2016-10-06Photonic glass is a material class that can be used as photonic broadband reflectors, for example in the infrared regime as thermal barrier coating films. Photonic properties such as the reflectivity depend on the ordering and material packing fraction over the complete film thickness of up to 100 µm. Nanotomography allows acquiring these key parameters throughout the sample volume at the required resolution in a non-destructive way. By performing a nanotomography measurement at the PETRA III beamline P05 on a photonic glass film, the packing fraction throughout the complete sample thickness was analyzed. The results showed a packing fraction significantly smaller than the expected random close packing giving important information for improving the fabrication and processing methods of photonic glass material in the future.
2016-10-06Combining microfluidics with coherent X-ray illumination offers the possibility to not only measure the structure but also the dynamics of flowing samples in a single-scattering experiment. Here, the power of this combination is demonstrated by studying the advective and Brownian dynamics of colloidal suspensions in microflow of different geometries. Using an experimental setup with a fast two-dimensional detector and performing X-ray correlation spectroscopy by calculating two-dimensional maps of the intensity auto-correlation functions, it was possible to evaluate the sample structure and furthermore to characterize the detailed flow behavior, including flow geometry, main flow directions, advective flow velocities and diffusive dynamics. By scanning a microfocused X-ray beam over a microfluidic device, the anisotropic auto-correlation functions of driven colloidal suspensions in straight, curved and constricted microchannels were mapped with the spatial resolution of the X-ray beam. This method has not only a huge potential for studying flow patterns in complex fluids but also to generally characterize anisotropic dynamics in materials.
2016-10-06A new system of slits called `spiderweb slits' have been developed for depth-resolved powder or polycrystalline X-ray diffraction measurements. The slits act on diffracted X-rays to select a particular gauge volume of sample, while absorbing diffracted X-rays from outside of this volume. Although the slit geometry is to some extent similar to that of previously developed conical slits or spiral slits, this new design has advantages over the previous ones in use for complex heterogeneous materials and in situ and operando diffraction measurements. For example, the slits can measure a majority of any diffraction cone for any polycrystalline material, over a continuous range of diffraction angles, and work for X-ray energies of tens to hundreds of kiloelectronvolts. The design is generated and optimized using ray-tracing simulations, and fabricated through laser micromachining. The first prototype was successfully tested at the X17A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source, and shows similar performance to simulations, demonstrating gauge volume selection for standard powders, for all diffraction peaks over angles of 2–10°. A similar, but improved, design will be implemented at the X-ray Powder Diffraction beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II.
2016-10-06A method is proposed to generate an isolated attosecond X-ray pulse in free-electron lasers, using irregularly spaced current peaks induced in an electron beam through interaction with an intense short-pulse optical laser. In comparison with a similar scheme proposed in a previous paper, the irregular arrangement of current peaks significantly improves the contrast between the main and satellite pulses, enhances the attainable peak power and simplifies the accelerator layout. Three different methods are proposed for this purpose and achievable performances are computed under realistic conditions. Numerical simulations carried out with the best configuration show that an isolated 7.7 keV X-ray pulse with a peak power of 1.7 TW and pulse length of 70 as can be generated. In this particular example, the contrast is improved by two orders of magnitude and the peak power is enhanced by a factor of three, when compared with the previous scheme.
2016-10-07A mapping technique has been developed where a sub-micrometer focused polychromatic X-ray beam is scanned across a stationary sample instead of scanning the sample in front of the X-ray microbeam. This method is applied to a gold nanowire during its mechanical loading using the tip of an atomic force microscope. During the loading process, such a sample is `accelero-phobic', i.e. the sample scanning stages must not to be moved to avoid parasitic additional load. Without beam scanning, only one single position within the sample can be probed during the test. The probed material point may even change because of drifts or movements induced by the test itself. The new scanning approach facilitates the in situ mapping of the entire wire giving access to the evolution of the wire shape as well as to the boundary conditions. This novel scanning technique opens promising perspectives for studies where sample motion is forbidden because of the sample environment.
2016-10-10The technical implementation of a multi-MHz data acquisition scheme for laser–X-ray pump–probe experiments with pulse limited temporal resolution (100 ps) is presented. Such techniques are very attractive to benefit from the high-repetition rates of X-ray pulses delivered from advanced synchrotron radiation sources. Exploiting a synchronized 3.9 MHz laser excitation source, experiments in 60-bunch mode (7.8 MHz) at beamline P01 of the PETRA III storage ring are performed. Hereby molecular systems in liquid solutions are excited by the pulsed laser source and the total X-ray fluorescence yield (TFY) from the sample is recorded using silicon avalanche photodiode detectors (APDs). The subsequent digitizer card samples the APD signal traces in 0.5 ns steps with 12-bit resolution. These traces are then processed to deliver an integrated value for each recorded single X-ray pulse intensity and sorted into bins according to whether the laser excited the sample or not. For each subgroup the recorded single-shot values are averaged over ∼107 pulses to deliver a mean TFY value with its standard error for each data point, e.g. at a given X-ray probe energy. The sensitivity reaches down to the shot-noise limit, and signal-to-noise ratios approaching 1000 are achievable in only a few seconds collection time per data point. The dynamic range covers 100 photons pulse−1 and is only technically limited by the utilized APD.
2016-10-10Employing laser wigglers and accelerators provides the potential to dramatically cut the size and cost of X-ray light sources. Owing to recent technological developments in the production of high-brilliance electron beams and high-power laser pulses, it is now conceivable to make steps toward the practical realisation of laser-pumped X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs). In this regard, here the head-on collision of a relativistic dense electron beam with a linearly polarized laser pulse as a wiggler is studied, in which the laser wiggler can be realised using a conventional quantum laser. In addition, an external guide magnetic field is employed to confine the electron beam against self-fields, therefore improving the FEL operation. Conditions allowing such an operating regime are presented and its relevant validity checked using a set of general scaling formulae. Rigorous analytical solutions of the dynamic equations are provided. These solutions are verified by performing calculations using the derived solutions and well known Runge–Kutta procedure to simulate the electron trajectories. The effects of self-fields on the FEL gain in this configuration are estimated. Numerical calculations indicate that in the presence of self-fields the sensitivity of the gain increases in the vicinity of resonance regions. Besides, diamagnetic and paramagnetic effects of the wiggler-induced self-magnetic field cause gain decrement and enhancement for different electron orbits, while these diamagnetic and paramagnetic effects increase with increasing beam density. The results are compared with findings of planar magnetostatic wiggler FELs.
2016-10-10The propagation of X-ray waves through an optical system consisting of many X-ray refractive lenses is considered. For solving the problem for an electromagnetic wave, a finite-difference method is applied. The error of simulation is analytically estimated and investigated. It was found that a very detailed difference grid is required for reliable and accurate calculations of the propagation of X-ray waves through a multi-lens system. The reasons for using a very detailed difference grid are investigated. It was shown that the wave phase becomes a function, very quickly increasing with increasing distance from the optical axis, after the wave has passed through the multi-lens system. If the phase is a quickly increasing function of the coordinates perpendicular to the optical axis, then the electric field of the wave is a quickly oscillating function of these coordinates, and thus a very detailed difference grid becomes necessary to describe such a wavefield. To avoid this difficulty, an equation for the phase function is proposed as an alternative to the equation of the electric field. This allows reliable and accurate simulations to be carried out when using the multi-lens system. An equation for the phase function is derived and used for accurate simulations. The numerical error of the suggested method is estimated. It is shown that the equation for the phase function allows efficient simulations to be fulfilled for the multi-lens system.
2016-10-11A quantitative analysis of the crucial characteristics of currently used and promising materials for X-ray refractive optics is performed in the extended energy range 8–100 keV. According to the examined parameters, beryllium is the material of choice for X-ray compound refractive lenses (CRLs) in the energy range 8–25 keV. At higher energies the use of CRLs made of diamond and the cubic phase of boron nitride (c-BN) is beneficial. It was demonstrated that the presence of the elements of the fourth (or higher) period has a fatal effect on the functional X-ray properties even if low-Z elements dominate in the compound, like in YB66. Macroscopic properties are discussed: much higher melting points and thermal conductivities of C and c-BN enable them to be used at the new generation of synchrotron radiation sources and X-ray free-electron lasers. The role of crystal and internal structure is discussed: materials with high density are preferable for refractive applications while less dense phases are suitable for X-ray windows. Single-crystal or amorphous glass-like materials based on Li, Be, B or C that are free of diffuse scattering from grain boundaries, voids and inclusions are the best candidates for applications of highly coherent X-ray beams.
2016-10-11X-ray diffraction is a common technique for determining crystal structures. The average time needed for the solution of a protein structure has been drastically reduced by a number of recent experimental and theoretical developments. Since high-throughput protein crystallography benefits from full automation of all steps that are carried out on a synchrotron beamline, an automatic crystal centring procedure is important for crystallographic beamlines. Fully automatic crystal alignment involves the application of optical methods to identify the crystal and move it onto the rotation axis and into the X-ray beam. Crystal recognition has complex dependencies on the illumination, crystal size and viewing angles due to effects such as local shading, inter-reflections and the presence of antifreezing elements. Here, a rapid procedure for crystal centring with multiple cameras using region segment thresholding is reported. Firstly, a simple illumination-invariant loop recognition and classification model is used by slicing a low-magnification loop image into small region segments, then classifying the loop into different types and aligning it to the beam position using feature vectors of the region segments. Secondly, an edge detection algorithm is used to find the crystal sample in a high-magnification image using region segment thresholding. Results show that this crystal centring method is extremely successful under fluctuating light states as well as for poorly frozen and opaque samples. Moreover, this crystal centring procedure is successfully integrated into the enhanced Blu-Ice data collection system at beamline BL17U1 at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility as a routine method for an automatic crystal screening procedure.
2016-10-12Beam shaping is becoming increasingly important for synchrotron X-ray applications. Although routine for visible light lasers, this is challenging for X-rays due to the limited source coherence and extreme optical tolerances required for the shaping mirrors. In deliberate defocusing, even surface errors <5 nm r.m.s. introduce damagingly large striations into the reflected beam. To counteract such problems, surface modifications with alternating concave and convex curvature on equal segments were polished onto the surface of non-active mirrors of fixed curvature. Such optics are useful for providing a fixed size of X-ray beam, but do not provide the adaptability required by many experiments. In contrast, deformable piezo bimorph mirrors permit a continuous range of X-ray beam sizes and shapes. A new theory is developed for applying non-periodic modifications of alternating curvature to optical surfaces. The position and length of the segments may be freely chosen. For the first time, surface modifications of alternating curvature are applied to bimorph mirrors to generate non-Gaussian X-ray beam profiles of specified width. The new theory's freedom is exploited to choose the segments to match the polishing errors of medium wavelength (>10 mm) and the piezos' influence on the mirror's figure. Five- and seven-segment modifications of alternating curvature are calculated and verified by visible light and X-ray metrology. The latter yields beam profiles with less striation than those made by defocusing. Remaining beam striations are explained by applying geometrical optics to the deviations from the ideal surface modifications of alternating curvature.
2016-10-12X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of Nd-doped phosphate glasses have been studied before and after gamma irradiation. The intensity and the location of the white line peak of the L3-edge XANES of Nd are found to be dependent on the ratio O/Nd in the glass matrix. Gamma irradiation changes the elemental concentration of atoms in the glass matrix, which affects the peak intensity of the white line due to changes in the covalence of the chemical bonds with Nd atoms in the glass (structural changes). Sharpening of the Nd 3d5/2 peak profile in XPS spectra indicates a deficiency of oxygen in the glasses after gamma irradiation, which is supported by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. The ratio of non-bridging oxygen to total oxygen in the glass after gamma radiation has been found to be correlated to the concentration of defects in the glass samples, which are responsible for its radiation resistance as well as for its coloration.
2016-10-12Polarization-dependent damping of the fine structure in the Cu K-edge spectrum of creatinium tetrachlorocuprate [(creat)2CuCl4] in the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) region is shown to be due to atomic vibrations. These vibrations can be separated into two groups, depending on whether the respective atoms belong to the same molecular block; individual molecular blocks can be treated as semi-rigid entities while the mutual positions of these blocks are subject to large mean relative displacements. The effect of vibrations can be efficiently included in XANES calculations by using the same formula as for static systems but with a modified free-electron propagator which accounts for fluctuations in interatomic distances.
2016-10-14The X-ray deformable mirror (XDM) is becoming widely used in the present synchrotron/free-electron laser facilities because of its flexibility in correcting wavefront errors or modification of the beam size at the sample location. Owing to coupling among the N actuators of an XDM, (N + 1) or (2N + 1) scans are required to learn the response of each actuator one by one. When the mirror has an important number of actuators (N) and the actuator response time including stabilization or the necessary metrology time is long, the learning process can be time consuming. In this work, a fast and accurate method is presented to drive an XDM to a target shape usually with only three or four measurements during inspection. The metrology data are used as feedback to calculate the curvature discrepancy between the current and the target shapes. Three different derivative estimation methods are introduced to calculate the curvature from measured data. The mirror shape is becoming close to the target through iterative compensations. The feasibility of this simple and effective approach is demonstrated by a series of experiments.
2016-10-14A new computer environment to perform simulations on synchrotron experiments has been designed. It performs ray-tracing simulations using the popular ray-tracing code SHADOW. With this new application one can define, in a very easy and elegant way, one or several optical systems (beamlines) and perform calculations of the propagation of the X-ray beam through it. Many complementary tools and supplementary calculations improve and extend the functionality of SHADOW to deal with complex optical system optimization, including compound optical elements, iterative calculations, some sample simulations, and implementing corrections for wave optics via a hybrid model.
2016-10-17A new high-temperature fibre tensile cell is described, developed for use at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory to enable the investigation of the carbonization and graphitization processes during carbon fibre production. This cell is used to heat precursor fibre bundles to temperatures up to ∼2300°C in a controlled inert atmosphere, while applying tensile stress to facilitate formation of highly oriented graphitic microstructure; evolution of the microstructure as a function of temperature and time during the carbonization and higher-temperature graphitization processes can then be monitored by collecting real-time wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) patterns. As an example, the carbonization and graphitization behaviour of an oxidized polyacrylonitrile fibre was studied up to a temperature of ∼1750°C. Real-time WAXD revealed the gradual increase in microstructure alignment with the fibre axis with increasing temperature over the temperature range 600–1100°C. Above 1100°C, no further changes in orientation were observed. The overall magnitude of change increased with increasing applied tensile stress during carbonization. As a second example, the high-temperature graphitizability of PAN- and pitch-derived commercial carbon fibres was studied. Here, the magnitude of graphitic microstructure evolution of the pitch-derived fibre far exceeded that of the PAN-derived fibres at temperatures up to ∼2300°C, indicating its facile graphitizability.
2016-10-17Ring artefacts are the most disturbing artefacts when reconstructed volumes are segmented. A lot of effort has already been put into better X-ray optics, scintillators and detectors in order to minimize the appearance of these artefacts. However, additional processing is often required after standard flat-field correction. Several methods exist to suppress artefacts. One group of methods is based on minimization of the Tikhonov functional. An analytical formula for processing of a single sinogram was developed. In this paper a similar approach is used and a formula for processing two-dimensional projections is found. Thus suppression of ring artefacts is organized as a two-dimensional convolution of `averaged' projections with a given filter. Several approaches are discussed in order to find elements of the filter in a faster and accurate way. Examples of experimental datasets processed by the proposed method are considered.
2016-10-17A new cell for operando soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in transmission mode is presented. Developed for investigations on solar water-splitting catalysts, the cell allows the study of solid films in direct contact with electrolyte solution while applying voltage and visible light. The design is optimized for fast sample exchange and the simultaneous measurement of fluorescence and transmission signal. The capability of the cell is presented on a manganese oxide (MnOx) film, where electronic structure changes are monitored during forward and backward potential changes. Detailed information about the varying contributions of several Mn oxidation states during this process was revealed.
2016-10-17MÖNCH is a 25 µm-pitch charge-integrating detector aimed at exploring the limits of current hybrid silicon detector technology. The small pixel size makes it ideal for high-resolution imaging. With an electronic noise of about 110 eV r.m.s., it opens new perspectives for many synchrotron applications where currently the detector is the limiting factor, e.g. inelastic X-ray scattering, Laue diffraction and soft X-ray or high-resolution color imaging. Due to the small pixel pitch, the charge cloud generated by absorbed X-rays is shared between neighboring pixels for most of the photons. Therefore, at low photon fluxes, interpolation algorithms can be applied to determine the absorption position of each photon with a resolution of the order of 1 µm. In this work, the characterization results of one of the MÖNCH prototypes are presented under low-flux conditions. A custom interpolation algorithm is described and applied to the data to obtain high-resolution images. Images obtained in grating interferometry experiments without the use of the absorption grating G2 are shown and discussed. Perspectives for the future developments of the MÖNCH detector are also presented.
2016-10-17A new sample cell assembly design for the Paris-Edinburgh type large-volume press for simultaneous measurements of X-ray diffraction, electrical resistance, Seebeck coefficient and relative changes in the thermal conductance at high pressures has been developed. The feasibility of performing in situ measurements of the Seebeck coefficient and thermal measurements is demonstrated by observing well known solid–solid phase transitions of bismuth (Bi) up to 3 GPa and 450 K. A reversible polarity flip has been observed in the Seebeck coefficient across the Bi-I to Bi-II phase boundary. Also, successful Seebeck coefficient measurements have been performed for the classical high-temperature thermoelectric material PbTe under high pressure and temperature conditions. In addition, the relative change in the thermal conductivity was measured and a relative change in ZT, the dimensionless figure of merit, is described. This new capability enables pressure-induced structural changes to be directly correlated to electrical and thermal properties.
2016-10-18Multi-modal characterization of polycrystalline materials by combined use of three-dimensional (3D) X-ray diffraction and imaging techniques may be considered as the 3D equivalent of surface studies in the electron microscope combining diffraction and other imaging modalities. Since acquisition times at synchrotron sources are nowadays compatible with four-dimensional (time lapse) studies, suitable mechanical testing devices are needed which enable switching between these different imaging modalities over the course of a mechanical test. Here a specifically designed tensile device, fulfilling severe space constraints and permitting to switch between X-ray (holo)tomography, diffraction contrast tomography and topotomography, is presented. As a proof of concept the 3D characterization of an Al–Li alloy multicrystal by means of diffraction contrast tomography is presented, followed by repeated topotomography characterization of one selected grain at increasing levels of deformation. Signatures of slip bands and sudden lattice rotations inside the grain have been shown by means of in situ topography carried out during the load ramps, and diffraction spot peak broadening has been monitored throughout the experiment.
2016-10-18X-ray analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging is combined with computed laminography for imaging regions of interest in laterally extended flat specimens of weak absorption contrast. The optics discussed here consist of an asymmetrically cut collimator crystal and a symmetrically cut analyzer crystal arranged in a nondispersive (+, −) diffraction geometry. A generalized algorithm is given for calculating multi-contrast (absorption, refraction and phase contrast) images of a sample. Basic formulae are also presented for laminographic reconstruction. The feasibility of the method discussed was verified at the vertical wiggler beamline BL-14B of the Photon Factory. At a wavelength of 0.0733 nm, phase-contrast sectional images of plastic beads were successfully obtained. Owing to strong circular artifacts caused by a sample holder, the field of view was limited to about 6 mm in diameter.
2016-10-18Scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy has been used to probe the distribution of S, P and Fe within cell nuclei. Nuclei, which may have originated at different phases of the cell cycle, are found to show very different levels of Fe present with a strongly inhomogeneous distribution. P and S signals, presumably from DNA and associated nucleosomes, are high and relatively uniform across all the nuclei; these agree with X-ray phase contrast projection microscopy images of the same samples. Possible reasons for the Fe incorporation are discussed.
2016-10-06It has been established that for cylindrically bent crystals the optimal beam characteristics occur when the geometric and single-ray foci are matched. In the beam-expanding monochromator developed for the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source, it was unclear how critical this `magic condition' was for preserving the transverse coherence of the beam. A study was conducted to determine whether misalignments away from the ideal conditions would severely affect the transverse coherence of the beam, thereby limiting phase-based imaging techniques. The results were that the magic condition has enough flexibility to accommodate deviations of about ±1° or ±5 keV.
2016-10-06Various upgrades have been completed at the XRD1 beamline at the Brazilian synchrotron light source (LNLS). The upgrades are comprehensive, with changes to both hardware and software, now allowing users of the beamline to conduct X-ray powder diffraction experiments with faster data acquisition times and improved quality. The main beamline parameters and the results obtained for different standards are presented, showing the beamline ability of performing high-quality experiments in transmission geometry. XRD1 operates in the 5.5–14 keV range and has a photon flux of 7.8 × 109 photons s−1 (with 100 mA) at 12 keV, which is one of the typical working energies. At 8 keV (the other typical working energy) the photon flux at the sample position is 3.4 × 1010 photons s−1 and the energy resolution ΔE/E = 3 × 10−4.
2016-10-07The optical design of the BOREAS beamline operating at the ALBA synchrotron radiation facility is described. BOREAS is dedicated to resonant X-ray absorption and scattering experiments using soft X-rays, in an unusually extended photon energy range from 80 to above 4000 eV, and with full polarization control. Its optical scheme includes a fixed-included-angle, variable-line-spacing grating monochromator and a pair of refocusing mirrors, equipped with benders, in a Kirkpatrick–Baez arrangement. It is equipped with two end-stations, one for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and the other for resonant magnetic scattering. The commissioning results show that the expected beamline performance is achieved both in terms of energy resolution and of photon flux at the sample position.
2016-10-07An innovative scheme to carry out continuous-scan X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements similar to quick-EXAFS mode at the Energy-Scanning EXAFS beamline BL-09 at INDUS-2 synchrotron source (Indore, India), which is generally operated in step-by-step scanning mode, is presented. The continuous XAS mode has been implemented by adopting a continuous-scan scheme of the double-crystal monochromator and on-the-fly measurement of incident and transmitted intensities. This enabled a high signal-to-noise ratio to be maintained and the acquisition time was reduced to a few seconds from tens of minutes or hours. The quality of the spectra (signal-to-noise level, resolution and energy calibration) was checked by measuring and analysing XAS spectra of standard metal foils. To demonstrate the energy range covered in a single scan, a continuous-mode XAS spectrum of copper nickel alloy covering both Cu and Ni K-edges was recorded. The implementation of continuous-scan XAS mode at BL-09 would expand the use of this beamline in in situ time-resolved XAS studies of various important systems of current technological importance. The feasibility of employing this mode of measurement for time-resolved probing of reaction kinetics has been demonstrated by in situ XAS measurement on the growth of Ag nanoparticles from a solution phase.
2016-10-12The current status of the TwinMic beamline at Elettra synchrotron light source, that hosts the European twin X-ray microscopy station, is reported. The X-ray source, provided by a short hybrid undulator with source size and divergence intermediate between bending magnets and conventional undulators, is energy-tailored using a collimated plane-grating monochromator. The TwinMic spectromicroscopy experimental station combines scanning and full-field imaging in a single instrument, with contrast modes such as absorption, differential phase, interference and darkfield. The implementation of coherent diffractive imaging modalities and ptychography is ongoing. Typically, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy images are simultaneously collected in transmission and differential phase contrast and can be complemented by chemical and elemental analysis using across-absorption-edge imaging, X-ray absorption near-edge structure or low-energy X-ray fluorescence. The lateral resolutions depend on the particular imaging and contrast mode chosen. The TwinMic range of applications covers diverse research fields such as biology, biochemistry, medicine, pharmacology, environment, geochemistry, food, agriculture and materials science. They will be illustrated in the paper with representative results.
2016-10-14The majority of the beamlines at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory (LNLS) use radiation produced in the storage-ring bending magnets and are therefore currently limited in the flux that can be used in the harder part of the X-ray spectrum (above ∼10 keV). A 4 T superconducting multipolar wiggler (SCW) was recently installed at LNLS in order to improve the photon flux above 10 keV and fulfill the demands set by the materials science community. A new multi-purpose beamline was then installed at the LNLS using the SCW as a photon source. The XDS is a flexible beamline operating in the energy range between 5 and 30 keV, designed to perform experiments using absorption, diffraction and scattering techniques. Most of the work performed at the XDS beamline concentrates on X-ray absorption spectroscopy at energies above 18 keV and high-resolution diffraction experiments. More recently, new setups and photon-hungry experiments such as total X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction under high pressures, resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy, among others, have started to become routine at XDS. Here, the XDS beamline characteristics, performance and a few new experimental possibilities are described.
2016-10-18The high brilliance of third-generation synchrotron sources increases the demand for faster detectors to utilize the available flux. The Maia detector is an advanced imaging scheme for energy-dispersive detection realising dwell times per image-pixel as low as 50 µs and count rates higher than 10 × 106 s−1. In this article the integration of such a Maia detector in the Microprobe setup of beamline P06 at the storage ring PETRA III at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg, Germany, is described. The analytical performance of the complete system in terms of rate-dependent energy resolution, scanning-speed-dependent spatial resolution and lower limits of detection is characterized. The potential of the Maia-based setup is demonstrated by key applications from materials science and chemistry, as well as environmental science with geological applications and biological questions that have been investigated at the P06 beamline.