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MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in Urology & Nephrology



Last Build Date: Mon, 28 Mar 2016 02:45:15 +0100

 



Saturated and Unsaturated Dietary Fats Differentially Modulate Ethanol-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiome and Metabolome in a Mouse Model of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 18:55:02 +0100

Authors: Kirpich IA, Petrosino J, Ajami N, Feng W, Wang Y, Liu Y, Beier JI, Barve SS, Yin X, Wei X, Zhang X, McClain CJ Abstract Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) ranks among major causes of morbidity and mortality. Diet and crosstalk between the gut and liver are important determinants of ALD. We evaluated the effects of different types of dietary fat and ethanol on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity and the effect of these changes on liver injury in ALD. Compared with ethanol and a saturated fat diet (medium chain triglycerides enriched), an unsaturated fat diet (corn oil enriched) exacerbated ethanol-induced endotoxemia, liver steatosis, and injury. Major alterations in gut microbiota, including a reduction in Bacteroidetes and an increase in Proteobacteria and Ac...

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Effect of Malate-oligosaccharide Solution on Antioxidant Capacity of Endurance Athletes.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 08:04:02 +0100

Authors: Qiang F Abstract L-malate is an important intermediate on the process of metabolism; it plays an important role in generating mitochondria ATP both under aerobic and hypoxic condition. It is easy to be absorbed and come into mitochondrion through cell membrane and promote to produce energy in mitochondrion. The purpose of this investigation is to probe into the different influence malate ingestion on blood lactate and glucose kinetics during aerobic exercise athletes; at the same time, rats were used to study the effect of malate and oligosaccharide solution on the metabolism in muscle and liver. The supplement of malate-oligosaccharide solution may improve the level of antioxidants in vivo after exercise, and subsequently increase the total antioxidant capacity and decrea...



Chlorogenic acid from honeysuckle improves hepatic lipid dysregulation and modulates hepatic fatty acid composition in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

In this study, we investigated the effect of chlorogenic acid in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion. The Sprague-Dawley rats with lipid metabolic disorder (LD group) were intraperitoneally injected endotoxin. And the rats of chlorogenic acid-LD group were daily received chlorogenic acid by intragastric administration. In chlorogenic acid-LD group, the area of visceral adipocyte was decreased and liver injury was ameliorated, as compared to LD group. In chlorogenic acid-LD group, serum triglycerides, free fatty acids, hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol were decreased, the proportion of C20:1, C24:1 and C18:3n-6, Δ9-18 and Δ6-desaturase activity index in the liver were decreased, and the proportion of C18:3n-3 acid was increased, compared to the LD group. Moreover, levels of phosphory...



Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to aldosterone-induced renal tubular cells injury.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Ding W, Guo H, Xu C, Wang B, Zhang M, Ding F Abstract Aldosterone (Aldo) is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), and although Aldo directly induces renal tubular cell injury, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. NLRP3 inflammasome and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) have recently been implicated in various kinds of CKD. The present study hypothesized that mitochondrial ROS and NLRP3 inflammasome mediated Aldo-induced tubular cell injury. The NLRP3 inflammasome is induced by Aldo in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as evidenced by increased NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, and downstream cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was significantly prevented by the selective mineralocorticoid r...



EGFR mediates hyperlipidemia-induced renal injury via regulating inflammation and oxidative stress: the detrimental role and mechanism of EGFR activation.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Fang Q, Zou C, Zhong P, Lin F, Li W, Wang L, Zhang Y, Zheng C, Wang Y, Li X, Liang G Abstract Previous studies have implicated inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis as key factors in the development of obesity-induced kidney diseases. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in cancer development. Recently, the EGFR pathway has been increasingly implicated in chronic cardiovascular diseases via regulating inflammation and oxidative stress. However, it is unclear if EGFR is involved in obesity-related kidney injury. Using ApoE-/- and C57BL/6 mice models and two specific EGFR inhibitors, we investigated the potential effects of EGFR inhibition in the treatment of obesity-related nephropathy and found that EGFR inhibition alleviates renal inflamm...



Sciellin mediates mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition in colorectal cancer hepatic metastasis.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Chou CK, Fan CC, Lin PS, Liao PY, Tung JC, Hsieh CH, Hung MC, Chen CH, Chang WC Abstract Hepatic metastasis is the major cause of mortality in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Using proteomic analysis, we found sciellin (SCEL) to be specifically expressed in hepatic metastatic CRC cell lines. SCEL knockdown increased CRC cell migration and invasion, while overexpression had the opposite effect. SCEL knockdown also caused cancer cells to form more invasive structures within 3D cultures, increased the mesenchymal marker vimentin, and attenuated the epithelial marker E-cadherin. SCEL increased WNT signaling by activating β-catenin and its downstream target c-myc, and activated mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) through a SCEL-β-catenin-E-cadherin axis. SCEL showed ...

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Suppressing activity of tributyrin on hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with inhibiting the p53-CRM1 interaction and changing the cellular compartmentalization of p53 protein.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Ortega JF, de Conti A, Tryndyak V, Furtado KS, Heidor R, Horst MA, Fernandes LH, Tavares PE, Pogribna M, Shpyleva S, Beland FA, Pogribny IP, Moreno FS Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), an aggressive and the fastest growing life-threatening cancer worldwide, is often diagnosed at intermediate or advanced stages of the disease, which substantially limits therapeutic approaches for its successful treatment. This indicates that the prevention of hepatocarcinogenesis is probably the most promising approach to reduce both the HCC incidence and cancer-related mortality. In previous studies, we demonstrated a potent chemopreventive effect of tributyrin, a butyric acid prodrug, on experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. The cancer-inhibitory effect of tributyrin was linked to the...



New findings in fetal valproate syndrome: hiatal hernia, gastric volvulus and ectopic kidney.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 03:07:01 +0100

Authors: Arman D, Sancak S, Topcuoglu S, Karatekin G PMID: 27012229 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)



[Can the urine dipstick be used in the diagnosis of urinary bacterial colonizations in a preoperative urological assessment?]

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 00:33:05 +0100

CONCLUSION: In spite of a good negative predictive value linked to a low prevalence of colonized patients (5%), the low sensitivity of the urine dipstick test entails a non-negligible number of false negatives. Its use as a single test of preoperative screening would expose colonized patients to the prospect of an operation, which seems to be unacceptable for some of them, notably endoscopic ones. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. PMID: 27012836 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Progres en Urologie)



Late onset of de novo atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome presented on a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant recipient successfully treated with eculizumab.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 00:29:02 +0100

Authors: Juega-Mariño FJ, Sala N, López D, Cañas L, Bonet J, Lauzurica R PMID: 27012439 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Nefrologia : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia)

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Severe hypocalcemia following denosumab injection in patient with chronic kidney disease.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 00:29:02 +0100

Authors: Monge Rafael P, Arias M, Fernández-Fresnedo G PMID: 27012438 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Nefrologia : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia)



Genetics of Vesicoureteral Reflux.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 00:22:02 +0100

Authors: Ninoa F, Ilaria M, Noviello C, Santoro L, Rätsch IM, Martino A, Cobellis G Abstract Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the retrograde passage of urine from the bladder to the upper urinary tract. It is the most common congenital urological anomaly affecting 1-2% of children and 30-40% of patients with urinary tract infections. VUR is a major risk factor for pyelonephritic scarring and chronic renal failure in children. It is the result of a shortened intravesical ureter with an enlarged or malpositioned ureteric orifice. An ectopic embryonal ureteric budding development is implicated in the pathogenesis of VUR, which is a complex genetic developmental disorder. Many genes are involved in the ureteric budding formation and subsequently in the urinary tract and kidney developme...



Genetic Basis of Ureterocele.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 00:22:02 +0100

Authors: Schultza K, Todab LY Abstract Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) form a group of heterogeneous disorders that affect the kidneys, ureters and bladder, with frequent asynchronous presentations and multiple CAKUT associations in the same individual. Urinary tract formation is a complex process, dependent of the interaction of multiple genes and their sub-product. The same genic alterations can lead to different molecular expressions and different morphological anomalies. The ureterocele is a cystic dilation of the distal intramural ureter, resulting in obstruction of urine flow, dilation of the ureter and renal pelvis and loss of renal function. Two key steps in the urinary tract ontogenesis may be related to ureterocele development: formation and m...

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15d-PGJ2 alleviates ConA-induced acute liver injury in mice by up-regulating HO-1 and reducing hepatic cell autophagy

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion 15d-PGJ2 alleviates ConA-induced acute liver injury in mice by up-regulating the anti-oxidative stress factor HO-1 and reducing the production of cytokines and ROS, thereby inhibiting hepatic cell autophagy probably induced by ROS. (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy)



Simeprevir or telaprevir with peginterferon and ribavirin for recurrent hepatitis C after living‐donor liver transplantation: A Japanese multicenter experience

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionSimeprevir‐based triple therapy for recurrent hepatitis C after living‐donor liver transplantation resulted in a high SVR rate and good tolerability, especially in treatment‐naïve patients. (Source: Hepatology Research)



Gender Matches in Liver Transplant Allocation: Matched and Mismatched Male-Female Donor-Recipient Combinations; Long-term Follow-up of More Than 2000 Patients at a Single Center.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 19:17:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The impressive long-term graft survival benefit of male donor-female recipient versus female donor-male recipient and of male donor-female recipient versus matched groups (male-male, femalefemale) in liver transplant may be caused by significant differences in donor quality and recipient charac teristics and may not be related to sex itself. PMID: 27015533 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation)



Hand-assisted Laparoscopic Nephrectomy in Living-donor Kidneys With Multiple Arteries: Experience of a Transplant Center.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 19:17:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: We found no differences in kidney function between single and multiple artery kidneys, resulting in the conclusion that hand-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy offers an effective option for kidney donors, including those with multiple arteries. PMID: 27015532 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation)



Gender Disparity in Living-Donor Kidney Transplant Among Minority Ethnic Groups.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 19:17:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Gender disparity exists in living-donor kidney transplant, with disparities more pronounced in some ethnic groups and among particular relationships. This finding requires targeted counseling and research to understand whether the cause is medical or sociocultural obstacles. PMID: 27015531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation)

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Portopulmonary Hypertension and Liver Transplant: Recent Review of the Literature.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 19:17:02 +0100

Authors: Cosarderelioglu C, Cosar AM, Gurakar M, Pustavoitau A, Russell SD, Dagher NN, Gurakar A Abstract Portopulmonary hypertension is one of the main pulmonary conditions affecting patients with liver disease and/or portal hypertension. Other conditions include hepatopulmonary syndrome and hepatic hydrothorax. Portopulmonary hypertension is caused by pulmonary vasoconstriction and increased pulmonary vascular resistance. It develops as a result of portal hypertension with or without liver disease and is associated with a higher morbidity and mortality. However, portopulmonary hypertension is usually asymptomatic; the most common symptoms are dyspnea, fatigue, and peripheral edema. All liver transplant candidates should be screened for potential portopulmonary hypertension becaus...



Reliability analysis of the heart autonomic control parameters during hemodialysis sessions.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 16:39:03 +0100

Authors: da Silva DM, Macedo MC, Lemos LB, Vieira FC, Pirôpo US, Andrade HB, Wessel N, Pereira R Abstract The study of heart autonomic control (HAC) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing dialysis treatment has been carried out, however, there are no studies reporting the reliability of measurements of HAC parameters involving the mentioned samples and conditions. The reliability of many HAC parameters was evaluated from patients with CKD during two sessions of hemodialysis. The successive R-R intervals were recorded during two sessions of hemodialysis from 14 CKD patients that were undergoing dialysis for at least 6 months and with no history of recurrent hypotensive events. HAC parameters were obtained with time and frequency domain analysis, as well as with no...



MicroRNA‐122 Regulates Polyploidization in the Murine Liver

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:43:44 +0100

Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that miR‐122 is both necessary and sufficient in liver polyploidization. Among the different signals that have been associated with hepatic polyploidy, miR‐122 is the first liver‐specific signal identified. These studies will serve as the foundation for future work investigating miR‐122 in liver maturation, homeostasis and disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Hepatology)



Cost-effectiveness of Lamivudine, Telbivudine, Adefovir Dipivoxil and Entecavir on decompensated hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:11:03 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: LMV, ADV, LdT, LMV+ADV and ETV were all effective on treatment of decompensated hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis whereas ETV and LMV+ADV were recommended. PMID: 27010143 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences)



Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and In-Hospital Mortality of Venous Thromboembolism in Liver Cirrhosis: A Single-Center Retrospective Observational Study.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 05:16:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS VTE was observed in 0.4% of patients with liver cirrhosis during hospitalization and it significantly increased the in-hospital mortality. Elevated PT/INR aggravated the risk of VTE. PMID: 27009380 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)

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Diagnosing CKD in Older Patients: Vigilance vs Undue AnxietyDiagnosing CKD in Older Patients: Vigilance vs Undue Anxiety

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 05:14:00 +0100

Our classification schemes for CKD need to adjust for age and gender, argues Dr Epstein. Medscape Nephrology (Source: Medscape Diabetes Headlines)



Many Kidney Transplant Patients Land in ER Within 2 Years

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 04:16:47 +0100

Findings show need to coordinate care after organ transplant, researcher says Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Emergency Medical Services, Health Disparities, Kidney Transplantation (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)



Serum Phosphate modifies the vascular response to vitamin D receptor activation in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions The beneficial effect of PCT on endothelial function in CKD is maximal in patients with no or minimal changes in phosphate and it is abolished in patients with a pronounced phosphate rise. These findings generate the hypothesis that the endothelium protective effect by VDRA may be potentiated by phosphate lowering interventions. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases)



Evaluation of cisterna chyli diameter with MRI in patients with chronic kidney disease

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionCC diameter is observed to be larger in patients with CKD than in the normal population. Additionally, CC diameter increased with more severe stages of CKD. According to our results, CC diameter might be used as an MRI marker to indicate the presence and severity of CKD. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016. (Source: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging)



Reply

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Hepatology)

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Frozen rabbit kidneys could solve shortage

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 26 March 2016 Source:New Scientist, Volume 229, Issue 3066 Author(s): Helen Thomson (Source: New Scientist)



Brain-specific natriuretic peptide receptor-B deletion attenuates high-fat diet-induced visceral and hepatic lipid deposition in mice

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:Peptides Author(s): Yui Yamashita, Nobuko Yamada-Goto, Goro Katsuura, Yukari Ochi, Yugo Kanai, Yuri Miyazaki, Koichiro Kuwahara, Naotetsu Kanamoto, Masako Miura, Akihiro Yasoda, Kousaku Ohinata, Nobuya Inagaki, Kazuwa Nakao C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and its receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPR-B), are abundantly distributed in the hypothalamus. To explore the role of central CNP/NPR-B signaling in energy regulation, we generated mice with brain-specific NPR-B deletion (BND mice) by crossing Nestin-Cre transgenic mice and mice with a loxP-flanked NPR-B locus. Brain-specific NPR-B deletion prevented body weight gain induced by a high-fat diet (HFD), and the mesenteric fat and liver weights were significant...



Massive hemorrhage due to external iliac artery laceration in kidney transplantation: A case report of an uncommon complication after CT guided drainage

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We report a case of a 56-year-old male with a kidney transplantation and a symptomatic peritransplant deep fluid collection who underwent a computed tomography (CT) guided drainage. Nine days after the procedure the patient had to be submitted to the surgical removal of the renal graft due to a massive bleeding caused by the position of the pigtail catheter lying on the wall of the external iliac artery. (Source: Indian Journal of Transplantation)



Clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) improved blood and hepatic antioxidant indices in laying hens receiving low n‐6 to n‐3 ratios

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of different levels of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) powder and vitamin E on serum lipid profile, enzyme activities and antioxidant indices, as well as hepatic biochemical and histological alterations in laying hens receiving different n‐6 to n‐3 ratios. A total of 160 laying hens, 43 weeks of age, were allotted to 8 experimental diets with 5 cages of 4 birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of two ratios of n‐6 to n‐3 (16.71 and 2.35), three levels of clove bud (0.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg) and a high vitamin E level (200 mg/kg, as a positive control in each level of n‐6 to n‐3 ratio) in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement during 70 days of the experiment. Results showed that a decline in the n‐6 to n‐3 ratio led to a red...



Hepatic gluconeogenesis influences 13C enrichment in lactate in human brain tumors during metabolism of [1,2-13C]acetate

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Kumar Pichumani, Tomoyuki Mashimo, Vamsidhara Vemireddy, Zoltan Kovacs, James Ratnakar, Bruce Mickey, Craig R. Malloy, Ralph J. DeBerardinis, Robert M. Bachoo, Elizabeth A. Maher 13C-enriched compounds are readily metabolized in human malignancies. Fragments of the tumor, acquired by biopsy or surgical resection, may be acid-extracted and 13C NMR spectroscopy of metabolites such as glutamate, glutamine, 2-hydroxyglutarate, lactate and others provide a rich source of information about tumor metabolism in situ. Recently we observed 13C-13C spin-spin coupling in 13C NMR spectra of lactate in brain tumors removed from patients who were infused with [1,2-13C]acetate prior to the surgery. ...

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Expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 2 in human thymus

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Steroids Author(s): Giovanni Almanzar, Christina Mayerl, Jan-Christoph Seitz, Kerstin Höfner, Andrea Brunner, Vanessa Wild, Daniel Jahn, Andreas Geier, Martin Fassnacht-Capeller, Martina Prelog 11beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) is a high affinity dehydrogenase which rapidly inactivates physiologically-active glucocorticoids to protect key tissues. 11β-HSD2 expression has been described in peripheral cells of the innate and the adapative immune as well as in murine thymus. In absence of knowledge of 11β-HSD2 expression in human thymus, the study aimed to localize 11β-HSD2 in human thymic tissue. Thymic tissue was taken of six healthy, non-immunologically impaired male infants below 12 months of age ...



Reply

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We thank Drs Chin, Chan, and Ryan for their thoughtful comments regarding our paper on diagnostic accuracy of transient elastography (TE) and real-time 2-dimensional shear-wave elastography (2D-SWE) for alcoholic fibrosis and cirrhosis. The letter points out important remaining knowledge gaps regarding the use of ultrasound elastography in alcoholic liver disease and we appreciate the opportunity to discuss the questions raised. (Source: Gastroenterology)



An Unusual Cause of Cholecystitis

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Question: A 53-year-old man from Martinique (Caribbean Islands) with suspected gallbladder cancer was referred to our department. The patient had been examined with abdominal Doppler ultrasonography after 2 episodes of acute cholecystitis within the previous 5 months. The Doppler ultrasonography results showed almost complete hyperechogenicity of the acalculous gallbladder due to wall thickening. However, there was no ultrasonographic Murphy’s sign (Figure A). Liver function tests were normal. The patient had normal abdominal computed tomography (CT) results 6 months before the first episode of cholecystitis. (Source: Gastroenterology)



An Unusual Cecal Mass in an Otherwise Healthy Young Woman

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Question: A 25-year-old woman presented to her primary care physician for mild right upper quadrant pain. Apart from the patient being an avid kickboxer, no noteworthy abdominal trauma was recalled. Because of an inconclusive ultrasound examination, showing no gallstones, together with elevated liver enzymes an abdominal magnetic resonance imaging study was ordered. A 7 × 4.5 × 4-cm mass in contact to the cecum was seen. (Source: Gastroenterology)



A Fatty liver leads to a broken heart?

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) typically exists in a milieu of disturbed metabolism, including increased total body adiposity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia[1]. Cumulatively, these factors increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and so it is not surprising that CVD is the leading cause of death in NAFLD patients.[2] The challenge over the past decade has been to tease apart the complex and inter-dependent relationships between NAFLD and these etiological factors, to establish whether NAFLD per se increases the risk of developing CVD. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)

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Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence among schistosomiasis patients in Northeastern Brazil

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion This study demonstrates that the seroprevalence of HEV is high in patients with SM in Northeastern of Brazil. Past HEV infection is associated with higher frequency of liver enzymes abnormalities. HEV infection and its role on the severity of liver disease should be further investigated among patients with SM. (Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Educational Interventions for Patients With CKD: A Systematic Review

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Well-designed, interactive, frequent, and multifaceted educational interventions that include both individual and group participation may improve knowledge, self-management, and patient outcomes. (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)



Autonomic Testing in Women with Chronic Pelvic Pain

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Determine if abnormal autonomic nervous system (ANS) innervation of the bladder underlies interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) differently than other chronic pelvic pain (CPP). (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio as an early predictor of outcome in critically-ill septic patients

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:The Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine Author(s): Osama Tayeh, Khaled M. Taema, Mohamed I. Eldesouky, Adel A. Omara Several cumbersome scoring systems were developed for prognosis and outcome prediction in sepsis. We intended in this study to evaluate the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) as a prognostic predictor in sepsis. We included 40 adult septic patients in a prospective observational study. We excluded patients with preexisting chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus. After clinical evaluation, urine spot samples were collected on admission and 24h later for ACR1 and ACR2. Admission APACHE IV score and the highest recorded SOFA score of their daily estimation were considered. We also evaluated the need f...



IJERPH, Vol. 13, Pages 373: Pathway Analysis Revealed Potential Diverse Health Impacts of Flavonoids that Bind Estrogen Receptors

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Flavonoids are frequently used as dietary supplements in the absence of research evidence regarding health benefits or toxicity. Furthermore, ingested doses could far exceed those received from diet in the course of normal living. Some flavonoids exhibit binding to estrogen receptors (ERs) with consequential vigilance by regulatory authorities at the U.S. EPA and FDA. Regulatory authorities must consider both beneficial claims and potential adverse effects, warranting the increases in research that has spanned almost two decades. Here, we report pathway enrichment of 14 targets from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) and the Herbal Ingredients’ Targets (HIT) database for 22 flavonoids that bind ERs. The selected flavonoids are confirmed ER binders from our earlier studies, and...



Penalized variable selection in competing risks regression

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract Penalized variable selection methods have been extensively studied for standard time-to-event data. Such methods cannot be directly applied when subjects are at risk of multiple mutually exclusive events, known as competing risks. The proportional subdistribution hazard (PSH) model proposed by Fine and Gray (J Am Stat Assoc 94:496–509, 1999) has become a popular semi-parametric model for time-to-event data with competing risks. It allows for direct assessment of covariate effects on the cumulative incidence function. In this paper, we propose a general penalized variable selection strategy that simultaneously handles variable selection and parameter estimation in the PSH model. We rigorously establish the asymptotic properties of the proposed penalized estimators and mo...



Celastrus Orbiculatus Thunb. Reduces Lipid Accumulation by Promoting Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Hyperlipidemic Mice

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract Previously, we found that Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. (COT) decreases athero-susceptibility in lipoproteins and the aorta of guinea pigs fed a high-fat diet, and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In the present study, we investigated the effect of COT in reducing lipid accumulation and promoting reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in vivo and vitro. Healthy male mice were treated with high-fat diet alone, high-fat diet with COT (10.0 g/kg/d), or general fodder for 6 weeks. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), HDL-C, non-HDL-C, and 3H-cholesterol in plasma, liver, bile, and feces were determined. Pathological changes and the levels of TC and TG in liver were examined. The expression of hepatic genes and protein associated with RCT were anal...



Osteoprotegerin in Chronic Kidney Disease: Associations with Vascular Damage and Cardiovascular Events

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract Vascular injury and dysfunction contribute to cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that has been linked to atherogenesis and endothelial dysfunction. Elevated circulating OPG levels predict future cardiovascular events (CVE). Our aim was to evaluate the determinants of circulating OPG levels, to investigate the relationship between OPG and markers of vascular damage and to test whether OPG improves risk stratification for future CVE beyond traditional and renal-specific risk factors in a CKD population. 291 patients with CKD stage 1–5 not on dialysis were included in the study. In the multivariate analysis, OPG was a s...

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Digital Mammograms Could Also Reveal Heart Disease Risk

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 21:46:48 +0100

This study demonstrates that accurate cardiovascular risk can be determined by evaluating the extent of calcification in blood vessels seen on digital mammograms, without the use of any additional radiation or risk. These exciting findings will allow women to be screened for the two most frequent life-threatening diseases at once - breast cancer and cardiovascular disease - (and allow) for determination of cardiovascular risk in a large population of women who might otherwise not get this potentially life-saving information.”   SOURCE: http://bit.ly/1MESUa8 JACC: Imaging, released March 24, 2016. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website....



Minimally invasive versus conventional large-bore percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the treatment of large-sized renal calculi: Surgeon's preference?

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 21:31:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: MIP is equally effective as conventional PCNL in the treatment of large renal calculi. Both methods have a similar complication rate. The shorter operative time in PCNL may be based on the larger diameter and quicker retrieval of large fragments; the longer mean hospital stay may be caused by the handling of the nephrostomy tube. The current data suggest that the choice of the method mainly depends on the surgeon's preference. PMID: 27010782 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Urology)



Gender-related differences in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: a population-based study from the Swedish National Registry of Urinary Bladder Cancer.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 21:31:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based cohort comprising virtually all patients diagnosed with UBC in Sweden between 1997 and 2011, female gender was associated with inferior cancer-specific and relative survival. Although women had a higher rate of aggressive tumours, a smaller proportion of women than men received optimal treatment. PMID: 27002743 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Urology)



Endoplasmic reticulum stress and its effects on renal tubular cells apoptosis in ischemic acute kidney injury.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 21:30:02 +0100

Authors: Xu Y, Guo M, Jiang W, Dong H, Han Y, An XF, Zhang J Abstract Ischemia is the most frequent cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is characterized by apoptosis of renal tubular cell. A common result of ischemia in AKI is dysfunction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which causes the protein-folding capacity to lag behind the protein-folding load. The abundance of misfolded proteins stressed the ER and results in induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). While the UPR is an adaptive response, over time it can result in apoptosis when cells are unable to recover quickly. Recent research suggests that ER stress is a major factor in renal tubular cell apoptosis resulting from ischemic AKI. Thus, ER stress may be an important new progression factor in the pathology of i...



Sclerostin levels in uremic patients: a link between bone and vascular disease.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 21:30:02 +0100

Authors: Bruzzese A, Lacquaniti A, Cernaro V, Ricciardi CA, Loddo S, Romeo A, Montalto G, Costantino G, Torre F, Pettinato G, Salamone I, Aloisi C, Santoro D, Buemi M Abstract Sclerostin is a marker of low-turnover bone disease in end stage renal disease patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum sclerostin in uremic patients, analyzing its behavior during a single hemodialysis session. Twenty-one adult patients on intermittent hemodialysis treatment were enrolled. Acetate Free Bio-filtration (AFB) was the technique employed. Uremic patients were characterized by higher levels of serum sclerostin when compared with values observed in healthy subjects. Sclerostin assessed in pre-dialysis samples was 1.4 ± 1.02 ng/mL, whereas, in post dialysis samples, a reduction o...

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Indoxyl sulfate promotes vascular smooth muscle cell calcification via the JNK/Pit-1 pathway.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 21:30:02 +0100

Authors: Wu Y, Han X, Wang L, Diao Z, Liu W Abstract We determined the effect of indoxyl sulfate (IS) on Pit-1 expression and the role of Pit-1 in IS-induced osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To assess osteoblastic differentiation and Pit-1 expression, VSMCs were incubated with various concentrations of IS for different durations. Phosphonoformic acid (PFA), a competitive inhibitor of Pit-1, was used to verify the role of Pit-1. Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to assess Pit-1 protein and mRNA levels, respectively. To evaluate calcification, calcium content was measured. After IS treatment, we observed osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of VSMCs and up-re...



How People of Faith Can Help End TB

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 21:14:08 +0100

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[Chronic hepatothorax due to right diaphragmatic rupture: an anesthetic challenge in a rare case].

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 20:50:01 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Hepatothorax is a rare condition and its repair may represent an anesthetic challenge. After liver replacement in the abdominal cavity during corrective surgery under general anesthesia complications may occur, particularly associated with pulmonary re-expansion. Effective teamwork and careful planning of surgery, between the surgical and anesthetic teams, are the key to success. PMID: 27005827 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia)



The 2 Near-Death Experiences That Changed Mark Bertolini Forever

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 20:28:35 +0100

Before Mark Bertolini became the chief executive of the country's biggest health insurer, before he was celebrated by business publications for being an "unconventional boss" who is "mindful of morality," before he overhauled his company to prioritize the wellness of his workers, he was a father watching his teenage son die. It was 2001, and Bertolini's son Eric, who was then 16, was diagnosed with a rare type of cancer. Bertolini, now the chief executive of Aetna, quit his job at insurance rival Cigna and moved into his son's hospital room in Boston to help manage his care. Eric made a full recovery two years later, but was struck by complications and needed a kidney transplant. Once again, Bertolini stepped in, donating one of his kidneys to his son. Those experiences, coupled with a sev...

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Researchers link absence of protein to liver tissue regeneration

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:17:38 +0100

Inactivating a certain protein-coding gene promotes liver tissue regeneration in mammals, scientists report. The liver is unique among human solid organs in its robust regenerative capability. A healthy liver can regenerate up to 70 percent of its tissue after injury, researchers explained. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)



NOS Pathway Linked to Treatment Response in Men With BPHNOS Pathway Linked to Treatment Response in Men With BPH

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 18:52:47 +0100

The eNOS G894T polymorphism is associated with reduced responsiveness to alpha-1 blocker treatment in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), researchers from Taiwan have reported. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)



Gut microbiota plays undefined role in liver disease

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 18:19:42 +0100

The development and progression of fatty liver, and alcoholic and nonalcoholic diseases appear to be influenced by gut microbiota but it is too early to say whether microbial therapy could be used to... (Source: Internal Medicine News)



A follow-up analysis of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in detecting hidden malignancies at the time of diagnosis of membranous nephropathy.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Feng Z, Wang S, Huang Y, Liang X, Shi W, Zhang B Abstract Membranous nephropathy (MN) is the most common kidney disease reported in a variety of malignant diseases. Search for an occult malignancy in MN has presented special challenges. 124 MN patients with a physical examination not suspicious for cancer underwent screening for an occult malignancy with either 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scanning (n = 49) or conventional screening (n = 75) at the time of diagnosis of MN, and were followed up (median,28 months). 154 patients who refused to undergo any screening were followed up (median, 30 months). In FDG-PET/CT cohort, 5 (10.20%) patients were screened and confirmed as malignancy, in contrast, 1 (1.33%) patient in c...



Two classes of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma defined by relative abundance of mutations and copy number alterations.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

In this study, we analyzed 17 ICC tumor-vs-matched normal pairs using either whole-exome (n = 7), transcriptome sequencing (n = 7) or both platforms (n = 3). For somatic mutations, we identified recurrent mutations of previously reported genes such as KRAS, TP53, APC as well as epigenetic regulators and those of TGFβ signaling pathway. According to the abundance of somatic mutations and DNA copy number alterations (CNA), ten ICC exome cases were distinguished into two classes as those primarily driven by either somatic mutations (M class) or CNAs (C class). Compared to M class ICCs (92-147 somatic mutations; n = 5) with a relative deficit of CNAs, C class ICCs (54-84 mutations; n = 5) harbor recurrent focal CNAs including deletions involving CDKN2A, ROBO1, ROBO2, RUNX3, and SMAD4. We also...

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PD-L1 is an independent prognostic predictor in gastric cancer of Western patients.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Böger C, Behrens HM, Mathiak M, Krüger S, Kalthoff H, Röcken C Abstract Targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint signaling is a novel promising treatment strategy in several tumor entities, and it is suggested that PD-L1/PD-1 expression is predictive for a PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor treatment response. We investigated the expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 by immunohistochemistry in a large and well characterized gastric cancer (GC) cohort of Caucasian patients, consisting of 465 GC samples and 15 corresponding liver metastases. Staining results were correlated with clinico-pathological characteristics and survival. PD-L1 expression was found in tumor cells of 140 GCs (30.1%) and 9 liver metastases (60%) respectively in immune cells of 411 GCs (88.4%) and 11 liver meta...



Ascophyllan functions as an adjuvant to promote anti-cancer effect by dendritic cell activation.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

In this study, we evaluated ascophyllan as an adjuvant for its therapeutic and preventive effect on tumor in a mouse melanoma model. Ascophyllan induced migration of DCs to spleen and tumor-draining lymph node (drLN) in a mouse B16 melanoma model. Moreover, ascophyllan induced activation of dendritic cells (DCs), and promoted IFN-γ- and TNF-α-producing Th1 immune responses in tumor-bearing mice. In addition, treatment with a combination of ascophyllan and ovalbumin (OVA) in the tumor-bearing mice promoted proliferation of OVA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells and migration of those cells into the tumor, consequently inhibiting the tumor growth. Immunization with the combination of ascophyllan and OVA caused enhanced OVA-specific antibody production and memory T cell responses compared to OVA ...



Applying of pretreatment extent of disease system in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after curative partial hepatectomy.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

This study showed that the PRETEXT was a good prognostic staging system for HCC. It performed better than the conventional and commonly used staging systems in predicting survival of patients with HCC after curative partial hepatectomy. PMID: 27007152 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)



An evolutionarily conserved negative feedback mechanism in the Hippo pathway reflects functional difference between LATS1 and LATS2.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Park GS, Oh H, Kim M, Kim T, Johnson RL, Irvine KD, Lim DS Abstract The Hippo pathway represses YAP oncoprotein activity through phosphorylation by LATS kinases. Although variety of upstream components has been found to participate in the Hippo pathway, the existence and function of negative feedback has remained uncertain. We found that activated YAP, together with TEAD transcription factors, directly induces transcription of LATS2, but not LATS1, to form a negative feedback loop. We also observed increased mRNA levels of Hippo upstream components upon YAP activation. To reveal the physiological role of this negative feedback regulation, we deleted Lats2 or Lats1 in the liver-specific Sav1-knockout mouse model which develops a YAP-induced tumor. Additional deletion of Lat...



C-terminal truncated hepatitis B virus X protein promotes hepatocellular carcinogenesis through induction of cancer and stem cell-like properties.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Ng KY, Chai S, Tong M, Guan XY, Lin CH, Ching YP, Xie D, Cheng AS, Ma S Abstract Tumor relapse after chemotherapy typifies hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is believed to be attributable to residual cancer stem cells (CSCs) that survive initial treatment. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) has long been linked to the development of HCC. Upon infection, random HBV genome integration can lead to truncation of hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein at the C-terminus. The resulting C-terminal-truncated HBx (HBx-ΔC) was previously shown to confer enhanced invasiveness and diminished apoptotic response in HCC cells. Here, we found HBx-ΔC to promote the appearance of a CD133 liver CSC subset and confer cancer and stem cell-like features in HCC. HBx-ΔC was exclusively ...

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Integrated analysis of long non-coding RNAs in human colorectal cancer.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Chen X, Liu B, Yang R, Guo Y, Li F, Wang L, Hu H Abstract Accumulating evidence highlights the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in tumors. However, the genome-wide expression and roles of lncRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unknown. Here, we systematically examined the global gene expressions in primary and synchronous liver metastases CRC tissue, in which thousands of aberrantly expressed lncRNAs were characterized. Co-expression analysis revealed that some lncRNAs correlated to their neighboring mRNAs in expression levels, whereas others formed networks with protein-coding genes in trans. We observed H3K4me3 was enriched at expressed lncRNA transcription start sites (TSSs) and correlated to dysregulated lncRNAs. Furthermore, we identified primary and metastas...



Emodin via colonic irrigation modulates gut microbiota and reduces uremic toxins in rats with chronic kidney disease.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Zeng YQ, Dai Z, Lu F, Lu Z, Liu X, Chen C, Qu P, Li D, Hua Z, Qu Y, Zou C Abstract Gut microbiota plays a dual role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is closely linked to production of uremic toxins. Strategies of reducing uremic toxins by targeting gut microbiota are emerging. It is known that Chinese medicine rhubarb enema can reduce uremic toxins and improve renal function. However, it remains unknown which ingredient or mechanism mediates its effect. Here we utilized a rat CKD model of 5/6 nephrectomy to evaluate the effect of emodin, a main ingredient of rhubarb, on gut microbiota and uremic toxins in CKD. Emodin was administered via colonic irrigation at 5ml (1mg/day) for four weeks. We found that emodin via colonic irrigation (ECI) altered levels of two important ...



A neonate with recurrent tetany: questions

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

(Source: Pediatric Nephrology)



Chronic haemodialysis in small children: a retrospective study of the Italian Pediatric Dialysis Registry

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Conclusions Extracorporeal dialysis is feasible in children aged  <2 years, but comorbidities, vascular access, growth and anaemia remain major concerns. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)

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Smaller circuits for smaller patients: improving renal support therapy with Aquadex™

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Conclusions CRRT machines with low ECV can enable clinicians to provide adequate, timely, safe, and efficient renal support to small, critically ill infants. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)



Physical activity and screen time in adolescents in the chronic kidney disease in children (CKiD) cohort

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Conclusions Adolescents with CKD engage in significantly less PA and greater screen time than healthy youth in the United States, and this may worsen over time. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)



HNF1B-associated clinical phenotypes: the kidney and beyond

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Abstract Mutations in HNF1B, the gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β are the most commonly identified genetic cause of renal malformations. HNF1B was first identified as a disease gene for diabetes (MODY5) in 1997, and its involvement in renal disease was subsequently noted through clinical observations in pedigrees affected by MODY5. Since then, a whole spectrum of associated phenotypes have been reported, including genital malformations, autism, epilepsy, gout, hypomagnesaemia, primary hyperparathyroidism, liver and intestinal abnormalities and a rare form of kidney cancer. The most commonly identified mutation, in approximately 50 % of patients, is an entire gene deletion occurring in the context of a 17q12 chromosomal microdeletion that also includes several other ge...



Renal abnormalities in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Conclusions The subclinical renal abnormalities found in this study may indicate early manifestations of a broad spectrum of renal dysfunction associated with HIV and involves the decision to initiate or modify ART. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)



Cinacalcet as adjunctive therapy in pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1b

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Conclusions Due to its ease of administration, we recommend the addition of cinacalcet into the armamentarium of medications available to treat children with PHP1b. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)

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Evolution of IgA nephropathy into anaphylactoid purpura in six cases—further evidence that IgA nephropathy and Henoch–Schonlein purpura nephritis share common pathogenesis

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Conclusions Our clinical experience and previous reports support the argument that IgA nephropathy and HSPN are different manifestations of a single disease. Hence, it is acceptable to consider that they are variants of a single disease. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)



A neonate with recurrent tetany: Answers

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

(Source: Pediatric Nephrology)



Vitamin K antagonists in children with central venous catheter on chronic haemodialysis: a pilot study

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Conclusions Therapy with VKA would appear to be safe in children on chronic HD and may improve CVC survival in patients at increased risk of CVC thrombosis. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)



Hyperfiltration and uricosuria in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Conclusions The adolescents with T1D enrolled in the study had higher eGFR, higher UUA and more acidic urine than the non-diabetic controls, which may have increased their risk of UUA crystallization. Adolescents with T1D and hyperfiltration had higher FeUA than those without hyperfiltration. These hypothesis-generating observations may suggest a potential pathophysiologic association between uricosuria and hyperfiltration. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)



Acute changes in fluid status affect the incidence, associative clinical outcomes, and urine biomarker performance in premature infants with acute kidney injury

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Conclusions Adjusting SCr for acute change in fluid weight may help differentiate SCr rise from true change in renal function from acute concentration due to abrupt weight change. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)

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Microalbuminuria among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy-naive children in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Conclusion The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 18% in the HIV-infected children and 2% in the HIV-uninfected children. No common determinants of proteinuria were significantly associated with microalbuminuria. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)



Comparison of reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent with traditional markers of iron and erythropoiesis in pediatric dialysis

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Conclusions Ret-He is a more relevant marker of iron status than ferritin and TSAT. This supports prospectively testing Ret-He to distinguish between iron deficiency and suboptimal erythropoietin dosing as competing causes for anemia. Ferritin is an unhelpful biomarker of iron deficiency in this setting. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)



Renal transplantation in infants

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Abstract Renal transplantation (RTx) has become an accepted mode of therapy in infants with severe renal failure. The major indications are structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, congenital nephrotic syndrome, polycystic diseases, and neonatal kidney injury. Assessment of these infants needs expertise and time as well as active treatment before RTx to ensure optimal growth and development, and to avoid complications that could lead to permanent neurological defects. RTx can be performed already in infants weighing around 5 kg, but most operations occur in infants with a weight of 10 kg or more. Perioperative management focuses on adequate perfusion of the allograft and avoidance of thrombotic and other surgical complications. Important long-term issues include rejection...



Tubular atrophy in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease progression

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Abstract The longstanding focus in chronic kidney disease (CKD) research has been on the glomerulus, which is sensible because this is where glomerular filtration occurs, and a large proportion of progressive CKD is associated with significant glomerular pathology. However, it has been known for decades that tubular atrophy is also a hallmark of CKD and that it is superior to glomerular pathology as a predictor of glomerular filtration rate decline in CKD. Nevertheless, there are vastly fewer studies that investigate the causes of tubular atrophy, and fewer still that identify potential therapeutic targets. The purpose of this review is to discuss plausible mechanisms of tubular atrophy, including tubular epithelial cell apoptosis, cell senescence, peritubular capillary rarefacti...



Remedial operations for failed endovascular therapy of 32 renal artery stenoses in 24 children

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Conclusions Renal PTA for the treatment of pediatric RVH due to ostial disease may be complicated by failures requiring complex remedial operations or nephrectomy, the latter usually affecting younger children. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)

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Liver transplantation for aHUS: still needed in the eculizumab era?

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Conclusions Liver transplant may definitely cure aHUS and represents an option for patients with suboptimal response to eculizumab. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)



DILIrank: the largest reference drug list ranked by the risk for developing drug-induced liver injury in humans - Chen M, Suzuki A, Thakkar S, Yu K, Hu C, Tong W.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

This paper provides the largest, revised drug reference list annotated and ranked by the risk for developing hepatotoxicity in humans (DILIrank). We created the new DILIrank list by complementing the previously used drug-labeling information together with ... (Source: SafetyLit)



Serum TK1 is a more reliable marker than CEA and AFP for cancer screening survey in a study of 56,286 people.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:40:03 +0100

CONCLUSION: STK1 is a reliable biomarker for discovering people with malignant tumors in cancer screening. PMID: 27002755 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biomarkers)

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Forthcoming Issues

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:35:28 +0100

Practical Urology for the General Surgeon (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)



Resection of Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:35:28 +0100

This article reviews the various strategies and techniques, the role of staging laparoscopy, intraoperative frozen section, caudate lobectomy, and vascular reconstruction. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)



Hepatic Tumor Ablation

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:35:28 +0100

Tumor ablation is a safe and effective treatment available in the multidisciplinary care of the surgical oncology patient. The role of ablation is well established in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and is becoming more accepted in the treatment of various malignancies metastatic to the liver, in particular colorectal cancer. Understanding the underlying technology, achieving appropriate applicator placement, using maximum energy delivery to create margins, and performing necessary adjunctive maneuvers are all required for successful tumor ablation. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)



Hepatic Perfusion Therapy

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:35:28 +0100

Isolated hepatic perfusion uses the unique vascular supply of hepatic malignancies to deliver cytotoxic chemotherapy. The procedure involves vascular isolation of the liver and delivery of chemotherapy via the hepatic artery and extraction from retrohepatic vena cava. Benefits of hepatic perfusion have been observed in hepatic metastases of ocular melanoma and colorectal cancer and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Percutaneous and prophylactic perfusions are avenues of ongoing research. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)



Transarterial Therapy for Colorectal Liver Metastases

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:35:28 +0100

Until recently, hepatic arterial therapies (HAT) had been used for colorectal liver metastases after failure of first-, second-, and third-line chemotherapies. HAT has gained greater acceptance in patients with liver-dominant colorectal metastases after failure of surgery or systemic chemotherapy. The current data demonstrate that HAT is a safe and effective option for preoperative downsizing, optimizing the time to surgery, limiting non-tumor-bearing liver toxicity, and improving overall survival after surgery in patients with colorectal liver-only metastases. The aim of this review is to present the current data for HAT in liver-only and liver-dominant colorectal liver metastases. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)

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Vascular Reconstruction in Hepatic Malignancy

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:35:28 +0100

This article reviews those reconstruction techniques and outcomes in detail, including in situ perfusion and ex vivo liver surgery, and provides a discussion of implications and operative planning for patients with hepatic malignancy in order to provide surgeons with better understanding of these complicated operations. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)



Wnt secretion preventing drugs may reduce renal fibrosis, study shows

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 13:36:44 +0100

Renal fibrosis or the scarring of kidneys, following an injury, reduces their function and can cause kidney disease to progressively worsen. In a recent study, researchers have shown that drugs that target Wnt secretion by inhibiting Porcupine, a protein usually targeted for cancer treatment, may reduce renal fibrosis and protect the kidneys. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)



[Epidemiological study on urinary stones in the region of Fez and the risk of recurrence].

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:38:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: The results of our study are conformed to the series of results in other regions of Morocco regarding the predominance of calcium oxalate stones. The presence of crystals in the urine of 69% of patients may indicate other recurrences. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. PMID: 27009630 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Progres en Urologie)



Upper tract urothelial carcinoma: epidemiology, high risk populations, and detection.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:35:02 +0100

Authors: Redrow GP, Matin SF Abstract Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a rare but highly morbid genitourinary malignancy. In 2014 approximately 15000 new cases were diagnosed in the United States. It accounts for approximately 5-10% of all urothelial cell carcinomas, and 10% of renal tumors. Recent research has increased understanding of the epidemiology of this disease, including several high-risk populations. Environmental exposure to tobacco as well as aristolochic acid, and other carcinogens significantly increase the development of UTUC. Additionally, the genetic condition of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC), also known as Lynch Syndrome (LS) is linked to development of UTUC. Advances in imaging, ureteroscopy, cytological techniques and pathologic...

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The Treatment of ED in Patients With Neurogenic DiseaseThe Treatment of ED in Patients With Neurogenic Disease

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:34:29 +0100

This review explores the available treatment options for neurogenic erectile dysfunction. Translational Andrology and Urology (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)



Anaesthetic Implications for Liver Disease in PregnancyAnaesthetic Implications for Liver Disease in Pregnancy

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:34:28 +0100

What does the anesthetist need to consider when caring for pregnant women with liver disease? BJA Education (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)



Effectiveness of the scheme reimpregnation maintenance schedule vs. ceftazidime/cephalothin in dialysis patients with peritonitis.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:34:01 +0100

Authors: Carranza-Torres JM, Vargas-Daza ER, Villarreal-Ríos E, Galicia-Rodríguez L, Martínez-González L PMID: 27006330 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Nefrologia : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia)



Successfull Simultaneous Pancreas Kidney transplantation in a patient with Congenital Partial Lipodystrophy.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:34:01 +0100

Authors: Leon L, Uva P, Minue E, Pilotti R, Cabrera I, Giunippero A, Gallo A, Osella F, Toniolo F, Chuluyan E, Casadei D PMID: 27006329 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Nefrologia : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia)

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