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MedWorm: Chemotherapy



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Chemotherapy category.



Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:22:41 +0100

 



Comparison of bacterial characteristics (MICs) of Gram negative bacteria isolated from patients with neutropenic sepsis pre and post-Levofloxacin prophylaxis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: Febrile neutropenia is a life-threatening complication, that occurs frequently during chemotherapy with associated high mortality. Antibacterial prophylaxis is an established strategy to prevent this. Fluoroquinolone prophylaxis has been considered for high-risk patients with prolonged and profound neutropenia (ANC (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Neutropenic sepsis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is the leading cause for bacterial and fungal infections in patients with haematological malignancies. The drop of neutrophyls count below 1000 cells/cmm increase the risk of febrile episodes (TC>38°C) and infectious complications but most of the bacteremic episodes are documented when neutrophils count is below 100/cmm (severe neutropenia). The duration of neutropenia also play a pivotal role in determining the risk of infection: prolonged neutropenia is defined by a duration of 3 weeks. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



An unusual presentation of invasive aspergillosis - Diagnostic and management dilemmas

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Invasive Aspergillosis is a fungal infection occurring with increased incidence in patients who are receiving chemotherapy, immunosuppressive therapy or long term corticosteroid therapy. Among these, it more commonly afflicts patients with pre-existing respiratory compromise such as COPD or bronchial asthma. Typically it presents with fever, cough, dyspnoea, pleuritic chest pain and occasionally with haemoptysis. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Outbreak of prototheca wickerhamii algaemia and sepsis in a tertiary care chemotherapy oncology unit

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Prototheca is an emerging, rare, opportunistic, pathogenic, achlorophyllous green alga known to cause Protothecosis which is a zoonotic disease. Earlier interpreted as contaminants in blood and faeces, Prototheca is expanding its pathogenicity and host range. An outbreak of Protothecosis by Prototheca wickerhamii in a tertiary care chemotherapy oncology unit is being discussed. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Disinfection against healthcare-associated infections: Current status and recent progress in products and procedures

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) continue to be a major global threat. Indeed, many on-going societal changes and rampant antimicrobial resistance are adding further to their health and economic impacts. With dwindling options for chemotherapy and limited availability of safe and effective vaccines, there is increasing reliance on disinfectants for infection prevention and control (IPAC). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



A novel spiroindoline kills human malaria parasites via modulation of Na ion influx mediated autophagy and apoptosis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Malaria continues to be a global health burden, causing millions of death every year. Resistance to current antimalarial chemotherapy needs attention and demands for active drug candidates that can combat developing resistance mechanisms of Plasmodium. We synthesized natural product inspired scaffolds based on indoles from chiral bicyclic lactams as potential antimalarial compounds. The strategy involved site specific diversification of natural product scaffolds obtained from chiral bicyclic lactams, with discrete architecture and disparate stereochemistry with an attractive steps/scaffold ratio of 1.7:1. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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The outcome of cancer treatment is independent of baseline HIV viral load and CD4 + cell count status: a pilot study from South Africa

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Increased life years of HIV positive patients has increased the number of HIV related chronic conditions and cancers. On the other hand, chemotherapy and radiotherapy remain key treatment methods for cancer, which could exacerbate the immunosuppression status. There is limited data on the outcome of cancer therapy in HIV positive patients on HAART in South Africa. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Perfecting a viral pack mule

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(Scripps Research Institute) In a new study, researchers at The Scripps Research Institute report that, based on its structure, a hollowed-out version of the cowpea mosaic virus, a plant pathogen that can be modified to aid in tumor detection and chemotherapy, could also be effective in human therapies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)



Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in cancer patients under chemotherapy: A prospective study on the incidence of complications and overall failures

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsPICC is a safe venous device for chemotherapy delivery. Nevertheless, a 15% rate of failure has to be taken in account when planning PICC insertion for chemotherapy purposes. J. Surg. Oncol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Journal of Surgical Oncology)



Methylglyoxal (MGO) inhibits proliferation and induces cell death of human glioblastoma multiforme T98G and U87MG cells

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Publication date: May 2016 Source:Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 80 Author(s): Monika Paul-Samojedny, Barbara Łasut, Adam Pudełko, Anna Fila-Daniłow, Małgorzata Kowalczyk, Renata Suchanek-Raif, Michał Zieliński, Paulina Borkowska, Jan Kowalski Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant and invasive human brain tumor and it is characterized by a poor prognosis and short survival time. Current treatment strategies for GBM using surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are ineffective. Thus new therapeutic strategies to target GBM are urgently needed. The effect of methylglyoxal (MGO) on the cell cycle, cell death and proliferation of human GBM cells was investigated. The T98G and U87MG cell lines were cultured in modified EMEM supplemented with 10% f...



A prospective study comparing prophylactic gastrostomy to nutritional counselling with a therapeutic feeding tube if required in head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy in Thai real‐world practice

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsThe results of the present study suggest that PGT provided similar quality of life without a reduction in treatment interruption. However, patients with PGT had significantly less weight loss (P = 0.04) during CRT. (Source: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics)

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Histological Subtype and Systemic Metastases Strongly Influence Treatment and Survival in Patients with Synchronous Colorectal Peritoneal Metastases

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Histological subtype and the presence of systemic metastases strongly influenced treatment choice and survival in patients with synchronous colorectal PM. These results can be used to optimize treatment strategy for patients with synchronous colorectal PM. (Source: European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO))



Nodal involvement in luminal complete response after neoadjuvant treatment for rectal cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Luminal pathological complete response occurred in 8%, 16% of them had tumour positive nodes. The survival benefit of luminal complete response is dependent upon nodal involvement status. (Source: European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO))



DIEAP flap for safe definitive autologous breast reconstruction.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 21:23:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: The DIEAP flap is an excellent option for breast reconstruction, with a low level of donor site morbidity and complications. It is an autologous reconstruction that provides a stable long term result. PMID: 27017243 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Breast)



A systematic review of decision aids for patients making a decision about treatment for early breast cancer.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 21:23:02 +0100

Authors: Nicholas Zdenkowski, Butow P, Tesson S, Boyle F Abstract Several complex treatment decisions may be offered to women with early stage breast cancer, about a range of treatments from different modalities including surgery, radiotherapy, and endocrine and chemotherapy. Decision aids can facilitate shared decision-making and improve decision-related outcomes. We aimed to systematically identify, describe and appraise the literature on treatment decision aids for women with early breast cancer, synthesise the data and identify breast cancer decisions that lack a decision aid. A prospectively developed search strategy was applied to MEDLINE, the Cochrane databases, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and abstract databases from major conferences. Data were extracted into a pre-pil...



Stereotactic body radiation therapy: A promising chance for oligometastatic breast cancer.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 21:23:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: SBRT is a safe and feasible alternative treatment of liver and lung oligometastases from breast cancer, in selected patients not amenable to surgery, with good local control and survival rate. PMID: 27017237 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Breast)

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An Open Letter to the Boston Globe About Lyme Disease

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:45:00 +0100

Today, the Boston Globe editorial board spoke out against a bill "that would require insurers in Massachusetts to cover Lyme disease treatments for as long as a doctor says they're needed." The Globe writes: Lawmakers may have good intentions, but they don't possess the expertise to decide whether it's beneficial, cost-efficient, or safe, to keep using strong medicines to treat a condition the medical establishment doubts is real. Such questions should be resolved by a consensus of doctors and researchers -- and buttressed by convincing clinical date [sic] -- not determined by legislative mandate. Who among the Boston Globe editorial board possesses the medical expertise to make this call is not disclosed, but this information would be useful given that the Globe's stance presumes absolute...



Mp49-16 factors predicting failure to follow pre-scheduled gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy regimen for urothelial carcinoma

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:10 +0100

Gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC) chemotherapy is a gold standard chemotherapeutic regimen for metastatic or advanced urothelial carcinoma. However, because of its hematologic toxicity, a proportion of the patients cannot receive scheduled gemcitabine administration on Day8 and/or Day15. Incomplete GC regimen may lead disease progression, especially in the neoadjuvant setting. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to identify factors associated with incompletion of GC chemotherapy. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp49-15 clinical role of additional adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced urothelial carcinoma following neoadjuvant chemotherapy and cystectomy

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:10 +0100

In bladder cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) can downstage the primary tumor prior to radical cystectomy (RC), and may impact eventual overall survival. However, the optimal management in patients with persistent non-organ confined disease (pT3-4 and/or pN+) following RC is unknown. The aim of this study was to describe use and outcomes of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) in patients with residual non-organ confined cancer following NAC and RC. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp49-14 predictive value of radiological response rate for pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and post-cystectomy survival of bladder urothelial cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:10 +0100

For non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), radical cystectomy (RC) following neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy (NAC) is recommended. Pathological response to NAC was reported to be strongly associated with post-RC oncological outcomes. However, there has been a few reports on the preoperative predictors for pathological response to NAC. The purpose of this study is to determine predictive value of radiological response rate assessed by serial pelvic CT scans for pathological response to NAC and clinical outcomes after RC in MIBC patients. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp49-13 selective neoadjuvant chemotherapy by prediction systems improves the chemo-sensitivity of the muscle invasive bladder cancers

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:10 +0100

To compare the rate of chemo-sensitivity in neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer between historical control and this interventional prospective study by using our M-VAC and CaG prediction systems. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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Mp49-12 neoadjuvant chemotherapy for invasive bladder cancer: is it right for everyone?

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:10 +0100

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has been shown to improve survival of patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). NAC is thought to treat systemic micro-metastatic disease prior to definitive radical cystectomy (RC). However, the impact of NAC on pathologic lymph node (LN) status in patients with clinically negative LNs is unknown. We studied the effect of NAC on LN status for patients with MIBC and cN0. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp49-11 neoadjuvant gemcitabine and carboplatin followed by immediate radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients ineligible for cisplatin-based chemotherapy: a propensity score-matched analysis

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:10 +0100

Standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy has not yet been established for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) who are ineligible for cisplatin (CDDP)-based chemotherapy. We conducted a propensity score analysis to evaluate the clinical significance of neoadjuvant gemcitabine and carboplatin (GCarbo) chemotherapy for CDDP-ineligible patients with MIBC. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp49-09 improved outcome with adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced or lymph node positive tumors after radical cystectomy

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:10 +0100

Adding chemotherapy to radical cystectomy may improve outcome. Neoadjuvant treatment is advocated by guidelines based on meta-analysis data but is underused in clinical practice. Adjuvant treatment of risk patients could be an alternative. We analyzed the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy given to risk patients in a single center routine clinical setting. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp49-06 assessing cancer progression and stable disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:10 +0100

This study was designed to evaluate pNR to NAC to better risk stratify these patients. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp49-04 the utility of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in determining survival outcomes in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy for high-risk bladder cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:10 +0100

Pre-operative Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been found to be associated with adverse pathological results and poor long-term outcomes in patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC) for urothelial carcinoma (UC). Prior studies had either a very limited sample size of patients who received neoadjuvent chemotherapy or excluded them from evaluation. We aimed to evaluate the predictive utility of NLR in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and RC for high-risk UC. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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Mp49-02 a study to evaluate the prognostic and predictive utility of ccp and hrd assays and genetic sequencing in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy in bladder cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:10 +0100

In an effort to identify potential biomarkers in urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) that will aid in characterizing disease aggressiveness and/or predict cisplatin chemo-sensitivity, we explored the utility of a combination of nucleic acid-based assays. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd27-09 incidence and significance of thrombo-embolic events in bladder urothelial carcinoma patients undergoing neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy: results from multi-centre north-american and european contemporary data

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:10 +0100

The objectives of this study were to investigate the incidence and characteristics of TEE during and after NAC and subsequent RC for urothelial bladder cancer. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd32-12 long-term follow-up of circulating tumor cells as predictors for survival in men treated with abiraterone acetate for castration resistant prostate cancer following chemotherapy

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:09 +0100

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are established biomarkers to predict response to chemotherapy (CTX) in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Recently, a biomarker panel comprising CTC also demonstrated to be predictive for survival in men treated with Abiraterone Acetate (AA) after chemotherapy in the COU-AA-301 pivotal trial., As validation studies are underway, we present long-term data of our sub-analysis of the German named patient program (nPP). (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd32-07 galeterone shows anti-tumor activity in multiple pre-clinical models that express androgen receptor splice variants, supporting correlative patient data seen in armor2

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:09 +0100

Galeterone is a selective, multitargeted, small molecule that disrupts androgen signaling at multiple points in the pathway by enhancing androgen receptor (AR) degradation, inhibiting androgen biosynthesis, and antagonizing androgen binding to the AR. AR splice variant-7 (AR-V7) is a truncated, constitutively active splice variant of the AR that lacks the ligand binding domain (LBD), and has been implicated in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progression. AR-V7 expression is detected in approximately 12-26% of men with metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) prior to second-generation anti-androgens or chemotherapy, and AR-V7 expression has been clinically associated with resistance to enzalutamide (Xtandi) and abiraterone (Zytiga). (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd32-06 long-term safety and antitumor activity of odm-201 in chemotherapy and cyp17-inhibitor naÏve patients from the arades and the arafor trials

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:09 +0100

ODM-201 is a new generation oral androgen receptor inhibitor demonstrating tolerability and antineoplastic efficacy in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. Here we report the combined long-term safety and antitumor activity of ODM-201 in ARADES (phase 1-2, NCT01317641, NCT01429064) and ARAFOR (phase 1 bioavailability, NCT01784757) trials in chemotherapy- and CYP17-inhibitor-naive patients. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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Mp61-18 a novel formulation of docetaxel with activity in muscle invasive bladder cancer xenografts

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

Bladder cancer is a significant public health problem responsible for more than 130,000 deaths annually word-wide. Approximately, 70-80% of patients initially present with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). The rate of recurrence of NMIBC, after standard of care surgery followed by locally administered chemotherapy (mitomycin C, MMC) is 55%. Overall, 30% of patients will ultimately progress toward muscle invasive disease, which is terminal unless treated by radical cystectomy. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp61-16 determination of immune polarization (th1 vs th2) in tumour tissue as a prognostic marker to bcg response in patients with high grade non-muscle invasive bladder cÁncer.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

Non muscle invasive bladder cancer represents 70% of all initial bladder cancer diagnosis. The most common method of treatment of NMIBC is transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TUR) followed by chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Currently BCG immunotherapy administred intravesically is considered the most effective method for preventing recurrence and progression. Intravesicall administration of BCG is hypothesized to act as a localizated Th-1 polarizing immunomodulator that induces massive influx of inflammatory cells. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp61-14 the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the timing and site of recurrence following radical cystectomy

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

Level 1 evidence supports the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) prior to radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer (MIBC). Nevertheless, patients may still experience recurrence following NAC+RC. Herein, we sought to evaluate the site-specific recurrence patterns for this population, which have not been previously studied. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp61-08 photothermal ablation of bladder cancer using phosphatidylserine targeted carbon nanotubes

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

Use of ablative therapy has the potential to treat bladder cancer resistant to BCG and chemotherapy. However, early efforts with photodynamic therapy and intravenous application of the photosensitizer resulted in significant complications. We have combined Annexin V targeting of phosphatidylserine on tumor surface with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to target bladder tumor cells and treat with near infrared (NIR) light for thermal ablation of tumor in the preclinical setting. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp61-04 alterations in cell line sensitivity to small molecule inhibitors between urothelial cancer lines and their metastatic derivatives

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

Chemotherapy for urothelial cancer (UC) is less effective in patients with large volumes of metastatic disease, likely due to acquired driver mutations. These acquired driver mutation may lead to differences in sensitivity between primary cell lines and metastatic clones. We utilized quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) to compare effectiveness of cell inhibition in two bladder cancer cell lines with their derived metastatic lines. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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Pd11-06 the role of single instillation chemotherapy in patients who receive subsequent bacillus calmette-guerin for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

To date, multiple clinical trials have focused on the efficacy of single immediate instillation of chemotherapeutic agents. However, the role of single chemo-instillation in patients who will receive additional intravesical instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combination effect of immediate intravesical chemotherapy and subsequent induction course of BCG. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd11-01 randomized controlled study of the efficacy and safety of continuous saline bladder irrigation after transurethral resection for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

An immediate instillation of intravesical chemotherapy after transurethral resection (TUR) is recommended to reduce the risk of recurrence in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). One of the mechanisms of early recurrence might be tumor cell dissemination and implantation at TUR. We hypothesized that continuous saline bladder irrigation (CSBI) after TUR would prevent tumor cell implantation, and reduce the recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CSBI after TUR in low- to intermediate -risk NMIBC. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp25-17 contemporary utilization trends of systemic chemotherapy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (utuc)

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

There is currently no consensus regarding the use of systemic therapy for surgically-treated patients with invasive UTUC. Using a large national cancer registry, our objective was to assess temporal trends in utilization of systemic therapy for stage II-IV UTUC. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



V8-03 robot-assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for non-seminomatous germ cell tumors in the post-chemotherapy setting

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

In patients who have completed a primary regimen of chemotherapy for a non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT), retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is the recommended treatment modality for a residual retroperitoneal mass ≥ 1 cm in the setting of normal tumor markers. Currently, an open RPLND (O-RPLND) is the gold-standard approach, however, it is associated with a significant amount of perioperative morbidity. Recent experience has demonstrated the utility of the robot-assisted laparoscopic approach in the primary setting for NSGCT, however, data is lacking in the post-chemotherapy setting. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp23-07 biodegradable drug-eluting stents: targeting urothelial tumors of upper urinary tract

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

Urothelial tumors of upper urinary tract are ranked among the most common types of cancers worldwide. The current standard therapy to prevent recurrence is intravesical Bacillus-Calmette–Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy, but it presents several disadvantages such as BCG failure and intolerance. Another way is to use chemotherapy, which is generally better tolerated that BCG. In this case, drugs such as epirubicin, doxorubicin, paclitaxel and gemcitabine are used. Nevertheless, intravesical chemotherapy only prevents recurrence in the short-term. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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Pd33-11 neoadjuvant chemotherapy in bladder cancer: p53-ness is associated with chemo-resistance and unfavorable outcome

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) can molecularly be grouped into intrinsic basal and luminal subtypes. Tumors within the luminal subtype and a ′p53-like′ gene expression have been found to be resistant to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC). We investigated the response of these subtypes to gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC), the other major frontline NAC regimen in this disease setting. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd33-09 pattern of metastatic spread after bladder-sparing therapy for invasive bladder cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

The pattern of bladder cancer metastasis has been well described in the literature, with liver, lung, bone, and brain being the most common sites. We hypothesize that bladder sparing therapy with chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy (XRT) alters the normal lymphatic drainage and leads to abnormal patterns of tumor metastasis. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd33-07 partial vs. complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients: a comparison of post-cystectomy outcomes

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

Several randomized controlled trials have found that neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) prior to radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) provides a survival benefit to patients who achieve complete pathologic response. We compared survival and recurrence outcomes between partial and complete responders. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd33-05 the promise and disappointment of sequential therapy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: updated results and long-term follow-up

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

We present a cohort of patients for whom surveillance and bladder preservation was offered if complete response was achieved on post-NAC TURBT. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd33-01 outcome of metastasectomy for urothelial carcinoma: a multi-institutional retrospective study

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

For metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, and the role of metastasectomy is not well established. Our aim was to identify the clinicopathological factors associated with better outcome in the patients who underwent metastasectomy for UC. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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Pi-01 progression from non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (nmibc) to muscle invasion is associated with lower response rates to neoadjuvant chemotherapy

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100

To determine if patients that progressed from non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) to muscle-invasive disease (′Progressive′ MIBC, P-MIBC) respond differently to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) than patients with ′de novo′ MIBC (DN-MIBC). (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd17-09 rising rates of urothelial carcinoma with underutilization of systemic chemotherapy – a 25-year cancer registry review

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100

The incidence of urothelial carcinoma (UC) continues to rise within the United States. Level I evidence suggests a survival advantage for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients receiving systemic chemotherapy (SC) in conjunction with radical cystectomy (RC). We reviewed 25 years of data from a state cancer registry to determine incidence trends of UC, integration of SC for MIBC, as well as factors associated with SC delivery. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd17-05 management of clinical stage i seminoma: headed in the right direction, but fast enough?

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100

Patients with clinical stage I (CSI) seminoma have a 99% long-term survival. Thus, the burden of treatment must be weighed against potential side-effects that occur decades later. In recent years, the long-term morbidity of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for testicular cancer has changed the treatment paradigm. Post-orchiectomy surveillance is now recommended by the NCCN guidelines as the preferred approach and treatment trends over the last decade have reflected this change. However, many CSI seminoma patients still receive adjuvant therapy. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp27-08 risk stratification model for lymphovascular invasion, pathological t stage, lymph node involvement, and c-reactive protein predicts high-risk patients -who are candidate for adjuvant chemotherapy in upper urinary tract urothelial cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100

Optimal patient selection for adjuvant chemotherapy has not been clarified in upper urinary tract urothelial cancer (UTUC). We aimed to develop a risk model to select candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp27-06 development of a new prognostic model to predict survival of patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma receiving first-line gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy: multicenter retrospective study by the sapporo medical university urologic oncology consortium (suoc)

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100

Several studies have shown the impact of systemic inflammation on the prognosis in patients with various types of cancers, including urothelial carcinoma (UC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of pretreatment inflammatory markers in patients with metastatic UC who underwent first-line gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC) chemotherapy. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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Mp27-05 are calculated formulas for estimating renal function adequate for administered cisplatin-based chemotherapy in solitary renal patients after nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma?

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100

The relationship between endogenous creatinine clearance (eCrCl) and formulas for estimating renal function in solitary renal patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) and subsequent administered cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CBC) have never been evaluated. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd34-07 does teratoma metastasize? presence of teratoma in the primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection setting

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100

To determine if teratoma can metastasize from the testis to the retroperitoneum in clinical stage I chemotherapy naive patients. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd34-06 salvage chemotherapy with paclitaxel, ifosfamide and nedaplatin (tin) for refractory or relapsed germ cell tumors in patients with impaired renal function

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100

Cisplatin is one of the most widely used and highly effective drug for the treatment of various solid tumors including germ cell tumors (GCTs). However, it has dose-dependent side effects and among them, nephrotoxicity is the most well-known and clinically important toxicity. Nedaplatin is a second-generation platinum complex with reduced nephrotoxicity that exerts its antitumor activity against various cancers. Based on our previous report (Int J Clin Oncol 2009;14:436), nedaplatin exerted the equivalent antitumor effect as cisplatin with less toxicity in patients with relapsed or refractory GCTs. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd34-04 actionable targets in patients with cisplatin-resistant advanced germ cell tumors

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100

We describe potentially actionable mutations in a cohort of patients with platinum-resistant aGCT through targeted sequencing. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd34-02 is percent seminoma associated with intraoperative morbidity during post-chemotherapy rplnd?

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100

To evaluate whether varying degrees of seminomatous elements in the primary orchiectomy specimen would be predictive of patient morbidity during post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) since the desmoplastic reaction with seminoma is associated with increased intraoperative complexity. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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Mp63-06 racial disparities in quality metrics of muscle invasive bladder cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100

There is conflicting evidence regarding MIBC treatment and outcomes. Our aim was to assess the variation in four quality metrics (neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, time to treatment ≤ 3 months, ≥10 lymph nodes removed, use of continent urinary diversion) according to race. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd39-12 impact of delay to cystectomy in non responders to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nact) prior to radical cystectomy (rc) in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:05 +0100

We examined a large population based dataset in order to assess the impact of delay to RC in patients who are non-responders to NACT. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd39-11 the outcome of post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder in the retroperitoneum

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:05 +0100

While definite cure of metastatic bladder cancer can be achieved by radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection in patients with regional lymphadenopathy, the benefit remains uncertain in those patients who present with non-regional metastases. We analyzed the survival impact of post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) in patients with retroperitoneal metastases of bladder cancer. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd39-10 do bladder cancer patients with clinically metastatic lymph node disease benefit from radical cystectomy?

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:05 +0100

We report our experience with patients who had clinically enlarged nodes and ultimately underwent RC (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd39-08 propensity-matched comparison of survival outcomes in patients undergoing radical cystectomy versus bladder preserving trimodal therapy

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:05 +0100

We started in 2008 a Multidisciplinary Bladder Cancer Clinic (MDBCC), where complex bladder cancer patients are assessed concurrently by urologic and radiation oncologists, with support from medical oncologists. Patients have the opportunity to discuss various treatment options including radical cystectomy (RC) or bladder sparing trimodal therapy (TMT; endoscopic resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy). Although reports have shown comparable outcomes of TMT to cystectomy, no direct comparison to RC has been published and no randomized studies are available. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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Pd38-03 characterization of cell based models for the in vitro and in vivo study of discrete molecular subtypes in bladder cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:05 +0100

Based on detailed gene expression profiling and genomic analysis, several high profile studies have identified at least two molecular subtypes of bladder cancer (BLCa), referred to as “basal” and “luminal”. Basal BLCa is the most aggressive form of disease; yet these tumors appear to respond better to chemotherapy. To identify the mechanisms responsible for tumor progression and chemosensitivity, relevant cell-based models must be identified. Therefore, we endeavored to develop a comprehensive understanding of the available human BLCa cell lines using publically available data. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp03-14 trends in utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma in the national cancer database

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:04 +0100

Upper tract urothelial carcinoma has a worse prognosis than bladder urothelial carcinoma and no improvement in survival has been seen over the last 20years. Early studies show a benefit to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for urothelial carcinomas, and adjuvant therapy with nephrotoxic agents such as cisplatin is often not feasible after nephroureterectomy. Our purpose is to evaluate trends in the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the United States in upper tract urothelial carcinoma. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp01-18 the potential impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on patients undergoing radical cystectomy for non-urothelial muscle invasive bladder cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:04 +0100

We evaluated the potential role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) in patients undergoing a radical cystectomy in the setting of muscle-invasive bladder cancer histologic variants (BCHV) utilizing a large oncology database. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp01-10 potential utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (adc) value as a biomarker to predict the difference between t1g3 non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (nmibc) and muscle invasive bladder cancer (mibc)

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:04 +0100

Recently the usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for characterizing tumor grade and T stage have been suggested. MIBC needs more invasive treatment including total cystectomy, radiation and chemotherapy, whereas T1G3 NMIBC has less invasive treatment options including re-TURBT or BCG instillation as bladder preservation therapy. Between these two tumor's groups the treatment selection is drastically changed, however, the relationship between these groups and ADC value has not yet been clearly identified. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp07-03 primary tumor androgen receptor signaling as a predictor of castrate resistance

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100

Recent results of STAMPEDE, CHAARTED, and RTOG 0521 have suggested a clinical benefit to the early use of docetaxel in the treatment of localized high risk, locally advanced and newly metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Docetaxel therapy is not without toxicity however (neuropathy, neutropenia and associated deaths). Improved selection of men with early castrate resistance is thus paramount to personalized use of chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment setting. Here we investigate whether early signs of androgen insensitivity could be detected in the primary tumors of men with PCa that metastasized after local therapy and subsequently developed castrate resistant disease. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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Mp83-16 emetine dihydrochloride enhances cisplatin/gemcitabine-mediated growth inhibition of bladder tumor cells in vivo

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100

We previously reported that emetine, a natural alkaloid, acts synergistically with cisplatin to inhibit growth of muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) cell lines, but not normal urothelial cells in vitro. These studies were recently extended to show emetine also enhances growth inhibition of tumor cells treated with cisplatin-gemcitabine (CG), a current first-line chemotherapy regime for MIBC patients. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of combined emetine and CG (CG&E) in a xenograft model of MIBC and examined the resulting tumors for evidence of proliferation (Ki67) and apoptosis (activated caspase 3) using immunostaining. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp83-08 local t lymphocyte sub-population responses to intravesical bcg and chemotherapy in an immune competent murine model of bladder cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100

The objective of the present study was to understand the effect of intravesical BCG and platinum-based chemotherapy on T cell subpopulations in an immune competent murine model of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp83-02 addition of emetine dihydrochloride to platinum based chemotherapy inhibits bladder cancer cell proliferation and reduces the effective dose of platinum chemotherapy

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100

Emetine is a natural alkaloid that inhibits protein synthesis at the micromolar level. Decades ago, Phase I and II clinical trials of emetine as a single agent showed modest efficacy against many solid tumors, but these findings were not pursued. We have previously reported that low, nanomolar concentrations of emetine act synergistically with cisplatin to inhibit invasive bladder cancer cell proliferation. Here, we extend these findings to evaluate the addition of emetine to the standard of care chemotherapeutic regimen of cisplatin plus gemcitabine. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp06-18 prevalence of clostridium difficile infection in patients after radical cystectomy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100

This study evaluates the prevalence of Clostridium Difficile infections in patients undergoing radical cystectomy who have previously received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp06-17 gemcitabine plus paclitaxel as third line chemotherapy: a feasible option for metastatic urothelial carcinoma patients

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100

There is no standard second line treatment for patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) after the failure of platinum based first line chemotherapy. In previous study, we reported the efficacy of gemcitabine docetaxel (GD) combination as a second line treatment strategy for patients with mUC after failure of the first line treatment with platinum based chemotherapy. However, the efficacy of GD was not sufficient to be established as a standard second line treatment. The treatment options are limited for patients who demonstrate good performance status following GC or GD therapy. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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Mp06-05 precystectomy epithelial tumor marker response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and its effect on oncological outcomes in urothelial bladder cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100

We have previously reported that elevated pre-cystectomy serum levels of epithelial tumor markers predict worse oncological outcome in patients with invasive urothelial bladder cancer (UBC). Herein, we evaluated the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAChT) on elevated tumor marker levels and their association with oncological outcomes. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp06-01 incidence and impact of venous thromboembolism in radical cystectomy patients undergoing pre-operative chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100

We evaluated the incidence and clinical impact of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) treated with pre-operative chemotherapy (POC) and radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection (RC-PLND). (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp81-15 genetic basis for cisplatin resistance in patients with advanced germ cell tumors (gct)

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100

Salvage chemotherapy or desperation surgery is required in 20-30% of patients with advanced GCT (aGCT) that have cisplatin-resistant (CR) disease. We sought to delineate genomic markers of CR in aGCT patients. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp81-11 the effect of sociodemographic factors on the management of stage i non-seminomatous germ cell testicular tumors

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100

There are three equivalent treatment options in the management of Stage 1 Non-seminomatous germ cell testicular tumors, including surveillance, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), and chemotherapy. The choice of treatment is likely influenced by disease factors, patient and provider factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of sociodemographic factors on the management of stage I Non-seminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp81-03 systemic inflammatory response markers in patients with metastatic germ cell tumors undergoing chemotherapy might be of prognostic value

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100

Inflammation plays an important role in the biology of many malignancies and is considered a hallmark of cancer. Various systemic inflammatory response markers are readily available from routine blood tests and have been shown to be of prognostic value in numerous genitourinary malignancies including bladder, kidney and metastatic prostate cancer. The prognostic utility of these markers in patients with metastatic germ cell tumors (mGCT) undergoing chemotherapy has so far not been investigated. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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Mp81-02 clinical evaluation of the pulmonary resection for lung metastases in advanced testicular cancer patients after chemotherapy from japanese high volume center

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100

Surgical dissection of residual masses in patients with germ cell tumor after chemotherapy has proved therapeutic and staging roles. However, the role of surgery for multiple lung metastases is still under debate due to the difficulty of their complete dissection or concerns of post-operative pulmonary dysfunction. Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of the pulmonary resection of residual lung metastases in patients with germ cell tumor after chemotherapy. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp05-01 the impact of contralateral kidney volume on renal function after radical nephroureterectomy: implications for eligibility for neoadjuvant chemotherapy for upper tract urothelial cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100

In this study, we analyzed the association between preoperative contralateral kidney (CK) volume and alterations in renal function over time after RNU to investigate the impact of preoperative CK volume on patient eligibility for neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for UTUC. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp13-14 what benchmarks can we expect in determining markers of quality in the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer?

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:02 +0100

We report institutional rates of utilization of such practices following the implementation of quality improvement initiatives to determine reasonable expected benchmarks for implementation of these practices. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp13-08 the comparison one immediate postoperative intravesical chemotherapy with short-term adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy after turbt in low- and intermediate recurrent risk of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer- a randomized prospective study in japan.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:02 +0100

The objective is to evaluate the efficacy of intravesical chemotherapy using pirarubicin for patients with low or intermediate risk. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp13-07 improved efficacy of adjuvant, single dose intravesical apaziquone by timing post-resection in two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 studies in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:02 +0100

Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is characterized by frequent recurrences. Adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy administered within 24 hours post-transurethral resection (TURBT) has been shown to reduce recurrences. Apaziquone (APZ), a synthetic alkylating prodrug activated in bladder cancer, was evaluated for immediate instillation post-TURBT in patients with low grade Ta (Grade 1 or 2) NMIBC in two studies (SPI-611; SPI-612). Because APZ can be inactivated by blood, an analysis was performed by time window of APZ dosing post-TURBT to determine the optimal timing; data on the 2 Year Recurrence Rate (2YRR) and Time to Recurrence (TTR) are reported here. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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Mp13-05 a randomized trial comparing two different retention periods of intravesical pirarubicin instillation for intermediate risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (nmibc) after transurethral resection.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:02 +0100

Anthracyclines are recommended reagents for one immediate intravesical instillation after transurethral resection (TUR) and additional adjuvant instillation in intermediate risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) to reduce the risk of recurrence. Pirarubicin (THP), an anthracycline analogue, is widely used reagent for intravesical instillation chemotherapy. Several studies have showed that THP can rapidly penetrate tumor tissue after intravesical instillation. Therefore long instillation time (e.g. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp88-20 evaluation of the biological basis of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:02 +0100

Squamous differentiation is found in up to 60% of patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. There is conflicting evidence regarding clinical relevance of aberrant urothelial differentiation - both population-based and retrospective studies have reported conflicting results regarding the correlation between squamous differentiation and poor prognosis/advanced stage. The biology of these tumors is poorly understood but some suggest that urothelial carcinoma with extensive squamous differentiation may resemble pure squamous tumors with similar responses to chemotherapy, radiation, and higher rates of local recurrence. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp88-19 urinary microbiome patterns appears to be correlative to intravesical recurrence of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:02 +0100

The objective of this study was to describe the urinary microbiome among bladder cancer patients, observe longitudinal urinary microbiome changes during surgery and chemotherapy, and identify microbiome patterns that are associated with frequent bladder cancer recurrences. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp88-17 immunohistochemistry of androgen receptor and estrogen receptor-β in bladder cancer as predictors of chemosensitivity

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:02 +0100

There is a striking imbalance in the incidence of bladder cancer as well as the outcomes of the patients by sex. Preclinical evidence has suggested that androgen-mediated androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen-mediated estrogen receptor (ER) signals play an important role in urothelial tumorigenesis and cancer progression, which may clearly explain some of the gender-specific differences. Meanwhile, cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy is the mainstay of the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in both neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings as well as that of metastatic disease. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp88-13 mutational landscape of primary bladder and urachal adenocarcinoma

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:02 +0100

Adenocarcinomas of the bladder and urachus represent a rare subtype of urinary tract cancer and account for 2% of all tumors originating from the bladder. Localized disease can be managed with surgical extirpation alone; however, less than 40% of patients with advanced disease will achieve an objective response with platinum-based chemotherapy. We hypothesized that bladder and urachal adenocarcinomas harbor a distinct mutational profile that may make them susceptible to targeted agents. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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Mp88-05 osteopontin – a potential marker for chemotherapy resistance in bladder cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:02 +0100

Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted extracellular matrix protein known to play a key role in tissue remodeling, inflammation and tumor development. In a laser capture microdissection-coupled microarray gene expression analysis of chemoresistant vs. non-chemoresistant bladder tumor samples, OPN was found be the most highly differentially (24-fold) expressed gene. We sought to explore the role of OPN in bladder cancer chemoresistance. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd05-03 microdissection onco-tese in azoospermic cancer patients

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:01 +0100

Men with cancers are offered sperm cryopreservation prior to undergoing treatment modalities, such as chemotherapy. A number of patients attempting sperm cryopreservation may present with azoospermia and microdissection onco-TESE is a treatment option to preserve fertility in these men. The aim of this study was to report on our experience of OncoTESE in men with cancers, who are azoospermic at the time of attempted sperm cryopreservation. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pd05-01 microdissection testicular sperm extraction in patients with azoospermia due to chemotherapy

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:01 +0100

The recent advances in cancer therapies for males of pediatric, adolescent, and reproductive ages over the last several decades have led to increases in long-term survival, making post-treatment quality of life increasingly important. Combinations of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy may achieve high remission rates in patients with cancer, but the treatment can be harmful to male fertility. Cytotoxic chemotherapy may lead to irreversible spermatogenic dysfunction. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (Micro-TESE) is the only method for fertility revival in chemotherapy induced azoospermic patients. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



S&t-06 high absolute monocyte count predicts poor clinical outcome in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with docetaxel chemotherapy

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:00 +0100

It remains controversial whether the peripheral blood components reflect cancer-associated inflammation, and whether these may be considered as key determinants of disease progression and survival in cancer patients. Our aim was to investigate the prognostic value of AMC, which is thought to modulate immunoacitivty in the tumor microenvironment, in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) treated with docetaxel chemotherapy. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Pi-lba06 va csp#553 chemotherapy after prostatectomy (cap) for high risk prostate carcinoma: a phase iii randomized study

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:23:59 +0100

The VA Cooperative Studies Group Study #553 was designed to prospectively evaluate the efficacy of early adjuvant chemotherapy added to the standard of care (SOC) for patients with prostate cancer who are potentially cured by radical prostatectomy but who are at high risk for relapse based on clinical and pathologic parameters. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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The U.S. Throws Out $3 Billion In Cancer Drugs Every Year

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 15:39:32 +0100

(Reuters Health) - U.S. doctors and hospitals throw out almost $3 billion (roughly 2.7 billion euros) in unused cancer drugs each year because the medicines come in supersized single-use packages and excess medicine must be discarded for safety reasons, a recent paper suggests. Researchers focused on 20 expensive medicines that are given by injection or intravenous drip and require doses adjusted based on the patient’s body size. Often, the packages contain much more medicine than patients need, and the leftovers wind up in the trash. Even when much of the medicine goes in the garbage, patients pay for the whole vial, said lead author Dr. Peter Bach, director of the Center for Health Policy and Outcomes at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City. “...



Hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization for autologous transplantation - a literature review

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:30:05 +0100

ABSTRACT The use of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous support of hematopoietic progenitor cells is an effective strategy to treat various hematologic neoplasms, such as non-Hodgkin lymphomas and multiple myeloma. Mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells are the main source of support for autologous transplants, and collection of an adequate number of hematopoietic progenitor cells is a critical step in the autologous transplant procedure. Traditional strategies, based on the use of growth factors with or without chemotherapy, have limitations even when remobilizations are performed. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is the most widely used agent for progenitor cell mobilization. The association of plerixafor, a C-X-C Chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) inhibitor, to granulocyte c...



How cancer stem cells thrive when oxygen is scarce

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:01:59 +0100

Working with human breast cancer cells and mice, scientists say new experiments explain how certain cancer stem cells thrive in low oxygen conditions. Proliferation of such cells, which tend to resist chemotherapy and help tumors spread, are considered a major roadblock to successful cancer treatment. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)



Tropical Fruit For Natural Yeast Infection Treatment

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 13:15:18 +0100

I’ve seen the health benefits of coconut among numerous traditional cultures in Bali, India, Peru, Jamaica and various parts of Africa. They use it for almost everything — from lip balm and skin moisturizer to cooking oil and a remedy for stomach complaints. For years, coconut fat was demonized as the enemy of heart health — until multiple studies revealed that it’s chock full of antioxidants and vitamin E. It also contains a unique kind of fat called medium-chain triglycerides, or MCTs — and these are extremely good for your heart. Coconut Health Benefits: Help prevent obesity by speeding up your metabolism; Provide a quick energy boost; Reduce sugar cravings; Help prevent diabetes by improving insulin efficiency; Promote healthy thyroid function; Improve symptoms and ...

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The Involvement of Heat Shock Proteins and Related Molecules in the Resistance to Therapies in Breast and Gynecologic Cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

The HSP response is implicated in conferring to breast and gynecologic malignancies different sensitivities to anticancer therapies including chemotherapy, endocrine therapy and immunotherapy (we are in the need of more studies about radiotherapy). The heat shock proteins are mainly implicated in cell death mechanisms, in cell differentiation including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in tumor dormancy, in angiogenesis, metastasis formation, and in the escape of immunosurveillance. Considering the ample functions where the HSPs are implicated and that the HSP response is quite complex it is not surprising that the HSP response affects the anticancer therapies. Several of the HSPs have different predominant roles according to the molecular partners with which they interact, thus it is dif...



Chemotherapy Resistance in Breast Cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

Chemoresistance is a major cause of breast cancer recurrence and death. Currently, drug-resistant disease is treated by selection of another drug(s), without understanding the molecular mechanism(s) involved in a given patient’s chemoresistance. Better understanding of chemoresistance may enable a more informed selection of chemotherapeutic agents and improve patient outcomes. The article reviews mechanisms of resistance to common chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer: anthracyclines, taxanes and antimetabolites. Gene amplification of YWHAZ, encoding an anti-apoptotic protein, and LAPTM4B, encoding lysosomal-associated protein transmembrane 4B, decrease sensitivity to anthracyclines. Overproduction of p-170 glycoprotein, encoded by MDR1 gene, pumps these drugs out of cancer cells. Ov...



Treatment of Uterine Carcinomas

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

Uterine epithelial cancers are the most common type of gynecologic cancer in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimated 53,000 new cases of uterine cancers in 2014 with 8,600 deaths from advanced or recurrent cases, 99% of which are endometrial cancer. The 5-year survival rate of low-stage, low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma is greater than 90%. In contrast, advanced stage endometrioid adenocarcinomas and Type II (serous and carcinosarcoma) endometrial cancers have a much poorer prognosis, with the 5-year survival rate of advanced stage uterine carcinosarcoma as low as 9%. Together, these endometrial cancers with poor prognoses comprise almost half of all cases in the US, creating a significant medical obstacle for management. The authors present a review of endometrial ca...



Current Strategies and Future Directions in Classification and Treatment of Uterine Sarcomas

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

Uterine sarcomas comprise endometrial stroma tumors (EST) and uterine leiomyosarcomas (ULMS), with ESTs accounting for less than 2% and ULMS accounting for approximately 1% of uterine neoplasms. Recent classifications of ESTs denote as many as four categories: benign endometrial stromal nodule (ESN), low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS), high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (HGESS), and undifferentiated uterine sarcomas (UUS). The designation UUS has been suggested to encompass undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas (UES) and undifferentiated uterine sarcomas of other tissue origins. The prognosis for ESS is good. Although a third of cases recur, the 5-year survival rate for Stage I disease can be as high as 98%. In contrast the prognosis for UES is poor, with a 5-year survival r...