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Diatomaceous earth - Revision history



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Last Build Date: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 04:43:27 GMT

 



Rjwilmsi: Journal cites:, added 1 PMID, added 1 Bibcode using AWB (12145)

Sun, 12 Mar 2017 08:43:50 GMT

Journal cites:, added 1 PMID, added 1 Bibcode using AWB (12145) ← Previous revision Revision as of 08:43, 12 March 2017 Line 127: Line 127:       == Microbial degradation ==   == Microbial degradation == − Certain species of bacteria in oceans and lakes can accelerate the rate of dissolution of silica in dead and living diatoms; by using [[hydrolytic]] enzymes to break down the organic algal material.{{cite journal|url=http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v397/n6719/abs/397508a0.html|title=Accelerated dissolution of diatom silica by marine bacterial assemblages|author1=Kay D. Bidle|author2=Farooq Azam|journal=Nature|date=1999|volume=397|pages=508–512|doi=10.1038/17351}}{{cite web|url=http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0059977|title=The Structure of Microbial Community and Degradation of Diatoms in the Deep Near-Bottom Layer of Lake Baikal|date=2013}} + Certain species of bacteria in oceans and lakes can accelerate the rate of dissolution of silica in dead and living diatoms; by using [[hydrolytic]] enzymes to break down the organic algal material.{{cite journal|url=http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v397/n6719/abs/397508a0.html|title=Accelerated dissolution of diatom silica by marine bacterial assemblages|author1=Kay D. Bidle|author2=Farooq Azam|journal=Nature|date=1999|volume=397|pages=508–512|doi=10.1038/17351|bibcode=1999Natur.397..508B}}{{cite web|url=http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0059977|title=The Structure of Microbial Community and Degradation of Diatoms in the Deep Near-Bottom Layer of Lake Baikal|date=2013}}       == Climatologic importance ==   == Climatologic importance == Line 137: Line 137:   The crystalline silica content of D.E. is regulated in the United States by the [[Occupational Safety and Health Administration]] (OSHA), and there are guidelines from the [[National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health]] setting maximum amounts allowable in the product (1%) and in the air near the breathing zone of workers, with a [[recommended exposure limit]] at 6 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday.[http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/grsc_subi/Teaching/GRSC651/GRSC651_Courses_Material/lecture_slides/GRSC651_lect_20(1)_Inert_Dusts.pdf Inert Dusts] at [[Kansas State University]] OSHA has set a [[permissible exposure limit]] for diatomaceous earth as 20 mppcf (80 mg/m3/%SiO2). At levels of 3000 mg/m3, diatomaceous earth is immediately dangerous to life and health.{{Cite web|title = CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Silica, amorphous|url = http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0552.html|website = www.cdc.gov|accessdate = 2015-11-21}}   The crystalline silica content of D.E. is regulated in the United States by the [[Occupational Safety and Health Administration]] (OSHA), and there are guidelines from the [[National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health]] setting maximum amounts allowable in the product (1%) and in the air near the breathing zone of workers, with a [[recommended exposure limit]] at 6 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday.[http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/grsc_subi/Teaching/GRSC651/GRSC651_Courses_Material/lecture_slides/GRSC651_lect_20(1)_Inert_Dusts.pdf Inert Dusts] at [[Kansas State University]] OSHA has set a [[permissible exposure limit]] for diatomaceous earth as 20 mppcf (80 mg/m3/%SiO2). At levels of 3000 mg/m3, diatomaceous earth is immediately dangerous to life and health.{{Cite web|title = CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Ha[...]



Sanya3: added Category:Industrial minerals using HotCat

Sun, 05 Mar 2017 06:37:24 GMT

added Category:Industrial minerals using HotCat

← Previous revision Revision as of 06:37, 5 March 2017
Line 176: Line 176:
 
[[Category:Microfossils]]
 
[[Category:Microfossils]]
 
[[Category:Biomineralization]]
 
[[Category:Biomineralization]]
  +
[[Category:Industrial minerals]]



Quercus solaris: /* Use in agriculture */ Ag section cannot use subheads because there is only a sentence or two for each different use.

Sat, 18 Feb 2017 00:11:35 GMT

‎Use in agriculture: Ag section cannot use subheads because there is only a sentence or two for each different use. ← Previous revision Revision as of 00:11, 18 February 2017 Line 98: Line 98:   Some believe it may be used as a natural [[anthelmintic]] (dewormer), although studies have not shown it to be effective. Some farmers add it to their livestock and [[Chicken|poultry]] feed to prevent the caking of feed.[http://www.sgggc.org/insect-management-food-processing-facilities-heat-diatomaceous-earth/ Diatomaceous Earth (DE)] "Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth" is widely available in agricultural feed supply stores.   Some believe it may be used as a natural [[anthelmintic]] (dewormer), although studies have not shown it to be effective. Some farmers add it to their livestock and [[Chicken|poultry]] feed to prevent the caking of feed.[http://www.sgggc.org/insect-management-food-processing-facilities-heat-diatomaceous-earth/ Diatomaceous Earth (DE)] "Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth" is widely available in agricultural feed supply stores.     − ==== Hydroponics ====     Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in [[hydroponic]] gardens.   Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in [[hydroponic]] gardens.     [...]



Quercus solaris at 00:10, 18 February 2017

Sat, 18 Feb 2017 00:10:24 GMT

← Previous revision Revision as of 00:10, 18 February 2017 Line 101: Line 101:   Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in [[hydroponic]] gardens.   Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in [[hydroponic]] gardens.     − It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants, particularly as [[bonsai]] soil. [[Bonsai]] enthusiasts use it as a soil additive, or pot a [[bonsai]] tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. Like [[perlite]], [[vermiculite]], and [[Hydroponics#Expanded clay|expanded clay]], it retains water and nutrients, while draining fast and freely, allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium. + It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants, particularly as [[bonsai]] soil. [[Bonsai]] enthusiasts use it as a soil additive, or pot a [[bonsai]] tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. In vegetable gardening it is sometimes used as a [[soil conditioner]], because like [[perlite]], [[vermiculite]], and [[Hydroponics#Expanded clay|expanded clay]], it retains water and nutrients, while draining fast and freely, allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium.       ==== Marker in livestock nutrition experiments ====   ==== Marker in livestock nutrition experiments ==== [...]



GreenC bot: Reformat 1 archive link. Wayback Medic 2.1

Tue, 07 Feb 2017 15:04:02 GMT

Reformat 1 archive link. Wayback Medic 2.1 ← Previous revision Revision as of 15:04, 7 February 2017 Line 45: Line 45:       === Other deposits ===   === Other deposits === − In Germany, diatomaceous earth was also extracted at [[Altenschlirf]]{{cite web|url=http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |title=Archived copy |accessdate=2010-03-10 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |archivedate=September 28, 2007 |df=mdy }} Über den früheren Abbau von Kieselgur im Vogelsberg/Hessen {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/{{cite web|url=http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |title=Archived copy |accessdate=2010-03-10 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |archivedate=September 28, 2007 |df=mdy }} |date=September 28, 2007 }} on the [[Vogelsberg]] ([[Upper Hesse]]) and at [[Klieken]][http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm Geschichte des Kieselgurabbaus in Klieken] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080420063824/http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm |date=April 20, 2008 }} ([[Saxony-Anhalt]]). + In Germany, diatomaceous earth was also extracted at [[Altenschlirf]]{{cite web|url=http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |title=Archived copy |accessdate=2010-03-10 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |archivedate=September 28, 2007 |df=mdy }} Über den früheren Abbau von Kieselgur im Vogelsberg/Hessen {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |date=September 28, 2007 }} on the [[Vogelsberg]] ([[Upper Hesse]]) and at [[Klieken]][http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm Geschichte des Kieselgurabbaus in Klieken] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080420063824/http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm |date=April 20, 2008 }} ([[Saxony-Anhalt]]).       There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to {{convert|4|m|ft}} thick in the nature reserve of [[Soos (Nature reservation)|Soos]] in the Czech Republic.   There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to {{convert|4|m|ft}} thick in the nature reserve of [[Soos (Nature reservation)|Soos]] in the Czech Republic. [...]



24.78.89.195: /* Climatologic importance */

Thu, 15 Dec 2016 07:25:48 GMT

‎Climatologic importance ← Previous revision Revision as of 07:25, 15 December 2016 Line 131: Line 131:       == Climatologic importance ==   == Climatologic importance == − The Earth's [[climate]] is affected by [[dust]] in the [[atmosphere]], so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for [[climatology]]. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. All the dust comes from this [[Bodélé depression]] in [[Chad]], where storms push diatomite gravel over [[dune]]s, generating dust by [[abrasion (geology)|abrasion]].{{cite journal |last1=Washington |first1=R. |last2=Todd |first2=M. C. |last3=Lizcano |first3=G. |last4=Tegen |first4=I. |last5=Flamant |first5=C. |last6=Koren |first6=I. |last7=Ginoux |first7=P. |last8=Engelstaedter |first8=S. |last9=Bristow |first9=C. S. |last10=Zender |first10=C. S. |last11=Goudie |first11=A. S. |last12=Warren |first12=A. |last13=Prospero |first13=J. M. |title=Links between topography, wind, deflation, lakes and dust: The case of the Bodélé Depression, Chad |journal=Geophysical Research Letters |volume=33 |issue=9 |year=2006 |issn=0094-8276 |doi=10.1029/2006GL025827 |bibcode=2006GeoRL..33.9401W}} + The Earth's [[climate]] is affected by [[dust]] in the [[atmosphere]], so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for [[climatology]]. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. Research shows all the dust comes from this [[Bodélé depression]] in [[Chad]], where storms push diatomite gravel over [[dune]]s, generating dust by [[abrasion (geology)|abrasion]].{{cite journal |last1=Washington |first1=R. |last2=Todd |first2=M. C. |last3=Lizcano |first3=G. |last4=Tegen |first4=I. |last5=Flamant |first5=C. |last6=Koren |first6=I. |last7=Ginoux |first7=P. |last8=Engelstaedter |first8=S. |last9=Bristow |first9=C. S. |last10=Zender |first10=C. S. |last11=Goudie |first11=A. S. |last12=Warren |first12=A. |last13=Prospero |first13=J. M. |title=Links between topography, wind, deflation, lakes and dust: The case of the Bodélé Depression, Chad |journal=Geophysical Research Letters |volume=33 |issue=9 |year=2006 |issn=0094-8276 |doi=10.1029/2006GL025827 |bibcode=2006GeoRL..33.9401W}}       == Safety considerations ==   == Safety considerations == [...]



24.78.89.195: /* Climatologic importance */

Thu, 15 Dec 2016 07:21:21 GMT

‎Climatologic importance ← Previous revision Revision as of 07:21, 15 December 2016 Line 131: Line 131:       == Climatologic importance ==   == Climatologic importance == − The Earth's [[climate]] is affected by [[dust]] in the [[atmosphere]], so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for [[climatology]]. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. For instance, the largest single atmospheric dust source is the [[Bodélé depression]] in [[Chad]], where storms push diatomite gravel over [[dune]]s, generating dust by [[abrasion (geology)|abrasion]].{{cite journal |last1=Washington |first1=R. |last2=Todd |first2=M. C. |last3=Lizcano |first3=G. |last4=Tegen |first4=I. |last5=Flamant |first5=C. |last6=Koren |first6=I. |last7=Ginoux |first7=P. |last8=Engelstaedter |first8=S. |last9=Bristow |first9=C. S. |last10=Zender |first10=C. S. |last11=Goudie |first11=A. S. |last12=Warren |first12=A. |last13=Prospero |first13=J. M. |title=Links between topography, wind, deflation, lakes and dust: The case of the Bodélé Depression, Chad |journal=Geophysical Research Letters |volume=33 |issue=9 |year=2006 |issn=0094-8276 |doi=10.1029/2006GL025827 |bibcode=2006GeoRL..33.9401W}} + The Earth's [[climate]] is affected by [[dust]] in the [[atmosphere]], so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for [[climatology]]. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. All the dust comes from this [[Bodélé depression]] in [[Chad]], where storms push diatomite gravel over [[dune]]s, generating dust by [[abrasion (geology)|abrasion]].{{cite journal |last1=Washington |first1=R. |last2=Todd |first2=M. C. |last3=Lizcano |first3=G. |last4=Tegen |first4=I. |last5=Flamant |first5=C. |last6=Koren |first6=I. |last7=Ginoux |first7=P. |last8=Engelstaedter |first8=S. |last9=Bristow |first9=C. S. |last10=Zender |first10=C. S. |last11=Goudie |first11=A. S. |last12=Warren |first12=A. |last13=Prospero |first13=J. M. |title=Links between topography, wind, deflation, lakes and dust: The case of the Bodélé Depression, Chad |journal=Geophysical Research Letters |volume=33 |issue=9 |year=2006 |issn=0094-8276 |doi=10.1029/2006GL025827 |bibcode=2006GeoRL..33.9401W}}       == Safety considerations ==   == Safety considerations == [...]



InternetArchiveBot: Rescuing 2 sources and tagging 0 as dead. #IABot (v1.2.7.1)

Mon, 12 Dec 2016 14:02:50 GMT

Rescuing 2 sources and tagging 0 as dead. #IABot (v1.2.7.1) ← Previous revision Revision as of 14:02, 12 December 2016 Line 45: Line 45:       === Other deposits ===   === Other deposits === − In Germany, diatomaceous earth was also extracted at [[Altenschlirf]]http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm Über den früheren Abbau von Kieselgur im Vogelsberg/Hessen {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |date=September 28, 2007 }} on the [[Vogelsberg]] ([[Upper Hesse]]) and at [[Klieken]][http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm Geschichte des Kieselgurabbaus in Klieken] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080420063824/http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm |date=April 20, 2008 }} ([[Saxony-Anhalt]]). + In Germany, diatomaceous earth was also extracted at [[Altenschlirf]]{{cite web|url=http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |title=Archived copy |accessdate=2010-03-10 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |archivedate=September 28, 2007 |df=mdy }} Über den früheren Abbau von Kieselgur im Vogelsberg/Hessen {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/{{cite web|url=http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |title=Archived copy |accessdate=2010-03-10 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |archivedate=September 28, 2007 |df=mdy }} |date=September 28, 2007 }} on the [[Vogelsberg]] ([[Upper Hesse]]) and at [[Klieken]][http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm Geschichte des Kieselgurabbaus in Klieken] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080420063824/http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm |date=April 20, 2008 }} ([[Saxony-Anhalt]]).       There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to {{convert|4|m|ft}} thick in the nature reserve of [[Soos (Nature reservation)|Soos]] in the Czech Republic.   There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to {{convert|4|m|ft}} thick in the nature reserve of [[Soos (Nature reservation)|Soos]] in the Czech Republic. Line 94: Line 94:       === Use in agriculture ===   === Use in agriculture === − Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an [[anticaking agent]], as well as an insecticide.{{cite web |url=http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/cropproduction/faa06s00.html |title=Prevention and Management of Insects and Mites in Farm-Stored Grain |publisher=Province of Manitoba |accessdate=July 7, 2013}} It is approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a feed additive{{cite web | url=https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2001-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2001-title21-vol6-sec573-340.pdf | title=21 CFR 573.340 - Diatomaceous earth | publisher=[[Food and Drug Administration]]/U.S. Government Publishing Office | work=Code of Federal Regulations (annual edition)—Title 21 - Food and Drugs—Part 573 - Food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals—Section 573.340 - Diatomaceous earth | date=1 April 2001 | accessdate=9 February 2016}} to prevent caking. + Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an [[anticaking agent]], as well as an insecticide.{{cite web|url=http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/cropproduction/faa06s00.html |title=Prevention and Management of Insects and Mites in Farm-Stored Grain |publisher=Province of Manitoba |accessdate=July 7, 2013 |[...]



NickGarvey: /* Pest control */ update dead reference

Wed, 30 Nov 2016 07:07:55 GMT

‎Pest control: update dead reference ← Previous revision Revision as of 07:07, 30 November 2016 Line 79: Line 79:       === Pest control ===   === Pest control === − Diatomite is used as an [[insecticide]], due to its abrasive and physico-[[sorptivity|sorptive]] properties.{{cite conference|url= http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~fieldspg/fields/de-test-p.pdf |title= Standardized testing for diatomaceous earth |last1= Fields |first1= Paul |last2= Allen |first2= Sylvia |first3= Zlatko |last3= Korunic |first4= Alan |last4= McLaughlin |first5= Tanya |last5= Stathers |date= July 2002 |publisher= Entomological Society of Manitoba |booktitle= Proceedings of the Eighth International Working Conference of Stored-Product Protection |pages= |location= York, U.K. |id= }} The fine powder absorbs [[lipids]] from the waxy outer layer of insects' [[exoskeleton]]s, causing them to dehydrate. [[Arthropod]]s die as a result of the water pressure deficiency, based on [[Fick's law of diffusion]]. This also works against [[gastropod]]s and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat [[slug]]s. However, since slugs inhabit humid environments, efficacy is very low. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness. The shape of the diatoms contained in a deposit has not been proven to affect their functionality when it comes to the absorption of liquids; however, certain applications, such as that for slugs and snails, do work best when a particular shaped diatom is used. For example, in the case of slugs and snails large, spiny diatoms work best to lacerate the epithelium of the mollusk. Diatom shells will work to some degree on the vast majority of animals that undergo [[ecdysis]] in shedding [[cuticle]], such as [[arthropod]]s or [[nematodes]]. It may have some effect also on [[lophotrochozoan]]s, such as [[mollusk]]s or [[annelid]]s. + Diatomite is used as an [[insecticide]], due to its abrasive and physico-[[sorptivity|sorptive]] properties.{{cite conference|url= http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~fieldspg/fields/fields-de-test-2002.pdf |title= Standardized testing for diatomaceous earth |last1= Fields |first1= Paul |last2= Allen |first2= Sylvia |first3= Zlatko |last3= Korunic |first4= Alan |last4= McLaughlin |first5= Tanya |last5= Stathers |date= July 2002 |publisher= Entomological Society of Manitoba |booktitle= Proceedings of the Eighth International Working Conference of Stored-Product Protection |pages= |location= York, U.K. |id= }} The fine powder absorbs [[lipids]] from the waxy outer layer of insects' [[exoskeleton]]s, causing them to dehydrate. [[Arthropod]]s die as a result of the water pressure deficiency, based on [[Fick's law of diffusion]]. This also works against [[gastropod]]s and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat [[slug]]s. However, since slugs inhabit humid environments, efficacy is very low. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness. The shape of the diatoms contained in a deposit has not been proven to affect their functionality when it comes to the absorption of liquids; however, certain applications, such as that for slugs and snails, do work best when a particular shaped diatom is used. For example, in the case of slugs and snails large, spiny diatoms work best to lacerate the epithelium of the mollusk. Diatom shells will work to some degree on the vast majority of animals that undergo [[ecdysis]] in shedding [[cuticle]], such as [[arthropod]]s or [[nematodes]]. It may have some effect also on [[lophotrochozoan]]s, such as [[mollusk]]s or [[annelid]]s.       Medical-grade diatomite has been studied for its efficacy as a [[deworming]] agent[...]



GreenC bot: 2 archive templates merged to {{webarchive}} (WAM)

Sun, 13 Nov 2016 20:59:36 GMT

2 archive templates merged to {{webarchive}} (WAM) ← Previous revision Revision as of 20:59, 13 November 2016 Line 45: Line 45:       === Other deposits ===   === Other deposits === − In Germany, diatomaceous earth was also extracted at [[Altenschlirf]]http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm Über den früheren Abbau von Kieselgur im Vogelsberg/Hessen {{wayback|url=http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |date=20070928020701 }} on the [[Vogelsberg]] ([[Upper Hesse]]) and at [[Klieken]][http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm Geschichte des Kieselgurabbaus in Klieken] {{wayback|url=http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm |date=20080420063824 }} ([[Saxony-Anhalt]]). + In Germany, diatomaceous earth was also extracted at [[Altenschlirf]]http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm Über den früheren Abbau von Kieselgur im Vogelsberg/Hessen {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928020701/http://www2.natpa.de/bonifatius/senken/p7.htm |date=September 28, 2007 }} on the [[Vogelsberg]] ([[Upper Hesse]]) and at [[Klieken]][http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm Geschichte des Kieselgurabbaus in Klieken] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080420063824/http://homepages.compuserve.de/tmby100/kieselgur.htm |date=April 20, 2008 }} ([[Saxony-Anhalt]]).       There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to {{convert|4|m|ft}} thick in the nature reserve of [[Soos (Nature reservation)|Soos]] in the Czech Republic.   There is a layer of diatomaceous earth up to {{convert|4|m|ft}} thick in the nature reserve of [[Soos (Nature reservation)|Soos]] in the Czech Republic. [...]