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MedWorm: Diphtheria provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Diphtheria category.

Last Build Date: Fri, 29 May 2015 11:55:37 +0100


Pregnancy Outcomes After Antepartum Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination.

Sun, 24 May 2015 15:34:38 +0100

CONCLUSION: No adverse pregnancy outcomes were identified in association with antepartum Tdap vaccination. This remained true in women receiving more than one Tdap vaccine in a 5-year timeframe. This may be the result of a type II error. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II. PMID: 26000515 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Obstetrics and Gynecology)

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Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis Vaccination Coverage Before, During, and After Pregnancy — 16 States and New York City, 2011

Fri, 22 May 2015 06:22:11 +0100

(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)

Many Pregnant Women Are Not Getting Tdap Vaccine (FREE)

Fri, 22 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

By Cara Adler Edited by André Sofair, MD, MPH Only about half of women received Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis) vaccine around the time of pregnancy in 2011, according to a study in MMWR.Using the … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)

Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis vaccination coverage before, during, and after pregnancy - 16 States and new york city, 2011.

Fri, 22 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This report describes overall and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage around the time of pregnancy using data from 6,852 sampled women who delivered a live-born infant during September-December 2011 in one of 16 states or New York City (NYC). Among the 17 jurisdictions, the median percentage of women with live births who reported any Tdap vaccination was 55.7%, ranging from 38.2% in NYC to 76.6% in Nebraska. The median percentage who received Tdap before pregnancy was 13.9% (range = 7.7%-20.1%), during pregnancy was 9.8% (range = 3.8%-14.2%), and after delivery was 30.9% (range = 13.6%-46.5%). The PRAMS data indicate a wide variation in Tdap vaccination coverage among demographic groups, with generally higher postpartum coverage for non-Hispanic white women, those who started pr...

Antioxidant treatment normalizes mitochondrial energetics and myocardial insulin sensitivity independently of changes in systemic metabolic homeostasis in a mouse model of the metabolic syndrome

Thu, 21 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This study tested the hypothesis that ROS scavenging will improve mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity in the hearts of rodent models with varying degrees of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. The catalytic antioxidant MnTBAP was administered to the uncoupling protein-diphtheria toxin A (UCP-DTA) mouse model of insulin resistance (IR) and obesity, at early and late time points in the evolution of IR, and to db/db mice with severe obesity and type-two diabetes. (Source: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology)

Isolation of a Non-Toxigenic Strain in a Patient with Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Sun, 17 May 2015 02:22:32 +0100

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a nonsporulating, nonencapsulated, nonmotile, pleomorphic, Gram-positive bacillus that displays a characteristic morphology resembling “Chinese characters” on Gram stain examination. It is the etiologic agent of diphtheria, an upper respiratory tract disease with high morbidity and mortality rates, especially among children. Once considered a major worldwide health problem, today diphtheria is almost a forgotten disease because of the high rates of worldwide immunization practices using the toxoid vaccine. (Source: Clinical Microbiology Newsletter)

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An Open-Label, Randomized Study of a 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Given Concomitantly with Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis and Poliomyelitis Vaccines to Healthy Adolescents 11–15 Years of Age

Sat, 16 May 2015 13:05:25 +0100

Conclusion: Overall, concomitant administration of 9vHPV vaccine and REPEVAX was generally well tolerated and did not interfere with the immune response to either vaccine. This strategy would minimize the number of visits required to deliver each vaccine individually. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)

Evidence of Herd Immunity and Sustained Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination on the Reduction of Rotavirus-Related Medical Encounters Among Infants from 2006 through 2011 in the United States

Sat, 16 May 2015 13:05:23 +0100

Conclusions: Analysis of a national medical claims database indicates a sustained and substantial decrease in the seasonal RV medical claims pattern after the introduction of RVV. This analysis also reveals evidence of herd immunity, although unvaccinated infants continue to be at risk and contribute to smaller seasonal peaks in RV disease activity. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)

TDM Journal Club: Safety and Immunogenicity of Tetanus Diphtheria and Acellular Pertussis Immunization During Pregnancy

Fri, 15 May 2015 10:05:50 +0100

No abstract available (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)

Immunogenicity and safety of the new reduced-dose tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine in healthy Korean adolescents: A comparative active control, double-blind, randomized, multicenter phase III study

Fri, 15 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion The new Td vaccine is highly immunogenic and safe, and this new Td vaccine can be effectively used for preventing diphtheria and tetanus. (Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection)

Novel Furin Inhibitors with Potent Anti-infectious Activity.

Thu, 14 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Hardes K, Becker GL, Lu Y, Dahms SO, Köhler S, Beyer W, Sandvig K, Yamamoto H, Lindberg I, Walz L, von Messling V, Than ME, Garten W, Steinmetzer T Abstract New peptidomimetic furin inhibitors with unnatural amino acid residues in the P3 position were synthesized. The most potent compound 4-guanidinomethyl-phenylacteyl-Arg-Tle-Arg-4-amidinobenzylamide (MI-1148) inhibits furin with a Ki value of 5.5 pM. The derivatives also strongly inhibit PC1/3, whereas PC2 is less affected. Selected inhibitors were tested in cell culture for antibacterial and antiviral activity against infectious agents known to be dependent on furin activity. A significant protective effect against anthrax and diphtheria toxin was observed in the presence of the furin inhibitors. Furthermore, the spr...

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Video Shows How 'Immunization Gap' Leaves Many Children At Risk. Here's How You Can Help

Tue, 12 May 2015 13:42:20 +0100

It's a sentence no mother wants to hear when her child's health is at stake: "Sorry, we've run out of vaccines." But it's a bleak reality many families in the developing world face. In the video above produced by UNICEF, the humanitarian group points out that roughly one out of every five children around the world lacks access to vaccinations. This "immunization gap" is evident in the fictional narrative played out in the video, which follows two South African mothers with their young ones. One of the babies -- whose mother lives in a nice neighborhood, has enough money to drive her own vehicle and visits a private doctor -- is able to get vaccinated. The other -- whose mother has no personal mode of transportation and is forced to wait in an overcrowded clinic to access medical atte...

Chorioamnionitis following vaccination in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System.

Mon, 11 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: Chorioamnionitis was found to be uncommonly reported, representing 1% of pregnancy reports to VAERS. A majority of reports had at least one risk factor for chorioamnionitis. PMID: 25976546 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)

Meningococcal Carriage Among Georgia and Maryland High School Students

Sat, 09 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions. Meningococcal carriage rates in US high school students were lower than expected, and the vast majority of strains did not express capsule. These findings may help explain the historically low incidence of meningococcal disease in the United States. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Cd11b+ myeloid cells support hepatic metastasis through down‐regulation of angiopoietin‐like 7 in cancer cells

Wed, 06 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Myeloid cells promote liver metastasis by down‐regulating ANGPTL7 expression in cancer cells; our findings implicate ANGPTL7 as a mediator of metastatic progression and a potential target for interference with liver metastases. (Hepatology 2015) (Source: Hepatology)

Conditional cell ablation via diphtheria toxin reveals distinct requirements for the basal plate in the regional identity of diencephalic subpopulations

Wed, 06 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: genesis)

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Central serotonergic neurons activate and recruit thermogenic brown and beige fat and regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis.

Tue, 05 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: McGlashon JM, Gorecki MC, Kozlowski AE, Thirnbeck CK, Markan KR, Leslie KL, Kotas ME, Potthoff MJ, Richerson GB, Gillum MP Abstract Thermogenic brown and beige adipocytes convert chemical energy to heat by metabolizing glucose and lipids. Serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the CNS are essential for thermoregulation and accordingly may control metabolic activity of thermogenic fat. To test this, we generated mice in which the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) was selectively expressed in central 5-HT neurons. Treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT) eliminated 5-HT neurons and caused loss of thermoregulation, brown adipose tissue (BAT) steatosis, and a >50% decrease in uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) expression in BAT and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT). In parallel, blood glu...

Effectiveness of Tdap Vaccine in Adolescents Wanes with Time (FREE)

Mon, 04 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

By Kelly Young Edited by Susan Sadoughi, MD For adolescents, protection against pertussis wanes within 2 to 4 years of receiving the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, according to a case-control study in … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)

Regulation of inflammation and fibrosis by macrophages in lymphedema

Fri, 01 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Lymphedema, a common complication of cancer treatment, is characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, and adipose deposition. We have previously shown that macrophage infiltration is increased in mouse models of lymphedema. Because macrophages are regulators of lymphangiogenesis and fibrosis, this study aimed to determine the role of these cells in lymphedema using depletion experiments. Matched biopsy specimens of normal and lymphedema tissues were obtained from patients with unilateral upper extremity breast cancer-related lymphedema, and macrophage accumulation was assessed using immunohistochemistry. In addition, we used a mouse tail model of lymphedema to quantify macrophage accumulation and analyze outcomes of conditional macrophage depletion. Histological analysis of clinical lymphedem...

Use New AAFP Resource to Encourage Tdap Vaccination for Pregnant Patients

Wed, 29 Apr 2015 16:23:00 +0100

The AAFP has created a resource to inform and remind family physicians about recommending tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine to pregnant women during every pregnancy. (Source: AAFP News)

Use AAFP Resource to Encourage Tdap Vaccination in Pregnancy

Wed, 29 Apr 2015 16:23:00 +0100

The AAFP has created a resource to inform and remind family physicians about recommending tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine to pregnant women during every pregnancy. (Source: AAFP News)

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Impact of Health Insurance Status on Vaccination Coverage Among Adult Populations

Wed, 29 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Overall, vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥18 years is lower among uninsured populations. Implementation of effective strategies is needed to help improve vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥18 years, especially those without health insurance. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)

Identification of diphtheria toxin R domain mutants with enhanced inhibitory activity against HB-EGF

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), a ligand of EGF receptor, is involved in the growth and malignant progression of cancers. Cross-reacting material 197, CRM197, a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (DT), specifically binds to the EGF-like domain of HB-EGF and inhibits its mitogenic activity, thus CRM197 is currently under evaluation in clinical trials for cancer therapy. To develop more potent DT mutants than CRM197, we screened various mutant proteins of R domain of DT, the binding site for HB-EGF. A variety of R-domain mutant proteins fused with maltose-binding protein were produced and their inhibitory activity was evaluated in vitro. We found four R domain mutants that showed much higher inhibitory activity against HB-EGF than wild-type (WT) R domai...

Diphtheria-toxin based anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin for targeting human CCR4 cells

Sat, 25 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

In this study we have successfully developed three versions of diphtheria-toxin based anti-human CCR4 immunotoxins (monovalent, bivalent and single-chain fold-back diabody). (Source: Molecular Oncology)

Divalent toxoids loaded stable chitosan–glucomannan nanoassemblies for efficient systemic, mucosal and cellular immunostimulatory response following oral administration

Fri, 24 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 20 June 2015 Source:International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 487, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Harshad Harde , Krupa Siddhapura , Ashish Kumar Agrawal , Sanyog Jain The present study reports dual tetanus and diphtheria toxoids loaded stable chitosan–glucomannan nanoassemblies (sCh–GM-NAs) formulated using tandem ionic gelation technique for oral mucosal immunization. The stable, lyophilized sCh–GM-NAs exhibited ~152nm particle size and ~85% EE of both the toxoids. The lyophilized sCh–GM-NAs displayed excellent stability in biomimetic media and preserved chemical, conformation and biological stability of encapsulated toxoids. The higher intracellular APCs uptake of sCh–GM-NAs was concentration and time dependent which may be attributed to the receptor mediated...

Thioredoxin reductase inhibitor auranofin prevents membrane transport of diphtheria toxin into the cytosol and protects human cells from intoxication.

Fri, 24 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Schnell L, Dmochewitz-Kück L, Feigl P, Montecucco C, Barth H Abstract During cellular uptake, diphtheria toxin delivers its catalytic domain DTA from acidified endosomes into the cytosol, which requires reduction of the disulfide linking DTA to the transport domain. In vitro, thioredoxin reduces this disulfide and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is part of a cytosolic complex facilitating DTA-translocation. We found that the TrxR-specific inhibitor auranofin prevented DTA delivery into the cytosol and intoxication of HeLa cells with diphtheria toxin, offering perspectives for novel pharmacological strategies against diphtheria. PMID: 25911959 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicon)

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Global vaccination targets ‘off-track’ warns WHO

Tue, 21 Apr 2015 16:22:42 +0100

22 April 2015 | GENEVA – Progress towards global vaccination targets for 2015 is far off track with 1 in 5 children still missing out on routine life-saving immunizations that could avert 1.5 million deaths each year from preventable diseases. In the lead-up to World Immunization Week 2015 (24 -30 April), the World Health Organization (WHO) is calling for renewed efforts to get progress back on course. In 2013 nearly 22 million infants missed out on the required three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccines (DTP3), many of them living in the world’s poorest countries. WHO is calling for an end to the unnecessary disability and death caused by failure to vaccinate. (Source: WHO news)

By 2020, The Most Common HPV-Related Cancer Will Affect Men

Mon, 20 Apr 2015 11:59:18 +0100

While currently recommended for both boys and girls, the HPV vaccine was initially marketed -- and is still thought of -- as a way to protect young women and girls from cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancer. Boys, it's been commonly thought, should be vaccinated primarily to benefit herd immunity and any future female partners. But a new analysis from researchers at the Princess Margaret Cancer Center in Toronto, Canada, points out that boys who get the vaccine receive important protection as well, not only against genital warts, but against HPV strains that cause oropharyngeal (mouth and throat) cancer. "We believe this study is important because HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer has increased significantly in incidence, especially in developed countries," said Dr. Donna Graham, one of the...

Determination of the presence of diphtheria toxin in the myocardial tissue of rabbits and a female subject by using an immunofluorescent antibody method.

Mon, 20 Apr 2015 10:18:08 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory diagnosis of diphtheria is challenging because of non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains and/or the dysfunction of DT. However, visualizing the presence of DT in the myocardial tissue may act as an indicator of biologically active DT. We validated that an immunofluorescent method, which utilizes a monoclonal anti-DT (A-subunit specific) antibody, is a useful diagnostic tool to determine the presence of DT in the myocardium of rabbits and human. PMID: 25883712 [PubMed] (Source: Clin Med Res)

Cellobiose-coated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) particles loaded with diphtheria toxoid for per os immunization.

Mon, 20 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the correct dose of PLGA-cellobiose particles loaded with antigen could significantly increase the humoral immune response against the introduced antigen already after the first immunization. Thus, PLGA particles can be considered as a potent component of oral vaccines. PMID: 25891867 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Croatian Medical Journal)

Strategies for addressing vaccine hesitancy - A systematic review.

Fri, 17 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Jarrett C, Wilson R, O'Leary M, Eckersberger E, Larson HJ, SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy Abstract The purpose of this systematic review is to identify, describe and assess the potential effectiveness of strategies to respond to issues of vaccine hesitancy that have been implemented and evaluated across diverse global contexts. METHODS: A systematic review of peer reviewed (January 2007-October 2013) and grey literature (up to October 2013) was conducted using a broad search strategy, built to capture multiple dimensions of public trust, confidence and hesitancy concerning vaccines. This search strategy was applied and adapted across several databases and organizational websites. Descriptive analyses were undertaken for 166 (peer reviewed) and 15 (grey literat...

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Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a decennial booster dose of a combined reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus booster vaccine (dTpa-IPV) in healthy adults.

Mon, 13 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: A booster dose of dTpa-IPV was immunogenic and well tolerated in adults who had received a booster dose of either dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV or Td-IPV, ten years previously and supports the repeated administration of dTpa-IPV. PMID: 25882172 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)

Strategies for Increasing Adolescent Immunizations in Diverse Ethnic Communities

Thu, 09 Apr 2015 01:53:17 +0100

We sought to identify attitudes and knowledge of adolescent vaccination recommendations for tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap); quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate (MCV4); and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines among Hispanic, Somali, and Ethiopian/Eritrean communities in King County, Washington. (Source: Journal of Adolescent Health)

Interventions to Improve Adolescent Vaccination Coverage

Thu, 09 Apr 2015 01:53:12 +0100

The expansion of the recommended immunization schedule for adolescents to include tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap), meningococcal conjugate, human papillomavirus (HPV), and annual influenza vaccines [1–5] has given health care providers safe and effective tools to protect adolescents' health and prevent serious, sometimes life-threatening diseases. When these vaccines were first introduced, there was concern about challenges to vaccinating the adolescent population [6]. However, given the high vaccination coverage levels obtained for infants and young children, achieving similar success with the adolescent population seemed possible. (Source: Journal of Adolescent Health)

The History of Pertussis (Whooping Cough); 1906–2015: Facts, Myths, and Misconceptions

Wed, 08 Apr 2015 21:21:33 +0100

Abstract Pertussis and Bordetella pertussis infections since 1906 are reviewed with an attempt to address facts, myths, and misconceptions. Clinical pertussis is a noninflammatory illness which occurs without fever or productive cough, and its hallmark is the distinctive paroxysmal cough. Because of its significant mortality and morbidity, whole-cell vaccines were developed in the 1930s, and the universal use of these vaccines decreased the incidence of reported pertussis 157-fold by 1970. Because of real and perceived reactions to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP) vaccines, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) vaccines were developed and put into universal use in the USA in 1997. Pertussis has two epidemiologie...

Why Target Vaccines?

Wed, 08 Apr 2015 01:22:38 +0100

Anti-vaccination campaigners have reached the forefront of the news. When a public health issue has reached the Jimmy Kimmel show, you know that it has reached the "big time." Seth Mnookin wrote the book The Panic Virus: The True Story of the Vaccine-Autism Controversy. Both Kimmel and Mnookin mentioned Jenny McCarthy, who has been quite vocal about her concerns about vaccines. More measles outbreaks have occurred in the past year than in the past decade, with the majority occurring among unvaccinated children. Buzzfeed asked vaccine expert Kate O'Brien of the International Vaccine Access Center (IVAC) at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health to comment on the safety and utility of vaccines. A mother's angry Facebook post about anti-vaccine campaigners went viral. Someone eve...

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CD11b+ myeloid cells support hepatic metastasis through downregulation of Angiopoietin‐like 7 in cancer cells

Wed, 08 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Myeloid cells promote liver metastasis by downregulating ANGPTL7 expression in cancer cells. Our findings implicate ANGPTL7 as a mediator of metastatic progression and a potential target for interference with liver metastases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Hepatology)

Selective depletion of T regulatory cells reduces but does not eliminate the ability of glatiramer acetate to ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (P2.192)

Wed, 08 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: GA induces elevation of Tregs. Selective depletion of Tregs reduces but does not eliminate the ability of GA to ameliorate EAE. These findings support the role of Tregs, but not in an exclusive fashion, in the therapeutic effect of GA. Study Supported by: TevaDisclosure: Dr. Aharoni has received research support from Teva Neuroscience. Dr. Tali has nothing to disclose. Dr. Shakhar has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sela has received royalty payments from Teva Neuroscience. Dr. Arnon has received royalty payments from Teva. (Source: Neurology)

IL32γ activates natural killer receptor-expressing innate immune cells to produce IFNγ via dendritic cell-derived IL12.

Mon, 06 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Lee SW, Park HJ, Lee KS, Park SH, Kim S, Jeon SH, Hong S Abstract The inflammatory cytokine IL32γ acts on dendritic cells (DCs) to produce IL12 and IL6, which are involved in the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells. Natural killer (NK) and NKT cells play important roles in IL12-mediated adaptive immune responses, such as antitumor immunity. Herein we demonstrate the effect of IL32γ on the activation of NK and NKT cells. Upon IL32γ stimulation, splenic NK and NKT cells could be activated, and this activation was dependent on both IL12 and DCs, which was confirmed by using IL12p35 KO and CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mouse models. Furthermore, IL32γ could induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines by NKDCs, a subset of DCs expressing NK cell marker...

Role of Lgr5-positive cells in colorectal cancer

Fri, 03 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract The molecular regulation of the growth of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells is not completely understood. Here, we report expression of Lgr5, a stem cell marker for the intestine and hair follicle, in some of the CRC cells in the patients. To determine the role of Lgr5-positive cells in the tumorigenesis of CRCs, we prepared an adeno-associated virus (AAV) that carries diphtheria toxin fragment A (DTA) under the control of Lgr5 promoter (AAV-pLgr5-DTA). Transduction of several CRC cell lines with this virus selectively killed Lgr5-positive cells, resulting in significant inhibition of the CRC cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our data highlight a potential role of Lgr5-positive cells in the tumorigenesis of CRCs, and suggest that treating these Lgr5-positive cells in CR...

QUADRACEL (Diphtheria And Tetanus Toxoids And Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed And Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine) Injection, Suspension [Sanofi Pasteur Inc.]

Thu, 02 Apr 2015 05:00:00 +0100

Updated Date: Apr 2, 2015 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))

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Chimeric Fusion Proteins Used for Therapy: Indications, Mechanisms, and Safety

Thu, 02 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Chimeric fusion proteins, produced by genetic engineering, are currently made up of effector peptides, for example, a ligand-binding portion of a cytokine or growth factor, extracellular domains of lymphocyte antigens, or a toxin linked to a suitable fusion partner. This review covers eight fusion proteins that have received regulatory approval for human therapy: etanercept, belatacept, abatacept, alefacept, rilonacept, romiplostim, aflibercept, and denileukin-diftitox. Important requirements for an effective fusion protein are effective targeting and binding, cytotoxicity, and a stable molecule with an extended half-life. The Fc region of human IgG1 is generally chosen as the fusion partner for the effector molecule(s) because it extends the fusion protein half-life by r...

Mature oligodendrocytes actively increase in vivo cytoskeletal plasticity following CNS damage

Thu, 02 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Mature oligodendrocytes acutely increase their cytoskeletal plasticity in vivo during demyelination. They are therefore not passive players under demyelinating conditions but can rather react dynamically to external insults. (Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation)

XAV939-Mediated ARTD Activity Inhibition in Human MB Cell Lines

Thu, 02 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, our in vitro data show that XAV939 could be a very promising small molecule in MB treatment, and these results lay the basis for further in vivo studies with the aim of improving the current therapy available for MB patients. (Source: PLoS One)

Immunotherapy: Primed for a response

Thu, 02 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Nature Reviews Cancer 15, 258 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrc3945 Author: Sarah Seton-Rogers The efficacy of dendritic cell vaccines can be improved in patients with glioblastoma by pre-conditioning the vaccine site with the tetanus/diphtheria toxoid. (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

Correlation Between Pediatrician Supply and Public Health in Japan as Evidenced by Vaccination Coverage in 2010: Secondary Data Analysis.

Wed, 01 Apr 2015 10:06:04 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Policies increasing pediatrician supply contribute to improved preventive healthcare services utilization, such as immunizations, and presumably improved child health status in Japan. PMID: 25817986 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Epidemiology)

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13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13) in Preterm Versus Term Infants

Wed, 01 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Immune responses were lower in preterm infants than in term infants. However, the majority of subjects in both groups achieved both pneumococcal serotype-specific IgG antibody levels after the infant series that exceeded the World Health Organization–established threshold of protection and functional antibody responses. Responses were uniformly higher after TD, reinforcing the importance of a timely booster dose. PCV13 was well tolerated regardless of gestational age. (Source: PEDIATRICS)

Towards small molecule inhibitors of mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases.

Wed, 01 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Ekblad T, Lindgren AE, Andersson CD, Caraballo R, Thorsell AG, Karlberg T, Spjut S, Linusson A, Schüler H, Elofsson M Abstract Protein ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification involved in DNA repair, protein degradation, transcription regulation, and epigenetic events. Intracellular ADP-ribosylation is catalyzed predominantly by ADP-ribosyltransferases with diphtheria toxin homology (ARTDs). The most prominent member of the ARTD family, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (ARTD1/PARP1) has been a target for cancer drug development for decades. Current PARP inhibitors are generally non-selective, and inhibit the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases with low potency. Here we describe the synthesis of acylated amino benzamides and screening against the mono-ADP-ribosyltransfe...

Adolescent immunization: 2015 and beyond.

Wed, 01 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Suryadevara M, Paton L, Domachowske JB Abstract In the last decade, the approach to adolescent immunizations has changed substantially. At ages 11 or 12 years, routine administration of four vaccines-a tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap) booster, the first of two doses of quadrivalent conjugate meningococcal vaccine (MCV4), a three-dose series of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, and an annual influenza vaccine-are now recommended. Vaccine uptake is easily tracked in the office setting using electronic medical records, whereas national data for teens have been tracked through the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-teen) since 2005. In 2013, NIS-teen demonstrated that Tdap and MCV4 uptake are robust, whereas HPV vaccine coverage lags behind substantially. Efforts to...

Effects of different Chinese herbal prescriptions on cytokines in au- toimmune prostatitis rats.

Wed, 01 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: Therefore, in TCM treatment of autoimmune prostatitis, different treatment methods should select different doses. For prescriptions that clear heat and remove toxicity, low doses should be used. For prescriptions that promote blood circulation to remove blood stasis and for prescriptions that disperse stagnated liver-Qi, high doses should be used. PMID: 25975055 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine)

Immunization Coverage and Its Determinants Among Children Born in 2008-2009 by Questionnaire Survey in Zhejiang, China

Tue, 31 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

The study aimed to assess the determinants of immunization coverage in children born in 2008-2009, living in Zhejiang Province. The World Health Organization’s cluster sampling technique was applied. Immunization coverage of 5 vaccines was assessed: BCG vaccine, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine, poliomyelitis vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine, and measles-containing vaccine. Determinants for age-appropriate immunization coverage rates were explored using logistic regression models. Immunization coverage of 5 vaccines were all greater than 90%, but the age-appropriate immunization coverage rates for 3 months and for first dose of measles-containing vaccine was 41.3% and 64.5%, respectively. Siblings in household, mother’s education level, household registration, s...

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Seroprevalence of Antibody Against Diphtheria Among the Population in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand

Tue, 31 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

To assess diphtheria immunity in the northeastern region of Thailand, a seroepidemiological survey was undertaken in 2011 from 516 healthy individuals (age range 2-87 years) in Khon Kaen province. Diphtheria antitoxin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and titers of ≥0.1 IU/mL were considered to be protective antitoxin levels. Among the studied population, 94.8% have fully protective levels. The younger population (age range 2-19 years) has higher diphtheria immunity with seroprotection rates of 96.8% to 97.9%, compared with the adult population. The proportion of protective diphtheria antitoxin levels declines to 88.3% to 91.9% in the middle-aged group (20-50 years), and appeared to be higher again in the older age-group (50-70 years). To avoid epidemic spreading...

Sialic Acid–Binding Immunoglobulin‐Type Lectin H–Positive Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Drive Spontaneous Lupus‐like Disease Development in B6.Nba2 Mice

Fri, 27 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionThe development of lupus‐like disease in congenic B6.Nba2 mice depends on Siglec H–positive pDCs. We suggest that depletion of Siglec H–positive pDCs represents a novel cellular target in SLE. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)

Effects of a health information system data quality intervention on concordance in Mozambique: time-series analyses from 2009–2012

Thu, 26 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: A data quality intervention was associated with significant improvements in health information system data concordance across public-sector health facilities in rural and urban Mozambique. Concordance was higher at those facilities with more human resources for health and was associated with fewer clinic-level stock-outs of essential medicines. Increased investments should be made in data audit and feedback activities alongside targeted efforts to improve HIS data in low- and middle-income countries. (Source: Population Health Metrics)

Human hepatic stem cells transplanted into a fulminant hepatic failure Alb-TRECK/SCID mouse model exhibit liver reconstitution and drug metabolism capabilities

Thu, 26 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Our model of a humanized liver in Alb-TRECK/SCID mice may provide for functional applications such as drug metabolism, drug to drug interactions, and promote other in vivo and in vitro studies. (Source: Stem Cell Research and Therapy)

Sanofi Pasteur’s Quadracel approved to treat children between the ages of four and six

Thu, 26 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Sanofi Pasteur has received approval from US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its Quadracel (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Absorbed and Inactivated Poliovirus; DTaP-IPV) vaccine. (Source: Pharmaceutical Technology)

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Needle-Free Dermal Delivery of Diphtheria Toxin CRM197 Mutant on Potassium-Doped Hydroxyapatite Microparticles.

Wed, 25 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Weissmueller NT, Schiffter HA, Carlisle RC, Rollier CS, Pollard AJ Abstract Injections with hypodermic needle and syringe (HNS) are the current standard of care globally, but the use of needles is not without limitation. While a plethora of needle-free injection devices exist, vaccine reformulation is costly and presents a barrier to their widespread clinical application. To provide a simple, needle-free, and broad-spectrum protein antigen delivery platform, we developed novel potassium-doped hydroxyapatite (K-Hap) microparticles with improved protein loading capabilities that can provide sustained local antigen presentation and release. K-Hap showed increased protein adsorption over regular hydroxyapatite (p < 0.001), good structural retention of the model antigen (CRM...

Global Biochemical Profiling Identifies {beta}-Hydroxypyruvate as a Potential Mediator of Type 2 Diabetes in Mice and Humans

Tue, 24 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and GLP-1 are incretins secreted by respective K and L enteroendocrine cells after eating and amplify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This amplification has been termed the "incretin response." To determine the role(s) of K cells for the incretin response and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), diphtheria toxin–expressing (DT) mice that specifically lack GIP-producing cells were backcrossed five to eight times onto the diabetogenic NONcNZO10/Ltj background. As in humans with T2DM, DT mice lacked an incretin response, although GLP-1 release was maintained. With high-fat (HF) feeding, DT mice remained lean but developed T2DM, whereas wild-type mice developed obesity but not diabetes. Metabolomics identified biochemicals refle...

Crystal Structure of PARP13 PARP Homology Domain [Enzymology]

Fri, 20 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

The mammalian poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family includes ADP-ribosyltransferases with diphtheria toxin homology (ARTD). Most members have mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PARP13/ARTD13, also called zinc finger antiviral protein, has roles in viral immunity and microRNA-mediated stress responses. PARP13 features a divergent PARP homology domain missing a PARP consensus sequence motif; the domain has enigmatic functions and apparently lacks catalytic activity. We used x-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics simulations, and biochemical analyses to investigate the structural requirements for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in human PARP13 and two of its functional partners in stress granules: PARP12/ARTD12, and PARP15/BAL3/ARTD7. The crystal structure of the PARP homology domai...

Resimmune-an anti-CD3ε recombinant immunotoxin induces durable remissions in cutaneous T cell lymphoma patients.

Fri, 20 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Frankel AE, Woo JH, Ahn C, Foss FM, Duvic M, Neville PH, Neville DM Abstract Resimmune is a second generation recombinant immunotoxin composed of the catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to two single chain antibody fragments reactive with the extracellular domain of CD3ϵ. 25 cutaneous T cell lymphoma patients, 3 peripheral T cell lymphoma patients, and 1 T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia patient and 1 T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia patient received 15 minute i.v. infusions of Resimmune 2.5 - 11.25μg/kg in an inter-patient dose escalation trial. The most common adverse events were fever, chills, hypotension, edema, hypoalbuminemia, hypophosphatemia, and transaminasemia. Among 25 CTCL patients, there were nine responses for a response rat...

The Changing Politics and Consistent Science of Vaccinations

Thu, 19 Mar 2015 22:04:56 +0100

The recent outbreak of measles in the United States launched a national debate on vaccinations that has spread rapidly throughout the media and even involved some of the likely 2016 presidential candidates. A Gallup survey and other recent developments make clear that it's a public discussion that we need to continue. The Gallup survey, released earlier this month, revealed that "a slight majority of Americans, 54%, say it is extremely important that parents get their children vaccinated, down from the 64% who held this belief 14 years ago. Another 30% call it 'very important' - unchanged from 2001." That 10 percent drop should be a major concern, as should the fact that a slim majority of Americans understand how important vaccinations are. As a physician and medical researcher who has...

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MUC1 Diphtheria Toxin A Therapy

Wed, 18 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Mucin1 (MUC1) is overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and is associated with tumor aggressiveness, suggesting that MUC1 is a promising therapeutic target for promoter-driven diphtheria toxin A (DTA). Endogenous MUC1 transcript levels were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in multiple PDA cells (Capan1, HPAFII, Su.86.86, Capan2, Hs766T, MiaPaCa2, and Panc1). Expression levels were correlated with luciferase activity and cell death after transfection with MUC1 promoter–driven luciferase and DTA constructs. MUC1-positive (+) cells had significantly elevated MUC1 mRNA expression compared with MUC1-negative (–) cells. Luciferase activity was significantly higher in MUC1+ cells when transfected with MUC1 promoter–driven luciferase and MUC1+ cells underwent ...

All teens should be vaccinated against rare strain of meningitis

Mon, 16 Mar 2015 12:00:00 +0100

"A vaccination for meningitis is to be offered to all 14-18 year-olds in England and Wales, after a spike in a rare strain of the disease," The Guardian reports. The strain – meningitis W (MenW) – is described as rare, but life-threatening. There has been a year-on-year increase in the number of meningitis cases caused by MenW since 2009, and infection has been associated with particularly severe disease and high fatality rates in teenagers and young adults. The increasing trend looks set to continue unless action is taken, so the government’s Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI), the body that advises on vaccination for England and Wales, has advised that immunisation against MenW should be routinely offered to all 14 to 18 year-olds.   What is meningit...

Effective Equine Immunization Protocol for Production of Potent Poly-specific Antisera against Calloselasma rhodostoma, Cryptelytrops albolabris and Daboia siamensis

Mon, 16 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

by Sompong Sapsutthipas, Poh Kuan Leong, Surasak Akesowan, Ronachai Pratanaphon, Nget Hong Tan, Kavi Ratanabanangkoon Snake envenomation has been estimated to affect 1.8 million people annually with about 94,000 deaths mostly in poor tropical countries. Specific antivenoms are the only rational and effective therapy for these cases. Efforts are being made to produce effective, affordable and sufficient antivenoms for these victims. The immunization process, which has rarely been described in detail, is one step that needs to be rigorously studied and improved especially with regard to the production of polyspecific antisera. The polyspecific nature of therapeutic antivenom could obviate the need to identify the culprit snake species. The aim of this study was to produce potent polyspecifi...

Phase I Study of a Bispecific Ligand-Directed Toxin Targeting CD22 and CD19 (DT2219) for Refractory B-cell Malignancies.

Sun, 15 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: We have determined the safety of a novel immunotoxin DT2219 and established its biologically active dose between 40 and 80 μg/kg/day ×4. A phase II study exploring repetitive courses of DT2219 is planned. Clin Cancer Res; 21(6); 1267-72. ©2015 AACR. PMID: 25770294 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Cancer Research)

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Genetically engineered immunotoxin shows early promise in patients with B-cell malignancies

Fri, 13 Mar 2015 12:36:21 +0100

DT2219, a new bispecific ligand-directed diphtheria toxin, was found to be safe and clinically effective in a small group of patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell malignancies, according to phase I clinical trial data. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)

Implementation of pertussis immunization in health-care personnel.

Fri, 13 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive efforts were needed to achieve pertussis immunization coverage of ≥49% among all HCP in our institution. Good tolerability of the vaccine and continuous and individual information to HCP about the rationale and benefits of pertussis immunization contributed to this partial success, but increased efforts are needed to mobilize non-responding HCP. PMID: 25776922 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)

A Simple Tetanus Vaccine Could Help Treat The Most Common And Deadly Brain Tumor

Thu, 12 Mar 2015 16:09:01 +0100

NEW YORK (AP) — Can a tetanus shot help treat brain cancer? A small study hints that it might. A dose of tetanus vaccine let patients live longer when added to an experimental treatment for the most common and deadly kind of brain tumor, researchers report. It "put the immune system on high alert," paving the way for the experimental treatment to work better in attacking the disease, said researcher Kristen Batich of the Duke University Medical Center. In a paper released Wednesday by the journal Nature, she and others describe a study of 12 patients. Some who got the tetanus shot lived years longer than those who didn't. Dr. John Sampson of Duke, senior author of the report, called the results promising but noted the study was small, and said bigger studies are needed to confirm the...

Woman with brain cancer has survived for 9 years thanks to vaccine

Thu, 12 Mar 2015 11:26:28 +0100

Sandy Hillburn, 68, from New Jersey, was offered a slot in an experimental study at Duke University involving adding the tetanus-diphtheria vaccine to a new treatment for glioblastoma. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

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Tetanus toxoid and CCL3 improve dendritic cell vaccines in mice and glioblastoma patients

Wed, 11 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Duane A. Mitchell, Kristen A. Batich, Michael D. Gunn, Min-Nung Huang, Luis Sanchez-Perez, Smita K. Nair, Kendra L. Congdon, Elizabeth A. Reap, Gary E. Archer, Annick Desjardins, Allan H. Friedman, Henry S. Friedman, James E. Herndon II, April Coan, Roger E. McLendon, David A. Reardon, James J. Vredenburgh, Darell D. Bigner & John H. Sampson After stimulation, dendritic cells (DCs) mature and migrate to draining lymph nodes to induce immune responses. As such, autologous DCs generated ex vivo have been pulsed with tumour antigens and injected back into patients as immunotherapy. While DC vaccines have shown limited promise in the treatment of patients with advanced cancers including glioblastoma, the factors dictating DC vaccine efficacy remain poorly understood. Here we ...

The effect of intervention on vaccination rates in children with diabetes: a controlled interventional study

Tue, 10 Mar 2015 23:02:35 +0100

Abstract Aim of this study was to investigate the vaccination status and to determine the effect of intervention (recommendation of vaccination) on vaccine coverage in diabetic patients. One hundred sxty-three diabetic children (diabetic group) and 68 children with chronic liver disease (control group) were enrolled. Seroprevalance of hepatitis B, hepatitis A, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella infections were evaluated in diabetic group. The intervention was performed as vaccine recommendation to those in diabetic group who were determined to have missed any of the vaccinations that should have been received and who were seronegative against mentioned infections. Vaccination rates before and after the intervention in diabetic group were as follows: hepatitis B (98.8 vs 98.8 ...

Tetanus toxoid and CCL3 improve dendritic cell vaccines in mice and glioblastoma patients

Tue, 10 Mar 2015 09:30:24 +0100

Nature advance online publication 11 March 2015. doi:10.1038/nature14320 Authors: Duane A. Mitchell, Kristen A. Batich, Michael D. Gunn, Min-Nung Huang, Luis Sanchez-Perez, Smita K. Nair, Kendra L. Congdon, Elizabeth A. Reap, Gary E. Archer, Annick Desjardins, Allan H. Friedman, Henry S. Friedman, James E. Herndon II, April Coan, Roger E. McLendon, David A. Reardon, James J. Vredenburgh, Darell D. Bigner & John H. Sampson After stimulation, dendritic cells (DCs) mature and migrate to draining lymph nodes to induce immune responses. As such, autologous DCs generated ex vivo have been pulsed with tumour antigens and injected back into patients as immunotherapy. While DC vaccines have shown limited promise in the treatment of patients with advanced cancers including glioblastoma, the fac...

Drivers of routine immunization coverage improvement in Africa: findings from district-level case studies

Tue, 10 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

There is limited understanding of why routine immunization (RI) coverage improves in some settings in Africa and not in others. Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted in-depth case studies to understand pathways to coverage improvement by comparing immunization programme experience in 12 districts in three countries (Ethiopia, Cameroon and Ghana). Drawing on positive deviance or assets model techniques we compared the experience of districts where diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis (DTP3)/pentavalent3 (Penta3) coverage improved with districts where DTP3/Penta3 coverage remained unchanged (or steady) over the same period, focusing on basic readiness to deliver immunization services and drivers of coverage improvement. The results informed a model for immunization coverage impr...

Treg‐cell depletion promotes chemokine production and accumulation of CXCR3+ conventional T cells in intestinal tumors

Mon, 09 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, Treg‐cell depletion increases the accumulation of conventional T cells in intestinal tumors, and targeting Treg cells could be a possible anti‐tumor immunotherapy, which not only affects T‐cell effector functions, but also their recruitment to tumors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: European Journal of Immunology)

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Treg-cell depletion promotes chemokine production and accumulation of CXCR3(+) conventional T cells in intestinal tumors.

Mon, 09 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, Treg-cell depletion increases the accumulation of conventional T cells in intestinal tumors, and targeting Treg cells could be a possible anti-tumor immunotherapy, which not only affects T-cell effector functions, but also their recruitment to tumors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 25754875 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Journal of Immunology)

Strengthening routine immunization systems to improve global vaccination coverage

Thu, 05 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Background Global coverage with the third dose of diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis vaccine among children under 1 year of age stagnated at ~ 83–84% during 2008–13. Sources of data Annual World Health Organization and UNICEF-derived national vaccination coverage estimates. Areas of agreement Incomplete vaccination is associated with poor socioeconomic status, lower education, non-use of maternal-child health services, living in conflict-affected areas, missed immunization opportunities and cancelled vaccination sessions. Areas of controversy Vaccination platforms must expand to include older ages including the second year of life. Immunization programmes, including eradication and elimination initiatives such as those for polio and measles, must integrate within the b...

Increased latencies to initiate cocaine self-administration following laterodorsal tegmental nucleus lesions.

Wed, 04 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Steidl S, Cardiff KM, Wise RA Abstract Cholinergic input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), origin of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system that is critical for cocaine reward, is important for both cocaine seeking and cocaine taking. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg) provides one of the two major sources of excitatory cholinergic input to the VTA, but little is known of the role of the LDTg in cocaine reward. LDTg cholinergic cells express urotensin-II receptors and here we used local microinjections of a conjugate of the endogenous ligand for these receptors with diphtheria toxin (Dtx::UII) to lesion the cholinergic cells of the LDTg in rats previously trained to self-administer cocaine (1mg/kg/infusion, i.v.). Lesioned rats showed long latencies to initiate co...

Anti-Vaccination Activists To Blame For Bosnia's Measles Outbreak, Say Experts

Sun, 01 Mar 2015 17:27:05 +0100

SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Herzegovina (AP) — Medical experts warned Friday the anti-vaccination lobby is growing in Bosnia, using scientifically discredited arguments to stoke parental fears in the worst-affected country in Europe's measles outbreak. This trend — combined with a generation that could not be immunized because of lack of vaccines during Bosnia's 1992-95 war — has led to 5,340 measles cases in Bosnia, according to the World Health Organization. "I am increasingly hearing from parents about their fears due to the stuff they read on the Internet," Dr. Gordana Banduka, a pediatrician from Pale, near Sarajevo, told The Associated Press. Bosnia's immunization rate has fallen to just 87 percent, chief epidemiologist Jelena Ravlija said, below the 95 percent rate needed to prevent ou...

Evaluation of the Association of Maternal Pertussis Vaccination With Obstetric Events and Birth Outcomes

Sun, 01 Mar 2015 06:00:00 +0100

ABSTRACT: Bordetella pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen, with infants at highest risk for severe infections. In 2005, the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) was licensed for use in nonpregnant adolescents and adults. Postpartum administration of Tdap to parents and other caregivers was encouraged to prevent the transmission of pertussis to newborns. In 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended that Tdap be administered at 20 weeks or greater to women who had not been previously vaccinated. In 2012, the committee recommended that Tdap be given to all parturients at 27 to 36 weeks, even if previously vaccinated. Whether vaccination with Tdap during pregnancy adversely affects the health of mothers or t...

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Depletion of alveolar macrophages in CD11c diphtheria toxin receptor mice produces an inflammatory response

Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Alveolar macrophages play a critical role in initiating the immune response to inhaled pathogens and have been shown to be the first cell type infected following intranasal inoculation with several pathogens, including Francisella tularensis. In an attempt to further dissect the role of alveolar macrophages in the immune response to Francisella, we selectively depleted alveolar macrophages using CD11c.DOG mice. CD11c.DOG mice express the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) under control of the full CD11c promoter. Because mice do not express DTR, tissue restricted expression of the primate DTR followed by treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT) has been widely used as a tool in immunology to examine the effect of acute depletion of a specific immune subset following normal development. W...

Molecular attributes of conjugate antigen influence function of antibodies induced by anti-nicotine vaccine in mice and non-human primates.

Sat, 28 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: McCluskie MJ, Thorn J, Mehelic PR, Kolhe P, Bhattacharya K, Finneman JI, Stead DR, Piatchek MB, Zhang N, Chikh G, Cartier J, Evans DM, Merson JR, Davis HL Abstract Anti-nicotine vaccines aim to prevent nicotine entering the brain, and thus reduce or eliminate the reward that drives nicotine addiction. Those tested in humans to date have failed to improve quit rates over placebo, possibly because antibody (Ab) responses were insufficient to sequester enough nicotine in the blood in the majority of subjects. We have previously shown in mice that the carrier, hapten and linker used in the nicotine conjugate antigen each influence the function (nicotine-binding capacity) of the Ab induced. Herein we have evaluated immunogenicity in mice of 27 lots of NIC7-CRM, a conjugate of 5...

Targeting indirect pathway CD4 T-cell alloresponses in the prevention of chronic transplant rejection

Thu, 26 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 26 February 2015 Source:The Lancet, Volume 385, Supplement 1 Author(s): Jason Ali , Eleanor Bolton , Kourosh Saeb-Parsy , J Andrew Bradley , Gavin Pettigrew Background Uniquely, alloantigen is recognised by two pathways: as intact antigen on the surface of donor antigen-presenting cells (direct) and as self-restricted processed allopeptide (indirect). The indirect pathway is believed to be longlasting, and is generally considered to be a single entity. Here we address how indirect responses against different alloantigens differ in their strength and longevity, and how this knowledge could be used to direct immunoregulatory therapy with antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs). Methods A murine model of cardiac transplantation was used (bm12.Kd.IE to C57BL/6). Indire...

Factors Associated with Intention to Receive Influenza and Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccines during Pregnancy: A Focus on Vaccine Hesitancy and Perceptions of Disease Severity and Vaccine Safety

Wed, 25 Feb 2015 11:00:18 +0100

This study has some important limitations. Since data were collected by self-report and not verified with medical records or vaccine registry data, there is potential for recall bias. Any recall bias which may have been introduced is assumed to have been non-differential with respect to characteristics likely to be associated with intention to receive antenatal influenza and/or Tdap vaccines. Additionally, while we excluded women who indicated having received an influenza and/or Tdap vaccine before completing her baseline survey, some women enrolled from intervention arm practices could have been exposed to the vaccine promotion materials under evaluation in the MOMVAX study prior to completing their baseline surveys. Since we did not find any significant differences between arms of the MO...

Diphtheria outbreak in Maranhão, Brazil: microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects

Mon, 23 Feb 2015 12:48:07 +0100

Research Articles L. S. SANTOS, L. O. SANT'ANNA, J. N. RAMOS, E. M. LADEIRA, R. STAVRACAKIS-PEIXOTO, L. L. G. BORGES, C. S. SANTOS, F. NAPOLEÃO, T. C. F. CAMELLO, G. A. PEREIRA, R. HIRATA, V. V. VIEIRA, L. M. S. S. COSME, P. S. SABBADINI, A. L. MATTOS-GUARALDI, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 04, pp 791-798Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)

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Implications of private sector Hib vaccine coverage for the introduction of public sector Hib-containing pentavalent vaccine in India: evidence from retrospective time series data

Mon, 23 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions If India has to achieve high and equitable Hib vaccine coverage levels, nationwide public sector introduction of the pentavalent vaccine is needed. However, the role of private sector in universal Hib vaccine coverage is undefined as yet but it should not be neglected as a useful complement to public sector services. (Source: BMJ Open)

Outbreak with clonally related isolates of Corynebacterium ulcerans in a group of water rats

Sat, 21 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Our results indicate that water rats represent a suitable new host species that is prone to infection and must be regarded as a reservoir for potentially zoonotic Corynebacterium ulcerans. Furthermore, the applied methods demonstrated persistent infection as well as a very close relationship between all ten isolates. (Source: BMC Microbiology)

Early exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines and children’s cognitive development. A 9-year prospective birth cohort study in Poland

Thu, 19 Feb 2015 23:20:07 +0100

Conclusion: TCV administration in early infancy did not affect children’s cognitive development. (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)

Tetanus and diphtheria immunity among term and preterm infant-mother pairs in Turkey, a country where maternal and neonatal tetanus have recently been eliminated

Thu, 19 Feb 2015 23:20:07 +0100

Conclusions: Vaccinating pregnant women with at least one dose of Td would confer protection for both the term and preterm infant-mother pairs. Therefore, health personnel caring for pregnant women have the responsibility to emphasize the importance of Td vaccination to avoid missed immunization opportunities. (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)

New vaccine is an important advance in stopping cervical and other HPV-related cancers

Thu, 19 Feb 2015 15:40:54 +0100

If you knew that a vaccine could prevent your daughter or son from developing a relatively common and potentially deadly cancer later in life, would you have her or him get it? Such a vaccine is available, and it’s about to get even better than it is now — but fewer than half of all teens have gotten it. I am talking about a vaccine against the human papilloma virus (HPV). It is responsible for cervical cancer, which strikes 12,000 women each year in the United States and kills 4,000. Only 15% of women diagnosed with advanced cervical cancer survive for five years or more — a grim statistic. HPV also causes cancer of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, mouth, and throat. A key barrier against more widespread use of this vaccine is an issue that stops many conversations about teen hea...

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Pediatric anaphylactic adverse events following immunization in Victoria, Australia from 2007 to 2013.

Mon, 16 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: This comprehensive case series of pediatric anaphylaxis as an AEFI identified that diagnostic criteria are useful when applied to a passive vaccine surveillance system when adequate clinical information is available. Anaphylaxis as an AEFI is rare and usually begins within 30min of vaccination. However, healthcare professionals and vaccinees/parents should be aware that onset of anaphylaxis can be delayed beyond 30min following immunization and that medical attention should be sought promptly if anaphylaxis is suspected. PMID: 25698493 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)

Design of Glycoconjugate Vaccines against Invasive African Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium [Microbial Immunity and Vaccines]

Fri, 13 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, our findings indicate that differences in the design of OAg-based glycoconjugate vaccines against invasive African S. Typhimurium can have profound effects on immunogenicity and therefore optimal vaccine design requires careful consideration. (Source: Infection and Immunity)

Got Science? Vaccinating Ourselves Against Misinformation

Thu, 12 Feb 2015 22:56:10 +0100

It is dismaying that fears and misinformation about vaccines have led the scourge of measles to return in the United States some 15 years after it had been officially eradicated here. And it's especially discouraging to see some early 2016 presidential hopefuls such as Chris Christie and Rand Paul pander on the issue rather than taking a strong evidence-based stance because the facts could not be more clear: Vaccines are safe and they save lives. One of the tragic aspects of this story is that some of the 102 measles cases so far this year in the United States have struck children under a year old who are too young to receive vaccinations. These infants are helpless against the virus, which is carried primarily by children whose parents have endangered them and those around them by failin...

Human Papillomavirus Vaccine and Sexual Activity How Do We Best Address Parent and Physician Concerns?

Mon, 09 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Compared with other routinely recommended adolescent vaccines (eg, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis [Tdap] vaccine and quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate [MCV4] vaccine), human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake has been lower, with only 57% of adolescent females and 35% of adolescent males initiating the 3-dose HPV vaccine series. Often, the reasons cited for these low HPV vaccination rates pertain to the vaccine’s role in preventing a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Parents commonly indicate that they have not had their children vaccinated against HPV because the vaccine is not needed or because their child is not sexually active, and even some physicians express hesitancy toward strongly recommending the HPV vaccine. In a recently published series of qua...

Retrospective Study of the Clinical Epidemiological Characteristics of Pertussis in Infants Prior to Their First Vaccination in the Russian Federation

Sun, 08 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Prior to vaccination, young infants in the Russian Federation remain vulnerable to severe pertussis, which may be worsened by their proximity to unvaccinated adults. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)

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UC plans to require vaccinations for incoming students starting in 2017

Sat, 07 Feb 2015 00:42:50 +0100

The University of California will require incoming students to be screened for tuberculosis and vaccinated for measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox, meningococcus, tetanus and whooping cough under a plan set to take effect in 2017. Currently, the UC system only requires students to be vaccinated against hepatitis B, though several campuses have additional requirements. The plan — designed to help protect the health of students and campus communities — has been in the works for a year. But the need is more pressing than ever, given the current multistate measles outbreak and the re-emergence of other vaccine-preventable diseases among those not completely immunized. “I’m really excited that there’s support and momentum for this new immunization plan,” said Dr. Gina Fleming, medi...

Here’s how many are opting out of measles, other vaccinations in Missouri

Fri, 06 Feb 2015 22:03:49 +0100

As measle outbreaks continue to pop up around the country, records show the number of immunization exemptions in Missouri have risen for three consecutive years — and not just for measles. Records from the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services show a steady increase in requests for exemptions for four major vaccines: diphtheria, polio, measles and hepatitis B. The majority of the requests were made on religious grounds as opposed to medical reasons. Measles tops the list of most-requested… (Source: Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines)

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Vaccination coverage among adults, excluding influenza vaccination - United States, 2013.

Fri, 06 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This report highlights results of that analysis for pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid-containing (tetanus and diphtheria vaccine [Td] or tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis vaccine [Tdap]), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster (shingles), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines by selected characteristics (age, race/ethnicity,† and vaccination indication). Influenza vaccination coverage estimates for the 2013-14 influenza season have been published separately. Compared with 2012, only modest increases occurred in Tdap vaccination among adults aged ≥19 years (a 2.9 percentage point increase to 17.2%), herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged ≥60 years (a 4.1 percentage point increase to 24.2%), and HPV vaccination among males aged 19-26 years (a 3.6 percentage point incre...