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MedWorm: Autism



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Autism category.



Last Build Date: Tue, 22 Mar 2016 08:27:31 +0100

 



Autism spectrum has no clear cut-off point, research suggests

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 19:44:11 +0100

New study published in Nature Genetics indicates that genes predisposing people to autism could influence social skills in the wider population The same genes involved in predisposing people to autism appear to influence social skills in the wider population, suggesting that the autism spectrum has no clear cut-off point, scientists have discovered.Researchers have previously shown that autism is linked not just to one or two powerful genes, but to the combined effect of many small genetic changes. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)

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Autism genes are in all of us, new research reveals

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 16:36:50 +0100

New light has been shed on the genetic relationship between autistic spectrum disorders and ASD-related traits in the wider population. Autism spectrum disorders are a class of neurodevelopmental conditions affecting about 1 in 100 children. They are characteriszd by social interaction difficulties, communication and language impairments, as well as stereotyped and repetitive behavior. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)






MMP‐9 in translation: from molecule to brain physiology, pathology, and therapy

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is part of the 60th Anniversary special issue. MMP‐9, through cleavage of specific target proteins, plays a major role in synaptic plasticity and neuroinflammation, and by those virtues contributes to brain physiology and a host of neurological and psychiatric disorders. This article is part of the 60th Anniversary special issue. (Source: Journal of Neurochemistry)

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The long non-coding RNA FMR4 promotes proliferation of human neural precursor cells and epigenetic regulation of gene expression in trans

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Author(s): Veronica J. Peschansky, Chiara Pastori, Zane Zeier, Katya Wentzel, Dmitry Velmeshev, Marco Magistri, José P. Silva, Claes Wahlestedt Triplet repeat expansions in the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene cause either intellectual disability and autism, or adult-onset neurodegeneration, with poorly understood variability in presentation. Previous studies have identified several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) at the FMR1 locus, including FMR4. Similarly to FMR1, FMR4 is silenced by large-repeat expansions that result in enrichment of DNA and histone methylation within the shared promoter and repeat sequence, suggesting a possible role for this noncoding RNA in the pathophysio...



Effects of developmental hyperserotonemia on the morphology of rat dentate nuclear neurons

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 13 May 2016 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 322 Author(s): L.H. Hough, S. Segal Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social cognition, disordered communication, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Furthermore, abnormalities in basic motor control, skilled motor gestures, and motor learning, are common in ASD. These characteristics have been attributed to a possible defect in the pre- and postnatal development of specific neural networks including the dentate-thalamo-cortical pathway, which is involved in motor learning, automaticity of movements, and higher cognitive functions. The current study utilized custom diolistic labeling and unbiased stereology to characterize morphological alterations in neurons ...



Antidepressant use in second, third trimester increases risk of autism

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Use of an antidepressant in the second or third trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders in the mother's child, a population‐based cohort study has found. This risk was significant when mothers used a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), the researchers reported. (Source: The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update)



Brief report: coaching adolescents with autism spectrum disorder in a school-based multi-sport program - Rosso EG.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 19:34:31 +0100

While physical activity (PA) is often overwhelming for people with ASD, appropriate engagement strategies can result in increased motivation to participate and associated physical and psychosocial benefits. In this framework, the multi-sport Supporting Suc... (Source: SafetyLit)



Joubert syndrome with autism in two siblings: A rare presentation.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 16:49:03 +0100

This report is important in that it adds evidence to the literature that abnormalities of cerebellum are involved in the cognitive development and autistic symptoms. PMID: 26985112 [PubMed] (Source: Indian Journal of Psychiatry)

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Cytogenomic Evaluation of Children with Congenital Anomalies: Critical Implications for Diagnostic Testing and Genetic Counseling.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 11:23:02 +0100

Authors: Szczałuba K, Jakubiuk-Tomaszuk A, Kędzior M, Bernaciak J, Zdrodowska J, Kurzątkowski W, Radkowski M, Demkow U Abstract Identification of submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations, as a cause of structural malformations, is currently performed by MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) or array CGH (array comparative genomic hybridization) techniques. The aim of this study was the evaluation of diagnostic usefulness of MLPA and array CGH in patients with congenital malformations or abnormalities (at least one major or minor birth defect, including dysmorphism) with or without intellectual disability or developmental delay and the optimization of genetic counseling in the context of the results obtained. The MLPA and array CGH were performed in 91 patients di...



Factors associated with accidental injuries in children with ADHD-combined type: more than a motor problem? - Connolly A, Fielding J, Papadopoulos N, McGinley J, Murphy A, Rinehart NJ.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 06:34:46 +0100

OBJECTIVE: We explored the relationship between accidental injuries, motor impairment, and co-occurring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-CT). METHOD: Participants were 32 male children diagnosed with... (Source: SafetyLit)



Frequency of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 02:24:35 +0100

Conclusions: Children and adolescents with ASD and ADHD are at a higher risk of overweight and obesity than children without developmental problems in the community.Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a frequência de sobrepeso e obesidade em crianças e adolescentes com transtorno do espectro do autismo (TEA) e transtorno do déficit de atenção/hiperatividade (TDAH) e em seus pais, em comparação com crianças e adolescentes da comunidade sem transtornos do desenvolvimento. Métodos Medidas antropométricas foram coletadas de 69 pacientes com TEA (8,4±4,2 anos), 23 com TDAH (8,5±2,4) e 19 controles sem transtornos desenvolvimentais (8,6±2,9) entre agosto e novembro de 2014. Os pais dos pacientes com TEA e TDAH também foram avaliados em relação aos parâmetros antropométricos. Sobrepeso foi ...



Early event-related potentials to emotional faces differ for adults with autism spectrum disorder and by serotonin transporter genotype

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study we investigated the impact of two conditions: (1) autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and (2) length-based allelic variants of the serotonin transporter gene, SLC6A4, on early stage attention and perception of emotional information conveyed by faces. (Source: Clinical Neurophysiology)



Monogenic mouse models of autism spectrum disorders: Common mechanisms and missing links

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 3 May 2016 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 321 Author(s): S.W. Hulbert, Y.-H. Jiang Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) present unique challenges in the fields of genetics and neurobiology because of the clinical and molecular heterogeneity underlying these disorders. Genetic mutations found in ASD patients provide opportunities to dissect the molecular and circuit mechanisms underlying autistic behaviors using animal models. Ongoing studies of genetically modified models have offered critical insight into possible common mechanisms arising from different mutations, but links between molecular abnormalities and behavioral phenotypes remain elusive. The challenges encountered in modeling autism in mice demand a new analytic paradigm that integrates behavioral assessment with ...

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The serotonin system in autism spectrum disorder: From biomarker to animal models

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 3 May 2016 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 321 Author(s): C.L. Muller, A.M.J. Anacker, J. Veenstra-VanderWeele Elevated whole blood serotonin, or hyperserotonemia, was the first biomarker identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is present in more than 25% of affected children. The serotonin system is a logical candidate for involvement in ASD due to its pleiotropic role across multiple brain systems both dynamically and across development. Tantalizing clues connect this peripheral biomarker with changes in brain and behavior in ASD, but the contribution of the serotonin system to ASD pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. Studies of whole blood serotonin levels in ASD and in a large founder population indicate greater heritability than for the disorder...



Transgenic labeling of parvalbumin-expressing neurons with tdTomato

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 3 May 2016 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 321 Author(s): T. Kaiser, J.T. Ting, P. Monteiro, G. Feng Parvalbumin (PVALB)-expressing fast-spiking interneurons subserve important roles in many brain regions by modulating circuit function and dysfunction of these neurons is strongly implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. To facilitate the study of PVALB neuron function we need to be able to identify PVALB neurons in vivo. We have generated a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mouse line expressing the red fluorophore tdTomato under the control of endogenous regulatory elements of the Pvalb gene locus (JAX # 027395). We show that the tdTomato transgene is faithfully expressed relative to endogenous PVALB expression through...



Autism spectrum disorders: Integration of the genome, transcriptome and the environment

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Autism spectrum disorders denote a series of lifelong neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by an impaired social communication profile and often repetitive, stereotyped behavior. Recent years have seen the complex genetic architecture of the disease being progressively unraveled with advancements in gene finding technology and next generation sequencing methods. However, a complete elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind autism is necessary for potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)



People on the autism spectrum live an average of 18 fewer years than everyone else, study finds

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 17:45:59 +0100

Researchers looking into mortality trends and autism have made a troubling discovery: People on the autism spectrum are dying young — some 12 to 30 years earlier than might otherwise be expected. The analysis, conducted by Sweden's Karolinska Institute and published in the British Journal of Psychiatry, found that the leading cause of premature death in autistic adults isn't due to diseases, […] (Source: Washington Post: To Your Health)



Well: An Experimental Autism Treatment Cost Me My Marriage

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 15:04:25 +0100

An intervention to switch on my emotions succeeded beyond my wildest dreams, but it turned my life upside down. (Source: NYT)

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Time to tackle new health crisis of lives cut short by autism

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 14:02:42 +0100

Turning the tide of early deaths linked to autism must be a priority, says James Cusack, a campaigning researcher, who has autism himself   (Source: New Scientist - Health)



SHOCK data reveals people with autism are dying DECADES earlier than population

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 13:14:00 +0100

CHARITY Autistica said a person with autism’s life is 16 years shorter than average. (Source: Daily Express - Health)



Oxytocin Effects on Brain Functioning in Humans

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 13:08:37 +0100

The neuropeptide oxytocin has received a lot of attention in the last decade for its effects on social cognition and behavior. Evidence has been reported across species that oxytocin may increase social approach and adaptation by reducing anxiety and stress in social interactions, shifting attention from negative to positive social cues, and increasing attractiveness and trust within partnerships or in groups (1). In human studies, oxytocin has most often been administered intranasally to a group of healthy (predominantly) male volunteers or patients with deficits in social cognition and behavior, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, social phobia, or borderline personality disorder, who had to perform experimental tasks (e.g., assessing facial affect recognition, emotion proce...

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Autism as a Disorder of Altered Global Functional and Structural Connectivity

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 13:08:37 +0100

For a long time, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) played only a minor role in clinical adult psychiatry and psychotherapy. This situation recently changed, particularly when high functioning variants of ASD were recognized as an underlying basic disorder or personality structure on which secondary forms of psychiatric reactions, such as in depression, anxiety, or personality disorders, arise (1). From a clinical perspective, it is important to recognize the autistic pattern for a more comprehensive understanding of the psychodynamics of the psychopathology. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)



The Oscillopathic Nature of Language Deficits in Autism: From Genes to Language Evolution

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 11:35:24 +0100

Antonio Benítez-Burraco, Elliot Murphy (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)



£10m study by charity will probe why autistic adults die decades prematurely

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 10:40:31 +0100

The Swedish study, in the British Journal of Psychiatry, suggested autistic people with a learning disability are dying at an average age of just 39. (Source: the Mail online | Health)



[A girl with foetal valproate syndrome and autism spectrum disorder].

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 06:03:02 +0100

Authors: Solignac I Abstract We study the case of a 12-year-old girl who, following intra-uterine exposure to valproate, was diagnosed with foetal valproate syndrome, characterised at birth by dysmorphic features. The use of valproate during pregnancy (because of epilepsy or bipolar disorder) can cause not only structural defects in the growing foetus, but also problems in cognitive development and in adaptive and emotional/behavioural functioning in later life. We evaluate these domains of development in our discussion and suggest several other drugs, less harmful than valproate, which can be used to treat epilepsy or bipolar disorder during pregnancy. PMID: 26979855 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie)



Molecular players in the development and maintenance of mesencephalic dopamine systems.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 04:28:02 +0100

Authors: Burbach JP, Cazorla P, Smidt MP Abstract Several psychiatric diseases are considered to be neuro-developmental disorders. Amongst these are schizophrenia and autism, in which genetic and environmental components have been indicated. In these disorders intrinsic molecular mechanisms of brain development may be deranged due to genetic predispositions, or modified by external influences. Brain development is a delicate process of well-tuned cellular proliferation and differentiation of multipotent neural progenitor cells driven by spatiotemporal cues. One of the fundamental mechanisms is the interaction between external signals, e.g. growth factors, and internal regulators, e.g. transcription factors. An important transmitter system involved in behavioural and affective funct...

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People with autism 'die younger'

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:04:22 +0100

People with autism are dying earlier than the general population, often through epilepsy or suicide, a charity warns. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)



Premature autism deaths are 'hidden crisis' says charity

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:01:45 +0100

Certain groups of autistic people die 30 years younger than their peers, say charity Autistica, calling for an immediate review into autism deathsPremature deaths among autistic people are at “shocking levels” according to a charity report which found that certain groups with the condition die 30 years younger than the general population.The striking figures amount to a “hidden crisis” in public health according to the charity, Autistica, which has called on the NHS to launch an immediate review into the scale and underlying causes of autism deaths in Britain. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)



People with autism die 16 years earlier than expected, study finds

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:01:40 +0100

£10 million research programme to investigate why autistic adults are dying decades before their time (Source: Telegraph Health)



Startle and blink reflex in high functioning autism

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we investigated if high functioning autistic patients had abnormalities in the blink reflex and the startle reaction to auditory or somatosensory stimuli. Fourteen patients aged between 7 and 16 years were included in the study. We found a longer latency of the blink reflex, an increased duration and amplitude of the auditory startle reaction and a lower presence rate of the somatosensorial startle reaction in autistic patients. To better define the sensorial characteristics of the disease could improve the therapeutic management of children with autism spectrum disorder. (Source: Neurophysiologie Clinique)



Pharmacological targeting of redox regulation systems as new therapeutic approach for psychiatric disorders: a literature overview

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 16 March 2016 Source:Pharmacological Research Author(s): Stefania Schiavone, Luigia Trabace Redox dysregulation occurs following a disequilibrium between reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing and degrading systems, i.e. mitochondria, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) on one hand and the principal antioxidant system, the glutathione, on the other hand. Increasing recent evidence points towards a pathogenetic role of an altered redox state in the development of several mental disorders, such as anxiety, bipolar disorders, depression, psychosis, autism and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). In this regard, pharmacological targeting of the redox state regulating systems in the brain has bee...

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Quo Vadis clinical genomics of ASD?

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: Autism)



Family wellbeing of individuals with autism spectrum disorder: A scoping review

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Families play an important role in supporting individuals with autism spectrum disorder across the lifespan. Indicators of family wellbeing can help to establish benchmarks for service provision and evaluation; however, a critical first step is a clear understanding of the construct in question. The purpose of the current scoping review was to (a) summarize current conceptualizations and measurements of family wellbeing, (b) synthesize key findings, and (c) highlight gaps and limitations in the extant literature. A final review of 86 articles highlighted the difficulty of synthesizing findings of family wellbeing in the autism spectrum disorder literature due to varied measurement techniques and the limited use of a common theoretical direction. Considerations for future research are prese...



How well are children with autism spectrum disorder doing academically at school? An overview of the literature

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The academic achievement of individuals with autism spectrum disorder has received little attention from researchers despite the importance placed on this by schools, families and students with autism spectrum disorder. Investigating factors that lead to increased academic achievement thus would appear to be very important. A review of the literature was conducted to identify factors related to the academic achievement of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 19 studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria for the review. Results indicated that many individuals demonstrate specific areas of strength and weakness and there is a great deal of variability in general academic achievement across the autism spectrum. Adolescents and individuals with lower ...



Can findings from randomized controlled trials of social skills training in autism spectrum disorder be generalized? The neglected dimension of external validity

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we systematically reviewed determinants of external validity in the accumulated randomized controlled trials of social skills group interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. We extracted data clustered into six overarching themes: source population, included population, context, treatment provider, treatment intervention, and outcome. A total of 15 eligible randomized controlled trials were identified. The eligible population was typically limited to high-functioning school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder, and the included population was predominantly male and Caucasian. Scant information about the recruitment of participants was provided, and details about treatment providers and settings were sparse. It was not evident from the t...



Anxiety symptoms in young people with autism spectrum disorder attending special schools: Associations with gender, adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Anxiety-related problems are among the most frequently reported mental health difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. As most research has focused on clinical samples or high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, less is known about the factors associated with anxiety in community samples across the ability range. This cross-sectional study examined the association of gender, age, adaptive functioning and autism symptom severity with different caregiver-reported anxiety symptoms. Participants were caregivers of 241 children (6–18 years old) with autism spectrum disorder attending special schools in Singapore. Measures included the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale and assessments of overall emotional, behavioural and adaptive functioning. Caregivers reported more ...

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Child characteristics associated with outcome for children with autism in a school-based behavioral intervention

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study examined the extent to which clinical and demographic characteristics predicted outcome for children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants included 152 students with autism spectrum disorder in 53 kindergarten-through-second-grade autism support classrooms in a large urban public school district. Associations between child characteristics (including age, language ability, autism severity, social skills, adaptive behavior, co-occurring psychological symptoms, and restrictive and repetitive behavior) and outcome, as measured by changes in cognitive ability following one academic year of an intervention standardized across the sample were evaluated using linear regression with random effects for classroom. While several scales and subscales had statistically significant bivar...



Characterizing caregiver responses to restricted and repetitive behaviors in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study represents the first attempt to characterize how caregivers respond to restricted and repetitive behaviors. Toddlers with autism spectrum disorder are already demonstrating a variety of restricted and repetitive behaviors within the context of a free play sessions, and caregivers differentially and naturally respond to them. (Source: Autism)



How are they doing? Listening as fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder compare themselves to fathers of children who are typically developing

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The growing prevalence of autism spectrum disorder is accompanied by ongoing efforts to understand and support parents in the face of challenges related to their child’s autism spectrum disorder. Although fathers are increasingly hands-on in raising children, research focus on parenting children with autism spectrum disorder continues to be skewed toward experiences of mothers. Our purpose in this article is to contribute understandings of how fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder perceive themselves to be managing, and we undertake this by examining comparisons fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder make between their parenting experiences and experiences of fathers of typically developing children. A purposive sample of 28 fathers of children (aged 2–13...



Is there concordance in attitudes and beliefs between parents and scientists about autism spectrum disorder?

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

There is no reported investigation comparing concordance in attitudes and beliefs about autism spectrum disorder between parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and scientists who research autism spectrum disorder. To investigate the level of concordance between these groups on causes of autism, priorities of research, perceived stigma, and disclosure of genetic test results, telephone interviews were conducted. Parents (n = 502) were recruited from the Simons Simplex Collection, and research scientists (n = 60) were recruited from investigators funded by the Simons Foundation. Response rates were notable (parents 91%, scientists 80%). Parents and scientists differed significantly regarding beliefs of the likely major cause of autism (p = 0.007) and priorities for further researc...



Screening for autism spectrum disorder in underserved communities: Early childcare providers as reporters

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Early diagnosis of autism typically is associated with earlier access to intervention and improved outcomes. Daycares and preschools largely have been ignored as possible venues for early identification. This may be especially important for minority children in the United States who are typically diagnosed with autism later than White children, limiting their access to early specialized interventions and possibly resulting in poorer outcomes. Early childcare providers within underserved communities completed autism screening tools for a sample of low-risk young children (n = 967) in their programs. Early childcare providers returned screening tools for 90% of the children for whom parental consent had been received. A total of 14% of children screened positive for autism spectrum disorder ...

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The utility of Thin Slice ratings for predicting language growth in children with autism spectrum disorder

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study examined the utility of Thin Slice ratings of young children with autism spectrum disorder for predicting developmental skills and language gains over time. A total of 22 preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder participated in a battery of developmental assessments and a video-taped therapist–child interaction at Time 1. They then participated in follow-up testing of language skills and a second therapist–child interaction 6 months later (Time 2). Groups of approximately 25 naïve undergraduate students provided impression ratings ("Thin Slice ratings") about each child’s skills and behaviors during 2-min segments taken from the therapist–child interaction videos at each time point. Thin Slice ratings at Time 1 were highly correlated ...



Lay abstracts

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: Autism)



Environmental enrichment rescues the effects of early life inflammation on markers of synaptic transmission and plasticity

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 18 March 2016 Source:Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Author(s): Amanda C. Kentner, Antoine Khoury, Erika Queiroz, Molly MacRae Environmental enrichment (EE) has been successful at rescuing the brain from a variety of early-life psychogenic stressors. However, its ability to reverse the adverse behavioral and neural alterations induced by a prenatal maternal infection model of schizophrenia is less clear. Moreover, the specific interactions between the components (i.e. social enhancement, novelty, physical activity) of EE that lead to its success as a supportive intervention have not been adequately identified. In the current study, standard housed female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either the inflammatory endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1...



Similar exemplar pooling processes underlie the learning of facial identity and handwriting style: Evidence from typical observers and individuals with Autism

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 18 March 2016 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Alberta Ipser, Melanie Ring, Jennifer Murphy, Sebastian B. Gaigg, Richard Cook Considerable research has addressed whether the cognitive and neural representations recruited by faces are similar to those engaged by other types of visual stimuli. For example, research has examined the extent to which objects of expertise recruit holistic representation and engage the fusiform face area. Little is known, however, about the domain-specificity of the exemplar pooling processes thought to underlie the acquisition of familiarity with particular facial identities. In the present study we sought to compare observers’ ability to learn facial identities and handwriting styles from exposure to multiple exempl...



People with autism die prematurely

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

People with autism die decades earlier than the general population, often through epilepsy or suicideRelated items from OnMedicaHypertension more likely in men easily stressed when youngMaternal suicides remain a concern, report showsNHS should remove unproven apps from libraryThose bereaved through suicide, at risk of doing the sameReducing threshold for statins even further might be cost-effective (Source: OnMedica Latest News)

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Reduced social coordination in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Volume 26 Author(s): Tiziana Zalla, Marco Sperduti, Giovanna Girardi, Chiara Chelini, Marion Leboyer, Sacha Bourgeois-Gironde In the present study, we investigated whether individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were able to coordinate with an unknown partner on the same outcome using a two-person pure coordination game. Twenty-one adults with ASD and twenty-one typically developed (TD) control participants were presented with sets of four items, and were asked to choose one of these items under three conditions: picking one’s own personal preferred item, guessing what might be the partner’s preference, and choosing an item in order to coordinate with the partner’s choice. Each set included a s...



Internet-Based Parent-Implemented Intervention for Young Children With Autism: A Pilot Study

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Both naturalistic communication and parent-implemented interventions are evidence-based practices for young children with disabilities, but demonstrations of effective methods for teaching parents to implement naturalistic interventions successfully with their children are still warranted. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a training and coaching program on parent implementation of naturalistic teaching strategies and on concomitant child communication skills using a telepractice service-delivery model (i.e., Internet-Based Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies [i-PiCS]). We found that parents learned to implement the targeted naturalistic teaching strategies with fidelity when, and only when, they were provided with training and coaching over the Internet. The ...



Evaluation of a Decision-Making Curriculum for Teaching Adolescents with Disabilities to Resist Negative Peer Pressure.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study was designed to assess the impact of a decision-making curriculum (PEER-DM) on the social peer relationship knowledge and self-protective decision-making skills of adolescents with disabilities in hypothetical situations involving negative peer pressure. A randomized design was used to assign students with disabilities from self-contained special education classes to an intervention group (n = 22) or a wait-list control group (n = 20). ANCOVA analyses, using pretest scores as covariates, indicated that students who were trained on PEER-DM had significantly higher effective decision-making action and correct risk perception scores, relative to participants in the control group. This study provides supporting evidence that PEER-DM is a promising intervention for students with ...



Unequal Individual Risk and Potential Benefit Balanced by Benefits to the Population at Large in Autism Clinical Trials?

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 19:03:01 +0100

Authors: Stein MA, King BH PMID: 26982936 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Bioethics : AJOB)



Selecting Children for an Autism Spectrum Disorder Study: Justice and Geography.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 19:03:01 +0100

Authors: PMID: 26982934 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Bioethics : AJOB)

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Complex Care Center Forges New Outpatient Model

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 17:07:32 +0100

UR Medicine's Complex Care Center is Rochester’s first primary care practice dedicated to caring for adults with chronic childhood-onset conditions such as cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, childhood cancers, autism, and intellectual and developmental disabilities. (Source: University of Rochester Medical Center Press Releases)



4 Generations, 1 Mutation: A Family History with Fragile X Syndrome

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 11:30:00 +0100

Changes to one gene on the X chromosome can cause a range of woes from infertility to neurodegeneration to autism -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)



New cytoplasmic role for proteins linked to neurological diseases, cancers

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(UT Southwestern Medical Center) Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have identified a second role for a class of RNA-binding proteins, revealing new insights about neurological diseases and conditions associated with this protein such as autism, epilepsy, and certain types of cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)



Deficits in voice and multisensory processing in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 16 March 2016 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Juliette Salles, Kuzma Strelnikov, Mantoulan Carine, Thuilleaux Denise, Virginie Laurier, Catherine Molinas, Maïthé Tauber, Pascal Barone Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare neurodevelopmental and genetic disorder that is characterized by various expression of endocrine, cognitive and behavioral problems, among which a true obsession for food and a deficit of satiety that leads to hyperphagia and severe obesity. Neuropsychological studies have reported that PWS display altered social interactions with a specific weakness in interpreting social information and in responding to them, a symptom closed to that observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Based on the hypothesis that atypical multi...



Functional Connectivity of the Caudal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Is Decreased in Autism

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

by Yuanyue Zhou, Lijuan Shi, Xilong Cui, Suhong Wang, Xuerong Luo The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is frequently reported to have functionally distinct sub-regions that play key roles in different intrinsic networks. However, the contribution of the ACC, which is connected to several cortical areas and the limbic system, to autism is not clearly understood, although it may be involved in dysfunctions across several distinct but related functional domains. By comparing resting-state fMRI data from persons with autism and healthy controls, we sought to identify the abnormalities in the functional connectivity (FC) of ACC sub-regions in autism. The analyses found autism-related reductions in FC between the left caudal ACC and the right rolandic operculum, insula, postcentral gyrus, superi...

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Issue Information

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: Autism Research)



Scientific Summaries for Families with ASD

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: Autism Research)



International Society For Autism Research News

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: Autism Research)



Relations Among Detection of Syllable Stress, Speech Abnormalities, and Communicative Ability in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Our findings provide empirical evidence for deficits on primary syllable stress perception in ASD and its role on sociocommunicative difficulties. This information could facilitate the development of effective interventions for speech and language therapy and social communication. PMID: 26985778 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR)



Differences in Social Motivation in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome and Down Syndrome.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Wilde L, Mitchell A, Oliver C Abstract Social excesses, characterised by heightened social motivation, are important for describing social functioning. Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a potential exemplar of a disorder where heightened social motivation is associated with negative behavioural outcomes. In Down syndrome (DS) strong social motivation is described, but less commonly associated with behavioural problems. Children with SMS (n = 21) and DS (n = 19) were observed during social situations, in which familiarity of adults present and level of attention available were manipulated. Motivation in SMS was characterised by comparatively frequent social initiations when adult attention was low, and stronger preference for familiar adults, compared to DS. Findings prov...

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Learning with Technology: Video Modeling with Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequencing for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Yakubova G, Hughes EM, Shinaberry M Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a video modeling intervention with concrete-representational-abstract instructional sequence in teaching mathematics concepts to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline across skills design of single-case experimental methodology was used to determine the effectiveness of the intervention on the acquisition and maintenance of addition, subtraction, and number comparison skills for four elementary school students with ASD. Findings supported the effectiveness of the intervention in improving skill acquisition and maintenance at a 3-week follow-up. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID: 26983919 [PubMed - as su...



Prosocial online game and autism

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 23:02:00 +0100

Chung US, Han DH, Shin YJ, Renshaw PF (Source: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment)



Adults with autism face 'huge challenges,' N.L. report finds

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 22:37:55 +0100

According to new findings from the Autism Society of Newfoundland and Labrador, adults with autism face many challenges once they leave school and can no longer rely on the pediatric healthcare system. (Source: CBC | Health)



Mouse model yields possible treatment for autism-like symptoms in rare disease

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(University of California - San Diego) About half of children born with Jacobsen syndrome, a rare inherited disease, experience social and behavioral issues consistent with autism spectrum disorders. Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and collaborators developed a mouse model of the disease that also exhibits autism-like social behaviors and used it to unravel the molecular mechanism that connects the genetic defects inherited in Jacobsen syndrome to effects on brain function. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Unifying Views of Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Consideration of Autoregulatory Feedback Loops

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 16 March 2016 Source:Neuron, Volume 89, Issue 6 Author(s): Caitlin Mullins, Gord Fishell, Richard W. Tsien Understanding the mechanisms underlying autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is a challenging goal. Here we review recent progress on several fronts, including genetics, proteomics, biochemistry, and electrophysiology, that raise motivation for forming a viable pathophysiological hypothesis. In place of a traditionally unidirectional progression, we put forward a framework that extends homeostatic hypotheses by explicitly emphasizing autoregulatory feedback loops and known synaptic biology. The regulated biological feature can be neuronal electrical activity, the collective strength of synapses onto a dendritic branch, the local concentration of a signaling molecul...

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Cholinergic modulation of auditory steady-state response in the auditory cortex of the freely moving rat

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 2 June 2016 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 324 Author(s): J. Zhang, L. Ma, W. Li, P. Yang, L. Qin As disturbance in auditory steady-state response (ASSR) has been consistently found in many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia, there is considerable interest in the development of translational rat models to elucidate the underlying neural and neurochemical mechanisms involved in ASSR. This is the first study to investigate the effects of the non-selective muscarinic antagonist scopolamine and the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (also in combination with scopolamine) on ASSR. We recorded the local field potentials through the chronic microelectrodes implanted in the auditory cortex of freely moving rat. ASSRs were recorded i...



Most Autism Has no Known Cause

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: About.com Mental Health)



Genetic and Developmental Perspective of Language Abnormality in Autism and Schizophrenia: One Disease Occurring at Different Ages in Humans?

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Language and communication through it are two of the defining features of normally developed human beings. However, both these functions are often impaired in autism and schizophrenia. In the former disorder, the problem usually emerges in early childhood (~2 years old) and typically includes a lack of communication. In the latter condition, the language problems usually occur in adolescence and adulthood and presents as disorganized speech. What are the fundamental mechanisms underlying these two disorders? Is there a shared genetic basis? Are the traditional beliefs about them true? Are there any common strategies for their prevention and management? To answer these questions, we searched PubMed by using autism, schizophrenia, gene, and language abnormality as keywords, and we reconsider...



Lack of Association Between Polymorphisms in Dopa Decarboxylase and Dopamine Receptor-1 Genes With Childhood Autism in Chinese Han Population

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study is to determine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in dopa decarboxylase (DDC) and dopamine receptor-1 (DRD1) genes with childhood autism, in a Chinese Han population. A total of 211 autistic children and 250 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited. The severity of disease was determined by Children Autism Rating Scale scores. TaqMan Probe by real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine genotypes and allele frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphism rs6592961 in DDC and rs251937 in DRD1. Case-control and case-only studies were respectively performed, to determine the contribution of both single-nucleotide polymorphisms to the predisposition of disease and its severity. Our results showed that there was no significant association of...



Increased Serum Phthalates (MEHP, DEHP) and Bisphenol A Concentrations in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Endocrine Disruptors in Autism Etiopathogenesis

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between autism spectrum disorders development and exposure to mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP), di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), and bisphenol A (BPA), 1 of the endocrine disruptors, among phthalates. The study included 48 children with autism spectrum disorder (27 boys, 21 girls) and 41 healthy subjects (24 boys, 17 girls) as controls. Serum MEHP, DEHP, and BPA levels were measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Children with autism spectrum disorder had significantly increased serum MEHP, DEHP, and BPA concentrations (0.47 ± 0.14 µg/ml, 2.70 ± 0.90 µg/ml, 1.25 ± 0.30 ng/ml) compared to healthy control subjects (0.29 ± 0.05 µg/ml, 1.62 ± 0.56 µg/ml,...

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The association between familial ASD diagnosis, autism symptomatology and developmental functioning in young children

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Few studies have directly compared individuals with and without a relative diagnosed with ASD on various domains. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between familial ASD diagnosis and the exhibition of ASD symptoms in young children with and without ASD diagnoses. Participants included 8353 children aged 17–37 months old and their families. They were divided into four groups based on individual and family diagnosis, then compared on autism symptomatology and developmental domains. No differences were found between ASD groups on overall scores and each of the factor domains, indicating no association between family ASD diagnosis and ASD symptomatology or developmental functioning. Disparate results were found for atypically developing groups with and wi...



The Healing Power Of Poop May Surprise You

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 20:36:22 +0100

SAN DIEGO -- Last week at the inaugural Near Future Summit, a leadership conference of forward-thinking professionals, tech entrepreneur Peter Diamandis asked members of the audience to raise their hands if they'd been born vaginally. He then asked them to keep their hands raised if they had also been breastfed and if, in more recent years, they'd avoided antibiotics, Z-Paks and major surgery. In the end, just a few dozen people in the audience of 250 or so still had their hands up.  This wasn't just an exercise in TMI: Diamandis was hoping to assess the microbiome status of his listeners. All of the aforementioned qualities suggest that a person's gut bacteria are healthy and undisturbed. Soon after Diamandis' straw poll, the medical philanthropist Lee Stein walked around h...



Accessing Services a Huge Problem for Parents of Children with Autism

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:24:33 +0100

Severe challenges in accessing adequate services a major problem for parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (Source: Disabled World)



Research Review: Environmental exposures, neurodevelopment, and child mental health – new paradigms for the study of brain and behavioral effects

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 11:34:25 +0100

ConclusionsReduction in the burden of child mental health disorders will require longitudinal study of neurotoxic exposures, incorporating dimensional approaches to outcome assessment, and measures of brain function. Research that seeks to identify links between toxic exposures and mental health outcomes has enormous public health and societal value. (Source: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry)



Newmains mother SCARED of her autistic son who's set fire to the kitchen and wrecked SIX beds 

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 11:16:48 +0100

Natalie Welsh, 31, from Lanarkshire, says her son Olly's behaviour is so out of control she fears for her family's safety. She has found him standing on window ledges and flooding the bathroom. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

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Autistic girl Iris Grace Halmshaw paints, cycles and SWIMS with her tabby cat friend

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 09:27:03 +0100

Iris Grace Halmshaw, six, from Leicestershire, and her Maine coon cat Thula are inseparable and the affectionate moggy has helped the little girl to overcome her fear of water and even talk. (Source: the Mail online | Health)



Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders Have Equal Success Rate But Require Longer Periods of Systematic Desensitization than Control Patients to Complete Ambulatory Polysomnography

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 06:34:08 +0100

Conclusions:Systematic desensitization to PSG equipment, in combination with PSG completed in the home, allows for individuals with ASD to be equally successful in completing PSG, though they do take longer to acclimate to the equipment.Citation:Primeau M, Gershon A, Talbot L, Cotto I, Lotspeich L, Hardan A, Hallmayer J, O'Hara R. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders have equal success rate but require longer periods of systematic desensitization than control patients to complete ambulatory polysomnography. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(3):357–362. (Source: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine : JCSM)



Reduced engagement with social stimuli in 6-month-old infants with later autism spectrum disorder: a longitudinal prospective study of infants at high familial risk

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions These findings suggest that there may be fundamental early disruptions to attention engagement that may have cascading consequences for later social functioning. (Source: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders)



Nutrition and Autism: Intervention Compared with Identification

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: Advances in Nutrition)



AMPAR trafficking and LTP deficits in Rett mice [Neuroscience]

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP) at central excitatory synapses are thought to contribute to cognitive impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders associated with intellectual disability and autism. Using the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2) knockout (KO) mouse model of Rett syndrome, we show that naïve excitatory synapses onto hippocampal pyramidal neurons of symptomatic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)

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Genes with high penetrance for syndromic and non-syndromic autism typically function within the nucleus and regulate gene expression

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions According to GO terminology, autism-related gene products are integral to neural development. While it is difficult to draw firm conclusions regarding IDs unassociated with autism, it is clear that the majority of HCA genes are tightly linked with general dysregulation of gene expression, suggesting that disturbances to the chronology of neural maturation and patterning may be key in conferring susceptibility to autism spectrum conditions. (Source: Molecular Autism)



The Relationship Between Clinicians' Confidence and Accuracy, and the Influence of Child Characteristics, in the Screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Hedley D, Brewer N, Nevill R, Uljarević M, Butter E, Mulick JA Abstract The study examined the confidence accuracy relationship, and the influence of child characteristics on clinician confidence, when predicting a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder during screening of 125 referred children aged under 3.5 years. The diagnostic process included observation, interview, language and developmental testing. Clinical judgement accuracy was compared against final diagnosis for high and low confidence levels (with confidence assessed on a 0-100 % scale). We identified a significant CA relationship with predictive accuracy highest at confidence levels of 90-100 %. Parent report of unusual behaviors was the only significant independent predictor of confidence. Clinicians' con...



Mindfulness in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: a Systematic Review and Narrative Analysis

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more susceptible to stress, anxiety and depression than typically developing individuals. Previous research suggests that mindfulness is effective in reducing a myriad of psychological health problems in a wide variety of populations. This review systematically investigated the efficacy of mindfulness interventions in reducing stress, anxiety, depression, rumination and aggression and increasing positive affect and psychological well-being in individuals with ASD. Six studies met inclusion criteria; each mindfulness program curriculum and process of delivery were analysed. A quality assessment rated three studies as weak, one as adequate and two as strong in research design strength. Results indicate that mindfulness tra...



Rapamycin prevents, but does not reverse, aberrant migration in Pten knockout neurons.

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Getz SA, DeSpenza T, Li M, Luikart BW Abstract Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a major negative regulator of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) pathway. Mutations in PTEN have been found in a subset of individuals with autism and macrocephaly. Further, focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) has been observed in patients with PTEN mutations prompting us to examine the role of Pten in neuronal migration. The dentate gyrus of Pten(Flox/Flox) mice was injected with Cre- and non-Cre-expressing retroviral particles, which integrate into the dividing genome to birthdate cells. Control and Pten knockout (KO) cell position in the granule cell layer was quantified over time to reveal that Pten KO neurons exhibit an aberrant migratory phenotype beginning at 7.5days-post re...



Stomach Troubles Not Linked to Autism, Study Finds

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 20:16:52 +0100

Gastrointestinal problems don't cause the disorder, researcher says (Source: WebMD Health)

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Studying Child Prodigies Could Help Unlock Secrets Of Autism

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 16:30:00 +0100

Drawing on years of research, a new book explores the possible genetic link between child prodigies and their autistic relatives. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)



Studies of addiction and autism up for Wellcome Book Prize

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 15:52:47 +0100

LONDON (AP) — A memoir of alcoholism, a study of psychosomosis and an innovative look at autism are among finalists for the medically themed Wellcome Trust Book Prize. (Source: U.S. News - Health)



Stomach Troubles Not Linked to Autism, Study Finds

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 14:03:42 +0100

MONDAY, March 14, 2016 -- Children with autism are not at higher risk for certain digestive system problems than those without the neurodevelopmental disorder, a small study suggests. The researchers focused on gastrointestinal disorders that... (Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews)



Vaccines, cancer and autism: Could a massive Big Pharma cover-up be behind mysterious deaths of holistic doctors?

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 06:00:00 +0100

(NaturalNews) Today, the United States has one of the highest rates of infant mortality in the entire world. No less than 1 in 45 children are suffering from autism, while cancer is said to affect 1 in 3 women and 1 in 2 men. In fact, cancer is the second leading cause of death in... (Source: NaturalNews.com)

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Multiple Inflammasome Complexes are Activated in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions These results show that the inflammasomes are activated in ASD and shed light on the molecular mechanisms responsible for ASD-associated neuroinflammation. The observation that GI alterations could be present as well in ASD offers a possible link between such alterations and neuroinflammation. Therapeutic strategies targeting inflammasome activation could be useful in ASD. (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)



An Overview of Autism and Applied Behavior Analysis in the Gulf Cooperation Council in the Middle East

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Despite the fact that autism is on the rise, there is paucity in the literature examining the treatment of autism in the Middle East and specifically the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The current review investigates the past, present, and future status of interventions for autism based on Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) in the six countries of the GCC, namely the Kingdom of Bahrain, the State of Kuwait, the Sultanate of Oman, the State of Qatar, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The aims of this paper were to provide a brief overview of autism and ABA clinical services and educational opportunities and to investigate the relevant research published from each of the six states of the GCC. (Source: Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disord...



Prevalence of overweight and obesity among students with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan: A secondary analysis

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion The findings not only highlight the high prevalence of overweight/obesity but also stress the need for health promotion initiatives to address issues of overweight/obesity within this population. (Source: Research in Developmental Disabilities)



Recognition of emotions in autistic children using physiological signals

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) cannot express their emotions explicitly; this makes it difficult for the parents and caretakers associated with these children to understand the child’s behavior, leading to a major setback in the child’s early developmental stages. Studies have shown that a human being’s physiological changes are directly related to his/her psychological reaction. In this paper we propose a wearable wristband for acquiring physiological signals and an algorithm, using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier, that will predict emotional states such as neutral, happy & involvement of children with autism. The psychological reactions (or emotions) are recognized based on the changes in the bodily parameters (physiological basis) such...



GABA and Glutamate in Children with Primary Complex Motor Stereotypies: An 1H-MRS Study at 7T [PEDIATRICS]

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate possible GABAergic dysfunction within corticostriatal pathways in children with primary complex motor stereotypies. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)

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Metacognitive monitoring and control processes in children with autism spectrum disorder: Diminished judgement of confidence accuracy.

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study aimed to assess metacognition in thirty-two children with ASD, and 30 IQ-/age-matched neurotypical children, using a judgment of confidence task. It was found that children with ASD showed diminished accuracy in their judgments of confidence, indicating metacognitive monitoring impairments in ASD. Children with ASD also used monitoring to influence control processes significantly less than neurotypical children, despite little evidence of impairments in overall control ability. PMID: 26985883 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Consciousness and Cognition)



Inside story of Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors (mGluRs).

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Bhattacharyya S Abstract Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by the neurotransmitter glutamate in the central nervous system. Among the eight subtypes, mGluR1 and mGluR5 belong to the group I family. These receptors play important roles in the brain and are believed to be involved in multiple forms of experience dependent synaptic plasticity including learning and memory. In addition, group I mGluRs also have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders like Fragile X syndrome, autism etc. The normal signaling depends on the precise location of these receptors in specific region of the neuron and the process of receptor trafficking plays a crucial role in controlling this localization. Intracellular ...



Social and attention-to-detail subclusters of autistic traits differentially predict looking at eyes and face identity recognition ability.

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study distinguished between different subclusters of autistic traits in the general population and examined the relationships between these subclusters, looking at the eyes of faces, and the ability to recognize facial identity. Using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) measure in a university-recruited sample, we separate the social aspects of autistic traits (i.e., those related to communication and social interaction; AQ-Social) from the non-social aspects, particularly attention-to-detail (AQ-Attention). We provide the first evidence that these social and non-social aspects are associated differentially with looking at eyes: While AQ-Social showed the commonly assumed tendency towards reduced looking at eyes, AQ-Attention was associated with increased looking at eyes. We also repor...



Autism and autistic-like disorders: the hypothalamic-pituita-ry-adrenal system as a model for research.

Sun, 13 Mar 2016 16:40:02 +0100

Authors: Jansen LM, Wied CC, Engeland HV Abstract In this article an overview is given of the differential diagnosis of autism and autistic-like disorders. The diagnosis of the so-called 'Multiple Complex Developmental Disorders' (MCDD) as a distinct entity is discussed in relation to autism and schizophrenia. Biological research and the relevance of results until recently are discussed. Finally, the importance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system (HPA system) as a model for research is proposed. Research on the flexibility of this system may contribute in understanding the ways of stress processing in disorders like autism, MCDD and schizophrenia. PMID: 26965661 [PubMed] (Source: Acta Neuropsychiatrica)