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Preview: Forthcoming in Journal of Synchrotron Radiation

Forthcoming article in Journal of Synchrotron Radiation

Synchrotron radiation research is rapidly expanding with many new sources of radiation being created globally. Synchrotron radiation plays a leading role in pure science and in emerging technologies. The Journal of Synchrotron Radiation provides comprehen


OH cleavage from tyrosine: debunking a myth
A systematic MX investigation into the observed electron density loss around the –OH group of tyrosines, as a function of dose at 100 K, is reported. It is concluded that a probable explanation is aromatic ring disordering as opposed to –OH cleavage; occurrence of the latter mechanism is a misconception perpetuated in radiation damage literature, and is unsupported by any observations in radiation chemistry.

P13, the EMBL macromolecular crystallography beamline at the low emittance PETRA III ring for high and low energy phasing with variable beam focusing
The P13 macromolecular crystallography beamline, based on the low emittance source PETRA III, enables X-ray diffraction experiments on macromolecular crystals over a wide wavelength range (0.7 Å – 3.1 Å). The beam has a variable focus size and a small divergence enabling data collection on micron-sized crystals.

Development of a dose-limiting data collection strategy for serial synchrotron rotation crystallography
The best practice for dose-limiting serial synchrotron rotation crystallography was examined through anomalous signal and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing of mercury-bound luciferin regenerating enzyme. Sample rotation enabled accurate data collection with fewer diffraction images than without rotation, and an increase in resolution and anomalous signal was observed up to 3.4 MGy even though specific damage occurred after an accumulated dose of 1.1 MGy.

Dynamic X-ray diffraction sampling for protein crystal positioning
A supervised learning approach for dynamic sampling (SLADS) was found to enable reconstruction of protein crystal position with a significant reduction in both the total X-ray exposure of the sample and to the exposure to the interior of the crystal.

On the use of flat-fields for tomographic reconstruction
A flat-field correction method is proposed for X-ray computed tomography using the edges of the sinogram (not shadowed by the sample) to adjust the best suited combination of flat-fields.

X-ray fluorescence at nanoscale resolution for multicomponent layered structures: a solar cell case study
The study of multilayer stacks (e.g. thin-film solar cells) by X-ray fluorescence requires a thorough account of the depth-dependent attenuation of incident and excident X-ray beam intensity, as well as spatial thickness variations to achieve an accurate interpretation of the data. A procedure is presented that allows for the assessment of stoichiometric composition variations in high spatial resolution imaging by correcting for multiple effects.

Fast iterative reconstruction of data in full interior tomography
Efficient strategies to perform iterative reconstruction of underconstrained datasets in full interior tomography are presented.

Synchrotron-based phase-sensitive imaging of leaves grown from magneto-primed seeds of soybean
Synchrotron-radiation-based phase-contrast imaging of soybean leaves grown from magneto-primed seeds is presented.

Quantitative characterization of the X-ray beam at the Australian Synchrotron Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL)
A comprehensive model of the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron has been developed, validated against a variety of experimental measurements, and its versatility, reliability and robustness demonstrated. The results presented are of particular relevance in X-ray imaging, tomography, radiotherapy and dosimetry.

Development of tools to automate quantitative analysis of radiation damage in SAXS experiments
Radiation damage analysis with experimental SAXS data allows for the quantitative comparison of the efficacy of various additive radioprotectant compounds. Relevant extensions to RADDOSE-3D and the creation of a new visualization library to enable this study are presented.

X-ray analyzer-based phase-contrast computed lamino­graphy
The combination of X-ray analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging and computed lamino­graphy opens up new possibilities for imaging regions of interest in laterally extended flat specimens of weak absorption contrast.

Analytical formula for two-dimensional ring artefact suppression
An analytical formula for two-dimensional ring artefact suppression based on processing of projections rather than sinograms is proposed. A modified flat field can be found as a convolution of an averaged projection and the given filter.

Micrometer-resolution imaging using MÖNCH: towards G2-less grating interferometry
The MÖNCH 25 µm-pitch hybrid pixel detector is described in detail and characterized. The interpolation algorithm developed to achieve micrometer-level resolution is applied to grating interferometry measurements.

Identification of the point of diminishing returns in high-multiplicity data collection for sulfur SAD phasing
A statistic based on the distribution of sets of signed anomalous differences is evaluated as a possible metric for defining the point at which the inclusion of additional data from a progressively more damaged crystal into a S-SAD phasing process will reduce the probability of successful phasing.

A soft XAS transmission cell for operando studies
A new design of an operando soft X-ray transmission and fluorescence cell with capability of fast membrane replacement and easy operation compared to the previous designs is presented. The cell is suitable for studying solids, liquids and solid/liquid interfaces and manipulating the sample with electrochemical techniques and visible light.

Controlling X-ray deformable mirrors during inspection
A practical scheme is proposed to control and inspect X-ray deformable mirrors using a feedback mechanism with residual curvature estimated from shape metrology data.

High-pressure Seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric behaviors of Bi and PbTe measured using a Paris-Edinburgh cell
A new sample cell assembly for the Paris-Edinburgh type large-volume press to measure Seebeck coefficients and the relative changes in the thermal conductivity and dimensionless figure of merit has been developed and its feasibility demonstrated. The measurements are performed on Bi and PbTe over a temperature range 300–450 K and pressures up to 5.5 GPa.

Effect of atomic vibrations in XANES: polarization-dependent damping of the fine structure at the Cu K-edge of (creat)2CuCl4
A technically simple method to include vibrations in X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) calculations is used to demonstrate that vibrations have a significant effect on the polarized Cu K-edge spectrum of creatinium tetrachlorocuprate, (creat)2CuCl4, even in the XANES region.

Optical performance of materials for X-ray refractive optics in the energy range 8–100 keV
An analysis of basic parameters of promising and commonly used materials for X-ray refractive optics has been performed in the extended energy range 8–100 keV.

Current status of the TwinMic beamline at Elettra: a soft X-ray transmission and emission microscopy station
A detailed description of the TwinMic beamline installed at Elettra, Italy, is presented. The beamline hosts a unique soft X-ray microscope supporting both transmission and scanning X-ray microscopy (TXM and STXM, respectively) within the one instrument. The beamline presently fosters the following techniques: STXM, TXM and ptychography, that can be combined with low-energy X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopies. A detailed update of the design, operational modes and future upgrades of the TwinMic beamline is presented.

Effect of gamma irradiation on X-ray absorption and photoelectron spectroscopy of Nd-doped phosphate glass
Gamma irradiation was found to change the elemental concentration of the atoms in Nd-doped phosphate glass The intensity of the white line in the XANES spectrum correlated with the ratio O/Nd in the glass matrix. The ratio of non-bridging oxygen to total oxygen in the glass after gamma radiation correlated with the concentration of defects in the glass samples. Glasses having a higher concentration of oxygen were found to be soft to gamma irradiation.

High-temperature tensile cell for in situ real-time investigation of carbon fibre carbonization and graphitization processes
A unique high-temperature cell combined with in situ wide-angle X-ray diffraction was used to follow the formation of graphitic structure in carbon fibre produced from a polyacrylo­nitrile precursor.

XDS: a flexible beamline for X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy at the Brazilian synchrotron
A new multi-purpose materials science beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron (LNLS) is described, which operates in the energy range 5–30 keV. A few examples of new experimental possibilities, including total X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction under high pressures and resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy, are presented.

Nanox: a miniature mechanical stress rig designed for near-field X-ray diffraction imaging techniques
A compact design for a miniature tensile stress rig, compatible with the space and weight constraints imposed by near-field diffraction imaging techniques, is presented. The device can carry tensile loads up to 500 N and is driven by a piezoelectric actuator which can work in a static and dynamic regime up to frequencies of 100 Hz.

KB scanning of X-ray beam for Laue microdiffraction on accelero-phobic samples: application to in situ mechanically loaded nanowires
A mapping technique has been developed where a sub-micrometer focused polychromatic X-ray beam is scanned across a stationary sample instead of scanning the sample in front of the X-ray microbeam. For setups where motion is forbidden, e.g. due to the sample environment, standard methods are restricted to one singular position in the sample, whereas the new technique gives access to the complete specimen as demonstrated on an in situ mechanically deformed gold nanowire.

ShadowOui: a new visual environment for X-ray optics and synchrotron beamline simulations
ShadowOui is introduced, a new computer environment for X-ray optics, beamline simulations and virtual experiments using the ray-tracing code SHADOW.

Augmentation of the step-by-step Energy-Scanning EXAFS beamline BL-09 to continuous-scan EXAFS mode at INDUS-2 SRS
An innovative scheme to carry out continuous X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements similar to quick-EXAFS mode at the step-by-step Energy-Scanning EXAFS beamline BL-09 at the INDUS-2 synchrotron source is presented.

Design and performance of BOREAS, the beamline for resonant X-ray absorption and scattering experiments at the ALBA synchrotron light source
BOREAS is a beamline operating at the ALBA Synchrotron Light Source, dedicated to resonant X-ray absorption and scattering experiments using soft X-rays, in an unusually extended photon energy range from 80 to >4000 eV, with full polarization control. Here its optical scheme and the first commissioning results are described.

A high-accuracy complex-phase method of simulating X-ray propagation through a multi-lens system
A new equation for simulating the propagation of X-rays through a system of many focusing elements and a method of computation of X-ray waves with control reliability and accuracy are presented.

Using irregularly spaced current peaks to generate an isolated attosecond X-ray pulse in free-electron lasers
A method is proposed to generate an isolated attosecond X-ray free-electron laser pulse with the peak power beyond 1 TW.

Creating flat-top X-ray beams by applying surface profiles of alternating curvature to deformable piezo bimorph mirrors
A piezo bimorph mirror is deformed into three distinct re-entrant surface modifications as well as being simply defocused. A re-entrant modification with seven segments (the maximum possible for this mirror) produces an expanded beam with less striation than a simply defocused beam.

Fabrication and testing of a newly designed slit system for depth-resolved X-ray diffraction measurements
A newly designed system of slits for depth-resolved X-ray powder diffraction has been developed and tested at the National Synchrotron Light Source.

Determination of the packing fraction in photonic glass using synchrotron radiation nanotomography
Synchrotron radiation nanotomography has been used to quantify the packing fraction in a photonic glass sample.

Nuclear incorporation of iron during the eukaryotic cell cycle
Scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy has been used to probe the distribution of S, P and Fe within cell nuclei at the new ID16 beamline. Estimates of P, S and mass signals for the chromosomal matter agree with quantitative X-ray phase contrast projection microscopy images of the same samples, while fluorescence shows Fe incorporation.

X-ray powder diffraction at the XRD1 beamline at LNLS
X-ray powder diffraction at the upgraded and comissioned XRD1 beamline is reported. The beamline operates in the 5.5–14 keV range with a photon flux of 3.4 × 1010 photons s−1 at 8 keV.

Interaction of a relativistic dense electron beam with a laser wiggler in a vacuum: self-field effects on the electron orbits and free-electron laser gain
The head-on collision of a relativistic dense electron beam with a laser wiggler is studied in a free-electron laser. Laser gain and stability analysis of electron motions are presented in the presence of electron beam self-fields.

Brownian and advective dynamics in microflow studied by coherent X-ray scattering experiments
Combining microfluidics with coherent X-ray scattering experiments enables the flow characterization of collodial suspensions in microflow of different geometries. Here, evaluation of the flow geometries, main flow directions, advective flow velocities and diffusive dynamics are presented.

A multi-MHz single-shot data acquisition scheme with high dynamic range: pump–probe X-ray experiments at synchrotrons
A time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy setup has been developed and tested, comprising a synchronized MHz fiber amplifier laser system with a multi-MHz data acquisition scheme capable of detecting multi-photon events in a single X-ray photon pulse. This system permits recording time-resolved X-ray absorption spectra with quasi-static signal quality.

Measuring the criticality of the `magic condition' for a beam-expanding monochromator
The effect of minor mismatch between the geometric and single-ray foci for a cylindrically bent Laue double-crystal monochromator is examined and found to be less detrimental than previously believed. Even without exact matching, the transverse coherence of the X-ray beam is not deteriorated by the system, enabling the phase-based imaging techniques critical to modern biomedical imaging experiments.