2017-04-26The laccase from Steccherinum murashkinskyi is a member of the large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates, accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. The reducing properties of X-ray radiation and the high quality of the laccase crystals allow the study of the catalytic reduction of dioxygen to water directly in a crystal. A series of diffraction data sets with increasing absorbed radiation dose were collected from a single crystal of Steccherinum murashkinskyi laccase at 1.35 Å resolution. Changes in the active-site structure associated with the reduction of molecular oxygen to water on increasing the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation were detected. The structures in the series are mixtures of different states of the enzyme–substrate complex. Nevertheless, it was possible to interpret these structures as complexes of various oxygen ligands with copper ions in different oxidation states. The results allowed the mechanism of oxygen reduction catalyzed by laccases to be refined.
2017-04-19Dengue virus (DENV), which has four serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4), is the causative agent of the viral infection dengue. DENV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) comprises a serine protease domain and an RNA helicase domain which has nucleotide triphosphatase activities that are essential for RNA replication and viral assembly. Here, solution X-ray scattering was used to provide insight into the overall structure and flexibility of the entire NS3 and its recombinant helicase and protease domains for Dengue virus serotypes 2 and 4 in solution. The DENV-2 and DENV-4 NS3 forms are elongated and flexible in solution. The importance of the linker residues in flexibility and domain–domain arrangement was shown by the compactness of the individual protease and helicase domains. Swapping of the 174PPAVP179 linker stretch of the related Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 into DENV-2 NS3 did not alter the elongated shape of the engineered mutant. Conformational alterations owing to RNA binding are described in the protease domain, which undergoes substantial conformational alterations that are required for the optimal catalysis of bound RNA. Finally, the effects of ATPase inhibitors on the enzymatically active DENV-2 and DENV-4 NS3 and the individual helicases are presented, and insight into the allosteric effect of the inhibitor quercetin is provided.
2017-04-26The family B DNA polymerase from Pyrobaculum calidifontis (Pc-polymerase) consists of 783 amino acids and is magnesium-ion dependent. It has an optimal pH of 8.5, an optimal temperature of 75°C and a half-life of 4.5 h at 95°C, giving it greater thermostability than the widely used Taq DNA polymerase. The enzyme is also capable of PCR-amplifying larger DNA fragments of up to 7.5 kb in length. It was shown to have functional, error-correcting 3′–5′ exonuclease activity, as do the related high-fidelity DNA polymerases from Pyrococcus furiosus, Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 and Thermococcus gorgonarius, which have extensive commercial applications. Pc-polymerase has a quite low sequence identity of approximately 37% to these enzymes, which, in contrast, have very high sequence identity to each other, suggesting that the P. calidifontis enzyme is distinct. Here, the structure determination of Pc-polymerase is reported, which has been refined to an R factor of 24.47% and an Rfree of 28.81% at 2.80 Å resolution. The domains of the enzyme are arranged in a circular fashion to form a disc with a narrow central channel. One face of the disc has a number of connected crevices in it, which allow the protein to bind duplex and single-stranded DNA. The central channel is thought to allow incoming nucleoside triphosphates to access the active site. The enzyme has a number of unique structural features which distinguish it from other archaeal DNA polymerases and may account for its high processivity. A model of the complex with the primer-template duplex of DNA indicates that the largest conformational change that occurs upon DNA binding is the movement of the thumb domain, which rotates by 7.6° and moves by 10.0 Å. The surface potential of the enzyme is dominated by acidic groups in the central region of the molecule, where catalytic magnesium ions bind at the polymerase and exonuclease active sites. The outer regions are richer in basic amino acids that presumably interact with the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA. The large number of salt bridges may contribute to the high thermal stability of this enzyme.
2017-04-19Crystal structures of Lactobacillus buchneri isoleucine 2-epimerase, a novel branched-chain amino-acid racemase, were determined for the enzyme in the apo form, in complex with pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), in complex with N-(5′-phosphopyridoxyl)-l-isoleucine (PLP-l-Ile) and in complex with N-(5′-phosphopyridoxyl)-d-allo-isoleucine (PLP-d-allo-Ile) at resolutions of 2.77, 1.94, 2.65 and 2.12 Å, respectively. The enzyme assembled as a tetramer, with each subunit being composed of N-terminal, C-terminal and large PLP-binding domains. The active-site cavity in the apo structure was much more solvent-accessible than that in the PLP-bound structure. This indicates that a marked structural change occurs around the active site upon binding of PLP that provides a solvent-inaccessible environment for the enzymatic reaction. The main-chain coordinates of the L. buchneri isoleucine 2-epimerase monomer showed a notable similarity to those of α-amino-∊-caprolactam racemase from Achromobactor obae and γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase from Escherichia coli. However, the amino-acid residues involved in substrate binding in those two enzymes are only partially conserved in L. buchneri isoleucine 2-epimerase, which may account for the differences in substrate recognition by the three enzymes. The structures bound with reaction-intermediate analogues (PLP-l-Ile and PLP-d-allo-Ile) and site-directed mutagenesis suggest that l-isoleucine epimerization proceeds through abstraction of the α-hydrogen of the substrate by Lys280, while Asp222 serves as the catalytic residue adding an α-hydrogen to the quinonoid intermediate to form d-allo-isoleucine.
2017-04-26Acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) are a family of proteins that facilitate the binding of long-chain acyl-CoA esters at a conserved acyl-CoA-binding domain. ACBPs act to form intracellular acyl-CoA pools, transport acyl-CoA esters and regulate lipid metabolism. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, a family of six ACBPs has been demonstrated to function in stress and development. Six ACBPs (OsACBPs) have also been identified in Oryza sativa (rice), but they are not as well characterized as those in Arabidopsis thaliana. To understand the need in rice for the two 10 kDa ACBPs, namely OsACBP1 and OsACBP2, which share 79% sequence identity, their crystal structures were elucidated and their affinities toward acyl-CoA esters were compared using isothermal titration calorimetry. OsACBP2 was found to display a higher binding affinity for unsaturated acyl-CoA esters than OsACBP1. A difference between the two proteins is observed at helix 3 and is predicted to lead to different ligand-binding modes in terms of the shape of the binding pocket and the residues that are involved. OsACBP1 thus resembles bovine ACBP, while OsACBP2 is similar to human liver ACBP, in both structure and binding affinity. This is the first time that ACBP structures have been reported from plants, and suggests that OsACBP1 and OsACBP2 are not redundant in function despite their high sequence identity and general structural similarity.
2017-04-27A new method called Pepsi-SAXS is presented that calculates small-angle X-ray scattering profiles from atomistic models. The method is based on the multipole expansion scheme and is significantly faster compared with other tested methods. In particular, using the Nyquist–Shannon–Kotelnikov sampling theorem, the multipole expansion order is adapted to the size of the model and the resolution of the experimental data. It is argued that by using the adaptive expansion order, this method has the same quadratic dependence on the number of atoms in the model as the Debye-based approach, but with a much smaller prefactor in the computational complexity. The method has been systematically validated on a large set of over 50 models collected from the BioIsis and SASBDB databases. Using a laptop, it was demonstrated that Pepsi-SAXS is about seven, 29 and 36 times faster compared with CRYSOL, FoXS and the three-dimensional Zernike method in SAStbx, respectively, when tested on data from the BioIsis database, and is about five, 21 and 25 times faster compared with CRYSOL, FoXS and SAStbx, respectively, when tested on data from SASBDB. On average, Pepsi-SAXS demonstrates comparable accuracy in terms of χ2 to CRYSOL and FoXS when tested on BioIsis and SASBDB profiles. Together with a small allowed variation of adjustable parameters, this demonstrates the effectiveness of the method. Pepsi-SAXS is available at http://team.inria.fr/nano-d/software/pepsi-saxs.