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MedWorm: Psychology



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in Psychology



Last Build Date: Mon, 28 Mar 2016 01:10:59 +0100

 



Psychosocial risks in Psychiatry and Anaesthesiology residents in a Portuguese General and University Hospital.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 15:04:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that residents have a health risk which derives from the cognitive demands of their work and that it increases with the workload.  This implicates the need for occupational health measures to be taken to manage and reduce these psychological risks. PMID: 27015028 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medicina del Lavoro)

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Open wide: why yawning reveals much about your level of empathy

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 06:00:08 +0100

When you see someone yawn and stretch, what do you feel like doing? The answer may surprise youHere’s a simple personality test to try on whoever is sitting opposite you as you read this column. When you’re fairly sure that he or she is looking at you – but without checking too obviously – yawn. Does the other person follow suit?If they do, it suggests that your companion is a fairly empathic person (or at least has a fair amount of empathy for you). A growing body of evidence suggests that contagious yawning is closely linked to empathy. For starters, babies don’t catch yawns. Yawn contagion only starts to appear around the age of four or five, about the same time as empathy. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)



The ‘dark side’ of personal values: Relations to clinical constructs and their implications

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: July 2016 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 97 Author(s): Paul H.P. Hanel, Uwe Wolfradt Personal values are considered as guiding principles in one's life. Much of previous research on values has consequently focused on its relations with variables that are considered positive, including subjective well-being, personality traits, or behavior (e.g. health-related). However, in this study (N =366) the negative ‘dark’ side of values is examined. Specifically, the study investigated the relations between Schwartz' (1992) ten value types and four different clinical variables — anxiety, depression, stress, and schizotypy with its subdimensions, unusual experience, cognitive disorganization, introverted anhedonia, and impulsive nonconformity. Positi...



Brain, hormone and appetite responses to glucose versus fructose

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 9 Author(s): Kathleen A Page, A James Melrose Emerging data suggest that the monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, have disparate effects on the neuroendocrine circuits involved in appetite and reward processing. Compared to glucose, fructose ingestion results in smaller increases in circulating levels of insulin, leptin, and glucagon-like polypeptide-1, hormones that increase satiety. The central administration of fructose was shown to decrease hypothalamic satiety signaling and increase feeding in animals, whereas glucose increased satiety signaling and reduced food intake. Likewise, studies show that the hypothalamus responds differently to fructose versus glucose ingestion in humans. Moreover, fructo...



The mesolimbic system and eating addiction: what sugar does and does not do

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 9 Author(s): Johannes W De Jong, Louk JMJ Vanderschuren, Roger AH Adan Obesity and obesity-related disorders are a major threat to public health. It has been suggested that food addiction is a valid clinical concept and that food addiction is a contributing factor to the obesity epidemic. Research involving restricted access ‘binge’ diets has shown that rodents will display sucrose-related behavior that is reminiscent of substance addiction, under certain conditions. A question that remains, however, is if food or certain components of food possess addictive qualities akin to drugs of abuse. The alternative is that ‘food addiction’ (or rather ‘eating addiction’) is not a substance use disorde...



Predictors of depression severity in a treatment-seeking sample

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: The study contributes to the profiling of the incidence and predictors of severity of depression in an Irish context. The results confirm some of the known risk factors and highlight the need for further research to be carried out on screening for depression and increasing access to interventions. (Source: International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology)

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Heterogeneity in individual adaptation action: Modelling the provision of a climate adaptation public good in an empirically grounded synthetic population

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Journal of Environmental Psychology Author(s): Friedrich Krebs Adaptation to climate change depends to a significant extent on behavioural change in the form of individual adaptation action. We investigate the case of urban neighbourhood activation for the support of the elderly during the more likely occurring extreme heat waves generated by climate change. The proposed integrative theoretical consideration makes on the one hand reference to social dilemma theory and on the other to concepts from behavioural theory and social psychology. The case context is particularly challenging because it involves intra-individual dynamics of psychological processes, inter-individual dynamics of social influence and environmental dynamics gove...



Can alcohol make you happy? A subjective Wellbeing approach

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, while iPhone users are happier at the moment of drinking, there are only small overspills to other moments, and among the wider population, changing drinking levels across several years are not associated with changing life satisfaction. Furthermore, drinking problems are associated with lower life satisfaction. Simple accounts of the wellbeing impacts of alcohol policies are therefore likely to be misleading. Policymakers must consider the complexity of different policy impacts on different conceptions of ‘wellbeing’, over different time periods, and among different types of drinkers. (Source: Social Science and Medicine)



Testosterone and attention deficits as possible mechanisms underlying impaired emotion recognition in intimate partner violence perpetrators

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context Author(s): Ángel Romero-Martínez, Marisol Lila, Luis Moya-Albiol Several studies have reported impairments in decoding emotional facial expressions in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. However, the mechanisms that underlie these impaired skills are not well known. Given this gap in the literature, we aimed to establish whether IPV perpetrators (n =18) differ in their emotion decoding process, attentional skills, and testosterone (T), cortisol (C) levels and T/C ratio in comparison with controls (n =20), and also to examine the moderating role of the group and hormonal parameters in the relationship between attention skills and the emotion decoding process. ...

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Using the Scharff-technique to elicit information: How to effectively establish the “illusion of knowing it all”?

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context Author(s): Lennart May, Pär Anders Granhag The Scharff-technique is used for eliciting information from human sources. At the very core of the technique is the “illusion of knowing it all” tactic, which aims to inflate a source's perception of how much knowledge an interviewer holds about the event to be discussed. For the current study, we mapped the effects following two different ways of introducing this particular tactic; a traditional way of implementation where the interviewer explicitly states that s/he already knows most of the important information (the traditional condition), and a new way of implementation where the interviewer just starts to present the i...



Comparative Connectomics

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences Author(s): Martijn P. van den Heuvel, Edward T. Bullmore, Olaf Sporns We introduce comparative connectomics, the quantitative study of cross-species commonalities and variations in brain network topology that aims to discover general principles of network architecture of nervous systems and the identification of species-specific features of brain connectivity. By comparing connectomes derived from simple to more advanced species, we identify two conserved themes of wiring: the tendency to organize network topology into communities that serve specialized functionality and the general drive to enable high topological integration by means of investment of neural resources in short communication paths, hu...



A New Framework to Explain Sensorimotor Beta Oscillations

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences Author(s): Clare Palmer, Laura Zapparoli, James M. Kilner Oscillatory activity in the beta frequency range from sensorimotor cortices is modulated by movement; however, the functional role of this activity remains unknown. In a recent study, Tan et al. tested a novel hypothesis that beta power reflects estimates of uncertainty in parameters of motor forward models. (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)

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Book Review: Intensive Psychotherapy for Persistent Dissociative Processes

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 19:36:15 +0100

If you have ever seen the movies The Three Faces of Eve or Sybil, you might have found yourself second guessing your own behavior or wondering whether close friends or family have multiple personalities, but the popularity and sensationalism of these movies do not necessarily reflect the many nuanced and serious components of dissociative disorders. That’s why so many mental health professionals have spent the years following the production of these two films attempting to explain dissociative disorders.  The latest attempt, Richard Chefetz’s Intensive Psychotherapy for Persistent Dissociative Processes: The Fear of Feeling Real, does a fantastic job of explaining the dissociative process of patients who have struggled with connecting their painful history to their current real...



Fueling Terror: How Extremists Are Made

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 14:00:00 +0100

The psychology of group dynamics goes a long way toward explaining what drives ordinary people toward radicalism -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)



What Research Says about Defeating Terrorism

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 13:30:00 +0100

Seven enlightening studies from social psychology hold vital lessons for policy makers—and the rest of us -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)



10-Second Answers To This Week's Pressing Health Questions

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:45:34 +0100

ICYMI Health features what we're reading this week. This week, we sought out simple answers to tough health questions. While such questions require a degree of nuance -- if they didn't, they wouldn't be tough, right? -- consider this an at-a-glance jumping off point to explore the research in more detail.    Read on and tell us in the comments: What did you read and love this week? Q: How can we reduce the United States' high C-section rate?  A: Give women more time to push. According to a study published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology in March, giving women just one more hour to push during the second stage of labor cut the C-section rate of the 78 first-time moms in the study by half.   While the study was limited to women who'd receive...



Psychological correlates of suicidality in HIV/AIDS in semi-urban south-western Uganda - Rukundo GZ, Mishara B, Kinyanda E.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:13:34 +0100

There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of suicidality in HIV/AIDS, and associated psychological factors in sub-Saharan Africa, shown to be high in Uganda. Yet, the region accounts for over 70% of the world HIV burden. Our study used a cross-sectional... (Source: SafetyLit)



8 Behaviors That Are Actually Contagious, According To Science

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:00:02 +0100

Certain behaviors -- like laughing and yawning -- can be easier to catch than the cold that's going around your office, according to psychologists.  "Behavioral contagion" is a well-documented phenomenon in psychology. Our brains are hardwired for social interaction and bonding. Mimicking the actions we see in those around us is a natural way that we empathize and gain a sense of how others are feeling. Here's a sampling of some of the behaviors that we might "catch" from our friends or coworkers.   Perhaps the best-known contagious behavior is yawning -- even dogs can catch yawns from their owners. Contagious yawning is a sign of empathy and a form of social bonding.   Risk-Taking This may explain how groups of teenage boys can do such stupid things: Risky behavio...



7 Behaviors That Are Actually Contagious, According To Science

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:00:02 +0100

Certain behaviors -- like laughing and yawning -- can be easier to catch than the cold that's going around your office, according to psychologists.  "Behavioral contagion" is a well-documented phenomenon in psychology. Our brains are hardwired for social interaction and bonding. Mimicking the actions we see in those around us is a natural way that we empathize and gain a sense of how others are feeling. Here's a sampling of some of the behaviors that we might "catch" from our friends or coworkers.   Perhaps the best-known contagious behavior is yawning -- even dogs can catch yawns from their owners. Contagious yawning is a sign of empathy and a form of social bonding.   Risk-Taking This may explain how groups of teenage boys can do such stupid things: Risky behavio...



Young Athletes' Perceptions of Coach Behaviors and Their Implications on Their Well- and Ill-Being Over Time

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 10:25:17 +0100

Abstract: González, L, García-Merita, M, Castillo, I, and Balaguer, I. Young athletes' perceptions of coach behaviors and their implications on their well- and ill-being over time. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 1147–1154, 2016—Grounded on basic psychological needs theory the purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to test the mediational role of basic psychological needs (satisfaction and thwarting), and (b) to test the model invariance over 2 consecutive seasons. Three hundred sixty young male athletes completed a questionnaire package tapping the variables of interest at 4 time points during 2 consecutive seasons. Results of the path analyses revealed that in both seasons, changes in perceived coach autonomy supportive style positively predicted changes in needs satisfaction which, in ...



Reckon you were born without a brain for maths? Highly unlikely

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 09:00:24 +0100

Maths is not about learning times tables, it’s about spotting patterns in everything we experience and using them to plan and invent It’s extraordinary what a badge of honour it is in our culture to declare: “I’m terrible at maths. I just don’t have the brain for it.” You’d never get someone in India or China confessing to such a thing. Maths is regarded in such high esteem that admitting you can’t do it is akin to announcing you’re illiterate, something no one in the west would happily own up to. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)



A Subtle Threat to Urban Populations in Developing Countries: Low Back Pain and its Related Risk Factors

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 08:25:25 +0100

Conclusion. LBP is prevalent among the general population of Tehran. Our findings can help health care providers regarding logical assignment of limited resources, in order to create multidimensional prevention plans according to potentially modifiable associated factors. Level of Evidence: 3 (Source: Spine)



Medical News Today: What do you call a blonde woman? Intelligent

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 07:00:00 +0100

A new study has slammed the 'dumb blonde' stereotype, after finding that individuals with blonde hair are no less intelligent than those with darker hair. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)

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Accessibility and use of primary healthcare for immigrants living in the Niagara Region

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: May 2016 Source:Social Science & Medicine, Volume 156 Author(s): Irene D. Lum, Rebecca H. Swartz, Matthew Y.W. Kwan Although the challenges of accessing and using primary healthcare for new immigrants to Canada have been fairly well documented, the focus has primarily been on large cities with significant immigrant populations. The experiences of immigrants living in smaller, less diverse urban centres remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the lived experiences of immigrants living in a small urban centre with regards to the primary healthcare system. A total of 13 immigrants living in the Greater Niagara Region participated in semi-structured interviews. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded and analyzed for eme...



The social management of biomedical novelty: Facilitating translation in regenerative medicine

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: May 2016 Source:Social Science & Medicine, Volume 156 Author(s): John Gardner, Andrew Webster Regenerative medicine (RM) is championed as a potential source of curative treatments for a variety of illnesses, and as a generator of economic wealth and prosperity. Alongside this optimism, however, is a sense of concern that the translation of basic science into useful RM therapies will be laboriously slow due to a range of challenges relating to live tissue handling and manufacturing, regulation, reimbursement and commissioning, and clinical adoption. This paper explores the attempts of stakeholders to overcome these innovation challenges and thus facilitate the emergence of useful RM therapies. The paper uses the notion of innovation niches as an analytical fram...



Exploring the views of people with mental health problems’ on coercion: Towards a broader socio-ethical perspective

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study includes semi-structured focus-groups and individual interviews with 24 participants who had various mental health problems and experiences with coercion. Data were collected in 2012- 2013 in three regions of Norway and analysed by a thematic content analysis. Findings show that participants had wide-ranging accounts of coercion, including formal and informal coercion across health- and welfare services. They emphasised that using coercion reflects the mental health system’s tendency to rely on coercion and the lack of voluntary services and treatment methods that are more helpful. Other core characteristics of coercion were deprivation of freedom, power relations, in terms of powerlessness and ‘counter-power,’ and coercion as existential and social life events. Participan...

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Patient-reported factors influencing return to work after joint replacement

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Return to work is influenced by a combination of patient, clinician and occupational factors. The relationship between each of these needs to be explored in greater depth through further qualitative work to gain a wider understanding of the variables influencing patients’ RTW following hip and knee replacement. (Source: Occupational Medicine)



Inhibition of alpha oscillations through serotonin 2A receptor activation underlies the visual effects of ayahuasca in humans

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychotropic plant tea typically obtained from two plants, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. It contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A and sigma-1 agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting properties. Although the psychoactive effects of ayahuasca have commonly been attributed solely to agonism at the 5-HT2A receptor, the molecular target of classical psychedelics, this has not been tested experimentally. (Source: European Neuropsychopharmacology)



Agmatine produces antidepressant-like effects by activating AMPA receptors and mTOR signaling

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

The activation of AMPA receptors and mTOR signaling have been reported as mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of fast-acting agents, specially the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. In the present study, oral administration of agmatine (0.1mg/kg), a neuromodulator that has been reported to modulate NMDA receptors, caused a significant reduction in the immobility time of mice submitted to the tail suspension test (TST), an effect prevented by the administration of DNQX (AMPA receptor antagonist, 2.5μg/site, i.c.v.), BDNF antibody (1μg/site, i.c.v.), K-252a (TrkB receptor antagonist, 1μg/site, i.c.v.), LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor, 10nmol/site, i.c.v.) or rapamycin (selective mTOR inhibitor, 0.2 nmol/site, i.c.v.). (Source: European Neuropsychopharmacology)



Association of Birth Weight and the Development of Antipsychotic Induced Adiposity in Individuals with Treatment Resistant Schizophrenia

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Though weight gain is a common side effect of antipsychotic treatment, there are no useful predictors of which patients are likely to be affected and to what degree. It has been shown that exposure to adverse conditions during intra-uterine life confers a vulnerability to the development of later life metabolic complications and low birth weight for gestational age has been shown to be a robust marker of such prenatal adversity. We hypothesized that patients with schizophrenia with a lower birth weight will have increased vulnerability to the weight inducing effects of antipsychotic treatment. (Source: European Neuropsychopharmacology)



Affective responsiveness is influenced by intake of oral contraceptives

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Despite the widespread use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs), little is known about their impact on psychological processes and emotional competencies. Recent data indicate impaired emotion recognition in OC users compared to naturally cycling females. Building upon these findings, the current study investigated the influence of OC use on three components of empathy, i.e., emotion recognition, perspective-taking, and affective responsiveness. We compared naturally cycling women to two groups of OC users, one being tested in their pill-free week and one in the phase of active intake. (Source: European Neuropsychopharmacology)

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Positive Affectivity: Specificity of Its Facet Level Relations with Psychopathology

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study sought to explicate the strength and direction of the relations between specific facets of positive affectivity (joviality, self-assurance, attentiveness, and serenity) and a broad range of psychopathology. Internalizing, externalizing, mania, and psychoticism were assessed using both self-report and interview measures in a diverse community sample (N = 255; Mage = 45.1 years; 58.4 % African American, 33.3 % Caucasian). Our results indicated that these positive affectivity facets demonstrated distinctive patterns of relations with psychopathology and exhibited incremental predictive power beyond that explained by negative affectivity. In particular, self-assurance displayed notable positive relations with externalizing and mania, emerging as a somewhat maladaptive variant...



Identifying Patterns and Predictors of PTSD and Depressive Symptom Change During Cognitive Processing Therapy

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study sought to identify specific trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptom change (and the relationship thereof) within a variable length course of cognitive processing therapy (CPT). Clinical characteristics, including initial severity of PTSD and depressive symptoms and characterological features consistent with personality disorder diagnoses, were examined as potential predictors of treatment response trajectory. Male and female interpersonal violence survivors (N = 69) with PTSD were treated with a modified form of CPT wherein treatment end was dictated by individual course of recovery (4–18 sessions). Latent class growth analysis and Bayesian information criteria revealed three distinct groups based on change patterns (partial responders, co...



Validity and reliability of the Cyber-aggression Questionnaire for Adolescents (CYBA)

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context Author(s): David Álvarez-García, Alejandra Barreiro-Collazo, José Carlos Núñez, Alejandra Dobarro Cybercrime is a growing and worrisome problem, particularly when it involves minors. Cyber-aggression among adolescents in particular can result in negative legal and psychological consequences for people involved. Therefore, it is important to have instruments to detect these incidents early and understand the problem to propose effective measures for prevention and treatment. This paper aims to design a new self-report, the Cyber-Aggression Questionnaire for Adolescents (CYBA), to evaluate the extent to which the respondent conducts aggressions through a mobile phone...



Unpacking insanity defence standards: An experimental study of rationality and control tests in criminal law

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context Author(s): Rebecca K. Helm, Stephen J. Ceci, Kayla A. Burd The present study investigated the impact of different legal standards on mock juror decisions concerning whether a defendant was guilty or not guilty by reason of insanity. Undergraduate students (N =477) read a simulated case summary involving a murder case and were asked to make an insanity determination. The cases differed in terms of the condition of the defendant (rationality deficit or control deficit) and the legal standard given to the jurors to make the determination (Model Penal Code, McNaughten or McNaughten plus a separate control determination). The effects of these variables on the insanity determi...



Susceptibility, likelihood to be diagnosed, worry and fear for contracting Lyme disease

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study investigates the four separate outcomes of susceptibility, likelihood to be diagnosed, worry, and fear for contracting Lyme disease. University students (n=713) were surveyed about demographics, perceived health, Lyme disease knowledge, Lyme disease preventive behaviors, Lyme disease history, and Lyme disease miscellaneous variables. We found that women were associated with increased susceptibility and fear. (Source: Journal of Infection and Public Health)



An Empirical Study of Personality Disorders Among Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract The primary aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of personality disorders in problem gamblers, to explore the relationship between personality disorders and problem gambling severity, and to explore the degree to which the psychological symptoms highlighted in the biosocial developmental model of borderline personality disorder (impulsivity, distress tolerance, substance use, PTSD symptoms, psychological distress and work/social adjustment) are associated with problem gambling. A secondary aim was to explore the strength of the relationships between these symptoms and problem gambling severity in problem gamblers with and without personality disorder pathology. Participants were 168 consecutively admitted problem gamblers seeking treatment from a specialist o...



Impact of Hypnosis Intervention in Alleviating Psychological and Physical Symptoms During Pregnancy.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 21:04:02 +0100

The objective of the authors in this study is to investigate the impact of a hypnosis intervention in reducing physical and psychological symptoms during pregnancy. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design was employed in this study. The hypnosis intervention was given to the experimental group participants at weeks 16 (baseline), 20 (time point 1), 28 (time point 2), and 36 (time point 3) of their pregnancy. Participants in the control group received only the traditional antenatal care. Participants from both groups completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and a Pregnancy Symptoms Checklist at weeks 16, 20, 28 and 36 of pregnancy. Results indicated that stress and anxiety symptoms were significantly reduced for the experimental group, but not for the control group....

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The psychology and neuroscience of terrorism

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 20:48:47 +0100

Your brain on constant fear is not a pretty sight. What is supposed to be a lifesaving instinct becomes anchored in your body, flooding your system with corrosive hormones that can damage your health, affect the way you think and change the decisions... (Source: WDSU.com - Health)



This App Can Save Water And Money

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 20:18:26 +0100

This article originally appeared on Water Deeply. For weekly updates about the California drought, you can sign up to the Water Deeply email list. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website. (Source: Science - The Huffington Post)



Well: Seeking Painkillers in the Emergency Room

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:29:15 +0100

“Why wouldn’t I give patients a Percocet prescription? It makes their life easier and my life easier,” a colleague said to me recently. But that’s not the answer to the opioid epidemic. (Source: NYT)



Special Report: The Psychology of Terrorism

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 18:12:16 +0100

Five experts share recent studies, classical research and professional experiences that shed light on defusing the threat of extremism -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)



We Agree to Disagree: The Science of Why Your Political Posts Won't Make Anyone Change Their Mind

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:40:39 +0100

In today's heated political stage, where everyone has a soapbox thanks to outlets like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and all the personal blogs, I've tried my best not to share my political views publicly. And I've miserably failed. I use my own Facebook page and profile to talk about science, books and photography, but then I can't resist browsing other people's posts. Most of my friends are not as shy as me about making their political views heard and that's when I fall into the trap: I comment. And then someone replies. And I comment back. And on and on it goes until one of us drops out of the conversation because clearly we're not getting anywhere. Science has taught me to be humble and rational. And yet I'm human, and every time I make a mistake in my line of work I feel something ins...



Men With Psoriasis Could Be More Likely To Have This Sexual Problem

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:18:45 +0100

(Reuters Health) - Men with psoriasis may be more prone to erectile dysfunction than their peers without this skin disease, and their odds of sexual difficulties are even higher if they are depressed or have other health problems like diabetes or high blood pressure, a Chinese study suggests.  Researchers studied sexual function in 191 patients with psoriasis and an equal number of healthy men. They found 53 percent of the men with psoriasis reported erectile dysfunction, compared with 40 percent in the healthy control group. Men with psoriasis were significantly more likely to report severe erectile dysfunction, while the men without the condition were much more apt to describe milder difficulties. When men with psoriasis do develop erectile dysfunction, they may be able to improve t...



The psychology and neuroscience of terrorism

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:02:50 +0100

Your brain on constant fear is not a pretty sight. What is supposed to be a lifesaving instinct becomes anchored in your body, flooding your system with corrosive hormones that can damage your health, affect the way you think and change the decisions you make. (Source: CNN.com - Health)



Combating Terrorism with Science

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:00:00 +0100

From the psychology of violent extremism to cracking encrypted communications, counterterrorism efforts rely on the latest scientific research -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)

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Evaluating the psychological concomitants of other-sex crush experiences during early adolescence - Bowker JC, Etkin RG.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

Very little empirical attention has been paid to other-sex crush experiences during adolescence. As a result, it is not known whether such experiences, which appear to be relatively common, impact psychological adjustment outcomes. This two-wave (3 month ... (Source: SafetyLit)



Sexual harassment, psychological distress, and problematic drinking behavior among college students: an examination of reciprocal causal relations - Wolff JM, Rospenda KM, Colaneri AS.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

Sexual harassment on college campuses is a frequent occurrence and serious public health concern. Victims of sexual harassment are at risk for many possible negative health consequences. In addition, certain psychological distress symptoms and/or alcohol u... (Source: SafetyLit)



Suicidal behavior and psychological distress in university students: a 12-nation study - Eskin M, Sun JM, Abuidhail J, Yoshimasu K, Kujan O, Janghorbani M, Flood C, Carta MG, Tran US, Mechri A, Hamdan M, Poyrazli S, Aidoudi K, Bakhshi S, Harlak H, Moro MF, Nawafleh H, Phillips L, Shaheen A, Taifour S, Tsuno K, Voracek M.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

This study investigated the prevalence of suicidal behavior and psychological distress in university students across 12 nations. A total of 5,572 university students from 12 countries were surveyed about suicide ideation, suicide attempts, and psychologica... (Source: SafetyLit)



Psychologists in public health: historical aspects and current challenges - Ferreira-Neto JL, Henriques MA.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

This article presents the historical context of the insertion of psychology, as a profession, in health policies in Brazil, in order to understand its current challenges. Analysis was based on a non-systematic literature review about professional training,... (Source: SafetyLit)



Precepting at the time of a natural disaster - Myhre D, Bajaj S, Fehr L, Kapusta M, Woodley K, Nagji A.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

BACKGROUND: Natural disasters strike communities that have varied degrees of preparedness, both physical and psychological. Rural communities may be particularly vulnerable as they often do not have the infrastructure or resources to prepare in advance. Th... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Improving the understanding of psychological factors contributing to horse-related accident and injury: context, loss of focus, cognitive errors and rigidity - DeAraugo J, McLaren S, McManus P, McGreevy PD.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

While the role of the horse in riding hazards is well recognised, little attention has been paid to the role of specific theoretical psychological processes of humans in contributing to and mitigating risk. The injury, mortality or compensation claim rates... (Source: SafetyLit)



What drives technology-based distractions? A structural equation model on social-psychological factors of technology-based driver distraction engagement - Chen HW, Donmez B.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

BACKGROUND: With the proliferation of new mobile and in-vehicle technologies, understanding the motivations behind a driver's voluntary engagement with such technologies is crucial from a safety perspective, yet is complex. Previous literature either surve... (Source: SafetyLit)



Understanding the relationship between suicidality and psychopathy: an examination of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior - Anestis JC, Anestis MD, Rufino KA, Cramer RJ, Miller H, Khazem LR, Joiner TE.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

A number of studies have reported a bifurcated relationship between psychopathy and suicidality, such that suicidality is positively related to Factor 2 (impulsive-antisocial lifestyle) of psychopathy but negatively related or unrelated to Factor 1 (affect... (Source: SafetyLit)



Home-based rehabilitation interventions for adults living with HIV: a scoping review.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:52:07 +0100

Authors: Cobbing S, Hanass-Hancock J, Myezwa H Abstract Home-based rehabilitation (HBR) has been shown to improve the lives of people living with a wide range of chronic diseases in resource-rich settings. This may also be a particularly effective strategy in resource-poor settings, where access to institution-based rehabilitation is limited. This review aimed to summarise and discuss the evidence related to the effectiveness of home-based rehabilitation (HBR) interventions designed specifically for adults living with HIV. A scoping review methodology was employed, involving systematic search techniques and appraisal of appropriate evidence. English-language journal articles that assessed the quality of life or functional ability outcomes of HBR interventions for adults living with...



The relatives' Big Five ‐ personality influences the trajectories of recovery of patients after severe TBI: A multilevel analysis

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 14:22:51 +0100

Conclusion. The personality traits of the relative co‐vary with the functioning of the patient, and psychological adaptation to the loss of function may progress at a later stage after physical health improvements have been achieved. Thus, a biopsychosocial perspective on the rehabilitation process is needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Personality)

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Experiences of Fly‐In, Fly‐Out and Drive‐In, Drive‐Out Rural and Remote Psychologists

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 14:22:03 +0100

ConclusionsThis study may assist in recruitment and retention of FIFO/DIDO psychologists by providing insight into what is required in the role and may inform training and models of rural and remote psychological service delivery. (Source: Australian Psychologist)



The psychology of terror

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 13:29:45 +0100

Dr. Sanjay Gupta explains what terrifies us about attacks like the one in Brussels. (Source: CNN.com - Health)



Head Transplants and Personal Identity: A Philosophical and Literary Survey.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:59:02 +0100

Authors: Mori G Abstract The criterion of personal identity is clearly called into question by the project to perform a human head transplant. Is identity provided by psychological continuity alone, or does it depend on bodily continuity as well? And how do these different perspectives interface with our notion of mind and mind-body relationship? The reader will be provided with a discussion concerning these problems, together with a philosophical and literary survey about the conception of body-mind relationship from the Greek thought to contemporary philosophy. The analysis will conclude with a discussion concerning the possibility to consider the issue of personal identity from a statistic point of view, which privileges the general perception of identity, so as it has been shap...

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How to inoculate people against Donald Trump’s fact-bending claims

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:30:17 +0100

Psychologists know that die-hard supporters of an idea aren’t usually swayed by the facts. That’s why prevention is better than cureA potential Donald Trump presidency terrifies people worldwide. His racism, bullying, and enthusiasm for violence are a great concern for onlookers.But we see a positive in Trump’s candidacy: we can improve our critical thinking by using him as an example of how people spread misinformation. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)



Heroin Epidemic Is Yielding to a Deadlier Cousin: Fentanyl

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:43:39 +0100

Cheaper and far more potent, the synthetic painkiller is becoming the drug of choice for some addicts — and is killing them more quickly. (Source: NYT Health)



Injuries in jumpers - are there any patterns?

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 06:50:02 +0100

Authors: Rocos B, Chesser TJ Abstract Suicide as a cause of death, affects every health system, and is a particular problem in heavily urbanised states and low and middle income countries (which account for 75% of suicide deaths). The World Health Organisation records that 800000 commit suicide each year, representing 1.4% of annual global deaths, and that suicide was the second leading cause of death in 15-29 year-olds across the world in 2012. In the United Kingdom, jumping from height accounts for 3%-5% of the 140000 suicide attempts annually is similar incidence to the rest of Europe. The Medline and EMBASE were interrogated for studies examining suicide caused by jumping from height. Manual screening of titles and abstracts was used to identify relevant works before data was e...



Social Support Indirectly Predicts Problem Drinking Through Reduced Psychological Distress.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:58:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Social support from friends, emotional support, and informational support combine to form a protective factor that mitigates the risk of problem drinking in young adults through reduced psychological distress. PMID: 27008107 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)



The Impact of Hazardous Alcohol Use on Behavioral Healthcare Utilization Among National Guard Service Members.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:58:02 +0100

Conclusion/Importance: Although these findings require replication, they appear to demonstrate that when combat-exposed service members engaged in hazardous alcohol use at postdeployment, they were much less likely to utilize behavioral healthcare to manage their posttraumatic stress symptoms during this period. PMID: 27007170 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)

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Boost fundraising with something simple: Sandpaper

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(Society for Consumer Psychology) Researchers have discovered that touching rough surfaces increases awareness of discomfort in our surroundings, which can trigger empathy. This leads to more interest in donating to charities. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)



How Schools Are Failing Their Quietest Students

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:05:22 +0100

(Photo: Ron Koeberer/Getty Images) By Melissa Dahl In 2013, educator and writer Jessica Lahey wrote a convincing piece for The Atlantic in which she argued that her introverted students needed to learn to speak up in class. In it, she defended her decision to keep class participation as a small but significant portion of her students' grades. The quieter kids in the class simply needed to learn how to speak up in "a world where most people won't stop talking," she wrote. Related: Tell Your Kids Even Einstein Struggled in Science Two years later, she changed her mind. Last summer, Lahey wrote about her new, more nuanced take on class participation in a post for Quiet Revolution, a site launched last year by Susan Cain, the author of the 2012 mega best seller Quiet: The Power of Introverts i...



Infants’ preference for individual agents within chasing interactions

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: July 2016 Source:Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 147 Author(s): Martyna Galazka, Pär Nyström Infants, like adults, are able to discriminate between chasing and non-chasing interactions when watching animations with simple geometric shapes. But where infants derive the necessary information for discrimination and how chasing detection influences later visual attention has been previously unexplored. Here, using eye tracking, we investigated how 5- and 12-month-old infants (N =94) distribute their visual attention among individual members within different interactions depending on a type of interaction. Infant gaze was examined when observing animations depicting chasing and following interactions compared with animations displaying randomly moving sh...



Can parents detect 8- to 16-year-olds’ lies? Parental biases, confidence, and accuracy

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Experimental Child Psychology Author(s): Angela D. Evans, Jasmine Bender, Kang Lee Honesty is a crucial aspect of a trusting parent–child relationship. Given that close relationships often impair our ability to detect lies and are related to a truth bias, parents may have difficulty with detecting their own children’s lies. The current investigation examined the lie detection abilities (accuracy, biases, and confidence) of three groups of participants: non-parent group (undergraduates), parent–other group (parents who evaluated other peoples' children’s statements), and parent–own group (parents who evaluated their own children’s statements). Participants were presented with videos of 8- to 16-year-olds tel...



When empathy matters: The role of sex and empathy in close friendships

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Personality)

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Do the Emotional Benefits of Optimism Vary Across Older Adulthood? A Life Span Perspective

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study examined whether the emotional benefits of dispositional optimism for managing stressful encounters decrease across older adulthood. Such an effect might emerge because age‐related declines in opportunities for overcoming stressors could reduce the effectiveness of optimism. This hypothesis was tested in a 6‐year longitudinal study of 171 community‐dwelling older adults (age range = 64–90 years). Hierarchical linear models showed that dispositional optimism protected relatively young participants from exhibiting elevations in depressive symptoms over time, but that these benefits became increasingly reduced among their older counterparts. Moreover, the findings showed that an age‐related association between optimism and depressive symptoms was observed particularly...



Does the facial width-to-height ratio map onto variability in men’s testosterone concentrations?

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Evolution and Human Behavior Author(s): Brian M. Bird, Valeska S. Cid Jofré, Shawn N. Geniole, Keith M. Welker, Samuele Zilioli, Dario Maestripieri, Steven Arnocky, Justin M. Carré Variation in the facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) maps onto a number of behavioral and psychological traits among men (e.g., aggression, unethical behavior, negotiation performance). Importantly, observer judgments of many of these traits also correlate strongly with the fWHR, suggesting that it may represent an honest cue to dominance and status. It has been speculated that the relationship between fWHR and these behavioral traits is due to pubertal testosterone concurrently shaping facial structure and traits linked to social dominance. Oth...



“…Do it with joy!” – Subjective well-being outcomes of working in non-profit organizations

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Journal of Economic Psychology, Volume 54 Author(s): Martin Binder Working in non-profit organizations has been shown to be good for individuals’ satisfaction with their jobs despite lower incomes. This paper explores the impact of non-profit work on life satisfaction more general for the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) and finds a significant positive impact the size about more than a fourth of that of getting widowed. This effect is quite uniform across the subjective well-being distribution, and thus exists also for those who are already happy. Shadow prices peg this effect at around 22,000GBP p.a., the average amount of equivalent net household income in the sample analyzed (which is roughly 27,000GBP p.a.). The positive effect can be expla...



I Did it Your Way. An Experimental Investigation of Peer Effects in Investment Choices

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Economic Psychology Author(s): Alexia Delfino, Luigi Marengo, Matteo Ploner We experimentally investigate imitation in investment choices and focus on cognitive aspects of decision making. At this aim, we manipulate three main dimensions of choice: time pressure, normative content of social information, and uncertainty of the investment. We document the existence of imitation. In line with our hypotheses, a piece of information which is more representative of average group behavior induces stronger imitation. Furthermore, higher time pressure fosters imitation. In contrast to our hypothesis, imitation is weaker for uncertain investments than for risky investments. (Source: Journal of Economic Psychology)



Helping consumers with a front-of-pack label: numbers or colours?

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Economic Psychology Author(s): Paolo Crosetto, Laurent Muller, Bernard Ruffieux This paper contributes to the debate on front-of-pack nutritional labels. Because of their dissimilar formats, Guideline Daily Amount (GDA) and Traffic Light (TL) may trigger different responses among consumers. While GDA is comprehensive and cognitively demanding, information is coarser and more salient in TL. We implement an incentivized laboratory experiment to assess the relative performance of GDA and TL labelling schemes in assisting consumers to build a healthy daily menu. Participants must compose a daily menu, choosing from a finite set of products, and are paid a fixed cash amount only if the menu satisfies pre-determined nutritio...



Are most published social psychological findings false?

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Wolfgang Stroebe Based on Bayesian reasoning, Ioannidis (2005) made the bold claim that most published research findings are false. His claim has been widely cited. It also seems consistent with the findings of the Open Science Collaboration Project that a majority of psychological studies could not be replicated. In this article, I argue (1) that Ioannidis' claim has limited relevance for social psychology and (2) that mass replication does not allow general conclusions about the validity of social psychological research. Ioannidis´ claim is valid only for one-shot studies without replication and with a low a priori probability that the tested hypothesis is true. Mass replicati...

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How to publish rigorous experiments in the 21st century

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Susan T. Fiske Crises provide an opportunity for the field to take stock, as do the articles in this special issue. Constructive advice for 21st century publication standards includes appropriate theory, internal validity, and external validity. First, well-grounded theory can produce a priori plausibility, testable logic, and a focus on the ideas involved, all cumulatively informed by meta-analysis across studies. Second, internal validity benefits from both exploratory work and confirmatory analyses on well-powered samples that require systematic detection and principled decisions about data quality. Inferences benefit from manipulated mediation analysis and from careful interp...



Interpretations and methods: Towards a more effectively self-correcting social psychology

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Lee Jussim, Jarret T. Crawford, Stephanie M. Anglin, Sean T. Stevens, Jose L. Duarte We consider how valid conclusions often lay hidden within research reports, masked by plausible but unjustified conclusions reached in those reports. We employ several well-known and cross-cutting examples from the psychological literature to illustrate how, independent (or in the absence) of replicability difficulties or questionable research practices leading to false positives, motivated reasoning and confirmation biases can lead to drawing unjustified conclusions. In describing these examples, we review strategies and methods by which researchers can identify such practices in their own a...



On the scientific superiority of conceptual replications for scientific progress

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We describe the many ways in which conceptual replications can be superior to direct replications. We further argue that the social system of science is quite robust to these threats and is self-correcting. (Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology)



The pipeline project: Pre-publication independent replications of a single laboratory's research pipeline

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Martin Schweinsberg, Nikhil Madan, Michelangelo Vianello, S. Amy Sommer, Jennifer Jordan, Warren Tierney, Eli Awtrey, Luke Lei Zhu, Daniel Diermeier, Justin E. Heinze, Malavika Srinivasan, David Tannenbaum, Eliza Bivolaru, Jason Dana, Clintin P. Davis-Stober, Christilene du Plessis, Quentin F. Gronau, Andrew C. Hafenbrack, Eko Yi Liao, Alexander Ly, Maarten Marsman, Toshio Murase, Israr Qureshi, Michael Schaerer, Nico Thornley, Christina M. Tworek, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Lynn Wong, Tabitha Anderson, Christopher W. Bauman, Wendy L. Bedwell, Victoria Brescoll, Andrew Canavan, Jesse J. Chandler, Erik Cheries, Sapna Cheryan, Felix Cheung, Andrei Ci...



Does the conclusion follow from the evidence? Recommendations for improving research

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Andrew H. Hales Recent criticisms of social psychological research are considered in relation to an earlier crisis in social psychology. The current replication crisis is particularly severe because (1) psychologists are questioning the accuracy of findings rather than the meaning of findings, and (2) researchers are responding to real scientific failures, rather than hypothetical scientific failures. I present an expanded model of statistical decision making that can be used to help researchers draw more reliable conclusions. Based on the premise that drawing conclusions on relatively bad evidence is an error, Type III and IV errors are introduced as categories representing stat...

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Commentary: A big problem requires a foundational change

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): John F. Dovidio This commentary discusses specific insights offered in each article but also attempts to integrate the various contributions to the Special Issue around a tension in the field between increasing certainty of knowledge and the rapid advancement of knowledge that has characterized social psychology historically. While addressing the replicability problem can be done incrementally, fundamental change is needed in the reward structure of the profession, and therefore in the publication system that is the gatekeeper for scholarly success. The commentary considers ways to ensure the stability and robustness of published findings in social psychology while still fosterin...



Reconceptualizing replication as a sequence of different studies: A replication typology

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Joachim Hüffmeier, Jens Mazei, Thomas Schultze In contrast to the truncated view that replications have only a little to offer beyond what is already known, we suggest a broader understanding of replications: We argue that replications are better conceptualized as a process of conducting consecutive studies that increasingly consider alternative explanations, critical contingencies, and real-world relevance. To reflect this understanding, we collected and summarized the existing literature on replications and combined it into a comprehensive overall typology that simplifies and restructures existing approaches. The resulting typology depicts how multiple, hierarchically struct...



Charting the future of social psychology on stormy seas: Winners, losers, and recommendations

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Roy F. Baumeister Social psychology's current crisis has prompted calls for larger samples and more replications. Building on Sakaluk's (in this issue) distinction between exploration and confirmation, I argue that this shift will increase correctness of findings, but at the expense of exploration and discovery. The likely effects on the field include aversion to risk, increased difficulty in building careers and hence more capricious hiring and promotion policies, loss of interdisciplinary influence, and rising interest in small, weak findings. Winners (who stand to gain from the mooted changes) include researchers with the patience and requisite resources to assemble large samp...



Introduction to the Special Issue on Methodological Rigor and Replicability

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Charles Stangor, Edward P. Lemay (Source: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology)



Into the wild: Field research can increase both replicability and real-world impact

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Jon K. Maner Field research has the potential to substantially increase both the replicability and the impact of psychological science. Field methods sometimes are characterized by features – relatively high levels of participant diversity, relative lack of control over extraneous variables, greater focus on behavioral dependent variables, less room for researcher degrees of freedom, and lower likelihood of publication bias – that can increase the veracity and robustness of published research. Moreover, field studies can help extend psychological research in valuable ways to applied domains such as health, law, education, and business. Consequently, field studies, especially ...

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Design approaches to experimental mediation

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We describe types of experimental manipulations targeting the mediator (manipulations demonstrating a causal effect of the mediator on the dependent variable and manipulations targeting the strength of the causal effect of the mediator) and types of experimental designs (double randomization, concurrent double randomization, and parallel), provide published examples of the designs, and discuss the strengths and challenges of each design. Therefore, the goals of this paper include providing a practical guide to manipulation-of-mediator designs in light of their challenges and encouraging researchers to use more rigorous approaches to mediation because manipulation-of-mediator designs strengthen the ability to infer causality of the mediating variable on the dependent variable. (Source: Jour...



Can we turn shirkers into workers?

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Adam J. Berinsky, Michele F. Margolis, Michael W. Sances Survey researchers increasingly employ attention checks to identify inattentive respondents and reduce noise. Once inattentive respondents are identified, however, researchers must decide whether to drop such respondents, thus threatening external validity, or keep such respondents, thus threatening internal validity. In this article, we ask whether there is a third way: can inattentive respondents be induced to pay attention? Using three different strategies across three studies, we show that while such inducements increase attention check passage, they do not reduce noise in descriptive or experimental survey items. In ...



Testosterone, cortisol and the Dark Triad: Narcissism (but not Machiavellianism or psychopathy) is positively related to basal testosterone and cortisol

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: July 2016 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 97 Author(s): Stefan Pfattheicher This research investigates endocrinological associations of the Dark Triad by relating narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy to endogenous testosterone and cortisol. Building on the notion that narcissists (in contrast to individuals with a proneness to Machiavellianism or psychopathy) possess a preference for being superior and a propensity to dominate other individuals, it is assumed that the dominance-related hormone testosterone is positively associated with narcissism. It is additionally assumed that narcissism specifically is positively related to basal cortisol levels given narcissists' vigilance and sensitivity regarding their social esteem and status which ...



Development, reliability, and validity of the Moral Identity Questionnaire

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: July 2016 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 97 Author(s): Jessica E. Black, William M. Reynolds As areas of psychology focus more on how people make moral choices, there is a need for psychometrically sound instruments that include meaningful components of moral cognition. The purpose of this research was the development of a measure of moral identity that would encompass both integrity and the importance of morality to self-identity. In two large samples, we developed the Moral Identity Questionnaire (MIQ), and established internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and evidence of validity, including confirmatory factorial analysis, and correlations with current measures of morality. In summary, the MIQ, which measures the salience of moral ...



Positive coping as mediator between self-control and life satisfaction: Evidence from two Chinese samples

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, using more positive ways to cope partly explains how people high in self-control are more satisfied with life. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)



The role of personality traits in trajectories of long-term posttraumatic stress and general distress six years after the tsunami in Southeast Asia

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: July 2016 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 97 Author(s): Josefin Sveen, Filip Arnberg, Hans Arinell, Kerstin Bergh Johannesson The aims were to examine whether trajectories of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and general distress are related to personality traits and to investigate personality's contributing factor to PTS and general distress. The sample was 2549 Swedish tourists who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and responded to postal surveys at 1, 3 and 6years after the tsunami, including assessment of personality traits, PTS and general distress. The sample was categorized into a direct exposure group and an indirect exposure comparison group. For both PTS and general distress, individuals with a resilient trajectory were lower in the tra...

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Attitudes toward health-messages: The link between perceived attention and subjective strength

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion This study showed that attitudes toward vegetable consumption can be changed after reading a persuasive message, and that the extent of perceived attention moderated the extent to which those changes were perceived as stable and resistant (stronger attitudes). (Source: European Review of Applied Psychology)



Increasing illness among people out of labor market – A Danish register-based study

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: May 2016 Source:Social Science & Medicine, Volume 156 Author(s): Ingelise Andersen, Henrik Brønnum-Hansen, Margit Kriegbaum, Charlotte Ørsted Hougaard, Finn Kenneth Hansen, Finn Diderichsen In spite of decades of very active labor market policies, 25% of Denmark's population in the working ages are still out-of-work. The aim of this study was to investigate whether that is due to consistent or even increasing prevalence of ill health. For the period of 2002–2011, we investigated if i) the prevalence of four chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and mental disorders) among those out-of-work had changed, ii) the occurrence of new cases of those diseases were higher among those who were already out-of-work, or iii) if non-health-relat...



“Black Folk Don’t Get No Severe Depression”: Meanings and Expressions of Depression in a Predominantly Black Urban Neighborhood in Midwestern United States

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Social Science & Medicine Author(s): Sirry M. Alang Discrepancies exist between how some Black populations perceive depression and how depression is conceptualized within research and clinical settings. Based on a 12-month ethnography of mental health in a predominantly Black disadvantaged urban neighborhood in Midwestern United States, the current study identifies meanings and common ways of expressing depression among African Americans. Depression was often considered a sign of weakness rather than a health problem that might need medical attention. Associated emotions like sadness and hopelessness were inconsistent with notions of strength. Common indicators of depression included classic symptoms such as hopelessness, l...



Supporting employees’ work-family needs improves health care quality: longitudinal evidence from long-term care

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Social Science & Medicine Author(s): Cassandra A. Okechukwu, Erin L. Kelly, Janine Bacic, Nicole DePasquale, David Hurtado, Ellen Kossek, Grace Sembajwe We analyzed qualitative and quantitative data from U.S.-based employees in 30 long-term care facilities. Analysis of semi-structured interviews from 154 managers informed qualitative analyses. Quantitative data include 1,214 employees’ scoring of their supervisors and their organizations on family supportiveness (individual scores and aggregated to facility level), and three outcomes: (1), care quality indicators assessed at facility level (n=30) and collected monthly for six months after employees’ data collection; (2), employees’ dichotomous survey response on...



IJERPH, Vol. 13, Pages 363: Influences of Green Outdoors versus Indoors Environmental Settings on Psychological and Social Outcomes of Controlled Exercise

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study addressed a methodological gap by comparing psychological and social outcomes of exercise in green outdoors versus built indoors settings, whilst rigorously controlling exercise mode and intensity. The hypotheses were that greater improvements or more desirable values for directed attention, mood, perceived exertion, social interaction time, intention for future exercise behaviour and enjoyment would be associated with outdoors compared to indoors exercise. Following a baseline session, paired participants completed two conditions of 15 min of cycling on an ergometer placed outside in a natural environment and inside in a laboratory setting in a randomized, counter-balanced order. At pre- and post-exercise, directed attention was measured with the digit span backwards task, and ...

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The impact of menstrual cycle-related physical symptoms on daily activities and psychological wellness among adolescent girls

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study provides support for a novel theoretical framework linking diverse aspects of menstrual cycle change. Longitudinal research is needed to replicate these findings. (Source: Journal of Adolescence)



Associations of coolness and social goals with aggression and engagement during adolescence

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study examined associations of coolness and social goals with aggression and academic engagement, and whether social goals and gender moderated associations across the fall and spring of sixth grade (first year of middle school). Students (N =347; 49% females) self-reported social goals (popularity, dominance, intimacy) and engagement (involved, disruptive behavior) and peer-reported coolness and aggression (overt, relational). Results indicated relations of coolness and social goals with subsequent aggression and engagement, and goals and gender moderated associations. Cool youth who endorsed intimacy goals had higher overt aggression; cool boys with low popularity goals or high dominance goals had higher overt aggression. Cool youth endorsing dominance goals and cool girls endorsing...



Transvenous recovery of a foreign body inside the lumen of the segmental branches of the right pulmonary artery tree

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

The optimal management of implanted devices has become a worldwide serious challenge and many techniques for device complications have been developed including endovascular retrieval of lost or misplaced fractured foreign objects [1–6]. The use of implantable cardiac devices has increased in the last 30years [7–56]. Infectious complications leading also to endocarditis [21–30] and noninfectious complications [30,31] often necessitating removal [31–34] have affected patients' wellbeing and led to an increase in psychological difficulties [35] in the emerging scenario of concomitant problems and diseases [36–71] and in patients also needing of device revision and upgrade. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)