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Diatomaceous earth - Revision history



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Last Build Date: Thu, 25 May 2017 20:26:44 GMT

 



Bumm13: /* Other deposits */ changed "Washington (U.S. state)" (Washington) wikilink to "Washington (state)"

Fri, 28 Apr 2017 18:37:01 GMT

‎Other deposits: changed "Washington (U.S. state)" (Washington) wikilink to "Washington (state)" ← Previous revision Revision as of 18:37, 28 April 2017 Line 51: Line 51:   Deposits on the isle of [[Skye]], off the west coast of Scotland, were mined until 1960.http://www.stornowaygazette.co.uk/what-s-on/leisure/skye-diatomite-a-lost-industry-1-118249   Deposits on the isle of [[Skye]], off the west coast of Scotland, were mined until 1960.http://www.stornowaygazette.co.uk/what-s-on/leisure/skye-diatomite-a-lost-industry-1-118249     − In [[Colorado]] and in [[Clark County, Nevada]], United States, there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places. Marine deposits have been worked in the [[Sisquoc Formation]] in [[Santa Barbara County, California]] near [[Lompoc, California|Lompoc]] and along the [[Southern California]] [[coast]]. Additional marine deposits have been worked in [[Maryland]], [[Virginia]], [[Algeria]] and the [[MoClay]] of Denmark. Freshwater lake deposits occur in Nevada, [[Oregon]], [[Washington (U.S. state)|Washington]] and [[California]]. Lake deposits also occur in [[interglacial]] lakes in the eastern United States, in Canada and in Europe in Germany, France, Denmark and the Czech Republic. The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and [[volcanic]] deposits suggests that the availability of silica from [[volcanic ash]] may be necessary for thick diatomite deposits. + In [[Colorado]] and in [[Clark County, Nevada]], United States, there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick in places. Marine deposits have been worked in the [[Sisquoc Formation]] in [[Santa Barbara County, California]] near [[Lompoc, California|Lompoc]] and along the [[Southern California]] [[coast]]. Additional marine deposits have been worked in [[Maryland]], [[Virginia]], [[Algeria]] and the [[MoClay]] of Denmark. Freshwater lake deposits occur in Nevada, [[Oregon]], [[Washington (state)|Washington]] and [[California]]. Lake deposits also occur in [[interglacial]] lakes in the eastern United States, in Canada and in Europe in Germany, France, Denmark and the Czech Republic. The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and [[volcanic]] deposits suggests that the availability of silica from [[volcanic ash]] may be necessary for thick diatomite deposits.       Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surfaces of [[desert]]s. Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the [[Bodélé Depression]] in the [[Sahara]]) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere.   Sometimes diatomaceous earth is found on the surfaces of [[desert]]s. Research has shown that the erosion of diatomaceous earth in such areas (such as the [[Bodélé Depression]] in the [[Sahara]]) is one of the most important sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere.     − The siliceous [[frustule]]s of [[diatom]]s accumulate in fresh and brackish wetlands and lakes. Some peats and mucks contain a sufficient abundance of frustules that they can be mined. Most of Florida’s diatomaceous earths have been found in the muck of wetlands or lakes. The American Diatomite Corporation, from 1935 to 1946, refined a maximum of 145 tons per year from their processing plant near [[Clermont, Florida]]. Muck from several locations in [[Lake County, Florida]] was dried and burned ([[calcined]]) to produce the diatomaceous earth.{{cite book |first=John H. |last=Davis, Jr. |title=The Peat Deposits of Florida Their Occurrence, Development and Uses, Geological Bulletin No. 30. |publisher=Florida Geological Survey |year=1946}} + The siliceous [[frustule]]s of [[diatom]]s accumulate in fresh and brackish wetlands and lakes. Some peats and mucks contain a[...]



Natg 19: Disambiguating links to Vogelsberg (link changed to Vogelsberg Mountains) using DisamAssist.

Tue, 18 Apr 2017 01:03:28 GMT

Disambiguating links to Vogelsberg (link changed to Vogelsberg Mountains) using DisamAssist. ← Previous revision Revision as of 01:03, 18 April 2017 Line 45: Line 45:       === Other deposits ===   === Other deposits === − In Germany, diatomaceous earth was also extracted at [[Altenschlirf]]{{cite web|url=http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |title=Archived copy |accessdate=2010-03-10 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |archivedate=September 28, 2007 |df=mdy }} Über den früheren Abbau von Kieselgur im Vogelsberg/Hessen on the [[Vogelsberg]] ([[Upper Hesse]]) and at [[Klieken]][http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm Geschichte des Kieselgurabbaus in Klieken] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080420063824/http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm |date=April 20, 2008 }} ([[Saxony-Anhalt]]). + In Germany, diatomaceous earth was also extracted at [[Altenschlirf]]{{cite web|url=http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |title=Archived copy |accessdate=2010-03-10 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |archivedate=September 28, 2007 |df=mdy }} Über den früheren Abbau von Kieselgur im Vogelsberg/Hessen on the [[Vogelsberg Mountains|Vogelsberg]] ([[Upper Hesse]]) and at [[Klieken]][http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm Geschichte des Kieselgurabbaus in Klieken] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080420063824/http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm |date=April 20, 2008 }} ([[Saxony-Anhalt]]).       There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to {{convert|4|m|ft}} thick in the nature reserve of [[Soos (Nature reservation)|Soos]] in the Czech Republic.   There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to {{convert|4|m|ft}} thick in the nature reserve of [[Soos (Nature reservation)|Soos]] in the Czech Republic. [...]



GreenC bot: Removed 1 archive link. Wayback Medic 2.1

Thu, 13 Apr 2017 00:54:03 GMT

Removed 1 archive link. Wayback Medic 2.1 ← Previous revision Revision as of 00:54, 13 April 2017 Line 45: Line 45:       === Other deposits ===   === Other deposits === − In Germany, diatomaceous earth was also extracted at [[Altenschlirf]]{{cite web|url=http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |title=Archived copy |accessdate=2010-03-10 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |archivedate=September 28, 2007 |df=mdy }} Über den früheren Abbau von Kieselgur im Vogelsberg/Hessen {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |date=September 28, 2007 }} on the [[Vogelsberg]] ([[Upper Hesse]]) and at [[Klieken]][http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm Geschichte des Kieselgurabbaus in Klieken] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080420063824/http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm |date=April 20, 2008 }} ([[Saxony-Anhalt]]). + In Germany, diatomaceous earth was also extracted at [[Altenschlirf]]{{cite web|url=http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |title=Archived copy |accessdate=2010-03-10 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |archivedate=September 28, 2007 |df=mdy }} Über den früheren Abbau von Kieselgur im Vogelsberg/Hessen on the [[Vogelsberg]] ([[Upper Hesse]]) and at [[Klieken]][http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm Geschichte des Kieselgurabbaus in Klieken] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080420063824/http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm |date=April 20, 2008 }} ([[Saxony-Anhalt]]).       There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to {{convert|4|m|ft}} thick in the nature reserve of [[Soos (Nature reservation)|Soos]] in the Czech Republic.   There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to {{convert|4|m|ft}} thick in the nature reserve of [[Soos (Nature reservation)|Soos]] in the Czech Republic. Line 73: Line 73:   === Filtration ===   === Filtration ===   The [[Celle]] engineer Wilhelm Berkefeld recognized the ability of diatomaceous earth to filter, and he developed tubular filters (known as filter candles) fired from diatomaceous earth.[http://www.berkefeld.com/en/company/history/ ELGA Berkefeld Water Treatment History] During the [[cholera]] [[epidemic]] in [[Hamburg]] in 1892, these [[Berkefeld filter]]s were used successfully.   The [[Celle]] engineer Wilhelm Berkefeld recognized the ability of diatomaceous earth to filter, and he developed tubular filters (known as filter candles) fired from diatomaceous earth.[http://www.berkefeld.com/en/company/history/ ELGA Berkefeld Water Treatment History] During the [[cholera]] [[epidemic]] in [[Hamburg]] in 1892, these [[Berkefeld filter]]s were used successfully. − One form of diatomaceous earth is used as a [[filter (chemistry)|filter]] medium, especially for swimming pools. It has a high porosity because it is composed of microscopically small, hollow particles. Diatomaceous earth (sometimes referred to by trademarked brand names such as Celite) is used in chemistry as a filtration aid, to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog [[filter paper]]. It is also used to filter water, particularly in the [[drinking water]] treatment process and in [[aquarium|fish tanks]], and other liquids, such as [[beer]] and [[wine]]. It can also filter [[syrup]]s, [[sugar]], and honey without removing or altering their color, taste, or nutritional properties.{{Cite journal|last=Root|first=A.I.|authorlink=|author2=E.R. Root|author-separator=|editorn=|editorn-las[...]



Rjwilmsi: Journal cites:, added 1 PMID, added 1 Bibcode using AWB (12145)

Sun, 12 Mar 2017 08:43:50 GMT

Journal cites:, added 1 PMID, added 1 Bibcode using AWB (12145) ← Previous revision Revision as of 08:43, 12 March 2017 Line 127: Line 127:       == Microbial degradation ==   == Microbial degradation == − Certain species of bacteria in oceans and lakes can accelerate the rate of dissolution of silica in dead and living diatoms; by using [[hydrolytic]] enzymes to break down the organic algal material.{{cite journal|url=http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v397/n6719/abs/397508a0.html|title=Accelerated dissolution of diatom silica by marine bacterial assemblages|author1=Kay D. Bidle|author2=Farooq Azam|journal=Nature|date=1999|volume=397|pages=508–512|doi=10.1038/17351}}{{cite web|url=http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0059977|title=The Structure of Microbial Community and Degradation of Diatoms in the Deep Near-Bottom Layer of Lake Baikal|date=2013}} + Certain species of bacteria in oceans and lakes can accelerate the rate of dissolution of silica in dead and living diatoms; by using [[hydrolytic]] enzymes to break down the organic algal material.{{cite journal|url=http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v397/n6719/abs/397508a0.html|title=Accelerated dissolution of diatom silica by marine bacterial assemblages|author1=Kay D. Bidle|author2=Farooq Azam|journal=Nature|date=1999|volume=397|pages=508–512|doi=10.1038/17351|bibcode=1999Natur.397..508B}}{{cite web|url=http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0059977|title=The Structure of Microbial Community and Degradation of Diatoms in the Deep Near-Bottom Layer of Lake Baikal|date=2013}}       == Climatologic importance ==   == Climatologic importance == Line 137: Line 137:   The crystalline silica content of D.E. is regulated in the United States by the [[Occupational Safety and Health Administration]] (OSHA), and there are guidelines from the [[National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health]] setting maximum amounts allowable in the product (1%) and in the air near the breathing zone of workers, with a [[recommended exposure limit]] at 6 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday.[http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/grsc_subi/Teaching/GRSC651/GRSC651_Courses_Material/lecture_slides/GRSC651_lect_20(1)_Inert_Dusts.pdf Inert Dusts] at [[Kansas State University]] OSHA has set a [[permissible exposure limit]] for diatomaceous earth as 20 mppcf (80 mg/m3/%SiO2). At levels of 3000 mg/m3, diatomaceous earth is immediately dangerous to life and health.{{Cite web|title = CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Silica, amorphous|url = http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0552.html|website = www.cdc.gov|accessdate = 2015-11-21}}   The crystalline silica content of D.E. is regulated in the United States by the [[Occupational Safety and Health Administration]] (OSHA), and there are guidelines from the [[National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health]] setting maximum amounts allowable in the product (1%) and in the air near the breathing zone of workers, with a [[recommended exposure limit]] at 6 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday.[http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/grsc_subi/Teaching/GRSC651/GRSC651_Courses_Material/lecture_slides/GRSC651_lect_20(1)_Inert_Dusts.pdf Inert Dusts] at [[Kansas State University]] OSHA has set a [[permissible exposure limit]] for diatomaceous earth as 20 mppcf (80 mg/m3/%SiO2). At levels of 3000 mg/m3, diatomaceous earth is immediately dangerous to lif[...]



Sanya3: added Category:Industrial minerals using HotCat

Sun, 05 Mar 2017 06:37:24 GMT

added Category:Industrial minerals using HotCat

← Previous revision Revision as of 06:37, 5 March 2017
Line 176: Line 176:
 
[[Category:Microfossils]]
 
[[Category:Microfossils]]
 
[[Category:Biomineralization]]
 
[[Category:Biomineralization]]
  +
[[Category:Industrial minerals]]



Quercus solaris: /* Use in agriculture */ Ag section cannot use subheads because there is only a sentence or two for each different use.

Sat, 18 Feb 2017 00:11:35 GMT

‎Use in agriculture: Ag section cannot use subheads because there is only a sentence or two for each different use. ← Previous revision Revision as of 00:11, 18 February 2017 Line 98: Line 98:   Some believe it may be used as a natural [[anthelmintic]] (dewormer), although studies have not shown it to be effective. Some farmers add it to their livestock and [[Chicken|poultry]] feed to prevent the caking of feed.[http://www.sgggc.org/insect-management-food-processing-facilities-heat-diatomaceous-earth/ Diatomaceous Earth (DE)] "Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth" is widely available in agricultural feed supply stores.   Some believe it may be used as a natural [[anthelmintic]] (dewormer), although studies have not shown it to be effective. Some farmers add it to their livestock and [[Chicken|poultry]] feed to prevent the caking of feed.[http://www.sgggc.org/insect-management-food-processing-facilities-heat-diatomaceous-earth/ Diatomaceous Earth (DE)] "Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth" is widely available in agricultural feed supply stores.     − ==== Hydroponics ====     Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in [[hydroponic]] gardens.   Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in [[hydroponic]] gardens.     [...]



Quercus solaris at 00:10, 18 February 2017

Sat, 18 Feb 2017 00:10:24 GMT

← Previous revision Revision as of 00:10, 18 February 2017 Line 101: Line 101:   Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in [[hydroponic]] gardens.   Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in [[hydroponic]] gardens.     − It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants, particularly as [[bonsai]] soil. [[Bonsai]] enthusiasts use it as a soil additive, or pot a [[bonsai]] tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. Like [[perlite]], [[vermiculite]], and [[Hydroponics#Expanded clay|expanded clay]], it retains water and nutrients, while draining fast and freely, allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium. + It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants, particularly as [[bonsai]] soil. [[Bonsai]] enthusiasts use it as a soil additive, or pot a [[bonsai]] tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. In vegetable gardening it is sometimes used as a [[soil conditioner]], because like [[perlite]], [[vermiculite]], and [[Hydroponics#Expanded clay|expanded clay]], it retains water and nutrients, while draining fast and freely, allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium.       ==== Marker in livestock nutrition experiments ====   ==== Marker in livestock nutrition experiments ==== [...]



GreenC bot: Reformat 1 archive link. Wayback Medic 2.1

Tue, 07 Feb 2017 15:04:02 GMT

Reformat 1 archive link. Wayback Medic 2.1 ← Previous revision Revision as of 15:04, 7 February 2017 Line 45: Line 45:       === Other deposits ===   === Other deposits === − In Germany, diatomaceous earth was also extracted at [[Altenschlirf]]{{cite web|url=http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |title=Archived copy |accessdate=2010-03-10 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |archivedate=September 28, 2007 |df=mdy }} Über den früheren Abbau von Kieselgur im Vogelsberg/Hessen {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/{{cite web|url=http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |title=Archived copy |accessdate=2010-03-10 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |archivedate=September 28, 2007 |df=mdy }} |date=September 28, 2007 }} on the [[Vogelsberg]] ([[Upper Hesse]]) and at [[Klieken]][http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm Geschichte des Kieselgurabbaus in Klieken] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080420063824/http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm |date=April 20, 2008 }} ([[Saxony-Anhalt]]). + In Germany, diatomaceous earth was also extracted at [[Altenschlirf]]{{cite web|url=http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |title=Archived copy |accessdate=2010-03-10 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |archivedate=September 28, 2007 |df=mdy }} Über den früheren Abbau von Kieselgur im Vogelsberg/Hessen {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |date=September 28, 2007 }} on the [[Vogelsberg]] ([[Upper Hesse]]) and at [[Klieken]][http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm Geschichte des Kieselgurabbaus in Klieken] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080420063824/http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm |date=April 20, 2008 }} ([[Saxony-Anhalt]]).       There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to {{convert|4|m|ft}} thick in the nature reserve of [[Soos (Nature reservation)|Soos]] in the Czech Republic.   There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to {{convert|4|m|ft}} thick in the nature reserve of [[Soos (Nature reservation)|Soos]] in the Czech Republic. [...]



24.78.89.195: /* Climatologic importance */

Thu, 15 Dec 2016 07:25:48 GMT

‎Climatologic importance ← Previous revision Revision as of 07:25, 15 December 2016 Line 131: Line 131:       == Climatologic importance ==   == Climatologic importance == − The Earth's [[climate]] is affected by [[dust]] in the [[atmosphere]], so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for [[climatology]]. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. All the dust comes from this [[Bodélé depression]] in [[Chad]], where storms push diatomite gravel over [[dune]]s, generating dust by [[abrasion (geology)|abrasion]].{{cite journal |last1=Washington |first1=R. |last2=Todd |first2=M. C. |last3=Lizcano |first3=G. |last4=Tegen |first4=I. |last5=Flamant |first5=C. |last6=Koren |first6=I. |last7=Ginoux |first7=P. |last8=Engelstaedter |first8=S. |last9=Bristow |first9=C. S. |last10=Zender |first10=C. S. |last11=Goudie |first11=A. S. |last12=Warren |first12=A. |last13=Prospero |first13=J. M. |title=Links between topography, wind, deflation, lakes and dust: The case of the Bodélé Depression, Chad |journal=Geophysical Research Letters |volume=33 |issue=9 |year=2006 |issn=0094-8276 |doi=10.1029/2006GL025827 |bibcode=2006GeoRL..33.9401W}} + The Earth's [[climate]] is affected by [[dust]] in the [[atmosphere]], so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for [[climatology]]. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. Research shows all the dust comes from this [[Bodélé depression]] in [[Chad]], where storms push diatomite gravel over [[dune]]s, generating dust by [[abrasion (geology)|abrasion]].{{cite journal |last1=Washington |first1=R. |last2=Todd |first2=M. C. |last3=Lizcano |first3=G. |last4=Tegen |first4=I. |last5=Flamant |first5=C. |last6=Koren |first6=I. |last7=Ginoux |first7=P. |last8=Engelstaedter |first8=S. |last9=Bristow |first9=C. S. |last10=Zender |first10=C. S. |last11=Goudie |first11=A. S. |last12=Warren |first12=A. |last13=Prospero |first13=J. M. |title=Links between topography, wind, deflation, lakes and dust: The case of the Bodélé Depression, Chad |journal=Geophysical Research Letters |volume=33 |issue=9 |year=2006 |issn=0094-8276 |doi=10.1029/2006GL025827 |bibcode=2006GeoRL..33.9401W}}       == Safety considerations ==   == Safety considerations == [...]



24.78.89.195: /* Climatologic importance */

Thu, 15 Dec 2016 07:21:21 GMT

‎Climatologic importance ← Previous revision Revision as of 07:21, 15 December 2016 Line 131: Line 131:       == Climatologic importance ==   == Climatologic importance == − The Earth's [[climate]] is affected by [[dust]] in the [[atmosphere]], so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for [[climatology]]. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. For instance, the largest single atmospheric dust source is the [[Bodélé depression]] in [[Chad]], where storms push diatomite gravel over [[dune]]s, generating dust by [[abrasion (geology)|abrasion]].{{cite journal |last1=Washington |first1=R. |last2=Todd |first2=M. C. |last3=Lizcano |first3=G. |last4=Tegen |first4=I. |last5=Flamant |first5=C. |last6=Koren |first6=I. |last7=Ginoux |first7=P. |last8=Engelstaedter |first8=S. |last9=Bristow |first9=C. S. |last10=Zender |first10=C. S. |last11=Goudie |first11=A. S. |last12=Warren |first12=A. |last13=Prospero |first13=J. M. |title=Links between topography, wind, deflation, lakes and dust: The case of the Bodélé Depression, Chad |journal=Geophysical Research Letters |volume=33 |issue=9 |year=2006 |issn=0094-8276 |doi=10.1029/2006GL025827 |bibcode=2006GeoRL..33.9401W}} + The Earth's [[climate]] is affected by [[dust]] in the [[atmosphere]], so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for [[climatology]]. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. All the dust comes from this [[Bodélé depression]] in [[Chad]], where storms push diatomite gravel over [[dune]]s, generating dust by [[abrasion (geology)|abrasion]].{{cite journal |last1=Washington |first1=R. |last2=Todd |first2=M. C. |last3=Lizcano |first3=G. |last4=Tegen |first4=I. |last5=Flamant |first5=C. |last6=Koren |first6=I. |last7=Ginoux |first7=P. |last8=Engelstaedter |first8=S. |last9=Bristow |first9=C. S. |last10=Zender |first10=C. S. |last11=Goudie |first11=A. S. |last12=Warren |first12=A. |last13=Prospero |first13=J. M. |title=Links between topography, wind, deflation, lakes and dust: The case of the Bodélé Depression, Chad |journal=Geophysical Research Letters |volume=33 |issue=9 |year=2006 |issn=0094-8276 |doi=10.1029/2006GL025827 |bibcode=2006GeoRL..33.9401W}}       == Safety considerations ==   == Safety considerations == [...]