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MedWorm: Bronchitis



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Bronchitis category.



Last Build Date: Mon, 21 Mar 2016 17:37:19 +0100

 



Investigation of Neurokinin‐1 Receptor Antagonism as a Novel Treatment for Chronic Bronchitis in Dogs

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions and Clinical ImportancePreliminary results suggest that although maropitant may have antitussive properties leading to perceived clinical improvement, its failure to diminish airway inflammation makes it unsuitable for treatment of CCB. Future studies could evaluate maropitant as a cough suppressant for other respiratory disorders in dogs. (Source: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine)

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Child abuse and physical health in adulthood.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:03:01 +0100

Authors: Afifi TO, MacMillan HL, Boyle M, Cheung K, Taillieu T, Turner S, Sareen J Abstract BACKGROUND: A large literature exists on the association between child abuse and mental health, but less is known about associations with physical health. The study objective was to determine if several types of child abuse were related to an increased likelihood of negative physical health outcomes in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults. DATA AND METHODS: Data are from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (n = 23,395). The study sample was representative of the Canadian population aged 18 or older. Child physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to intimate partner violence were assessed in relation to self-perceived general health and 13 self-repor...



A pro-inflammatory role for the Frizzled-8 receptor in chronic bronchitis

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions These findings indicate an important pro-inflammatory role for Frizzled-8 and suggest that its expression is related to chronic bronchitis. Furthermore, our findings indicate an unexpected role for fibroblasts in regulating airway inflammation in COPD. (Source: Thorax)



Successful bronchoscopy in a pregnant patient with plastic bronchitis

Sat, 12 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We report a case of successful bronchoscopy using Propofol as the sedating agent in a pregnant female with plastic bronchitis who presented with respiratory distress. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)



Acute bronchitis: Is it contagious?

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: MayoClinic.com - Ask a Specialist)



When is pneumonia not pneumonia: a clinicopathologic study of the utility of lung tissue biopsies in determining the suitability of cadaveric tissue for donation

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) represents a major diagnostic challenge because of the relatively low sensitivity and specificity of clinical criteria, radiological findings, and microbiologic culture results. It is often difficult to distinguish between pneumonia, underlying pulmonary disease, or conditions with pulmonary complications; this is compounded by the often-subjective clinical diagnosis of pneumonia. We conducted this study to determine the utility of post-mortem lung biopsies for diagnosing pneumonia in tissue donors diagnosed with pneumonia prior to death. Subjects were deceased patients who had been hospitalized at death and diagnosed with pneumonia. Post-mortem lung biopsies were obtained from the anatomic portion of the cadaveric lung corresponding...

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Eosinophilic airway inflammation is common in subacute cough following acute upper respiratory tract infection

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionSubacute cough following AURTI can be attributed to different entities, eosinophilic airway inflammation is common. Induced sputum should be considered when evaluating patients with subacute cough following acute upper respiratory tract infection. (Source: Respirology)



Chronic respiratory diseases and quality of life in elderly nursing home residents.

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Carreiro-Martins P, Gomes-Belo J, Papoila AL, Caires I, Palmeiro T, Gaspar-Marques J, Leiria-Pinto P, Mendes AS, Paulo-Teixeira J, Botelho MA, Neuparth N Abstract Few studies have assessed the quality of life (QOL) related to chronic respiratory diseases in the elderly. In the framework of the geriatric study on the health effects of air quality in elderly care centers (GERIA) study, a questionnaire was completed by elderly subjects from 53 selected nursing homes. It included various sections in order to assess respiratory complaints, QOL (World Health Organization QOL (WHOQOL)-BREF), and the cognitive and depression status. The outcome variables were the presence of a score lower than 50 (<50) in each of the WHOQOL-BREF domains (physical health, psychological health, s...



Characterization and analysis of an infectious bronchitis virus strain isolated from southern China in 2013

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Infectious bronchitis is a severe disease caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) that affects fowl flocks worldwide. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in IBV evolution and variation would provi... (Source: Virology Journal)



Rhinoviruses and Their Receptors: Implications for Allergic Disease

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Human rhinoviruses (RVs) are picornaviruses that can cause a variety of illnesses including the common cold, lower respiratory tract illnesses such as bronchitis and pneumonia, and exacerbations of asthma. RVs are classified into three species, RV-A, B, and C, which include over 160 types. They utilize three major types of cellular membrane glycoproteins to gain entry into the host cell: intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) (the majority of RV-A and all RV-B), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family members (12 RV-A types), and cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3) (RV-C). CDHR3 is a member of cadherin superfamily of transmembrane proteins with yet unknown biological function, and there is relatively little information available about the mechanisms of RV...



Supraclavicular Lymphnodes: Unusual Manifestation of Metastase Adenocarcinoma Colon.

Sun, 06 Mar 2016 16:22:02 +0100

We report a patient with supraclavicular lymph node metastasis from an undetectable adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon, who presented with cough and was diagnosed with typhoid fever, bronchitis as well as liver metastasis. There were an abdominal fullness, weight loss, constipation, pencil-like stool with mucous and blood, low-grade fever, bone ache, and tea-color urine. The first colonoscopy revealed lymphocytic ileitis and microscopic findings also showed lymphocytic ileitis. Abdominal USG and CT revealed liver metastasis of unknown origin. Based on the clinical sign and symptoms, we suspected that colorectal carcinoma was the primary site. Then, the second colonoscopy was performed and it revealed a small polyp, which was followed with a biopsy and the result supported a well-differ...

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[Cannabis - Position Paper of the German Respiratory Society (DGP)].

Sun, 06 Mar 2016 15:00:01 +0100

Authors: Kreuter M, Nowak D, Rüther T, Hoch E, Thomasius R, Vogelberg C, Brockstedt M, Hellmann A, Gohlke H, Jany B, Loddenkemper R Abstract In this position paper, the adverse health effects of cannabis are reviewed based on the existing scientific literature; in addition possible symptom-relieving effects on some diseases are depicted. In Germany, cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Approximately 600 000 adult persons show abusive or addictive cannabis consumption. In 12 to 17 year old adolescents, cannabis use increased from 2011 to 2014 from 2.8 to 6.4 %, and the frequency of regular use from 0.2 to 1.5 %.Currently, handling of cannabinoids is much debated in politics as well as in general public. Health aspects have to be incorporated into this debate. Beside...



Prevalence and risk factors for atopic disease in a population of preschool children in Rome: Challenges to early intervention.

Sun, 06 Mar 2016 11:45:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: This study represents a first comprehensive epidemiological evaluation of prevalence of respiratory and allergic diseases in children aged 3-5 years in the city of Rome and an updating of the evolution of allergic diseases. PMID: 26936651 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology)



Two-year Efficacy and Safety of Etanercept in Pediatric Patients with Extended Oligoarthritis, Enthesitis-related Arthritis, or Psoriatic Arthritis.

Sun, 06 Mar 2016 00:17:05 +0100

CONCLUSION: Over 96 weeks of therapy, ETN demonstrated sustained efficacy at treating the clinical symptoms of all 3 JIA categories, with no major safety issues. PMID: 26932344 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Rheumatology)



Recombinant duck enteritis viruses expressing major structural proteins of the infectious bronchitis virus provide protection against infectious bronchitis in chickens

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Huixin Li, Yulong Wang, Zongxi Han, Yu Wang, Shulin Liang, Lu Jiang, Yonghao Hu, Xiangang Kong, Shengwang Liu To design an alternative vaccine for control of infectious bronchitis in chickens, three recombinant duck enteritis viruses (rDEVs) expressing the N, S, or S1 protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were constructed using conventional homologous recombination methods, and were designated as rDEV-N, rDEV-S, and rDEV-S1, respectively. Chickens were divided into five vaccinated groups, which were each immunized with one of the rDEVs, covalent vaccination with rDEV-N & rDEV-S, or covalent vaccination with rDEV-N & rDEV-S1, and a control group. An antibody response agains...



Detection of dermatophytes in human nail and skin dust produced during podiatric treatments in people without typical clinical signs of mycoses

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Summary Pedicures are the most common cosmetic foot treatment. Many pedicurists and podiatrists suffer from respiratory infections and diseases such as asthma, sinusitis, chronic cough and bronchitis. Skin and nail dust may play an important role in the development of occupational diseases and the transmission of mycosis to other clients. To examine the presence of dermatophytes in nail and skin dust produced during podiatric treatments of people without typical symptoms of mycosis and to assess the epidemiological hazards of tinea pedis for podiatrists as well as other clients. Seventy‐seven samples underwent direct microscopy and culture. The results of direct microscopy were positive in 28/77 samples (36.36%) and doubtful in 3/77 (3.9%). Fungi were cultured from 36/77 samples (46.75%)...

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Recombinant duck enteritis viruses expressing major structural proteins of the infectious bronchitis virus provide protection against infectious bronchitis in chickens.

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Li H, Wang Y, Han Z, Wang Y, Liang S, Jiang L, Hu Y, Kong X, Liu S Abstract To design an alternative vaccine for control of infectious bronchitis in chickens, three recombinant duck enteritis viruses (rDEVs) expressing the N, S, or S1 protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were constructed using conventional homologous recombination methods, and were designated as rDEV-N, rDEV-S, and rDEV-S1, respectively. Chickens were divided into five vaccinated groups, which were each immunized with one of the rDEVs, covalent vaccination with rDEV-N & rDEV-S, or covalent vaccination with rDEV-N & rDEV-S1, and a control group. An antibody response against IBV was detectable and the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-lymphocytes decreased at 7 days post-vaccination in each vaccinated...



Body Mass Index Trajectories among Middle-Aged and Elderly Canadians and Associated Health Outcomes.

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 12:37:02 +0100

Conclusion. Understanding different BMI trajectories is important in order to identify people who are at the highest risk of developing comorbidities due to obesity and to establish programs to intervene appropriately. PMID: 26925112 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Environmental and Public Health)



What is Chronic Bronchitis and What are the...

Sun, 28 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

What is chronic bronchitis and how does it differ from acute bronchitis. What are the symptoms and causes of this form of COPD and how is it treated? (Source: About.com Lung Cancer)



Cannabinoids: Medical implications.

Sat, 27 Feb 2016 05:53:02 +0100

Authors: Schrot RJ, Hubbard JR Abstract Herbal cannabis has been used for thousands of years for medical purposes. With elucidation of the chemical structures of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and with discovery of the human endocannabinoid system, the medical usefulness of cannabinoids has been more intensively explored. While more randomized clinical trials are needed for some medical conditions, other medical disorders, like chronic cancer and neuropathic pain and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis, have substantial evidence supporting cannabinoid efficacy. While herbal cannabis has not met rigorous FDA standards for medical approval, specific well-characterized cannabinoids have met those standards. Where medical cannabis is legal, patients typically see a...



Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction: An Expert Panel Recommendation

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 22:07:14 +0100

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive condition comprising a constellation of disorders from chronic bronchitis, airflow obstruction through to emphysema. The global burden of COPD is estimated at more than 6% of the population. The standard of care is based on a combination of smoking cessation, immunization, pharmacological treatments and pulmonary rehabilitation. However, the more advanced stages of COPD are challenging to manage. In this situation, our current standards of care do not adequately control patient symptoms nor halt the progressive decline. For the emphysema phenotype, lung volume reduction surgery has shown a beneficial effect in selected patients but is counterbalanced by the morbidity experienced by some patients. Bronchoscopic volume reduction t...

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[Comment] FDA and the safe and appropriate antibiotic use of fluoroquinolones

Wed, 24 Feb 2016 02:20:40 +0100

The thorny topic of fluoroquinolone use in so-called trivial infections was reviewed in respect of risks and benefits on Nov 4, 2015, when a joint meeting of two US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advisory committees (antimicrobial drugs and drug safety) was convened to discuss the relative risks and benefits in three infections: acute bacterial sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, and uncomplicated urinary tract infections.1 (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)



Diagnostic performance of the measurement of nitric oxide in exhaled air in the diagnosis of COPD phenotypes

Wed, 24 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Patients with COPD have different levels of FENO50 depending on the COPD phenotype. FENO50 measurement provides better diagnostic accuracy than BT, with an optimal cut-off value of 19 ppb. (Source: Nitric Oxide)



A Rare Case of Plastic Bronchitis in an Adult Patient After Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

Mon, 22 Feb 2016 18:25:05 +0100

We describe a case of a 54-year-old man in whom a fulminant case of plastic bronchitis developed after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and mitral valve repair. A brief review of the literature is also presented. PMID: 26897202 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)



The Clinical Management Of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections.

Sun, 21 Feb 2016 03:17:02 +0100

Authors: Liapikou A, Torres A Abstract The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study reported that lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia, are the fourth most common cause of death globally. The etiology of acute bronchitis and asthma exacerbations is mostly viral and the therapy is symptomatic. Management decisions in community acquired pneumonia regarding site of care, extent of assessment, and level of treatment are based primarily on disease severity (outpatient, inpatient, ICU admission). Antibiotics are the main choice of treatment for patients with pneumonia, acute exacerbations (AE) of COPD (including increased sputum purulence and worsening shortness of breath) and AE of non-CF bronchiectasis. Inhaled antibiotics may represent a more optimal approach for the tre...



Respiratory effects of sulfur mustard exposure, similarities and differences with asthma and COPD.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 03:00:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: In the present article, respiratory symptoms, changes in PFTs, lung pathology and lung inflammation due to SM exposure and the similarities and differences between them and those observed in asthma and COPD were reviewed. PMID: 26635274 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)

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PM2.5-rich dust collected from the air in Fukuoka, Kyushu, Japan, can exacerbate murine lung eosinophilia.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 03:00:02 +0100

Authors: He M, Ichinose T, Ren Y, Song Y, Yoshida Y, Arashidani K, Yoshida S, Nishikawa M, Takano H, Sun G Abstract PM2.5 can exacerbate asthma. Organic substances adsorbed on PM2.5-rich dust (PM2.5rd) were inactivated by heating at 360 °C. To characterize the role of organic substances, the effects of PM2.5rd and heated PM2.5-rich dust (H-PM2.5 rd) on allergic lung inflammation were investigated. BALB/c mice were intratracheally administered PM2.5rd or H-PM2.5rd with or without ovalbumin (OVA) four times at 2-week intervals. PM2.5rd, but not H-PM2.5rd, caused neutrophilic alveolitis and bronchitis. In the presence of OVA, PM2.5rd caused severe eosinophil infiltration and goblet cells proliferation in airways, along with a marked induction of the Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4...



Cardiovascular effects in rats after intratracheal instillation of metal welding particles.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 03:00:02 +0100

Authors: Zheng W, Antonini JM, Lin YC, Roberts JR, Kashon ML, Castranova V, Kan H Abstract Studies have indicated that pulmonary exposure to welding fumes can induce a series of adverse effects in the respiratory system, including infection, bronchitis, siderosis and decreased pulmonary function. Recent clinical and epidemiological studies have found that pulmonary exposure to welding fumes is also associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm a direct effect of welding fumes on the cardiovascular system. The present study investigated the effects of pulmonary exposure to welding fumes on the heart and the vascular system in rats. Two chemically distinct welding fumes generated from manual metal arc-hard surfacing (M...



Beraprost, a stable analog of prostacyclin, enhances cough reflex sensitivity to capsaicin in bronchitic patients.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 02:59:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that prostacyclin is involved in the pathophysiology of cough reflex sensitivity in patients with chronic bronchitis, a frequently encountered neutrophilic bronchial disorder presenting with chronic productive cough. PMID: 25275218 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)



Metabolomic analysis of lung epithelial secretions in rats: an investigation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by GC-MS and FT-IR.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 02:59:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Several research reports reveal metabolomic parameters in murine model lung tissue or BALF, but they rarely reported a complete metabolomics model profile, particularly in rats. The present data of GC-MS and FT-IR suggest that the set up can be exploited to study metabolomic alterations in several lung conditions including acute lung toxicity, inflammation, asthma, bronchitis, fibrosis, and emphysema. PMID: 25153043 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)



Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Aging Populations.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 02:56:02 +0100

Authors: Fragoso CA Abstract Current epidemiologic practice evaluates COPD based on self-reported symptoms of chronic bronchitis, self-reported physician-diagnosed COPD, spirometry confirmed airflow obstruction, or emphysema diagnosed by volumetric computed chest tomography (CT). Because the highest risk population for having COPD includes a predominance of middle-aged or older persons, aging related changes must also be considered, including: 1) increased multimorbidity, polypharmacy, and severe deconditioning, as these identify mechanisms that underlie respiratory symptoms and can impart a complex differential diagnosis; 2) increased airflow limitation, as this impacts the interpretation of spirometry confirmed airflow obstruction; and 3) "senile" emphysema, as this impacts the s...

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Urbanization and Daily Exposure to Biomass Fuel Smoke Both Contribute to Chronic Bronchitis Risk in a Population with Low Prevalence of Daily Tobacco Smoking.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 02:56:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: We found important variations in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis across settings. Prevalence increased with both urbanization and with daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke. Having chronic bronchitis was also associated with worse patient-centered outcomes including dyspnea, hospitalization and missed workdays. PMID: 26552585 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)



Chronic Airflow Obstruction in a Black African Population: Results of BOLD Study, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 02:56:02 +0100

Authors: Obaseki DO, Erhabor GE, Gnatiuc L, Adewole OO, Buist SA, Burney PG Abstract Global estimates suggest that Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is emerging as a leading cause of death in developing countries but there are few spirometry-based general population data on its prevalence and risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa. We used the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) protocol to select a representative sample of adults aged 40 years and above in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. All the participants underwent spirometry and provided information on smoking history, biomass and occupational exposures as well as diagnosed respiratory diseases and symptoms. Chronic Airflow Obstruction (CAO) was defined as the ratio of post-bronchodilator (BD) one second Forced Expiratory Volum...



Early History of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 1808-1980.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 02:56:02 +0100

Authors: Watson RA, Pride NB Abstract COPD has become a more popular research area in the last 3 decades, yet the first clear descriptions of acute and chronic bronchitis were in 1808. This brief history, comprehensively referenced, leads us through the early developments in respiratory physiology and their applications. It emphasises the early history of chronic bronchitis and emphysema in the 19(th) and early 20(th) centuries, long before the dominant effects of cigarette smoking emerged. This remains relevant to developing countries today. PMID: 26418529 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)



Changing Pattern of Sputum Cell Counts During Successive Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 02:56:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: This non-intervention study suggests that the cellular nature of bronchitis is largely unpredictable and needs to be examined at each COPD exacerbation This has important implications in choosing the appropriate therapy. Future intervention studies would provide further evidence. PMID: 26263037 [PubMed - in process] (Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)



Trends in Outpatient Visits with Benzodiazepines among US Adults With and Without Bronchitis or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease from 1999 to 2010.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 02:56:02 +0100

Authors: Ford ES, Wheaton AG Abstract Little is known about trends in prescriptions for benzodiazepines among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objective was to examine trends of office/outpatient department visits with a mention of a benzodiazepine made by patients aged ≥40 years with COPD in the United States. We used data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 1999-2010. From 1999 to 2010, the estimated numbers of office/outpatient department visits with a benzodiazepine mentioned increased from 20.7 million to 43.2 million among all patients, from 684,000 to 1.5 million among patients with COPD, and from 20.0 million to 41.7 million among patients without COPD. Using all 12-year...

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Health-related quality of life in patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: the French experience.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 02:56:02 +0100

Authors: Gauvain C, Mornex JF, Pison C, Cuvelier A, Balduyck M, Pujazon MC, Fournier M, AitIlalne B, Thabut G Abstract The French registry of patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD)-associated emphysema was launched in 2006. Here, we aimed to report on the baseline characteristics of these patients, their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and factors associated with HRQoL. Another goal was to survey the practices of French physicians regarding augmentation therapy. We included 273 patients with AATD, emphysema, obstructive-pattern [forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/forced volume capacity (FEV1/FVC) < 0.7], FEV1 ≤ 80% predicted. Mean (SD) age was 51.8 (11.1) years, 240 (87.9%) of patients were smokers or ex-smokers, mean (SD) FEV1 was 40.5% (15.7) predicted. Me...



Genotyping of infectious bronchitis viruses from broiler farms in Iraq during 2014-2015

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is one of the most critical pathogens in the poultry industry, causing serious economic losses in all countries including Iraq. IBV has many genotypes that do not confer any cross-protection. This virus has been genotyped by sequence analysis of the S1 glycoprotein gene. A total of 100 tracheal and kidney tissue specimens from different commercial broiler flocks in the middle and south of Iraq were collected from September 2013 to September 2014. Thirty-two IBV-positive samples were selected from among the total and were further characterized by nested PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that isolates belong to four groups (group I, variant 2 [IS/1494-like]; group II, 793/B-like; group III, QX-like; group IV, DY12-2-like). Sequence analys...



The effects of nodakenin on airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness and remodeling in a murine model of allergic asthma.

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 14:28:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: These data indicated that nodakenin might mitigate the development of chronic experimental allergic asthma. PMID: 25090633 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology)



Effects of Standardized Eriobotrya japonica Extract in LP-BM5 Murine Leukemia Viruses-Induced Murine Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 14:24:02 +0100

In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of leaves from LEJ water extracts (LEJE) in LP-BM5 murine leukemia viruses (MuLV)-induced immune-deficient animal model. Dietary supplementation of LEJE (100, 300, 500 mg/kg) began on the day of LP-BM5 MuLV infection and continued for 12 weeks. Dietary supplementation of LEJE inhibited LP-BM5 MuLV-induced splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Moreover, LEJE attenuated reductions of T- and B-cell proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance in LP-BM5. We found that dietary supplements of LEJE suppressed the hypergammaglobulinemia by ameliorating LP-BM5 MuLV infection-induced B-cell dysfunction and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We suggest that Eriobotrya japonica may have beneficial immunomodulatory effects, improving the ba...



Response to: 'Domestic use of bleach and infections in children: a multicentre cross-sectional study

Tue, 16 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We write to express disappointment with the design flaws and speculative nature of the conclusions in the short report presenting findings from a study of domestic use of bleach and infections in children.1 The article concludes that "Passive exposure to cleaning bleach in the home may have adverse effects on school-age children's health by increasing the risk of respiratory and other infections. The high frequency of use of disinfecting irritant cleaning products may be of public health concern, also when exposure occurs during childhood." Specific study design flaws includeThe study data rely on questionnaires completed by parents who were asked to differentiate between specific medical conditions (ie, influenza, tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis and bronchitis). It is unclear if any inform...

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Strongyloides stercoralis disseminated infection in a patient misdiagnosed with chronic asthmatic bronchitis

Tue, 16 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: February 2016 Source:Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 49, Issue 1 Author(s): Yang Wang, Yi Ma, Ying Xu, Bin Zhu, Hongqian Guo (Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection)



Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review of current and developing drugs.

Sun, 14 Feb 2016 14:09:02 +0100

This article reviews the current role of PDE4I in COPD treatment emphasizing roflumilast's clinical efficacy and adverse effects. This article also reviews developing PDE4Is in early clinical trials and in preclinical studies. EXPERT OPINION: After decades of research in drug development, PDE4Is are a welcomed addition to the COPD therapeutic armamentarium. In its current clinical role, the salubrious clinical effects of PDE4I in reducing exacerbations and stabilizing the frequent exacerbator phenotype have to be cautiously balanced with numerous adverse effects. Developing drugs may provide similar or better clinical benefits while minimizing adverse effects by changing the mode of drug delivery to inhaled formulations, combining dual PDE isoenzyme inhibitors (PDE1/4I and PDE3/4I) and...



Evolutionary and bioinformatic analysis of the spike glycoprotein gene of H120 vaccine strain protectotype of infectious bronchitis virus from India

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract The infectious bronchitis virus is a causative agent of avian infectious bronchitis (AIB), and is is an important disease that produces severe economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Recent AIB outbreaks in India have been associated with poor growth in broilers, drop in egg production, and thin egg shells in layers. The complete spike gene of Indian AIB vaccine strain was amplified and sequenced using a conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and is submitted to the GenBank (accession no KF188436). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the vaccine strain currently used belongs to H120 genotype, an attenuated strain of Massachusetts (Mass) serotype. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparisons have shown that the reported spike gene from Indian isol...



Recombinant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) H120 vaccine strain expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) protects chickens against IBV and NDV challenge

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, using a previously established reverse genetics system, we generated a recombinant IBV virus based on the IBV H120 vaccine strain expressing the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of NDV. The recombinant virus, R-H120-HN/5a, exhibited growth dynamics, pathogenicity and viral titers that were similar to those of the parental IBV H120, but it had acquired hemagglutination activity from NDV. Vaccination of SPF chickens with the R-H120-HN/5a virus induced a humoral response at a level comparable to that of the LaSota/H120 commercial bivalent vaccine and provided significant protection against challenge with virulent IBV and NDV. In summary, the results of this study indicate that the IBV H120 strain could serve as an effective tool for designing vaccines against IB and ot...



S1 gene-based phylogeny of infectious bronchitis virus: An attempt to harmonize virus classification.

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Valastro V, Holmes EC, Britton P, Fusaro A, Jackwood MW, Cattoli G, Monne I Abstract Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease that results in severe economic losses to the global poultry industry. The virus exists in a wide variety of genetically distinct viral types, and both phylogenetic analysis and measures of pairwise similarity among nucleotide or amino acid sequences have been used to classify IBV strains. However, there is currently no consensus on the method by which IBV sequences should be compared, and heterogeneous genetic group designations that are inconsistent with phylogenetic history have been adopted, leading to the confusing coexistence of multiple genotyping schemes. Herein, we propose a simple and repeatab...

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Interactive mechanism between avian infectious bronchitis S1 protein T cell peptide and avian MHC I molecule.

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study aims to construct a 3D structure of the avian major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-β2M complex through homology modelling technology, perform molecular docking of the predicted infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 protein potential epitope peptide Sp6 (NQFYIKLT) and the avian MHC-β2M complex, and demonstrate the interactive mechanism between Sp6 and MHC using molecular dynamical simulations. The peptide Sp6 and the non-related peptide NP89-97 (PKKTGGPIY) were used to stimulate in vitro recombinant plasmid (pCAGGS-S1) avian splenic lymphocytes. Flow cytometric results show that CD8(+)T lymphocytes reproduce stimulated by the Sp6 and the nonrelated peptide proliferate by 34.8% and 2.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, fluorescent quantitative PCR results show that the secretion of IF...



Modifying influence of occupational inflammatory diseases on the level of chromosome aberrations in coal miners

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Coal miners are exposed to a wide range of genotoxic agents that can induce genome damage. In addition, miners are characterised by a high risk of the initiation of different occupational inflammatory as well as non-inflammatory diseases. The aim of this investigation is to analyse the modifying influence of occupational pulmonary inflammatory diseases on the level of chromosome aberrations (CAs) in miners working in underground coal mines in Kemerovo Region (Russian Federation). The study group included 90 coal miners with the following pulmonary diseases: chronic dust-induced bronchitis (CDB) and coal-workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) (mean age = 53.52±2.95 years; mean work experience in coal-mining conditions = 27.70±3.61 years). As a population control (control 1), we h...



Percutaneous Lymphatic Embolization of Abnormal Pulmonary Lymphatic Flow as Treatment of Plastic Bronchitis in Patients With Congenital Heart Disease.

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: -In this study we demonstrated abnormal pulmonary lymphatic perfusion in most patients with PB. Interruption of the lymphatic flow resulted in significant improvement of symptoms in these patients and in some cases, at least temporary resolution of cast formation. PMID: 26864093 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Circulation)



Exposure to air pollution 30 years ago associated with increased risk of death

Tue, 09 Feb 2016 03:06:01 +0100

Exposure to air pollution more than 30 years ago may still affect an individual's mortality risk today, according to new research. Highest risks were seen for respiratory disease, such as bronchitis, emphysema and for pneumonia. Air pollution also affected mortality risk from cardiovascular diseases, such as heart disease. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)



People today are still dying early from high 1970s air pollution

Tue, 09 Feb 2016 00:05:17 +0100

Exposure to UK urban pollution 40 years ago is raising death rates today as a result of bronchitis, emphysema and pneumonia (Source: New Scientist - Health)

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Delonix regia: historic perspectives and modern phytochemical and pharmacological researches

Wed, 03 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: January 2016 Source:Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, Volume 14, Issue 1 Author(s): Anuj Modi, Vijay Mishra, Ajita Bhatt, Aviral Jain, Mohd. Hashim Mansoori, Ekta Gurnany, Vimal Kumar Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook) Raffin (Fabaceae), also known as flame of forest, is a semi-deciduous tree, distributed throughout Madagascar, India, Africa, and Northern Australia. Various parts of the plant are traditionally used for the treatment of different ailments such as inflammation, rheumatism, bronchitis, diabetes, anemia, fever, gynecological disorders, and pneumonia. The plant possess antioxidant, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, wound healing, antiarthritic, larvicidal, antimalarial, antiemetic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antidiarrhoea...



Study: Nicotine Patch Works as Well as Chantix to Help Quit Smoking

Tue, 02 Feb 2016 05:37:53 +0100

This study confirms that FDA-approved medications are effective in helping smokers quit,” said Lee Westmaas, PhD, American Cancer Society director of tobacco control research. “Smokers should seriously consider using medications if they are finding it difficult to quit without any help. The most effective approach to quitting is using medications in combination with counseling such as from a quit-line.”RESOURCES: How to Quit Smoking Quit-smoking medicationsResearch shows that using a medication to help you quit smoking can double your chances of being successful.The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved 7 medications to safely and effectively help people quit smoking. Choosing which one to use is often a matter of personal choice and should be discussed...



Lymphoid hyperplasia of the colon and its association with underlying allergic airway diseases

Mon, 01 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Our results indicate that lymphoid hyperplasia in the large intestine may be associated with allergic airway diseases rather than with food allergies; thus, its presence may be useful to detect patients with underlying airway hyperreactivity. (Source: International Journal of Colorectal Disease)



Interstitial lung disease in a female worker sensitized to epoxy resins: a case report submitted for discussion.

Sat, 30 Jan 2016 13:49:02 +0100

Authors: Calisti R Abstract Epoxy resins are well known agents in respiratory medicine for their potential to induce bronchial asthma; the possibility of these agents causing respiratory diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP) and similar lung diseases, has been poorly investigated.[...]. PMID: 26822248 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medicina del Lavoro)



No, You Are Not an Hysterical Female, and This Is Not Just Anxiety

Fri, 29 Jan 2016 15:08:28 +0100

"He's working with a med student shadowing him today. Do you mind being seen by her first?" In the spirit of education, I said, "No, of course not." She had long strawberry blond hair and big glasses. We talked. "What brought you here today?" she asked. "Well, I was seen in the ER three weeks ago for a blood clot in my leg and they told me I needed to follow up." I watched her write down "Deep Vein Thrombosis." "It wasn't a deep vein thrombosis, but they did find a blood clot, and told me to follow up with you." She marked out "Deep Vein Thrombosis" and led me through my recent history since the Bad Fall Onto My Head on November 1st: concussion, double vision, vertigo, blood clot, and now this follow up, which also added recent chest pains to the list. "Yes, a tight band of severe pain acr...

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Ask Well: Sleep and Colds

Fri, 29 Jan 2016 14:53:06 +0100

A reader asks: Is there a link between getting a good night’s sleep and the ability to ward off winter ailments like bronchitis, colds and pneumonia? (Source: NYT)



IJERPH, Vol. 13, Pages 161: Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children

Tue, 26 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: A home smoking ban is not widely adopted by families of hospitalized children in Guangxi Province, China. To protect the health of children, there is a need to develop and test interventions to promote home smoking bans. Factors identified as predictors of home smoking ban should be considered in the design of interventions. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)



Growth, Nutritional Status, and Pulmonary Function in Children with Chronic Recurrent Bronchitis.

Mon, 25 Jan 2016 14:15:02 +0100

Authors: Umławska W, Lipowicz A Abstract Bronchitis is a common health problem in children. Frequent bronchitis in infancy increases the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the level of growth and the nutritional status in children and youths with special regard to the level of body fatness assessed by measuring skin-fold thickness. Relationships between somatic development, pulmonary function and the course of the disease were also explored. The study was carried out using anthropometric and spirometric measurements and also information on the severity and course of the disease in 141 children with chronic or recurrent bronchitis. All of the subjects were patients of the Pulmonary Medicine and Allergology Center in Karpacz, Poland. ...

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A higher overall diet quality is inversely associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in men and women

Fri, 22 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study examines the association between AHEI-2010 and COPD risk among US men and women.... (Source: Evidence-Based Medicine)



Admission to hospital for bronchiolitis in England: trends over five decades, geographical variation and association with perinatal characteristics and subsequent asthma

Wed, 20 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Hospital admissions for infants with bronchiolitis have increased substantially in recent years. However, cases requiring intensive care have changed little since 2004. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)



Recent advances in paediatric respiratory medicine

Wed, 20 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This review highlights important advances in paediatric respiratory medicine since 2014, excluding cystic fibrosis. It focuses mainly on the more common conditions, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, bronchiolitis and preschool wheezing, asthma, pneumonia and sleep, and highlights some of the rarer conditions such as primary ciliary dyskinesia and interstitial lung disease (ILD). (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)



Comparison between Dot-immunoblotting Assay and Clinical Sign Determination Method for Quantifying Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus Vaccine by Titration in Embryonated Eggs.

Wed, 20 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we used a dot-immunoblotting assay (DIA) to measure the titers of IBV vaccines that originated from different pathogenic strains or attenuation methods in embryonated eggs, and we compared this assay to the currently used method, clinical sign evaluation. To compare the two methods, we used real-time reverse transcription-PCR, which had the lowest limit of detection for propagated IBV. As a clinical sign of infection, dwarfism of the embryo was quantified using the embryo:egg (EE) index. The DIA showed 9.41% higher sensitivity and 15.5% higher specificity than the clinical sign determination method. The DIA was particularly useful for measuring the titer of IBV vaccine that did not cause apparent stunting but propagated in embryonated chicken eggs such as a heat-adapted vacc...



Highlights from this issue

Wed, 20 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

I've written here before about how each issue ranges from the sublime to the ridiculous. This is a misuse of the saying—certainly at the ridiculous end—but the phrase captures well for me the range of reading experience you'll get in this issue. Take, for instance, the paper by Lydia Forestier-Zhang and Nick Bishop on understanding basic bone mechanics (see page 2). When these authors approached me to write this, I wondered if it would be of relevance to readers, and was persuaded by them that it was. I'm pleased that they did so; I've sat in many safeguarding meetings explaining why I'm concerned that a child's bone has fractured, and this gives me a more sound backing to, as the authors put it, the reasons why some bones break and others don't, given the same trauma and force...

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No Antibiotics for Common Respiratory Infections: Experts

Tue, 19 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Physicians' group and CDC jointly advise that the drugs not be prescribed for colds, bronchitis in adults (Source: Pulmonary Medicine News - Doctors Lounge)



Appropriate Antibiotic Use for Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Adults: Advice for High-Value Care From the American College of Physicians and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Tue, 19 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article presents best practices for antibiotic use in healthy adults (those without chronic lung disease or immunocompromising conditions) presenting with ARTI. Methods: A narrative literature review of evidence about appropriate antibiotic use for ARTI in adults was conducted. The most recent clinical guidelines from professional societies were complemented by meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and randomized clinical trials. To identify evidence-based articles, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched through September 2015 using the following Medical Subject Headings terms: "acute bronchitis," "respiratory tract infection," "pharyngitis," "rhinosinusitis," and "the common cold." High-Value Care Advice 1: Clinicians should not perform testing or initia...



No Antibiotics for Common Respiratory Infections: Experts

Mon, 18 Jan 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Physicians' group and CDC jointly advise that the drugs not be prescribed for colds, bronchitis in adults Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Acute Bronchitis, Antibiotic Resistance, Common Cold (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)



C-reactive protein point-of-care testing and antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in rural primary health centres of North Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

Sun, 17 Jan 2016 23:44:02 +0100

This study aimed to elicit the frequency of antibiotic prescribing and distribution of CRP levels in remote, rural settings in Ethiopia. We included 414 patients with acute URTIs from four health centres. Health professionals recorded the clinical features of the patients, but the laboratory professionals measured the CRP levels of all patients at the point of care. The most prominent respiratory causes for consultation were acute URTIs combined (44.4%), and lower respiratory tract infections-pneumonia (29.71%) and acute bronchitis (25.84%). The CRP distribution was <20 mg/l, 20-99 mg/l and 100 mg/l or more in 66.6%, 27.9% and 5.5% of the patients, respectively. The CRP levels were significantly different among these clinical diagnoses (X(2)=114.3, P<0.001, d.f.=4). A wide rang...



Stereoselective metabolism of amygdalin-based study of detoxification of Semen Armeniacae Amarum in the Herba Ephedrae–Semen Armeniacae Amarum herb pair

Sat, 16 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions A comprehensive study of Xingren detoxification in the context of the MX combination suggested that stereoselective metabolism of amygdalin facilitated by Mahuang may be the crucial mechanism underlying detoxification of Xingren in the MX combination. Therefore, Mahuang acts to enhance and control the effects of Xingren in the MX combination. These results illustrate the rationale behind the combination of Mahuang and Xingren. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)

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The Biggest Medical Stories You May Have Missed In 2015

Fri, 15 Jan 2016 11:59:16 +0100

SPECIAL FROM Next Avenue By Craig Bowron As we head into the New Year, let’s take a look back and see what lessons we should have learned from medical science in 2015. The New England Journal of Medicine’s publication Journal Watch provides physicians and other health care providers with expert analysis of the most recent medical research. Below is a brief synopsis of what the Journal Watch editors felt were the most important stories in general medicine for the year 2015. While you likely heard about a couple, others probably escaped your radar. Getting Aggressive with Strokes We’re familiar with the idea of a cardiologist performing an angioplasty, where a tiny tube called a catheter is threaded into a coronary artery and a balloon on the end of the catheter is inflate...



Factors associated with mouth breathing in children with ­developmental ­disabilities

Wed, 13 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionAmong patients with ­developmental disabilities, boys and psychotropic drug users had a greater chance of being mouth breathers. (Source: Special Care in Dentistry)



Relationship between androgen deprivation therapy and community‐acquired respiratory infections in patients with prostate cancer

Wed, 13 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsIncreased exposure to medical androgen deprivation therapy for men with localized prostate cancer is associated with a higher risk of community‐acquired respiratory infections. Our results suggest that respiratory complications represent potentially underreported complications of medical androgen deprivation therapy. (Source: International Journal of Urology)



Advanced Inhalation Therapies scales back IPO terms to $10m

Tue, 12 Jan 2016 13:42:08 +0100

Advanced Inhalation Therapies yesterday scaled its pending initial public offering by more than ⅔ as it looks to raise funds for its drug delivery device, which is designed to treat severe respiratory infections and lung diseases using a high dose of nitric oxide. When it registered for the IPO back in August 2015, Rehovot, Israel-based AIT set the high end of the offering at $36 million. Yesterday the company said it plans to float 675,000 shares at $15 apiece, for gross proceeds of $10.1 million. Losses for AIT last year widened by 200%, to -$4.6 million, or -41¢ per share, compared with 2013. For the 6 months ended June 30, 2015, however, the company pared its losses by -37.5%, to  -$2 million, or -20¢ per share, compared to the 1st half of 2014. AIT is developing a device...



Millions of non-smoking teenagers are still at risk of serious illness

Mon, 11 Jan 2016 20:56:04 +0100

The CDC said while teen smoking rates are down, half of young nonsmokers are still exposed to secondhand smoke - which can cause breathing problems, pneumonia and bronchitis in children. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

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Experimental infection of IS/885/00-like infectious bronchitis virus in specific pathogen free and commercial broiler chicks

Mon, 11 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 6 January 2016 Source:Research in Veterinary Science Author(s): Faez Awad, Rajesh Chhabra, Anne Forrester, Julian Chantrey, Matthew Baylis, Stephane Lemiere, Hussein Aly Hussein, Kannan Ganapathy Pathogenesis of IS/885/00-like (IS/885) strain of variant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was examined in one day old specific pathogen free (SPF) and commercial broiler chicks. Chicks were humanely euthanized at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 21 and 28days post infection days (dpi) post infection for necropsy examination, and tissues were collected for histopathology and virus detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Respiratory signs, gross lesions comprising tracheal caseous exudate and plugs, and swollen kidneys (with or without) u...



Mitochondrial iron chelation ameliorates cigarette smoke–induced bronchitis and emphysema in mice

Mon, 11 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Nature Medicine 22, 163 (2016). doi:10.1038/nm.4021 Authors: Suzanne M Cloonan, Kimberly Glass, Maria E Laucho-Contreras, Abhiram R Bhashyam, Morgan Cervo, Maria A Pabón, Csaba Konrad, Francesca Polverino, Ilias I Siempos, Elizabeth Perez, Kenji Mizumura, Manik C Ghosh, Harikrishnan Parameswaran, Niamh C Williams, Kristen T Rooney, Zhi-Hua Chen, Monica P Goldklang, Guo-Cheng Yuan, Stephen C Moore, Dawn L Demeo, Tracey A Rouault, Jeanine M D'Armiento, Eric A Schon, Giovanni Manfredi, John Quackenbush, Ashfaq Mahmood, Edwin K Silverman, Caroline A Owen & Augustine M K Choi (Source: Nature Medicine)



Heterologous Live IBV Vaccination in Day-Old Commercial Broiler Chicks: clinical Signs, Ciliary Health, Immune Responses and Protection Against Variant IBVS.

Fri, 08 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Awad F, Hutton S, Forrester A, Baylis M, Ganapathy K Abstract Groups of one-day-old broiler chicks were vaccinated via oculo-nasal route with different live infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines; Massachusetts (Mass), 793B, D274, or Arkansas (Ark). Clinical signs and gross lesions were evaluated. Five chicks from each group were humanely killed at intervals and their trachea collected for ciliary activity assessment and for the detection of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Blood samples were collected at intervals for the detection of anti-IBV antibodies. At 21 days post vaccination (dpv), protection conferred by different vaccination regimes against virulent M41, QX and 793B was assessed. All vaccination programmes were able to induce...



Gestational Age, Birthweight for Gestational Age, and Childhood Hospitalisations for Asthma and Other Wheezing Disorders

Wed, 06 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionThe association of preterm birth with childhood wheezing could be biologically mediated. We cannot rule out an association for early term births. (Source: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology)



Respiratory manifestations and management in children with Common Variable Immunodeficiency

Mon, 04 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Common variable immunodeficiency is an antibody deficiency that usually presents in childhood with recurrent sino-pulmonary infections. Diagnostic delay is frequent and thus respiratory morbidity is common, ranging from recurrent suppurative bronchitis to bronchiectasis. Immunoglobulin replacement therapy is the mainstay of treatment, whilst prophylactic antibiotic therapy and muco-ciliary clearance are additional treatment options. This review examines the diagnosis and management of respiratory issues in children with CVID. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)

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Lower Mortality Associated With Overweight in the U.S. National Health Interview Survey: Is Overweight Protective?

Fri, 01 Jan 2016 06:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, overweight adults have a lower mortality risk than normal weight adults. Our findings do not support that the lower mortality in overweight adults is due to confounding effects of smoking and preexisting diseases. (Source: Medicine)



Histone deacetylase activity and recurrent bacterial bronchitis in severe eosinophilic asthma

Wed, 30 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Allergy)



Prescription of antibacterial agents for acute upper respiratory tract infections in Beijing, 2010–2012

Sat, 26 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Antibacterial drug prescription for outpatients with acute URIs is common in tertiary hospitals in Beijing, and the prescribed antibacterials are usually broad-spectrum agents. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology)



Antiviral Cystine Knot {alpha}-Amylase Inhibitors [Protein Structure and Folding]

Fri, 25 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Cystine knot α-amylase inhibitors are cysteine-rich, proline-rich peptides found in the Amaranthaceae and Apocynaceae plant species. They are characterized by a pseudocyclic backbone with two to four prolines and three disulfides arranged in a knotted motif. Similar to other knottins, cystine knot α-amylase inhibitors are highly resistant to degradation by heat and protease treatments. Thus far, only the α-amylase inhibition activity has been described for members of this family. Here, we show that cystine knot α-amylase inhibitors named alstotides discovered from the Alstonia scholaris plant of the Apocynaceae family display antiviral activity. The alstotides (As1–As4) were characterized by both proteomic and genomic methods. All four alsotides are novel, heat-stable and enzyme-stab...



Acquired Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Dysfunction in Chronic Bronchitis and Other Diseases of Mucus Clearance

Thu, 24 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem. No therapies alter the natural history of the disease. Chronic bronchitis is perhaps the most clinically troublesome phenotype. Emerging data strongly suggest that cigarette smoke and its components can lead to acquired cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction. Findings in vitro, in animal models, and in smokers with and without COPD also show acquired CFTR dysfunction, which is associated with chronic bronchitis. This abnormality is also present in extrapulmonary organs, suggesting that CFTR dysfunction may contribute to smoking-related systemic diseases. (Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine)

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Effects of air pollutants on upper airway disease

Wed, 23 Dec 2015 14:45:48 +0100

Purpose of review: We discuss the effects of air pollutants on upper airway disease; the topic has hitherto received little attention. Recent findings: Several epidemiological studies have shown that air pollutants aggravate airway diseases including asthma, bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. Pollutants also have negative effects on other upper airway diseases such as allergic and nonallergic rhinitis, sinusitis, and otitis media. Traffic-related air pollutants (diesel exhaust particles and nitrogen dioxide and tobacco smoke) have been widely studied in this context. Increasing evidence suggests that particulate matter, photochemical pollutants, and ozone are associated with such conditions. Young children and the obese are more vulnerable. Work in vivo and in vitro ha...



Studying human respiratory disease in animals – role of induced and naturally occurring models

Wed, 23 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Respiratory disorders like asthma, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis affect millions of Americans and many more worldwide. Despite advancements in medical research that have led to improved understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions and sometimes to new therapeutic interventions, these disorders are for the most part chronic and progressive; current interventions are not curative and do not halt disease progression. A major obstacle to further advancements relates to the absence of animal models that exactly resemble the human condition, which delays the elucidation of relevant mechanisms of action, the unveiling of biomarkers of disease progression, and identification of new targets for intervention in patients. There are currently many induced animal models of huma...



Postepy Hig Med Dosw 2015; 69:612-623 "Selected aspects of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infections"

Tue, 22 Dec 2015 00:23:54 +0100

Chlamydophila pneumoniae was taxonomically separated from strain TWAR – an abbreviation of the strain isolated from humans TW-183 (material from the eye of a child in Taiwan in 1965) and AR-39 (material from a student’s throat swab with acute changes within airways in Seattle in 1983). The basis of separation of the C. pneumoniae species was the unique structure of the elementary bodies. Infection caused by C. pneumoniae is often asymptomatic (60-80% of all infections). Symptomatic infections of the upper respiratory tract relate to pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis and the lower respiratory tract: bronchitis and pneumonia. C. pneumoniae infection often transforms into a chronic, clinically oligo- or asymptomatic form. The chronic inflammatory process is associated by many authors wi...



Codonopsis lanceolata: A Review of Its Therapeutic Potentials

Mon, 21 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) is dicotyledonous herbaceous perennial plant, predominantly found in Central, East, and South Asia. This plant has been widely used in traditional medicine and is considered to have medicinal properties to treat diseases and symptoms such as bronchitis, coughs, spasm, psychoneurosis, cancer, obesity, hyperlipidemia, edema, hepatitis, colitis, and lung injury. C. lanceolata contains many biologically active compounds, including polyphenols, saponins, tannins, triterpene, alkaloids, and steroids, which contribute to its numerous pharmacological activities. Through systematic studies, the pharmacological actions of these compounds have been revealed. Therapeutic potentialities of C. lanceolata and its previously reported molecular mechanisms are described...



Do β-2 Agonists for Acute Bronchitis Provide Any Benefit?

Fri, 18 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 18 December 2015 Source:Annals of Emergency Medicine Author(s): Daniel C. Kolinsky, Evan S. Schwarz (Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine)

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Bridging Lung Development with COPD: Relevance of Developmental Pathways in COPD Pathogenesis.

Thu, 17 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Boucherat O, Morissette MC, Provencher S, Bonnet S, Maltais F Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic airflow limitation. This generic term encompasses emphysema and chronic bronchitis, two common conditions, each having distinct but also overlapping features. Recent epidemiological and experimental studies have challenged the traditional view that COPD is exclusively an adult disease occurring after years of inhalational insults to the lungs, pinpointing abnormalities or disruption of the pathways that control lung development as an important susceptibility factor for adult COPD. In addition, there is growing evidence that emphysema is not solely a destructive process, since it is also characterized by a failure in cell and molecu...



Incidence of new-onset wheeze: a prospective study in a large middle-aged general population

Wed, 16 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: This is a unique study that presents an incidence rate for new-onset wheeze in a middle-aged, general population sample previously free of adult wheeze. The results indicate that new-onset wheeze is quite common in this age group. Health care staff should bear this in mind since new-onset wheeze could be one of the earliest symptoms of severe respiratory disease. Special attention should be paid to patients with a smoking history, chronic bronchitis, rhinitis or obesity. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)



Will chronic e-cigarette use cause lung disease?

Tue, 15 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Chronic tobacco smoking is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the lung, tobacco smoking increases the risk of lung cancer, and also causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which encompasses both emphysema and chronic bronchitis. E-cigarettes (E-Cigs), or electronic nicotine delivery systems, were developed over a decade ago and are designed to deliver nicotine without combusting tobacco. Although tobacco smoking has declined since the 1950s, E-Cig usage has increased, attracting both former tobacco smokers and never smokers. E-Cig liquids (e-liquids) contain nicotine in a glycerol/propylene glycol vehicle with flavorings, which are vaporized and inhaled. To date, neither E-Cig devices, nor e-liquids, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administra...



Influences of pyrexia and age on theophylline clearance in young children with asthma.

Sat, 12 Dec 2015 20:00:56 +0100

This study showed that the presence of pyrexia decreases theophylline clearance, and that it affects theophylline clearance in an age-dependent manner. Based on the results of this study, dosages should be designed based on the clearance at the time of pyrexia. PMID: 22702215 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Hiroshima Journal of Medical Sciences)



Allergic rhinitis and associated comorbidities: prevalence in oman with knowledge gaps in literature.

Sat, 12 Dec 2015 02:20:35 +0100

CONCLUSION: The prevalence of AR in the adult population presenting with nasal symptoms was found to be 7%, with associated chronic rhinosinusitis present in a third of these patients. However, there appears to be substantial knowledge gaps regarding the association of other comorbidities, like otitis media, bronchitis and bronchial asthma, the long-term outcomes of medical management, and indication of surgical intervention in patients with AR. Future research in AR among Omani patients should aim to address these issues. PMID: 25584158 [PubMed] (Source: Oman Medical Journal)

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Traumatic Inhalation due to Merapi Volcanic Ash.

Fri, 11 Dec 2015 22:29:58 +0100

Authors: Trisnawati I, Budiono E, Sumardi, Setiadi A Abstract Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis is fibrotic lung diseases of the pulmonary parenchyma following chronic inhalation of inorganic dusts containing crystalline silicon dioxide. The acute manifestations observed after heavy ashfalls include attacks of asthma and bronchitis, with an increased reporting of cough, breathlessness, chest tightness, and wheezing due to irritation of the lining of the airways. The chronic health condition of most concern is silicosis, a diffuse nodular fibrosis of the lungs, develops slowly, usually appearing 10 to 30 years after first exposure. A 35 years old male was admitted to Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta with complaints of progressive dyspnoea, right side chest pain since last 3...



Regional specifics of microbial landscape in outpatients with lower respiratory tract infections.

Wed, 09 Dec 2015 20:50:03 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The results of the research carried out in the recent years in comparison with the data of the previous years, call for reviewing of the standard approaches to the choice of antimicrobial agents in respiratory tract infections. In order to improve the standard of care, the choice of medicines should be based on a number of factors, namely the age, the severity of the respective pathological condition, previous antimicrobial use, and the level of care. PMID: 26639714 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine)



Classification and Functional Analyses of Putative Conserved Proteins from Chlamydophila pneumoniae CWL029

Wed, 09 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Chlamydophila pneumoniae, a Gram-negative bacterium belongs to the family Chlamydiaceae, is known to cause community-acquired pneumonia and bronchitis. There is a need for genomic analyses of C. pneumoniae as its chronic infections result in reactive airway disease, lung cancer and asthma. Recent advancement in the sequencing techniques led to the generation of large genomic data. In order to utilize these data, sequence-based function predictions were used for annotating the uncharacterized genes. The genome of C. pneumoniae encodes 1052 proteins, which include a group of 366 functionally uncharacterized proteins, known as “hypothetical proteins” (HPs). Functions of these HPs were predicted by utilizing an integrated approach that combines varieties of...



Dynamics of avian coronavirus circulation in commercial and non-commercial birds in Asia - a review.

Sat, 05 Dec 2015 06:10:02 +0100

Authors: Promkuntod N Abstract It is essential to understand the latest situation regarding avian coronaviruses (ACoVs), commonly referred to as the well-known avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), given that new and diverse types of IBV are continually being identified worldwide, particularly ones that are isolated from commercial poultry and associated with a wide range of disease conditions. The existing IBVs continue to evolve in various geographic areas in Asia, which results in the recombination and co-circulation between IBV types. This makes it increasingly difficult to prevent and control IBV infections, despite routine vaccination. Some ACoVs have also been identified in other avian species and they may pose a threat of cross-transmission to commercial sectors. The pre...



Antibiotic use for viral acute respiratory tract infections remains common.

Thu, 03 Dec 2015 06:40:04 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Prescribing antibiotics for ARTIs that are likely to be viral in origin remains common, despite extensive public health educational efforts. PMID: 26619058 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Managed Care)

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Patient Preferences for Biologicals in Psoriasis: Top Priority of Safety for Cardiovascular Patients

Thu, 03 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

by Marthe-Lisa Schaarschmidt, Christian Kromer, Raphael Herr, Astrid Schmieder, Diana Sonntag, Sergij Goerdt, Wiebke K. Peitsch Patients with psoriasis are often affected by comorbidities, which largely influence treatment decisions. Here we performed conjoint analysis to assess the impact of comorbidities on preferences of patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis for outcome (probability of 50% and 90% improvement, time until response, sustainability of success, probability of mild and severe adverse events (AE), probability of ACR 20 response) and process attributes (treatment location, frequency, duration and delivery method) of biologicals. The influence of comorbidities on Relative Importance Scores (RIS) was determined with analysis of variance and multivariate regression. Among t...