2017-01-19Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are carbohydrate-disrupting enzymes secreted by bacteria and fungi that break glycosidic bonds via an oxidative mechanism. Fungal LPMOs typically act on cellulose and can enhance the efficiency of cellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes that release soluble sugars for bioethanol production or other industrial uses. The enzyme PMO-2 from Neurospora crassa (NcPMO-2) was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris to facilitate crystallographic studies of the fungal LPMO mechanism. Diffraction resolution and crystal morphology were improved by expressing NcPMO-2 from a glycoengineered strain of P. pastoris and by the use of crystal seeding methods, respectively. These improvements resulted in high-resolution (1.20 Å) X-ray diffraction data collection at 100 K and the production of a large NcPMO-2 crystal suitable for room-temperature neutron diffraction data collection to 2.12 Å resolution.
2017-01-19The N-terminal anticodon-binding domain of the nondiscriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (ND-AspRS) plays a crucial role in the recognition of both tRNAAsp and tRNAAsn. Here, the first X-ray crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of this enzyme (ND-AspRS1–104) from the human-pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori is reported at 2.0 Å resolution. The apo form of H. pylori ND-AspRS1–104 shares high structural similarity with the N-terminal anticodon-binding domains of the discriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (D-AspRS) from Escherichia coli and ND-AspRS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, allowing recognition elements to be proposed for tRNAAsp and tRNAAsn. It is proposed that a long loop (Arg77–Lys90) in this H. pylori domain influences its relaxed tRNA specificity, such that it is classified as nondiscriminating. A structural comparison between D-AspRS from E. coli and ND-AspRS from P. aeruginosa suggests that turns E and F (78GAGL81 and 83NPKL86) in H. pylori ND-AspRS play a crucial role in anticodon recognition. Accordingly, the conserved Pro84 in turn F facilitates the recognition of the anticodons of tRNAAsp (34GUC36) and tRNAAsn (34GUU36). The absence of the amide H atom allows both C and U bases to be accommodated in the tRNA-recognition site.
2017-01-19d-Threonine aldolase from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrDTA) catalyzes the interconversion of several β-hydroxy-d-amino acids (e.g. d-threonine) and glycine plus the corresponding aldehydes. Recombinant CrDTA was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity; it was subsequently crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 295 K. Data were collected and processed at 1.85 Å resolution. Analysis of the diffraction pattern showed that the crystal belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 64.79, b = 74.10, c = 89.94 Å, α = 77.07, β = 69.34, γ = 71.93°. The asymmetric unit contained four molecules of CrDTA. The Matthews coefficient was calculated to be 2.12 Å3 Da−1 and the solvent content was 41.9%.
2017-01-19The Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis. d-glycero-β-d-manno-Heptose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (HldC) is the fourth enzyme of the ADP-l-glycero-β-d-manno-heptose biosynthesis pathway, which produces an essential carbohydrate comprising the inner core of lipopolysaccharide. Therefore, HldC is a potential target of antibiotics against melioidosis. In this study, HldC from B. pseudomallei has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Synchrotron X-ray data from a selenomethionine-substituted HldC crystal were also collected to 2.8 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to the primitive triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.0, b = 74.0, c = 74.9 Å, α = 108.4, β = 108.4, γ = 108.0°. Eight protomers are present in the unit cell and three out of five selenomethionines were found in each protomer using the PHENIX software suite. A full structural determination is in progress to elucidate the structure–function relationship of the protein.