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MedWorm: Cognitive Behavior Therapy provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Cognitive Behavior Therapy category.

Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:22:34 +0100


The Four Keys to Well-Being

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 15:57:26 +0100

By Dr. Richard J. Davidson Well-being is a skill. All of the work that my colleagues and I have been doing leads inevitably to this central conclusion. Well-being is fundamentally no different than learning to play the cello. If one practices the skills of well-being, one will get better at it. Based on our research, well-being has four constituents that have each received serious scientific attention. Each of these four is rooted in neural circuits, and each of these neural circuits exhibits plasticity -- so we know that if we exercise these circuits, they will strengthen. Practicing these four skills can provide the substrate for enduring change, which can help to promote higher levels of well-being in our lives. 1. Resilience To paraphrase the bumper sticker, stuff happens. We cannot b...

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Positive Affectivity: Specificity of Its Facet Level Relations with Psychopathology

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study sought to explicate the strength and direction of the relations between specific facets of positive affectivity (joviality, self-assurance, attentiveness, and serenity) and a broad range of psychopathology. Internalizing, externalizing, mania, and psychoticism were assessed using both self-report and interview measures in a diverse community sample (N = 255; Mage = 45.1 years; 58.4 % African American, 33.3 % Caucasian). Our results indicated that these positive affectivity facets demonstrated distinctive patterns of relations with psychopathology and exhibited incremental predictive power beyond that explained by negative affectivity. In particular, self-assurance displayed notable positive relations with externalizing and mania, emerging as a somewhat maladaptive variant...

Identifying Patterns and Predictors of PTSD and Depressive Symptom Change During Cognitive Processing Therapy

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study sought to identify specific trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptom change (and the relationship thereof) within a variable length course of cognitive processing therapy (CPT). Clinical characteristics, including initial severity of PTSD and depressive symptoms and characterological features consistent with personality disorder diagnoses, were examined as potential predictors of treatment response trajectory. Male and female interpersonal violence survivors (N = 69) with PTSD were treated with a modified form of CPT wherein treatment end was dictated by individual course of recovery (4–18 sessions). Latent class growth analysis and Bayesian information criteria revealed three distinct groups based on change patterns (partial responders, co...

A Comprehensive Updated Review of Pharmaceutical and Nonpharmaceutical Treatment for NAFLD.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 00:16:02 +0100

Authors: Hossain N, Kanwar P, Mohanty SR Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the western world with prevalence of 20-33%. NAFLD comprises a pathological spectrum. Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is at one end and consists of simple hepatic steatosis. On the contrary, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) consists of steatosis, inflammation, and ballooning degeneration and can progress to cirrhosis. Despite the rising incidence, definitive treatment for NAFLD, specifically NASH, has not yet been established. Lifestyle modification with dietary changes combined with regular aerobic exercise, along with multidisciplinary approach including cognitive behavior therapy, has been shown to be an effective therapeutic option, even without a si...

An investigation of general predictors for cognitive-behavioural therapy outcome for anxiety disorders in a routine clinical setting

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Introduction Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is effective for treating anxiety disorders and is offered in most mental health services around the world. However, a relatively large number of patients with anxiety disorders do not benefit from CBT, experience relapses or drop out. Reliable predictors of treatment effects are lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of emotion regulation and attentional control for CBT outcome in a routine setting. Methods and analysis In this prospective and practice-based study, 112 patients with anxiety disorders referred for manual-based group CBT at two psychiatric outpatient clinics will be recruited. Emotion regulation, severity of anxiety and attentional control will be assessed with self-report measures and wi...

Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Perspective on a New RDoC Domain

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract It is widely agreed that emotion regulation plays an important role in many psychological disorders. We make the case that emotion regulation is in fact a key transdiagnostic factor, using the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) as an organizing framework. In particular, we first consider how transdiagnostic and RDoC approaches have extended categorical views. Next, we examine links among emotion generation, emotion regulation, and psychopathology, with particular attention to key emotion regulation stages including identification, strategy selection, implementation, and monitoring. We then propose that emotion regulation be viewed as a sixth domain in the RDoC matrix, and provide a brief overview of how the literature has used the RDoC units of analyses to study emotion regu...

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Costs and returns on training investment for empirically supported psychological interventions.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions This hypothetical model highlights why training costs should be considered in decisions about disseminating and implementing novel empirically supported psychological interventions, particularly within private workforces. In addition, the direct return on training investment for practitioners in private practice is unclear, and may vary based on caseloads and current treatment modalities. Initiatives to track competence, support training and identify novel training solutions may be required to ensure the sustainability of high-quality mental healthcare.What is known about the topic? Financial costs are one of the leading factors determining whether empirically supported mental health treatments are adopted or sustained. Training costs may be one of the largest costs of dissemin...

Why Students At Elite Colleges Are Turning To Meditation

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 19:31:16 +0100

Twice a week, stressed-out students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology pry themselves away from the demands of school and meet in a reserved room on campus to practice yoga and meditation.  The gathering, called Art of Living, is one of the only times many club members unload their stress and find relief. It's a rare sanctuary at one of the most high-pressure colleges in the country. "Having a regular meditative practice is like being high all the time," Blake Elias, vice president of the club, has said. "It makes you realize that you have a choice of how you feel and that you can control your own environment rather than it controlling you." The club is part of a larger collective called Yesplus, a student-run stress management program that is working to incor...

Mindfulness may be effective for treating lower back pain

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 18:00:00 +0100

Conclusion This RCT aimed to review the alternative mind-body therapy of MBSR for the treatment of chronic lower back pain. The trial has many strengths, including: delivery of both interventions by trained and experienced professionals long follow-up period blinded assessment of outcomes using validated scales adequate sample size – prior calculations were performed to ensure sufficient people were recruited to make the outcome assessment reliable intention to treat analysis – where all people were assessed in their assigned groups, regardless of whether they completed the intervention or follow-up There are a few key points to bear in mind when reviewing this study and the media's interpretation of it: The study does not show that MBSR is better than CBT for ch...

Transdiagnostic computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for depression and anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

An increasing number of computerised transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural therapy programs (TD-cCBT) have been developed in the past decade, but there are no meta-analyses to explore the efficacy of these programs, nor moderators of the effects. The current meta-analysis focused on studies evaluating TD-cCBT interventions to examine their effects on anxiety, depression and quality of life (QOL). Results from 17 RCTs showed computerised TD-cCBT outperformed control conditions on all outcome measures at post-treatment, with large effect sizes for depression (g's=.84), and medium effect sizes for anxiety (g=.78) and QOL (g=.48). (Source: Journal of Affective Disorders)

Mindfulness, cognitive therapy top conventional care for low back pain

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 19:11:55 +0100

Adults suffering from chronic lower back pain may be better off pursuing mindfulness-based stress reduction or cognitive behavioral therapy rather than more standard, conventional treatments for pain... (Source: Family Practice News)

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Adding Stress Management to Cardiac Rehab Cuts New Incidents in Half

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 09:15:22 +0100

Contact: Samiha Khanna Phone: 919-419-5069 Email: EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE until 4 p.m. (ET) on Monday, March 21, 2016 DURHAM, N.C. -- Patients recovering from heart attacks or other heart trouble could cut their risk of another heart incident by half if they incorporate stress management into their treatment, according to research from Duke Health. The findings, published March 21 in the American Heart Association journal Circulation, are the result of a randomized clinical trial of 151 outpatients with coronary heart disease who were enrolled in cardiac rehabilitation due to heart blockages, chest pain, heart attacks or bypass surgery. They ranged in age from 36 to 84 years old.  About half of the patients participated in three months of t...

Functional connectivity predictors and mechanisms of cognitive behavioural therapies: A systematic review with recommendations

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: While the evidence base is still in its infancy for other therapy approaches, there was clearer evidence that functional connectivity both predicts and is altered by cognitive behavioural therapy. Connections from prefrontal cortex appear especially key, perhaps given their role in cognitive appraisal of lower order affective, motivational and cognitive processes. A number of recommendations are made for this rapidly developing literature. (Source: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry)

Genome-wide association study of response to cognitive-behavioural therapy in children with anxiety disorders.

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 04:35:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first genome-wide therapygenetic study. It suggests no common variants of very high effect underlie response to CBT. Future investigations should maximise power to detect single-variant and polygenic effects by using larger, more homogeneous cohorts. PMID: 26989097 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry for Mental Science)

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A Systematic Review of Effective Modifications to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract The present review evaluated studies which effectively employed cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to alleviate symptoms of common mental health problems in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It assessed the modifications applied to CBT and compliance with recent guidelines from the National Institute of Health Care Excellence (NICE). Systematic searches of electronic databases, reference lists, and journals identified 12 studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria. Results indicated that modified CBT yielded reductions in anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and depression. There was a lack of gold standard research into the effects of CBT for disorders other than anxiety. A greater number of modifications than recommended by NICE were consi...

Presleep thoughts and dysfunctional beliefs in subjects of insomnia with or without depression: Implications for cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia in Indian context.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 16:49:03 +0100

CONCLUSION: Insomnia is a co-morbid illness with depression and it needs to be separately addressed during therapy. CBT-I should include the element of problem-solving technique, especially when we are dealing with the Indian population. PMID: 26985109 [PubMed] (Source: Indian Journal of Psychiatry)

Rehabilitation following lumbar fusion surgery: a randomised, controlled, feasibility study with interim results

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 01:34:48 +0100

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Following lumbar fusion surgery, up to 40% of patients have ongoing back-related disability. “Complex rehabilitation” comprising exercise and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) may help improve outcome. We are conducting a randomised, controlled, feasibility study evaluating the provision of “complex rehabilitation” following lumbar fusion surgery. (Source: The Spine Journal)

Dropout Rates in Exposure with Response Prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: What Do the Data Really Say?

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 18 March 2016 Source:Journal of Anxiety Disorders Author(s): Clarissa W. Ong, Joseph W. Clyde, Ellen J. Bluett, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig The purposes of this review were to: 1) determine the attrition rates for exposure with response prevention (ERP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 2) compare them to those in other treatments for OCD, and 3) identify predictors of ERP attrition. A systematic literature search of randomized controlled trials for ERP for OCD yielded 22 studies, representing 1,462 participants. Attrition data were extracted for individual treatment conditions. The weighted mean dropout rate for ERP was 15.4% (95% CI [11.9%, 19.1%]). This figure was not statistically different from that of comparison conditions (e.g...

[Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for patients with somatoform disorders].

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 06:03:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: With the improvement that occurred in patients' mental functioning, we conclude that mbct is a meaningful therapy for patients with somatoform disorders. The fact that patients increased their use of mental health care after mbct could indicate that patients with somatoform disorders become more willing to receive mental health care. PMID: 26979851 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie)

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Stop or go? Preventive cognitive therapy with guided tapering of antidepressants during pregnancy: study protocol of a pragmatic multicentre non-inferiority randomized controlled trial

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Approximately 6.2 % of women in the USA and 3.7 % of women in the UK, use Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) during their pregnancies because of depression and/or anxiety. In the Netherlands, this... (Source: BMC Psychiatry)

Insomnia: the Sleeping Giant of Pediatric Public Health

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article provides a review of sleep physiology and both current and recommended approaches to assessing and treating pediatric insomnia. Comprehensive assessment, accurate diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment of insomnia is imperative to the healthy development of children and adolescents. While clinicians often prescribe a variety of medications to treat pediatric insomnia, there is insufficient data to demonstrate efficacy and endorse their routine use. At this time, behavioral techniques, such as cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia and sleep hygiene education, should remain the first line of treatment. As a second-line consideration, melatonin, a dietary supplement, may be effective. Pediatric insomnia has an enormous impact on children, adolescents, and their families that r...

Cognitive - behavioural therapy for insomnia: effective, long-lasting and safe

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 14:03:10 +0100

Numerous well-conducted randomised controlled studies of cognitive–behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) have demonstrated that it is efficacious in both the immediate post-treatment and long terms in a wide variety of patient populations.1–3 This includes individuals with uncomplicated chronic insomnia1 and those whose chronic insomnia is comorbid with medical or psychiatric disorders.2 ,3 Truaer and colleagues have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to collect all the relevant evidence about CBT-I and quantify its overall effects. (Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH))

Online cognitive behavioural therapy is no more effective than usual GP care for people with depression

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 11:35:17 +0100

Computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in addition to usual GP care was no more effective than usual GP care alone at four months or at 24 months. It was also not a popular treatment for patients with mild to moderate depression who typically only used the programme once or twice. Indeed, more than four out of five patients did not complete the course. Depression affects large numbers of people in the UK. Other research shows that CBT is effective in treating depression, but it is expensive to provide and people sometimes have to wait for treatment due to limited numbers of therapists. CBT delivered online or via a computer was thought to offer a potential low-cost alternative. This new NIHR evidence suggests support for patients using these programmes will be needed to improve a...

Can’t Look Away: An Eye-Tracking Based Attentional Disengagement Training for Depression

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract To address shortcomings of purely reaction-time based attentional bias modification (ABM) paradigms, we developed an ABM task that is controlled by eye-tracking. This task allows to assess and train both disengagement from negative pictures and maintained attention to positive pictures. As a proof-of-principle study with an unselected student sample, this positive training (PT; N = 44) was compared to a negative training (NT; N = 42), which reinforced the opposite attentional pattern. Importantly, training trials were completed only if participants performed the correct gaze patterns. Results showed that higher depression levels were associated with slower disengagement from negative stimuli at baseline. As expected, the PT induced longer fixations on positive picture...

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Disorder-specific versus transdiagnostic and clinician-guided versus self-guided internet-delivered treatment for panic disorder and comorbid disorders: A randomized controlled trial

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study compared the relative benefits of internet-delivered TD-CBT and DS-CBT when provided in clinician-guided (CG-CBT) and self-guided (SG-CBT) formats for people with a principal diagnosis of Panic Disorder (PD). Participants (n=145) were randomly allocated to receive TD-CBT or DS-CBT and CG-CBT or SG-CBT. Large reductions in symptoms of PD (Cohen's d ≥0.71; avg. reduction≥36%) and moderate-to-large reductions in symptoms of comorbid depression (Cohen's d ≥0.71; avg. reduction≥33%), generalised anxiety disorder (Cohen's d ≥0.91; avg. reduction≥34%) and social anxiety disorder (Cohen's d ≥0.50; avg. reduction≥15%) were found over the 24-month follow-up period. Highlighting their efficacy and acceptability, no marked and consistent differences were observed between TD-...

Introduction to the Special Issue: Emotion Regulation as a Transdiagnostic Process

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract In the past 15 years, there has been an exponential growth in the study of affective processes in psychopathology to the point that a new discipline has emerged, clinical affective science. In this respect, the emotion regulation framework has begun to be utilized in order identify transdiagnostic and disorder-specific aspects of dysfunction. This Special Issue seeks to advance the work on emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic factor by presenting 12 empirical articles that include the latest, most cutting edge research on emotion regulation across mental disorders. The commentary, written by James Gross and his colleagues, outlines crucial future directions for transdiagnostic work on emotion regulation and, more broadly, for the growth of clinical affective science. ...

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression

Sat, 12 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 12–18 March 2016 Source:The Lancet, Volume 387, Issue 10023 Author(s): Dieter Riemann, Elisabeth Hertenstein, Elisabeth Schramm (Source: The Lancet)

Upward Spirals of Mindfulness and Reappraisal: Testing the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory with Autoregressive Latent Trajectory Modeling

Sat, 12 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract The mindful reappraisal hypothesis of the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory (Garland et al. in Psychol Inquiry 26(4):293–314, 2015a; Psychol Inquiry 26(4):377–387, 2015b) proposes that mindfulness generates eudaimonic well-being by promoting positive reappraisal, the positive psychological process through which stressful events are re-construed as benign, meaningful, or growth-promoting. To test this hypothesis, we examined prospective relations between state mindfulness and positive reappraisal in a community sample participating in a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI). At seven weekly time points throughout the MBI, participants (N = 234) engaged in a 10-min mindfulness meditation exercise at home and completed a measure of the degree of state mindfulness experience...

Therapist-supported Internet cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in adults.

Sat, 12 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Therapist-supported ICBT appears to be an efficacious treatment for anxiety in adults. The evidence comparing therapist-supported ICBT to waiting list, attention, information, or online discussion group only control was low to moderate quality, the evidence comparing therapist-supported ICBT to unguided ICBT was very low quality, and comparisons of therapist-supported ICBT to face-to-face CBT were low quality. Further research is needed to better define and measure any potential harms resulting from treatment. These findings suggest that therapist-supported ICBT is more efficacious than a waiting list, attention, information, or online discussion group only control, and that there may not be a significant difference in outcome between unguided CBT and therapist-supported ICBT;...

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[Correspondence] Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 06:34:04 +0100

The Article by Willem Kuyken and colleagues1 about the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in prevention of depressive relapses is highly relevant for clinical practice and justifies MBCT as a clinically relevant alternative to maintenance antidepressant medication. We speculate that the design of the study might have biased the results against even stronger measurable effects of MBCT. In the study, general practitioners were recommended to start medication tapering after week 6 of MBCT—so tapering and MBCT treatment obviously overlapped to some extent. (Source: LANCET)

Can “talking therapy” prevent chronic pain taking hold?

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:07:31 +0100

We’re all too aware of the devastating impact chronic pain has on people’s lives. Chronic pain is the most common symptom of fibromyalgia, a condition which affects around 1 in every 25 people. Yet we still understand relatively little about its causes and how to help people suffering with it. We believe that needs to change, so we’re investing heavily in innovative research to build our understanding of what’s behind chronic pain and develop new, improved treatments with the potential to transform quality of life for millions of people. Just one of the many research studies we're funding in this area is exploring if cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), also known as “talking therapy”, could be the answer to preventing chronic widespread pain. Scientists...

Procrastination and Depression from a Cognitive Perspective: An Exploration of the Associations Among Procrastinatory Automatic Thoughts, Rumination, and Mindfulness

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Extensive research indicates that procrastination is associated with many maladaptive outcomes including diminished performance and greater psychological distress, but the specific factors and mechanisms associated with the vulnerability of procrastinators still need to be identified. The current study examined the associations among procrastination, ruminative brooding, mindfulness, and self-compassion. Procrastination was measured in terms of academic procrastination as well as a cognitive measure of procrastination examining the frequency of procrastination-related automatic thoughts. In addition to the main focus on the vulnerability of procrastinators, the question of whether students with multiple vulnerabilities would be particularly at risk for depression was also...

A pilot randomized controlled trial of telephone-based cognitive behavioural therapy for preoperative bariatric surgery patients.

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Tele-CBT holds promise as a brief intervention for improving eating psychopathology and depression in bariatric surgery candidates. PMID: 26990279 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy)

Cognitive Behavior Therapy for psychosis based Guided Self-help (CBTp-GSH) delivered by frontline mental health professionals: Results of a feasibility study

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Availability of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is limited in spite of strong evidence base. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a CBTp based Guided Self-help (CBTp-GSH) in comparison to Treatment As Usual (TAU). The secondary outcomes were a reduction of symptoms of schizophrenia using Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) & Disability (WHO DAS 2.0). A total of 33 adults with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia was recruited from community mental health services in Kingston, ON, Canada, and randomly assigned to the 12–16week intervention with TAU (Treatment), or TAU alone (Control). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)

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Personal Goals, Well-Being and Deliberate Self-Harm

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract The present study sought to understand the perceived well-being value of future goals as a possible explanation for why persons who are suicidal remain attached to goals that are seen as unattainable. Deliberate self-harm patients (DSH; N = 24) were compared with matched hospital controls (N = 24) on a range of measures including current well-being and perceived future well-being in the context of imagined goal attainment. Despite the DSH group having substantially lower current levels of well-being, there was no difference between the groups when forecasting their future well-being in the context of imagined attainment. For DSH participants the thought of achieving an important future goal is seen as necessary and sufficient for attaining normal levels of future well...

Saving Psychotherapy From the Medication Takeover

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 02:27:20 +0100

One of the best experiences of my career occurred in the 1980s when I was a member of the group that decided which psychotherapy studies would be funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. It was hard work. Every three months, we would review about twenty-five studies, knowing that only three or four would be funded. Psychotherapy research was relatively new in those days and it was often difficult to decide which approaches and which people were most likely to make contributions that would count. But our efforts were rewarded. The studies we supported helped establish the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Dialectic Behavior Therapy, Interpersonal Therapy, and other forms of brief therapy. Psychotherapy research is inherently more difficult to do than drug research. The ...

Applications of Text Messaging, and Bibliotherapy for Treatment of Patients Affected by Depressive Symptoms

Sat, 05 Mar 2016 09:12:43 +0100

Conclusions: It seems that bibliotherapy could efficiently decrease the intensity of depressive symptoms. Nevertheless, in comparison with our booklet trial, the text messaging group achieved neither durable nor significant success; thus, bibliotherapy could be utilized as a complementarymethodology aiming depression treatment.Keywords: Behavior therapy, bibliotherapy, cognitive therapy, depressive symptom, psychotherapy, text messaging (Source: International Journal of Preventive Medicine)

Cognitive behavioural therapy for depression: systematic review of imaging studies

Sat, 05 Mar 2016 03:34:08 +0100

Review Articles George Franklin, Alan J Carson, Killian A. Welch, Acta Neuropsychiatrica, Volume 28 Issue 02, pp 61-74Abstract (Source: Acta Neuropsychiatrica)

Treating Social Anxiety Disorder with CBT: Impact on Emotion Regulation and Satisfaction with Life

Sat, 05 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We examined whether cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) would influence the relationship between two distinct forms of emotion regulation (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and satisfaction with life in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). When compared to healthy adults (n = 42) at baseline (Study 1), patients with SAD (n = 128) reported lesser use of cognitive reappraisal, greater use of expressive suppression, and lower levels of satisfaction with life. In a randomized controlled trial of CBT (n = 40) versus a waitlist control group (n = 32) (Study 2), resulted indicated in the CBT group significant group by time interactions for the use of cognitive reappraisal and satisfaction with life, but not for the use of expressive suppression. Regression analyses ...

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CHoosing Options for Insomnia in Cancer Effectively (CHOICE): Design of a patient centered comparative effectiveness trial of acupuncture and cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia

Sat, 05 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Insomnia is a prevalent and persistent side effect of cancer, which if left unaddressed, can be unremitting and negatively influence physical and mental well-being. Acupuncture and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) are commonly used non-pharmacological treatments that are efficacious for treating insomnia in cancer patients; however, little is known about the comparative effectiveness of these options. The goal of personalized medicine is to determine which treatments are most effective for which individuals, and patient preference for treatment is a particularly important contributor to adherence and outcomes. (Source: Contemporary Clinical Trials)

Comorbid tics have no effect on response to cognitive-behavioural therapy in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 11:14:47 +0100

Tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a DSM-5 diagnostic subtype that is estimated to occur in 10–40% of cases with childhood onset.1 Studies comparing tic-related and non-tic-related OCD have found consistent differences in sex, onset age, comorbidity and course, but inconsistent differences in OCD symptoms and prevalence of OCD and tics in first-degree relatives.1 ,2 Medication trials have indicated that tic-related OCD is less responsive to sertraline, fluvoxamine and paroxetine; however, tic history appears to have no effect on the response of OCD in youth to either individual or group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).1 ,3 Study aims were to use a broad definition of tic-related OCD to examine whether children with tic...

A mindfuleness-based cognitive therapy as an alternative maintenance atidepressant medication to prevent relapse and recurrence in depression

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 10:41:50 +0100

Patients with major depressive disorder have a high risk of relapse/recurrence.1 Maintenance antidepressant medication (mADM) is typically recommended to prevent relapse/recurrence, but many individuals prefer psychosocial interventions.2 Previous studies have indicated that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with taper support (MBCT-TS) may be at least as effective as mADM in reducing the risk of depressive relapse/recurrence,3 and the aim of the current study was to compare these interventions in a definitive trial. (Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH))

Non-pharmacological interventions for reducing aggression and violence in serious mental illness: A systematic review and narrative synthesis.

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 03:23:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The evidence for non-pharmacological interventions for reducing violence in this population is not conclusive. Long-term outcomes are lacking and good quality RCTs are required to develop a stronger evidence base. PMID: 26928342 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists)

“Clinical Approach to Fibromyalgia: Synthesis of Evidence-based Recommendations, a Systematic Review”

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Final recommendations in this review identify optimal treatments, facilitating the translation of evidence into practice and enabling more efficient and effective quality care. (Source: Reumatologia Clinica)

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Feasibility randomised controlled trial of Recovery-focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Older Adults with bipolar disorder (RfCBT-OA): study protocol

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Introduction Bipolar disorder is a severe and chronic mental health problem that persists into older adulthood. The number of people living with this condition is set to rise as the UK experiences a rapid ageing of its population. To date, there has been very little research or service development with respect to psychological therapies for this group of people. Methods and analysis A parallel two-arm randomised controlled trial comparing a 14-session, 6-month Recovery-focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Older Adults with bipolar disorder (RfCBT-OA) plus treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU alone. Participants will be recruited in the North-West of England via primary and secondary mental health services and through self-referral. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the...

Predictors and moderators of between-therapists and within-therapist differences in depressed outpatients’ experiences of the Rogerian conditions.

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The extent to which patients experience their therapists as providing empathy, positive regard and genuineness (the Rogerian Conditions) is an important predictor of outcome in the psychotherapy of depression (Zuroff & Blatt, 2006). Using data from 157 depressed outpatients treated by 27 therapists in the cognitive-behavior therapy, interpersonal therapy, or clinical management with placebo conditions of the Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program (Elkin et al., 1989), Zuroff, Kelly, Leybman, Blatt, and Wampold (2010) showed that between-therapists and within-therapist differences in Rogerian Conditions at the second treatment session predicted more rapid reductions in overall maladjustment. We conducted novel analyses intended to identify: 1) predictors of between-therapist...

Existential-humanistic therapy and psychotherapy integration: A commentary.

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This is a commentary on 5 articles that illustrate some of the very different ways in which clinical practitioners, researchers, and theorists have attempted to integrate aspects of the existential-humanistic orientation into their model and practice of psychotherapy. One paper describes the integration of mindfulness practice with the psychoanalytic concept of mentalizing. These 2 concepts suggest a common factor shared by the 3 major schools of psychotherapy, namely, the acceptance of one’s unwanted internal experience. Three papers describe an integration of some aspects of the existential-humanistic orientation with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The last paper reverses this trend by assimilating aspects of CBT into a well-developed model of existential psychotherapy. The commenta...

Family-based interpersonal psychotherapy is a promising treatment for preadolescent depression

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 14:10:53 +0100

Although depression is less common during preadolescence, prepubertal depression places individuals at increased risk for future episodes and for impairments in social functioning.1 There is some evidence of the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the treatment of depression in this age group. However, studies that have compared CBT to an active control condition have only found modest benefits.2 An interpersonally-oriented treatment, such as family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT), may be particularly relevant for preadolescent depression since depressed youth continue to experience interpersonal difficulties even after their depression improves.3 Targeting these interpersonal impairments may hel...

Group cogntive-behavioural therapy may reduce symptoms and impairment in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 11:55:40 +0100

Persistence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) into adolescence is associated with a broad range of negative outcomes1 and high rates of treatment discontinuation.2 While clinical guidelines recommend non-pharmacological therapies as the first-line treatment for adolescents with ADHD3 the evidence to support this recommendation is sparse and generally not convincing. More specifically there is inadequate evidence to properly support the efficacy of either group or individual cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for this patient group.4 (Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH))

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An anxiety prevention programme is not effective over the long term in UK primary schools

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 11:45:22 +0100

This NIHR funded trial of an anxiety prevention programme in UK primary schools found it was effective after one year if led by health practitioners, but not after two years. The programme was not effective at all if led by a teacher. After two years, anxiety had reduced a similar amount for both the intervention group and controls, who received the usual curriculum, including personal, social and health education (PSHE) lessons. The nine-week programme, delivered in the classroom, is based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and leads nine- and ten-year-olds through activities and tasks that, through changing the way they think, help them to counter their anxieties. The cost of the FRIENDS programme was estimated to be from £52 to £56 per child and was unlikely to be cost-effective i...

Play Therapy Is More Than Child’s Play

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 18:45:31 +0100

“You can discover more about a person in an hour of play than in a year of conversation.” – Plato Some issues that clients bring to the counseling office can be addressed via talk therapy, while others respond more adroitly to non-verbal interactions. For those in the younger set, being able to express themselves beyond words is an essential aspect of healing. Play Therapy is best suited for those ranging in age from 3-16 years old. The Association for Play Therapy (APT) defines play therapy as “the systematic use of a theoretical model to establish an interpersonal process wherein trained play therapists use the therapeutic powers of play to help clients prevent or resolve psychosocial difficulties and achieve optimal growth and development.” There are many indicati...

The effect of flexible cognitive-behavioural therapy and medical treatment, including antidepressants on post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in traumatised refugees: pragmatic randomised controlled clinical trial [PAPERS]

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions In a pragmatic clinical setting, there was no effect of flexible CBT and antidepressants on PTSD, and there was a small-to-moderate effect of antidepressants and psychoeducation on depression in traumatised refugees. (Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry)

Embedding telephone therapy in statutory mental health services: a qualitative, theory-driven analysis

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Telephone-administered cognitive behavioural therapy (T-CBT) has attracted international recognition as a potential means of providing effective psychological treatment whilst simultaneously lowering costs, ma... (Source: BMC Psychiatry)

Therapeutic alliance in psychological therapy for people with recent onset psychosis who use cannabis

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This paper examines the role of therapeutic alliance in predicting outcomes in a Randomised Controlled Trial of Motivational Interviewing and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (MICBT) for problematic cannabis use in recent onset psychosis. (Source: Comprehensive Psychiatry)

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[Hypnosis for anxiety and phobic disorders: A review of clinical studies].

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: To date, evidence is negative or insufficient to support the efficacy of hypnosis in chronic anxiety disorders, in any categories whatsoever - including phobia or PTSD. Specific further studies are needed to identify some potential profiles predictive of response to hypnosis in these conditions. PMID: 26944812 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Presse Medicale)

Stepped Care Versus Direct Face-to-Face Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial.

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Nordgreen T, Haug T, Öst LG, Andersson G, Carlbring P, Kvale G, Tangen T, Heiervang E, Havik OE Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) stepped care model (psychoeducation, guided Internet treatment, and face-to-face CBT) compared with direct face-to-face (FtF) CBT. Patients with panic disorder or social anxiety disorder were randomized to either stepped care (n=85) or direct FtF CBT (n=88). Recovery was defined as meeting two of the following three criteria: loss of diagnosis, below cut-off for self-reported symptoms, and functional improvement. No significant differences in intention-to-treat recovery rates were identified between stepped care (40.0%) and direct FtF CBT (43.2%). The majority of the patients ...

Predicting Response to Therapist-Assisted Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Depression or Anxiety Within an Open Dissemination Trial.

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we explored demographic, clinical, and program variables that predicted modules started and symptom improvement (i.e., Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 or Patient Health Questionnaire-9 total scores over pre-, mid-, and posttreatment) within a previously published open dissemination trial (Hadjistavropoulos et al., 2014). The sample consisted of 195 patients offered 12 modules of therapist-assisted ICBT for depression or generalized anxiety; ICBT was delivered by therapists working in six geographically dispersed clinics. Consistent across ICBT for depression or generalized anxiety, starting fewer modules was associated with more phone calls from therapists reflecting that therapists tended to call patients who did not start modules as scheduled. Also consistent for both ICBT ...

Non-Pharmacologic Insomnia Intervention for Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Improvements in Actigraphy-Assessed Sleep Parameters

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Introduction: Sleep problems plague older adults, with negative effects of physical and mental health and quality of life. Sleep problems are a risk factor for declining health status. Growing evidence links sleep problems to the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) has been shown to be effective in a broad range of individuals with sleep problems. However, cognitive therapies such as CBT-I involve cognitive processes that are frequently impaired in MCI (i.e., executive processes such as planning and problem solving, memory, and language). (Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry)

Individual Face‐to‐Face Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis: A Qualitative Study

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionIt is important to inform the participants of what CBT entails so that they are mentally prepared for the demanding process and can make the necessary adjustments in their daily life. Knowledge of MS among the therapists as well as collaboration with the multidisciplinary MS care may facilitate participation in CBT. (Source: Journal of Clinical Psychology)

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Using cognitive therapies to treat depression

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Cognitive therapies could be an effective alternative to medication in the treatment of depression, according to the National Institute for Healthcare Research (NIHR). (Source: NHS Networks)

The clinical and cost effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy plus treatment as usual for the treatment of depression in advanced cancer (CanTalk): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The prevalence of depressive disorder in adults with advanced cancer is around 20 %. Although cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is recommended for depression and may be beneficial in depressed people with ca... (Source: Trials)

[Patients, physicians and nursing personnel in intensive care units : Psychological and psychotherapeutic interventions].

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Meraner V, Sperner-Unterweger B Abstract During intensive care treatment patients suffer from various forms of stress. Certain psychological and psychotherapeutic interventions (e. g. cognitive behavior therapy, hypnotherapy and psychoeducation) can provide relief. Even patients with a severely reduced ability to communicate can benefit from an early psychological intervention as supportive treatment. The aim of these interventions is to reduce psychological impairments and burdens, provide strategies for coping with physical handicaps or necessary treatment and avoid long-term negative psychological impacts. Organizational and institutional constraints as well as emotional stress are a specific challenge for intensive care personnel. In order to guarantee an efficient c...

The frequency of actions and thoughts scale: development and psychometric validation of a measure of adaptive behaviours and cognitions.

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Terides MD, Dear BF, Karin E, Jones MP, Gandy M, Fogliati VJ, Kayrouz R, Staples LG, Titov N Abstract This paper describes the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of an instrument that measures the frequency of adaptive behaviours and cognitions related to therapeutic change during cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), for symptoms of anxiety and depression. Two studies were conducted. In study one, 661 participants completed an online survey with 28 items targeting adaptive behaviours and cognitions. Exploratory factor analysis performed on part of the sample (n = 451) revealed that a four-factor solution 'characterised' the data. This led to the development of a 12-item instrument, the Frequency of Actions and Thoughts Scale (FATS). Confirmatory factor a...

Non-pharmacological interventions for reducing aggression and violence in serious mental illness: A systematic review and narrative synthesis

Sun, 28 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions The evidence for non-pharmacological interventions for reducing violence in this population is not conclusive. Long-term outcomes are lacking and good quality RCTs are required to develop a stronger evidence base. (Source: European Psychiatry)

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Decatastrophizing: Cognitive Therapy Negative...

Sun, 28 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="" > itemprop="description" >A hallmark of (Source: Generalized Anxiety)

Cognitive behavior therapy for late‐life generalized anxiety disorder delivered by lay and expert providers has lasting benefits

Sun, 28 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionTreatment of late‐life anxiety delivered by nonexpert lay providers working under supervision of licensed providers has lasting benefits. These findings support the potential of new models of care for older adults that may expand reach of mental health services. (Source: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry)

A randomized controlled trial of an audio-based treatment program for child anxiety disorders.

Sat, 27 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Infantino A, Donovan CL, March S Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an audio-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) program for child anxiety disorders. Twenty-four children aged 5-11 years were randomly allocated into either the audio-based CBT program condition (Audio, n = 12) or a waitlist control (WL; n = 12) group. Outcome measures included a clinical diagnostic interview, clinician-rated global assessment of functioning, and parent and child self-report ratings of anxiety and internalisation. Assessments were conducted prior to treatment, 12 weeks following treatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Results indicated that at post-assessment, 58.3% of children receiving treatment compared to 16.7% of waitlist children were free of their...

An Integrated Adult Congenital Heart Disease Psychology Service

Fri, 26 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsReduced psychological distress can be achieved among adults with CHD who receive targeted psychological intervention. Consistent with the emerging field of behavioral cardiology, other ACHD programs as well as general cardiovascular programs are encouraged to integrate cardiac psychology services in order to provide comprehensive patient care. (Source: Congenital Heart Disease)

The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence: results of a randomised controlled trial (the PREVENT study).

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 13:58:31 +0100

Individuals with a history of recurrent depression have a high risk of repeated depressive relapse/recurrence. Maintenance antidepressant medication (m-ADM) for at least 2 years is the current recommended treatment, but many individuals are interested in alternatives to m-ADM. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been shown to reduce the risk of relapse/recurrence compared with usual care but has not yet been compared with m-ADM in a definitive trial. (Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH))

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Integrating Cognitive Processing, Brain Activity, Molecules and Genes to Advance Evidence-Based Psychological Treatment for Depression and Anxiety: From Cognitive Neurogenetics to CBT-Based Neurogenetics

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract In order to promote the improvement of evidence-based psychological treatments (EBPT) and/or the integration of EBPT and bio-medical treatments, we propose a change in direction in cognitive neurogenetics (CNG)—from cognitive neurogenic to cognitive behavioral-based neurogenetics—starting from a top-down analysis: from symptoms and clinical-relevant cognitions to their implementation (brain, protein, genes). To illustrate our proposal, we specifically focus trans-diagnostically on symptoms of depression and anxiety, and consider the next underlying/interrelated mechanisms: (1) specific cognitions related to EBPT clinical theory/practice (cognitions/cognitive biases); (2) involved brain areas; (3) variability in protein expression; and (4) genetic polymorphisms. Th...

Derived relations moderate the association between changes in the strength of commitment language and cocaine treatment response.

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study investigated the relationships between deriving relations–a key behavioral process by which language and cognition may come to influence behavior, shifts in the strength of client talk in favor of change, and treatment outcome among 75 cocaine-dependent participants (23% Female). Participants were trained to relate cocaine words, nonsense syllables, and negative-consequence words and were then assessed for a derived relation of equivalence before starting treatment. The DARN-C coding system was used to quantify the strength of participant speech during an early cognitive behavior therapy counseling session. Cocaine use during treatment was the outcome of interest. The analyses (a) characterized the process of deriving relations among individuals seeking help for their misuse o...

Children’s Negative Cognitive Error Questionnaire—Revised: The Factor Structure and Associations with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Across Age, Gender, and Clinical/Community Samples

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study evaluated the factor structure of the Children’s Negative Cognitive Error Questionnaire—Revised (CNCEQ-R) and its relationship with anxiety and depressive symptoms. The study included a community sample of 257 children and adolescents and a clinical sample of 201 referred youths, aged 9–18 years. Participants completed the CNCEQ-R and the revised child anxiety and depression scale (RCADS). For the original five-factor model, confirmatory factor analysis indicated an overall good fit to the data for the entire sample. The model was found fully invariant between boys and girls, children and adolescents, and clinically-referred and non-referred youths. The cognitive error of “overgeneralizing” accounted for most of the variance in depressive symptoms (15 %), while “mi...

Irrational Beliefs and Attention Bias Towards Symptoms-Related Stimuli in Maintaining Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Results from a Pilot Study

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Recent etiopathogenic theories of gastrointestinal conditions state that information processing biases can be a possible major factor involved in the aetiology and maintenance of these conditions. This exploratory study investigated the role of attention biases (AB) towards symptoms-related cues in gastrointestinal patients with respect to symptom maintenance, simultaneously taking into consideration the role of irrational beliefs. We included 32 patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal conditions. Patients completed a battery of psychological tests and an experimental task aimed to measure the preferential attention processing of linguistic stimuli related to gastrointestinal symptoms when they compete for attention resources with neutral stimuli. AB was positively relat...

Emotion Malleability Beliefs Influence the Spontaneous Regulation of Social Anxiety

Mon, 22 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract The current study examined how manipulating individuals’ beliefs about emotion’s malleability influences the choices they make in how they spontaneously regulate their anxiety during a stressful social situation. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either an experimental manipulation that emotions are malleable or that emotions are fixed then completed an impromptu, brief speech task designed to elicit anxiety. We predicted that participants in the malleable emotion condition, compared to those in the fixed condition, would engage in more cognitive reappraisal to change the unfolding of an emotion earlier in the emotion generative process; we predicted that participants in the fixed emotion condition would engage in more expressive suppression, a late stage...

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Trauma Therapists’ Clinical Applications, Training, and Personal Practice of Mindfulness and Meditation

Mon, 22 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Mindfulness and meditation (MM) are increasingly used in trauma treatment, yet there is little research about therapist qualifications and clinical applications of these practices. We surveyed trauma therapists (N = 116) about their clinical uses, training, and personal practice of MM. Most respondents reported use of MM in trauma therapy, primarily MM-related imagery and breathing exercises and mindfulness in session or daily life. Almost a third used mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, or mindfulness-based relapse prevention. Across all respondents, 66 % were trained by a mental health (MH) professional, 16 % were trained exclusively by a spiritual teacher, and 18 % received no training. On average, therapists used four types ...

Discontinuation of antidepressant medication after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for recurrent depression: randomised controlled non-inferiority trial.

Sun, 21 Feb 2016 00:27:02 +0100

ConclusionsOur findings suggest an increased risk of relapse/recurrence in patients withdrawing from mADM after MBCT. PMID: 26892847 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry for Mental Science)

A behavioural approach to helping an older adult with a learning disability and mild cognitive impairment overcome depression

Sat, 20 Feb 2016 16:34:13 +0100

Conclusions: The case study demonstrates the clinical utility of behavioural activation as a treatment for depression in an older adult with a learning disability and mild cognitive impairment. This matches the findings of other studies of behavioural activation as an intervention to treat depression in older adults. However, the client did not have a formal diagnosis of learning disability and may therefore be atypical. More comprehensive studies, including randomised controlled trials, are needed to confirm these findings and more thoroughly test the effectiveness of behavioural interventions with this client group. (Source: British Journal of Learning Disabilities)

[Auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with borderline personality disorder].

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 13:23:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: AVH and other hallucinations are common in BPD. We advise clinicians to inquire directly whether patients experience them and to provide treatment whenever possible. However, one of the problems is, that evidence-based treatment methods such as antipsychotics, cognitive-behavioural therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation have not yet been studied systematically for this specific patient group. PMID: 26881345 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie)

The treatment of suicidality in adolescents by psychosocial interventions for depression: A systematic literature review.

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: It is unclear whether psychological treatments are more effective than no treatment since no study has used a no-treatment control group. There is evidence to suggest that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy interventions produce pre-post reductions in suicidality with moderate effect sizes and are at least as efficacious as pharmacotherapy in reducing suicidality; however, it is unclear whether these effects are sustained. There are several trials showing promising evidence for family-based and interpersonal therapies, with large pre-post effect sizes, and further evaluation with improved methodology is required. Depression prevention interventions show promising short-term effects. PMID: 26896044 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Australian and New Zealand Journ...

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Brain scans used to see if Facebook is addictive

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 15:15:00 +0100

ConclusionThis study draws comparisons between "addiction" to social media and substance addiction, while making it clear there are important differences between the two. The differing consequences of spending too much time on Facebook (which might include too little time working or studying) are less extreme and immediate than the consequences of addiction to hard drugs. The study has some obvious limitations. The results are based on just 20 young people from a US university, which means they may not be applicable to people of different ages, levels of education, or backgrounds. Importantly, none of the students taking part had high scores of addiction, so we don't know whether the brain scan results apply to people with very heavy social media use or dependency.Also, the stud...

Defense Mechanisms in Rational Emotive Cognitive Behavior Therapy Personality Theory

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract It has been argued that if rational emotive cognitive behavior therapy (RECBT) is to survive and prosper in the present century, the personality theory underlying it requires further development, greater clarification, and more comprehensiveness. In this article it is argued that RECBT personality theory could be further broadened and strengthened by attempting to incorporate the classic defense mechanisms of psychoanalytic theory via stripping them away from Freud’s hypothetical dynamic unconscious and instead resting them on Ellis’s concept of the unconscious. First, to provide proper context, the unconscious and the defense mechanisms are briefly discussed. Then attention is turned to the 10 classic defense mechanisms, discussed one by one. In each described mechan...

Mapping interventions that promote mental health in the General Population: A scoping review of reviews

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 17 February 2016 Source:Preventive Medicine Author(s): Jennifer Enns, Maxine Holmqvist, Pamela Wener, Gayle Halas, Janet Rothney, Annette Schultz, Leah Goertzen, Alan Katz Health policies and programs promoting mental health or preventing mental illness in the general public are under-recognized facets of primary prevention. Increasing awareness and adoption of such strategies could reduce the burden of mental illness in individuals, families, communities, and society as whole. We conducted a scoping review of reviews of interventions to promote mental health or prevent mental illness. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL and ERIC from 2004 to 2014. Reviews were included if the authors indicated a systematic approach in...

Delivery of cognitive behavioural therapy to workers: a systematic review

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Internet CBT should be made available in workplaces for workers with anxiety disorders as part of a stepped care plan. (Source: Occupational Medicine)

Effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural therapy-based anxiety prevention programme for children: a preliminary quasi-experimental study in Japan

Mon, 15 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

As children’s mental health problems become more complex, more effective prevention is needed. Though various anxiety and depression prevention programmes based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) were deve... (Source: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health)

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Trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy: narratives of children and adolescents - Westerman NK, Cobham VE, McDermott B.

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 01:19:46 +0100

In this study, the narratives produced by childre... (Source: SafetyLit)

Evaluating differences in Pavlovian fear acquisition and extinction as predictors of outcome from cognitive behavioural therapy for anxious children

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsIndividual differences in evaluative and physiological indices of fear extinction might moderate response to CBT. (Source: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry)

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Post‐Traumatic Stress Disorder in a person with an Autism Spectrum Condition and Intellectual Disability: A Case Study

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

DiscussionThis case suggests that cognitive approaches to treating PTSD can be successful in people with intellectual disability and autism. (Source: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities)

Outcome of treatment seeking rural gamblers attending a nurse-led cognitive-behaviour therapy service: A pilot study

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion This study suggests that rural problem gamblers experience different levels of co-morbid anxiety and depression from their urban counterparts, but once in treatment appear to respond quicker. ACBT approach was found to be effective in treating rural gamblers and outcomes were maintained. Ensuring better availability and access to such treatment in rural areas is important. Nurses are in a position as the majority health professional in rural areas to provide such help. (Source: International Journal of Nursing Sciences)

Broken fixes: A systematic analysis of the effectiveness of modern and postmodern interventions utilized to decrease IPV perpetration among black males remanded to treatment

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 12 February 2016 Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior Author(s): Bernadine Waller Batterer intervention programs are mostly failing to protect victims of intimate partner violence; yet, there is a dearth of research that examines the treatment intervention as a predictor for program dropout. A systematic review of offenders' attrition and recidivism rates throughout the literature found that current interventions typically mandated by criminal justice policymakers, like the Duluth Model and Cognitive Behavior Therapy, are largely ineffective for perpetrators of all racial/ethnic groups. However, they are particularly problematic for Black males who are disproportionately remanded to treatment and more likely to drop out, which elevates their risk of ...

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Early intervention for depression and anxiety in 16-18-year-olds: Protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of open-access psychological workshops in schools (DISCOVER)

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the development of mental health problems. The DISCOVER intervention aims to provide accessible, acceptable and cost-effective psychological support for stressed adolescents in inner-city secondary schools. The intervention uses age-appropriate cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) methods and materials, delivered in an interactive 1-day workshop with additional telephone support. An open-access entry route allows students to self-refer. This protocol describes a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing DISCOVER with a waitlist control condition. (Source: Contemporary Clinical Trials)

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Trichotillomania: A Bayesian Case-Control Study

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 22:11:24 +0100

Over the last years, mindfulness-based interventions combined with habit reversal training have been demonstrated to be particularly suitable for addressing trichotillomania. However, because these studies always combined mindfulness training to habit reversal without including either a mindfulness or habit reversal condition alone, it is still unclear whether clinical benefits are the consequences of mindfulness or merely result from habit reversal training. The primary purpose of the present study was thus to examine whether a mindfulness training procedure without habit reversal could alleviate trichotillomania. Using a Bayesian probabilistic approach for single-case design, client’s hair loss severity and level of mindfulness were compared to a normative sample (n = 15) before treatm...

Attentional Bias Moderates the Link Between Attachment-Related Expectations and Non-suicidal Self-Injury

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Insecure attachment is a transdiagnostic risk factor for the development of emotional and behavior problems. In the present study, we investigated the association between attachment-related expectations and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a sample of 42 university students, taking into account the attentional bias around mother as a mechanism to explain this association. All participants completed the Self-Harm Inventory to assess life-time NSSI and the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment and the Attentional Breadth Task. Overall, 28.6 % of the participants engaged in at least one type of life-time NSSI. The results showed that participants who are less able to trust their mother are less likely to communicate with her, which is linked to more life-time NSSI, but ...

Catastrophic Thinking: A Transdiagnostic Process Across Psychiatric Disorders

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Since the description of catastrophizing by Ellis (Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Lyle Stuart, Oxford, 1962) as a general factor in psychopathology, numerous studies have explored this construct and its association with many common disorders. This paper investigates the role of catastrophic thinking across psychiatric disorders. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature on the role of catastrophic beliefs as a predictor and correlate of psychopathological disorders including panic, phobia, health anxiety, obsessive–compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, pain, and traumatic brain injury. The literature suggests that catastrophic thinking has been demonstrated to play a role in a wide variety of disorders and has been a focal point for preve...

Sensitivity to change in the Obsessive compulsive inventory: Comparing the standard and Revised versions in two cohorts of different severity

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Discussion: The OCI-R is a valid self-report outcome measure for measuring change and is less burdensome for patients to complete than the OCI. Questions remain about whether the OCI or OCI-R is sufficiently sensitive to change for a service evaluation. We would recommend a slightly higher cut-off score of ≥17 on the OCI-R for the definition of caseness. (Source: Journal of Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders)

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Evaluating the Intergenerational Link Between Maternal and Child Intolerance of Uncertainty: A Preliminary Cross-Sectional Examination

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract The relationship between intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and anxiety has been extensively studied in adults, while research on child IU is nascent. Despite recent advances in the evaluation of IU and clinical correlates in youth, little is known about familial patterns of IU and intergenerational links between parent and child IU. The present study provides a preliminary evaluation of the relationship between maternal IU and child IU in a sample of community youth (N = 90; ages 7–13 years). Analyses showed a significant, medium association between maternal and child IU (r = .42, p < .01), and this effect remained significant after controlling for maternal anxiety. Moreover, the relationship between maternal and child IU mediated the well-established link b...

Experiences and perspectives of patients with post-polio syndrome and therapists with exercise and cognitive behavioural therapy

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Many persons affected with poliomyelitis develop post-polio syndrome (PPS) later in their life. Recently, the effectiveness of Exercise Therapy (ET) and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for PPS has been eva... (Source: BMC Neurology)

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy v. group psychoeducation for people with generalised anxiety disorder: randomised controlled trial.

Tue, 09 Feb 2016 06:09:02 +0100

ConclusionsThese results suggest that both of the interventions appear to be superior to usual care for the reduction of anxiety symptoms. PMID: 26846612 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry for Mental Science)

Chronic fatigue syndrome: comparing outcomes in White British and Black and minority ethnic patients after cognitive-behavioural therapy.

Tue, 09 Feb 2016 06:09:02 +0100

ConclusionsTo our knowledge, this study is the first to indicate that CBT is effective for treating CFS in a group of patients from diverse BME backgrounds. PMID: 26846611 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry for Mental Science)

Associations Between Interpretation Bias and Depression in Adolescents

Tue, 09 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study adapted a measure of interpretation bias, the Ambiguous Scenarios Test for Depression, for adolescents and evaluated its reliability and validity. A community sample of 206 young people aged 12–18 years completed a validated measure of depression symptoms (Mood and Feelings Questionnaires) and the adapted Ambiguous Scenarios Test. The Ambiguous Scenarios Test for Depression in Adolescents had good internal consistency and split half reliability. Depression symptoms were associated with participants’ ratings of the valence of ambiguous situations and with interpretation biases. Importantly, symptoms of depression and anxiety were independently associated with interpretation bias. This research suggests that interpretation biases can be measured in this age group, that negati...

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Evaluating metabolites in patients with major depressive disorder who received mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and healthy controls using short echo MRSI at 7 Tesla

Tue, 09 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions This study has successfully evaluated regional differences in metabolites for patients with MDD who received MBCT treatment and in controls using 7 Tesla MRSI. (Source: Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine)