2017-01-01This paper presents a general algorithm for generating the isotropy subgroups of superspace extensions of crystallographic space groups involving arbitrary superpositions of multi-k order parameters from incommensurate and commensurate k vectors. Several examples are presented in detail in order to illuminate each step of the algorithm. The practical outcome is that one can now start with any commensurate parent crystal structure and generate a structure model for any conceivable incommensurate modulation of that parent, fully parameterized in terms of order parameters of irreducible representations at the relevant wavevectors. The resulting modulated structures have (3 + d)-dimensional superspace-group symmetry. Because incommensurate structures are now commonly encountered in the context of many scientifically and technologically important functional materials, the opportunity to apply the powerful methods of group representation theory to this broader class of structural distortions is very timely.
2017-01-01Martensitic transformations which play an important role in metallurgical processes are analysed using group–subgroup relations and sphere-packing considerations. This approach is applied to the transformations between body-centred cubic (b.c.c.) and face-centred cubic (f.c.c.) phases and yields the orientation relations according to the Nishiyama–Wassermann, the Kurdjumov–Sachs and the Pitsch mechanisms. The models proposed by Pitsch and Schrader and by Burgers for the transition between b.c.c. and hexagonally closest-packed (h.c.p.) type structures can be interpreted analogously. In addition, two mechanisms for the transition between cubic f.c.c. and h.c.p. structures are described.
2017-01-01Sinusoidal wave type distortions of La0.5Sr1.5MnO4 in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase were observed using multi-beam resonant X-ray diffraction (MRXD) with (7/4 7/4 0) fractional primary diffraction. Two four-beam diffractions with opposite asymmetry were measured at 6.5545 keV and compared with the curves simulated by the dynamical X-ray diffraction theory. This approach provides the possibility of resolving the distortion modes which are perpendicular to the momentum transfer by a single azimuthal scan. The paper also demonstrates the sensitivity of MRXD profiles versus incident X-ray energy in the vicinity of the Mn K edge to the charge disproportion between the two manganese sites, reconfirming the small charge disproportion feature.
2017-01-01The best and most detailed structural information is obtained when the diffraction pattern of a single crystal a few tenths of a millimetre in each dimension is analyzed, but growing high-quality crystals of this size is often difficult, sometimes impossible. However, many crystallization experiments that do not yield single crystals do yield showers of randomly oriented microcrystals that can be exposed to X-rays simultaneously to produce a powder diffraction pattern. Although single-crystal diffraction data consist of discrete spots or X-ray reflections, the diffraction of microcrystals in a powder forms rings so that the reflections overlap. Thus, the analysis is more challenging due to unavoidable errors in the structure-factor amplitudes and the low-resolution data available for structure determination. This paper introduces a constraint-induced phasing method that (i) improves structure solutions measured by success rate, quality of solutions and various figures of merit, and (ii) extends low-resolution powder diffraction data to atomic resolution by adding unmeasured reflections. Application results have shown clearly that the constraint-induced phasing method is an effective way to produce initial structure models that are suitable for further structural refinement and completion.
2017-01-012-Periodic self-dual tilings are important in fields ranging from crystal chemistry to mathematical physics. They have been systematically enumerated using combinatorial tiling theory, and 1, 5 and 62 uninodal, binodal and trinodal self-dual tilings have been found. This paper illustrates all uninodal and binodal self-dual tilings and selected trinodal self-dual tilings. Most of these structures are described for the first time.
2017-01-01The need to reduce a periodic structure given in terms of a large supercell and associated lattice generators arises frequently in different fields of application of crystallography, in particular in the ab initio theoretical modelling of materials at the atomic scale. This paper considers the reduction of crystals and addresses the reduction associated with the existence of a commensurate translation that leaves the crystal invariant, providing a practical scheme for it. The reduction procedure hinges on a convenient integer factorization of the full period of the cycle (or grid) generated by the repeated applications of the invariant translation, and its iterative reduction into sub-cycles, each of which corresponds to a factor in the decomposition of the period. This is done in successive steps, each time solving a Diophantine linear equation by means of a Euclidean reduction algorithm in order to provide the generators of the reduced lattice.
2017-01-01This paper presents an investigation of the reconstructibility of coherent X-ray diffractive imaging diffraction patterns for a class of binary random `bitmap' objects. Combining analytical results and numerical simulations, the critical fluence per bitmap pixel is determined, for arbitrary contrast values (absorption level and phase shift), both for the optical near- and far-field. This work extends previous investigations based on information theory, enabling a comparison of the amount of information carried by single photons in different diffraction regimes. The experimental results show an order-of-magnitude agreement.
2017-01-01The efficient multipurpose figure of merit MPF has been defined and characterized. It may be very helpful in phasing procedures. Indeed, it might be used for establishing the centric or acentric nature of an unknown structure, for identifying the presence of some pseudotranslational symmetry, for recognizing the correct solution in multisolution approaches and for estimating the quality of structure models as they become available during the phasing process. Thus, phase improvement or deterioration may be monitored and useless models may be discarded to save computing time. It is also shown that MPF may be applied in different phasing approaches, no matter if ab initio or non ab initio.
2017-01-01A method of naming any convex polyhedron by a numerical code arising from the adjacency matrix of its edge graph has been previously suggested. A polyhedron can be built using its name. Classes of convex n-acra (i.e. n-vertex polyhedra) are strictly (without overlapping) ordered by their names. In this paper the relationship between the Fedorov algorithm to generate the whole combinatorial variety of convex polyhedra and the above ordering is described. The convex n-acra are weakly ordered by the maximum extra valencies of their vertices. Thus, non-simple n-acra follow the simple ones for any n.