professor in the University of Alberta’s Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry and member of the Alberta Diabetes Institute, is the senior author of a landmark study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. The researchers examined pancreatic islet cells from 99 human organ donors and identified a new molecular pathway that manages the amount of insulin produced by the pancreatic cells - essentially a ‘dimmer’ switch that adjusts how much or how little insulin is secreted when blood sugar increases. According to MacDonald, the dimmer appears to be lost in Type 2 diabetes but can be restored and ‘turned back on’ - reviving proper control of insulin secretion from islet cells of people with Type 2 diabetes.



Pot Smoking May Increase Prediabetes Risk

2015-09-14T19:43:36+00:00

Marijuana use in early adulthood was associated with an increased risk for prediabetes, but not diabetes, by middle adulthood in an adjusted analysis of data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Current marijuana use was associated with a 65% increase in prediabetes risk and very frequent use (≥100 uses) was associated with a 49% increase in risk, researcher Michael P. Bancks, MPH, of the University of Minnesota, in Minneapolis, and colleagues wrote in the journal Diabetologia. Previous Studies Suggest Metabolic Benefit The findings appear to contradict those of many previous studies, which suggest an overall beneficial effect on metabolic risk associated with marijuana use.



Diabetic retinopathy screening for children with type 1 diabetes should start later

2015-09-01T15:39:27+00:00

A new study has found that the occurrence of advanced forms of a diabetic eye disease remains low among children living with diabetes, regardless of how long they have had the disease or their ability to keep blood sugar levels controlled. Researchers are therefore recommending that most children with type 1 diabetes delay annual diabetic retinopathy screenings until age 15, or 5 years after their diabetes diagnosis, whichever occurs later. Their findings were published online today in Ophthalmology, the journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology. It is well established that early detection and timely treatment of diabetic retinopathy reduces vision loss in adults, and some physician organizations recommend screening children for diabetic retinopathy annually starting at an early age - after age 9, or from 3 to 5 years after diagnosis. However, the value of screening children has not been clearly documented and the prevalence of severe diabetic retinopathy among the young has been unclear. Researchers based at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and the Scheie Eye Institute, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania began to question current diabetic retinopathy screening guidelines for children. They were concerned that these annual exams may create an excessive financial and logistical burden for families and the health care system.