Subscribe: MedWorm: Cancer Therapy
Added By: Feedage Forager Feedage Grade B rated
Language: English
abstract  breast cancer  breast  cancer cells  cancer therapy  cancer  cell  cells  patients  source  therapy  treatment  tumor 
Rate this Feed
Rate this feedRate this feedRate this feedRate this feedRate this feed
Rate this feed 1 starRate this feed 2 starRate this feed 3 starRate this feed 4 starRate this feed 5 star

Comments (0)

Feed Details and Statistics Feed Statistics
Preview: MedWorm: Cancer Therapy

MedWorm: Cancer Therapy provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Cancer Therapy category.

Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:22:51 +0100


The outcome of cancer treatment is independent of baseline HIV viral load and CD4 + cell count status: a pilot study from South Africa

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Increased life years of HIV positive patients has increased the number of HIV related chronic conditions and cancers. On the other hand, chemotherapy and radiotherapy remain key treatment methods for cancer, which could exacerbate the immunosuppression status. There is limited data on the outcome of cancer therapy in HIV positive patients on HAART in South Africa. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

A prospective study comparing prophylactic gastrostomy to nutritional counselling with a therapeutic feeding tube if required in head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy in Thai real‐world practice

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsThe results of the present study suggest that PGT provided similar quality of life without a reduction in treatment interruption. However, patients with PGT had significantly less weight loss (P = 0.04) during CRT. (Source: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics)

A SNaPshot of potentially personalized care: Molecular diagnostics in gynecologic cancer.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 20:57:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Although SNaPshot can identify potentially important therapeutic targets, the incidence of 'drugable' targets in ovarian cancer is low. In this cohort, only 7% of subjects eventually were treated on a relevant clinical trial. Geneotyping should be used judiciously and reflect histologic subtype and available platform. PMID: 27016236 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Gynecologic Oncology)

Pd32-02 novel pi3k/p110beta-specific inhibitors eliminate enzalutamide resistance in prostate cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:09 +0100

We and others have demonstrated that the class IA PI3K isoform p110beta is critical in prostate cancer development and progression, indicating p110beta as a bona fide target for prostate cancer therapy. Our recent work consistently shows that prostate cancer cell-specific delivery of nano-micellar TGX221 completely blocked prostate cancer growth in vivo, suggesting that TGX221-based therapy is feasible for further development. Unfortunately, the small chemical TGX221 is not soluble in water, hampering its clinical development. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

Mp62-03 novel selective lysine-specific demethylase 1 inhibitors and autophagy inhibitors effectively impair castration-resistant prostate cancer growth

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

We examined the anticancer effects of NCL1 and NCD38. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

Mp85-12 diosmetin enhances trail-induced apoptosis in renal carcinoma cells through the up-regulation of death receptor 5

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:02 +0100

Currently one of the major goals of cancer therapy is selective killing of cancer cells. TRAIL has attracted considerable attention due to its ability to kill tumor cells while sparing the normal ones. When TRAIL induces apoptosis, it binds to death receptor 4 (DR4) and 5(DR5). After that, TRAIL induces trimerization of death receptors to form a complex named death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), which in turn activates caspase-8, leading to the further activation of caspase-3 and subsequent apoptosis. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Pd05-01 microdissection testicular sperm extraction in patients with azoospermia due to chemotherapy

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:01 +0100

The recent advances in cancer therapies for males of pediatric, adolescent, and reproductive ages over the last several decades have led to increases in long-term survival, making post-treatment quality of life increasingly important. Combinations of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy may achieve high remission rates in patients with cancer, but the treatment can be harmful to male fertility. Cytotoxic chemotherapy may lead to irreversible spermatogenic dysfunction. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (Micro-TESE) is the only method for fertility revival in chemotherapy induced azoospermic patients. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

Tobacco Mosaic Virus Delivery of Phenanthriplatin for Cancer therapy

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 13:21:25 +0100

ACS NanoDOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b07360 (Source: ACS Nano)

Meet Our Editorial Board Member:

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

(Source: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews)

Editorial (Thematic Issue: Chemoresistance in Gynecologic Cancers)

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

(Source: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews)

The Involvement of Heat Shock Proteins and Related Molecules in the Resistance to Therapies in Breast and Gynecologic Cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

The HSP response is implicated in conferring to breast and gynecologic malignancies different sensitivities to anticancer therapies including chemotherapy, endocrine therapy and immunotherapy (we are in the need of more studies about radiotherapy). The heat shock proteins are mainly implicated in cell death mechanisms, in cell differentiation including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in tumor dormancy, in angiogenesis, metastasis formation, and in the escape of immunosurveillance. Considering the ample functions where the HSPs are implicated and that the HSP response is quite complex it is not surprising that the HSP response affects the anticancer therapies. Several of the HSPs have different predominant roles according to the molecular partners with which they interact, thus it is dif...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

New Ways to Improve Breast Cancer Therapy Targeting Specific Molecular Pathways

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

Preclinical laboratory science has revealed multiple new targets for breast cancer therapy. Clinical trials targeting key signaling pathways are underway and a number of new drugs have been approved for treatment. Targeting of growth factor receptors by monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors were among the first to be approved, but new small molecules inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway have also shown promise. This review will evaluate potential new targets and specifically targets in hormone receptor positive and triple negative breast cancer. (Source: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews)

Chemotherapy Resistance in Breast Cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

Chemoresistance is a major cause of breast cancer recurrence and death. Currently, drug-resistant disease is treated by selection of another drug(s), without understanding the molecular mechanism(s) involved in a given patient’s chemoresistance. Better understanding of chemoresistance may enable a more informed selection of chemotherapeutic agents and improve patient outcomes. The article reviews mechanisms of resistance to common chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer: anthracyclines, taxanes and antimetabolites. Gene amplification of YWHAZ, encoding an anti-apoptotic protein, and LAPTM4B, encoding lysosomal-associated protein transmembrane 4B, decrease sensitivity to anthracyclines. Overproduction of p-170 glycoprotein, encoded by MDR1 gene, pumps these drugs out of cancer cells. Ov...

Understanding Trastuzumab Resistance in HER2 Positive Breast Cancer and Further Therapeutic Options

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

Trastuzumab has been clearly demonstrated to improve overall survival for both early and metastatic HER2 positive breast cancer. However, despite the improved clinical outcomes seen with the addition of HER2 targeted therapy to conventional cytotoxic agents, the response rates remain between 30-55% and the majority of patients with advanced breast cancer experience disease progression within 1 year. In this review article, we provide a summary of the key mechanisms of resistance to trastuzumab, including the truncated form of HER2 (p95HER2), compensatory up-regulation of receptor cross-talk, genetic mutations and aberrancies in molecular pathways that allow tumor cells to evade cell cycle regulations. In recent years, treatment options for patients with trastuzumab-resistant disease have b...

Treatment of Uterine Carcinomas

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

Uterine epithelial cancers are the most common type of gynecologic cancer in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimated 53,000 new cases of uterine cancers in 2014 with 8,600 deaths from advanced or recurrent cases, 99% of which are endometrial cancer. The 5-year survival rate of low-stage, low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma is greater than 90%. In contrast, advanced stage endometrioid adenocarcinomas and Type II (serous and carcinosarcoma) endometrial cancers have a much poorer prognosis, with the 5-year survival rate of advanced stage uterine carcinosarcoma as low as 9%. Together, these endometrial cancers with poor prognoses comprise almost half of all cases in the US, creating a significant medical obstacle for management. The authors present a review of endometrial ca...

Treatment of High-Grade Pelvic-Type Serous Carcinomas (Ovary, Fallopian Tube and Peritoneum): Current Therapeutic Paradigms, Prospects, and Challenges

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

Ovarian cancer represents the second most common gynecologic cancer in the United States, with an estimated 22,000 new diagnoses and 14,000 deaths attributed in 2014 [1]. While the term loosely encompasses a large and varied assortment of malignancies, greater than 90% of ovarian cancers are epithelial carcinomas. Again within this category, there are a number of different histologic subtypes however, 60-70% of ovarian cancers are high-grade serous carcinomas. Overall, high-grade serous carcinomas account for 90% of deaths due to ovarian cancer. Early stage diagnosis has good prognosis with a predicted 5-year survival rate of over 90%. In contrast, late stage diagnosis has a 5-year survival of only 30%, a number which has not significantly changed over the past roughly half century [2]. Un...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Current Strategies and Future Directions in Classification and Treatment of Uterine Sarcomas

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

Uterine sarcomas comprise endometrial stroma tumors (EST) and uterine leiomyosarcomas (ULMS), with ESTs accounting for less than 2% and ULMS accounting for approximately 1% of uterine neoplasms. Recent classifications of ESTs denote as many as four categories: benign endometrial stromal nodule (ESN), low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS), high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (HGESS), and undifferentiated uterine sarcomas (UUS). The designation UUS has been suggested to encompass undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas (UES) and undifferentiated uterine sarcomas of other tissue origins. The prognosis for ESS is good. Although a third of cases recur, the 5-year survival rate for Stage I disease can be as high as 98%. In contrast the prognosis for UES is poor, with a 5-year survival r...

Acknowledgements to Reviewers:

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

(Source: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews)

Tissue Factor: A Conventional or Alternative Target in Cancer Therapy [Mini-Review]

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

BACKGROUND: Tissue factor (TF) is an evolutionary conserved glycoprotein that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. TF is expressed in 2 naturally occurring protein isoforms, membrane-bound full-length (fl)TF and soluble alternatively spliced (as)TF. Both isoforms have been shown to affect a variety of pathophysiologically relevant functions, such as tumor-associated angiogenesis, thrombogenicity, tumor growth, and metastasis. Therefore, targeting TF either by direct inhibition or indirectly, i.e., on a posttranscriptional level, offers a novel therapeutic option for cancer treatment. CONTENT: In this review we summarize the latest findings regarding the role of TF and its isoforms in cancer biology. Moreover, we briefly depict and discuss the therapeutic potential of dir...

Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme E2T is an Independent Prognostic Factor and Promotes Gastric Cancer Progression

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Abstract Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2T (UBE2T) is a member of the E2 family that mediates the ubiquitin-proteasome system and regulates gene expression. It is a major oncogene in several cancers such as lung cancer and breast cancer, while the potential functions of UBE2T in gastric cancer (GC) remains largely unknown. Here, we identified the roles of UBE2T in GC progression and its potential to act as a prognostic marker of GC. Our data demonstrated that UBE2T was significantly upregulated in gastric cancer tissues, and the high expression of UBE2T was significantly correlated with poor differentiation, high T classification, and poor prognosis. In vitro experiments indicated that UBE2T promoted cell proliferation and inhibited cell cycle arrest. In addition, we observed that ...

Dual Constant Domain-Fab: a novel strategy to improve half-life and potency of a Met therapeutic antibody

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

The kinase receptor encoded by the Met oncogene is a sensible target for cancer therapy. The chimeric monovalent Fab fragment of the DN30 monoclonal antibody (MvDN30) has an odd mechanism of action, based on cell surface removal of Met via activation of specific plasma membrane proteases. However, the short half-life of the Fab, due to its low molecular weight, is a severe limitation for the deployment in therapy. This issue was addressed by increasing the Fab molecular weight above the glomerular filtration threshold through the duplication of the constant domains, in tandem (DCD-1) or reciprocally swapped (DCD-2). (Source: Molecular Oncology)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Magnetic nanoparticles in cancer diagnosis and treatment: a review.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 17:10:02 +0100

Authors: Fathi Karkan S, Mohammadhosseini M, Panahi Y, Milani M, Zarghami N, Akbarzadeh A, Abasi E, Hosseini A, Davaran S Abstract Diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer have been characterized with a variety of challenges. However, with the advancement in magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) technology, many challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer are on the decline. The MNPs have led to many break-through in cancer therapy. This paper seeks to establish the role of MNPs in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. It proposes that the existing challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer can be addressed through application of MNPs in the process. PMID: 27015806 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology)

The retinoblastoma protein regulates hypoxia-inducible genetic programs, tumor cell invasiveness and neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer cells.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In this report, we further characterized the role Rb plays in mediating hypoxia-regulated genetic programs by stably ablating Rb expression with retrovirally-introduced short hairpin RNA in LNCaP and 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells. DNA microarray analysis revealed that loss of Rb in conjunction with hypoxia leads to aberrant expression of hypoxia-regulated genetic programs that increase cell invasion and promote neuroendocrine differentiation. For the first time, we have established a direct link between hypoxic tumor environments, Rb inactivation and progression to late stage metastatic neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Understanding the molecular pathways responsible for progression of benign prostate tumors to metastasized and lethal forms will aid in the development of more effective ...

Codelivery of doxorubicin-containing thermosensitive hydrogels incorporated with docetaxel-loaded mixed micelles enhances local cancer therapy

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, our in situ injectable DOX and DOC TSH is a potential dual drug delivery system, which can enhance the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy with minimal side effects and reduced chemoresistance. Graphical abstract (Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces)

One-pot construction of boronate ester based pH-responsive micelle for combined cancer therapy

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study, one-pot strategy for the construction of micelles loaded with two types of anticancer drugs (i.e., doxorubicin and methotrexate) together is reported. On the basis of the reaction between boronic acid and 1,2-diol to form boronate ester, the formation of amphiphiles, their self-assembly into micelles and drug encapsulation occurs simultaneously under simple dialysis at the appropriate pH condition. In the one-pot strategy, the micelle yield is high (78.2%) and the drug encapsulation efficiency of the two drugs is improved compared with that of the traditional method. The micelles can selectively increase the drug release ratio at acidic pH, showing the pH-responsive behavior inherited from the property of boronate ester. By combining doxorubicin and methotrexate, the half-ma...

Effects of hyperthermia as a mitigation strategy in DNA damage-based cancer therapies

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Seminars in Cancer Biology Author(s): Theodora Mantso, George Goussetis, Rodrigo Franco, Sotiris Botaitis, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis Panayiotidis Utilization of thermal therapy (hyperthermia) is defined as the application of exogenous heat induction and represents a concept that is far from new as it goes back to ancient times when heat was used for treating various diseases, including malignancies. Such therapeutic strategy has gained even more popularity (over the last few decades) since various studies have shed light into understanding hyperthermia's underlying molecular mechanism(s) of action. In general, hyperthermia is applied as complementary (adjuvant) means in therapeutic protocols combining chemotherapy and/or irradiati...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Improved tumor targeting and antitumor activity of camptothecin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles by preinjection of blank solid lipid nanoparticles

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study aimed to enhance the in vivo antitumor effects of camptothecin (CPT), a strong antitumor agent whose delivery is limited by poor aqueous solubility and instability of the active lactone form. CPT was loaded into sterically stabilized, solid lipid nanoparticles (CPT-SLNs) formulated for intravenous administration. The influence of preinjected blank SLNs on the tumor targeting, pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity of CPT-SLNs was investigated. The CPT-SLNs composed of trilaurin-based lipid matrix containing poloxamer188 and pegylated phospholipid as stabilizers were prepared by hot homogenization method and evaluated for in vitro characteristics and in vivo performance. The CPT-SLNs showed an in vitro long-term sustained release pattern and effectively protected the CPT lactone...

Melatonin, an inhibitory agent in breast cancer.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: The broad inhibitory effects of melatonin in breast cancer make it a promising agent and may add it to the list of potential drugs in treatment of this cancer. PMID: 27017208 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Breast Cancer)

IMB-6G, a novel N-substituted sophoridinic acid derivative, induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis via activation of IRE1α and PERK signaling.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Zhang N, Bi C, Liu L, Dou Y, Tang S, Pang W, Deng H, Song D Abstract Sophoridinic acid derivatives have received considerable attentions for their potencies in cancer therapy. IMB-6G is a novel N-substituted sophoridinic acid derivative with potent cytotoxicity against tumor cells. In the present study, we explored the antitumor abilities of IMB-6G in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and investigated the underlying mechanisms. We found that IMB-6G inhibited cell growth and induced mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in HepG2 and SMMC7721 cells. Analyses of the molecular mechanism of IMB-6G-induced apoptosis indicated IMB-6G induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation. Incubation of HCC cells with IMB-6G induced increase in Bip and CHOP levels, which preced...

Antitumor activity and inhibitory effects on cancer stem cell-like properties of Adeno-associated virus (AAV) -mediated Bmi-1 interference driven by Bmi-1 promoter for gastric cancer.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

In this study, we used adenoviral vector to deliver Bmi-1 shRNA driven by its own promoter to treat GC. Our results revealed that Ad-Bmi-1i could selectively silence Bmi-1 in GC cells which overexpress Bmi-1 and suppress the malignant phenotypes and stem-like properties of GC cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, direct injection of Ad-Bmi-1i into xenografts suppressed tumor growth and destroyed cancer cells in vivo. Ad-Bmi-1i inhibited the proliferation of GC cells mainly via inducing senescence in vitro, but it suppressed tumor through inducing senescence and apoptosis, and inhibiting angiogenesis in vivo. Bmi-1 knockdown by Ad-Bmi-1i downregulated VEGF via inhibiting AKT activity. These results suggest that Ad-Bmi-1i not only inhibits tumor growth and stem cell-like phenotype by inducin...

Molecular and clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 /bFGF) in malignancies of solid and hematological cancers for personalized therapies.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Akl MR, Nagpal P, Ayoub NM, Tai B, Prabhu SA, Capac CM, Gliksman M, Goy A, Suh KS Abstract Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is essential for normal and cancer biology. Mammalian FGF family members participate in multiple signaling pathways by binding to heparan sulfate and FGF receptors (FGFR) with varying affinities. FGF2 is the prototype member of the FGF family and interacts with its receptor to mediate receptor dimerization, phosphorylation, and activation of signaling pathways, such as Ras-MAPK and PI3K pathways. Excessive mitogenic signaling through the FGF/FGFR axis may induce carcinogenic effects by promoting cancer progression and increasing the angiogenic potential, which can lead to metastatic tumor phenotypes. Dysregulated FGF/FGFR signaling is associat...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Repurposing metformin for cancer treatment: current clinical studies.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Chae YK, Arya A, Malecek MK, Shin DS, Carneiro B, Chandra S, Kaplan J, Kalyan A, Altman JK, Platanias L, Giles F Abstract In recent years, several studies have presented evidence suggesting a potential role for metformin in anti-cancer therapy. Preclinical studies have demonstrated several anticancer molecular mechanisms of metformin including mTOR inhibition, cytotoxic effects, and immunomodulation. Epidemiologic data have demonstrated decreased cancer incidence and mortality in patients taking metformin. Several clinical trials, focused on evaluation of metformin as an anti-cancer agent are presently underway. Data published from a small number of completed trials has put forth intriguing results. Clinical trials in pre-surgical endometrial cancer patients exhibited a si...

Principles of a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS) for breast cancer patients receiving potentially cardiotoxic adjuvant treatments.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 09:52:02 +0100

This article tries to summarize and evaluate the risk of cardiac toxicities associated with different adjuvant treatments for breast cancer (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy and trastuzumab). Expert Opinion: In our opinion, each individual breast cancer patient should be meticulously evaluated before starting her adjuvant treatment in order to basically asses their cardiac function and to manage any predisposing risk factor which may increase the probability of treatment induced cardiotoxicity. Rigorous and frequent reassessment of cardiac function along with providing different mitigation strategies that can prevent or decrease the risk of such cardiovascular toxicities are inevitable methods to protect the patient from cardiac events which can mask the survival benefit assoc...

Redox-responsive flower-like micelles of poly(l-lactic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lactic acid) for intracellular drug delivery

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 4 May 2016 Source:Polymer, Volume 90 Author(s): Qinglai Yang, Changyu He, Zhen Zhang, Lianjiang Tan, Bingya Liu, Zhenggang Zhu, Zhifeng Shao, Bing Gong, Yu-Mei Shen Redox-responsive micelles self-assembled from triblock copolymers of poly(l-lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lactic acid) (PLA-PEG-PLA) with double-disulfide linkage in the backbone were synthesized and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC), in which both PEG (M n = 1000, 2000 and 4000 g mol−1) and PLA (M n = 1600 g mol−1) have different molecular weights respectively. The triblock copolymers PLA 3000 -PEG 2000 -PLA 3000 and PLA 3000 -PEG 4000 -PLA 3000 can self-assemble into flower-like micelles in aqueous media with...

Randomized sham-controlled pilot trial of weekly electro-acupuncture for the prevention of taxane-induced peripheral neuropathy in women with early stage breast cancer

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract To investigate the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) as a non-pharmacological intervention to prevent or reduce chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy of taxane. Women with stage I-III breast cancer scheduled to receive taxane therapy were randomized to receive a standardized protocol of 12 true or sham EA (SEA) weekly treatments concurrent with taxane treatment. Subjects completed the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Taxane neurotoxicity subscale (FACT-NTX), and other assessments at baseline and weeks 6, 12, and 16. A total of 180 subjects were screened, 63 enrolled and 48 completed week 16 assessments. Mean age was 50 with 25 % white, 25 % black, and 43 % H...

Current Understanding of HSP90 as a Novel Therapeutic Target: An Emerging Approach for the Treatment of Cancer.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Haque A, Alam Q, Alam MZ, Azhar EI, Sait KH, Anfina N, Mushtaq G, Kamal MA, Rasool M Abstract Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) is a ubiquitous molecular chaperone that is considered to be the most abundantly expressed protein in various human cancers such as breast, lung, colon, prostate, leukemia and skin. The master regulator, HSP90 plays a pivotal role in the conformational stabilization, maturation and activity of its various labile oncogenic client proteins such as p53, ErbB2, Bcr-Abl, Akt, Her-2, Cdk4, Cdk6, Raf-1 and v-Src in altered cells. Hence, making a guaranteed attempt to inhibit such a master regulator for cancer therapy appears to be a potential approach for combinatorial inhibition of numerous oncogenic signaling pathways simultaneously. Considerable efforts a...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Hope, emotion regulation, and psychosocial well-being in patients newly diagnosed with cancer

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 14:13:52 +0100

Conclusion Individual differences in hope and reappraisal appeared to be associated with psychosocial outcomes in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Hopeful thinking appeared to benefit patients’ psychosocial well-being. In addition, an interaction effect between hope and reappraisal suggested that reappraisal as an ER strategy may be particularly adaptive for patients with low hope. (Source: Supportive Care in Cancer)

Validation of the chemical compound library screening for TAZ inhibitors by use of green fluorescence protein‐fused TAZ

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, the GFP‐TAZ‐based assay can be used as the first screening for the compounds that inhibit TAZ and show the anti‐cancer property, but to develop anti‐cancer drugs, we need the additional assays to select the compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Cancer Science)

Extracting genetic alteration information for personalized cancer therapy from

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Discussion: The automated cancer treatment trial identification system achieved a high precision of 0.9944. Together with the manual review process, it identified 20 193 cancer treatment trials from The automated gene-alteration extraction system achieved a precision of 0.8300 and a recall of 0.6803. After validation by manual review, we generated a knowledge base of 2024 cancer trials that are labeled with specific genetic alteration information. Analysis of the knowledge base revealed the trend of increased use of targeted therapy for cancer, as well as top frequent gene-alteration pairs of interest. We expect this knowledge base to be a valuable resource for physicians and patients who are seeking information about personalized cancer therapy. (Source: Journal of the...

Targeted Ultrasound-Assisted Cancer-Selective Chemical Labeling and Subsequent Cancer Imaging using Click Chemistry.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Wang H, Gauthier M, Kelly JR, Miller RJ, Xu M, O'Brien WD, Cheng J Abstract Metabolic sugar labeling followed by the use of reagent-free click chemistry is an established technique for in vitro cell targeting. However, selective metabolic labeling of the target tissues in vivo remains a challenge to overcome, which has prohibited the use of this technique for targeted in vivo applications. Herein, we report the use of targeted ultrasound pulses to induce the release of tetraacetyl N-azidoacetylmannosamine (Ac4 ManAz) from microbubbles (MBs) and its metabolic expression in the cancer area. Ac4 ManAz-loaded MBs showed great stability under physiological conditions, but rapidly collapsed in the presence of tumor-localized ultrasound pulses. The released Ac4 ManAz from M...

Genetic stability of pluripotent stem cells during anti-cancer therapies.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 14:45:02 +0100

Authors: Suchorska WM, Augustyniak E, Łukjanow M Abstract Regenerative medicine is a rapidly growing field that holds promise for the treatment of many currently unresponsive diseases. Stem cells (SCs) are undifferentiated cells with long-term self-renewal potential and the capacity to develop into specialized cells. SC-based therapies constitute a novel and promising concept in regenerative medicine. Radiotherapy is the most frequently used method in the adjuvant treatment of tumorous alterations. In the future, the usage of SCs in regenerative medicine will be affected by their regular and inevitable exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). This phenomenon will be observed during treatment as well as diagnosis. The issue of the genetic stability of SCs and cells differentiated from ...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Decreased blood vessel leakage can improve cancer therapy and reduce tumor spread

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(Uppsala University) Cancer therapy is often hampered by the accumulation of fluids in and around the tumor, which is caused by leakage from the blood vessels in the tumor. Researchers at Uppsala University now show how leakage from blood vessels is regulated. They have identified a novel mechanism whereby leakage can be suppressed to improve the result of chemotherapy and reduce the spread of tumors in mice. The results have been published in the scientific journal Nature Communications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)

Fertility Preservation Decisions Among Newly Diagnosed Oncology Patients: A Single-Center Experience

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 00:15:31 +0100

Conclusions: Our experience shows that, with appropriate counseling and multidisciplinary care, newly diagnosed cancer patients desiring fertility preservation experience similar outcomes as age-matched healthy controls. These women can pursue oocyte or embryo cryopreservation with likely minimal disruption to the flow of their oncologic care. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)

Unravelling the relationship between macroautophagy and mitochondrial ROS in cancer therapy

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract Macroautophagy (Autophagy), an evolutionarily conserved cellular self-digesting process implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, is activated by different stimuli including oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in autophagy modulation through multiple signaling pathways and transcription regulators. Accumulating data support both a positive and negative role of ROS-modulated autophagy in cancer. As a tumor suppressive mechanism, autophagy induces autophagic cell death and maintains genome stability. Conversely, autophagy may promote cancer development by limiting metabolic stress and supplying high-energetic nutrients. Mitochondrial ROS (mitoROS), the main source of endogenous ROS, serve as essential signal transducers that me...

Tumor targeted delivery of octreotide-periplogenin conjugate: Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 11 April 2016 Source:International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 502, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Hui-Yun Zhang, Wen-Qian Xu, Yuan-Wen Wang, Emmanuel Omari-Siaw, Yan Wang, Yuan-yuan Zheng, Xia Cao, Shan-Shan Tong, Jiang-nan Yu, Xi-ming Xu Periplogenin (PPG), a cardiac glycoside prepared from Cortex periplocae, with similar structure to bufalin, has been found to induce apoptosis in many tumor cells. However, lots of cardiac glycosides possessing strong antitumor activity in vitro have still not passed phase I clinical trials, mostly due to poor tumor selectivity and systemic toxicity. To overcome this drawback, we designed octreotide-periplogenin (OCT-PPG) conjugate by coupling PPG–succinate to the amino-terminal end of octreotide. In comparison with free PPG...

Alum: an old dog with new tricks

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Yumei Wen & Yan Shi (Source: Emerging Microbes and Infections)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods and assemblies in the view of biomedical analysis

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry Author(s): Jian Wang, Hong Zhi Zhang, Rong Sheng Li, Cheng Zhi Huang As a new class of anisotropic nanomaterial, gold nanorods (AuNRs) have received much attention due to their unique optical and photothermal properties. Much different from the spherical nanoparticles, AuNRs display two characteristic transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon absorption bands. This absorbed light is able to act as the energy acceptors in the fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays or transfer light into heat energy for photothermal treatment of cancers. Especially, the controllable spatial arrangements of AuNRs induce the change of optical property, making it particularly applicable towards sensing of ...

Construction and characterization of gelonin and saporin plasmids for toxic gene-based cancer therapy.

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Min KA, He H, Yang VC, Shin MC Abstract Toxic gene therapy (or suicidal gene therapy) is gaining enormous interest, specifically for the treatment of cancer. The success of this therapy lies in several crucial factors, including the potency of gene products to kill the transfected tumor cells and the transfection ability of the transfection vehicles. To address the potency problem, in the present study, we engineered two separate mammalian transfection plasmids (pSAP and pGEL) containing genes encoding ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs), gelonin and saporin. After the successful preparation and amplification of the plasmids, they were tested on various cancer cell lines (HeLa, U87, 9L, and MDA-MB-435) and a noncancerous cell line (293 HEK) using polyethyleneimine (PEI) ...

CUSTOM-SEQ: A Prototype for Oncology Rapid Learning in a Comprehensive EHR Environment

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Background: As targeted cancer therapies and molecular profiling become widespread, the era of "precision oncology" is at hand. However, cancer genomes are complex, making mutation-specific outcomes difficult to track. We created a proof-of-principle, CUSTOM-SEQ: Continuously Updating System for Tracking Outcome by Mutation, to Support Evidence-based Querying, to automatically calculate and display mutation-specific survival statistics from electronic health record data.Methods: Patients with cancer genotyping were included, and clinical data was extracted through a variety of algorithms. Results were refreshed regularly and injected into a standard reporting platform. Significant results were highlighted for visual cueing. A subset was additionally stratified by stage, smoking status, and...

Many targeted cancer therapies suppress T cell immune responses

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 16:00:45 +0100

New research has demonstrated that dozens of these targeted therapies suppressed the activity of T cells that could actually help fight tumors. While studying the FDA-approved targeted therapy trametinib, the researchers also found that pairing it with a signaling protein 'superagonist' stimulated T cell activity while preserving the cancer-blocking effects of the cancer treatment. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)

Cordycepin, a Natural Antineoplastic Agent, Induces Apoptosis of Breast Cancer Cells via Caspase-dependent Pathways.

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 15:13:02 +0100

In this study, the anti-breast cancer property of cordycepin and its underlying mechanisms was investigated. The direct effects of cordycepin on breast cancer cells both in in vitro and in vivo experiments were evaluated. Cordycepin exerted cytotoxicity in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells confirmed by reduced cell viability, inhibition of cell proliferation, enhanced lactate dehydrogenase release and reactive oxygen species accumulation, induced mitochondrial dysfunction and nuclear apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Cordycepin increased the activation of pro-apoptotic proteins, including caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3 and Bax, and suppressed the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). The inhibition on MCF-7-xenografted tumor growth in nude mice further confir...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Laser-induced single point nanowelding of silver nanowires

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 12:53:36 +0100

Nanowelding of nanomaterials opens up an emerging set of applications in transparent conductors, thin-film solar cells, nanocatalysis, cancer therapy, and nanoscale patterning. Single point nanowelding (SPNW) is highly demanded for building complex nanostructures. In this letter, the precise control of SPNW of silvernanowires is explored in depth, where the nanowelding is laser-induced through the plasmonic resonance enhanced photothermal effect. It is shown that the illumination position is a critical factor for the nanowelding process. As an example of performance enhancement, output at wire end can be increased by 65% after welding for a plasmonic nanocoupler. Thus, single point nanowelding technique shows great potentials for high-performance electronic and photonic devices based on na...

Nanoparticle-based cancer therapies shown to work in humans

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 11:00:00 +0100

A team of researchers led by Caltech scientists have shown that nanoparticles can function to target tumors while avoiding adjacent healthy tissue in human cancer patients. The findings, published online this week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, demonstrate that nanoparticle-based therapies can act as a "precision medicine" for targeting tumors while leaving healthy tissue intact. (Source: World Pharma News)

Gene mutation-based and specific therapies in precision medicine.

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 07:19:01 +0100

Authors: Wang X Abstract Precision medicine has been initiated and gains more and more attention from preclinical and clinical scientists. A number of key elements or critical parts in precision medicine have been described and emphasized to establish a systems understanding of precision medicine. The principle of precision medicine is to treat patients on the basis of genetic alterations after gene mutations are identified, although questions and challenges still remain before clinical application. Therapeutic strategies of precision medicine should be considered according to gene mutation, after biological and functional mechanisms of mutated gene expression or epigenetics, or the correspondent protein, are clearly validated. It is time to explore and develop a strategy to target...

Provision and Clinical Utility of Cardio-Oncology Services for Detection of Cardiac Toxicity in Cancer Patients

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 05:43:04 +0100

Cardiotoxicity is a complication of a range of modern cancer therapies, including chemotherapy, targeted agents, and radiotherapy (1). There is increasing support for developing dedicated cardio-oncology services given the complexities and need for rapid assessment, risk stratification, and treatment of patients who require chemotherapeutic treatment, as well as longer-term follow-up (2). We sought to investigate the current provision of cardio-oncology services to determine the methods used to detect and monitor patients at risk for cardiovascular complications related to cancer therapy. (Source: Journal of the American College of Cardiology)

Smoking, Binge Drinking, and Drug Use Among Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Meta‐Analysis

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 05:34:44 +0100

ConclusionsChildhood cancer survivors engage in similar or lower rates of risk taking than their siblings/peers. Future studies should identify survivors most likely to benefit from focused interventions, and determine the impact of risk‐taking behaviors on the risk for late effects of cancer therapy. (Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Many targeted cancer therapies suppress T cell immune responses

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(The Wistar Institute) New research from The Wistar Institute demonstrated that dozens of these targeted therapies suppressed the activity of T cells that could actually help fight tumors. While studying the FDA-approved targeted therapy trametinib, the researchers also found that pairing it with a signaling protein 'superagonist' stimulated T cell activity while preserving the cancer-blocking effects of the cancer treatment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)

Nanocarbon Allotropes—Graphene and Nanocrystalline Diamond—Promote Cell Proliferation

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Two profoundly different carbon allotropes – nanocrystalline diamond and graphene – are of considerable interest from the viewpoint of a wide range of biomedical applications including implant coating, drug and gene delivery, cancer therapy, and biosensing. Osteoblast adhesion and proliferation on nanocrystalline diamond and graphene are compared under various conditions such as differences in wettability, topography, and the presence or absence of protein interlayers between cells and the substrate. The materials are characterized in detail by means of scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. In vitro experiments have revealed a significantly higher degree of cell proliferation on graphene t...

Y‐632 inhibits Hsp90 function through disrupting the interaction of Hsp90‐Hop and exerts antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Cancer Science)

Blocking the FGF/FGFR system as a “two-compartment” antiangiogenic/antitumor approach in cancer therapy

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Pharmacological Research Author(s): Arianna Giacomini, Paola Chiodelli, Sara Matarazzo, Marco Rusnati, Marco Presta, Roberto Ronca Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of pleiotropic factors produced by stromal and parenchymal tumor cells. Even though FGFs have been firstly characterized as angiogenic factors, they exert autocrine and paracrine functions not only on endothelial cells but also on tumor cells and other stromal components. Thus, the FGF/FGF receptor (FGFR) pathway may represent a key player in tumor growth by regulating the complex cross-talk between stromal and tumor compartments. The ligand dependent or independent activation of the FGF/FGFR system by gene upregulation, oncogenic mutation or amplificat...

Injectable nanoparticles deliver cancer therapy in mice

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Researchers designed and tested a system that delivered nanometer-sized particles of a cancer drug to tumors in mice, improving survival. (Source: NIH Research Matters from the National Institutes of Health (NIH))

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Deconvoluting the relationships between autophagy and metastasis for potential cancer therapy

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract Autophagy is a highly conserved lysosome-dependent degradation process that may digest some long-lived proteins and damaged organelles. As an essential homeostasis maintaining system in normal cells, autophagy plays a key role in several pathological settings, especially cancer. Metastasis, known as a crucial hallmark of cancer progression, is the primary cause of cancer lethality. The role of autophagy in metastasis is quite complex as supportive evidence has indicated both pro-metastatic and anti-metastatic functions of autophagy. Autophagy can inhibit metastasis by restricting necrosis and mediating autophagic cell death, whereas it may also promote metastasis by enhancing cancer cell fitness in response to stress. Moreover, the function of autophagy is context- and st...

Chemotherapy induces expression and release of heparanase leading to changes associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype.

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Ramani VC, Vlodavsky I, Ng M, Zhang Y, Barbieri P, Noseda A, Sanderson RD Abstract High heparanase expression is associated with enhanced tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis in many types of cancer. However, the mechanisms driving high heparanase expression are not fully understood. In the present study, we discovered that drugs used in the treatment of myeloma upregulate heparanase expression. Frontline anti-myeloma drugs, bortezomib and carfilzomib activate the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway to trigger heparanase expression in tumor cells. Blocking the NF-κB pathway diminished this chemotherapy-induced upregulation of heparanase expression. Activated NF-κB signaling was also found to drive high heparanase expression in drug resistant myeloma cell lines....

Implication of NPM1 phosphorylation and preclinical evaluation of the nucleoprotein antagonist N6L in prostate cancer.

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 05:47:03 +0100

In this study, we first investigated the implication of the NPM1 and its Thr199 and Thr234/237 phosphorylated forms in PCa. We showed that phosphorylated forms of NPM1 interact with androgen receptor (AR) in nucleoplasm. N6L treatment of prostate tumor cells led to inhibition of NPM1 phosphorylation in conjunction with inhibition of AR activity. We also found that total and phosphorylated NPM1 were overexpressed in castration-resistant PCa. Assessment of the potential therapeutic role of N6L in PCa indicated that N6L inhibited tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo when used either alone or in combination with the standard-of-care first- (hormonotherapy) and second-line (docetaxel) treatments for advanced PCa. Our findings reveal the role of Thr199 and Thr234/237 phosphorylated NPM1 in PCa...

Nanoparticle-based cancer therapies shown to work in humans

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(California Institute of Technology) A team of researchers led by Caltech scientists have shown that nanoparticles can function to target tumors while avoiding adjacent healthy tissue in human cancer patients. The findings demonstrate that nanoparticle-based therapies can act as a 'precision medicine' for targeting tumors while leaving healthy tissue intact. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)

Directly targeting the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis for cancer therapy with BH3 mimetics: recent successes, current challenges and future promise

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: FEBS Journal)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

POMC expression of the urothelium of the urinary bladder of mice submitted to pelvic radiation

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Expression of POMC from urothelium seems to prevent bladder damage from radiation supplying differentiation and restoration of the urothelium. (Source: European Journal of Inflammation)

New insights into the anti-PD-L1 and anti-PD-1 reagents in cancer therapy

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Immunotherapy that inhibits the interaction between programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), present on the surface of tumor or antigen-presenting cells, and programmed death 1 (PD-1), present on the surface of activated lymphocytes, is generating much excitement and enthusiasm. Although considerable knowledge has been accumulated on anti-PD-L1 and anti-PD-1 reagents, discovering immunotherapy-associated issues still remains a pressing task for the researchers and clinicians. (Source: European Journal of Inflammation)

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles in cancer therapy: relevance of the targeting function.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

MESOPOROUS SILICA NANOPARTICLES IN CANCER THERAPY: RELEVANCE OF THE TARGETING FUNCTION. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2016 Mar 21; Authors: Pasqua L, Leggio A, Sisci D, Andò S, Morelli C Abstract In the last years, the oncologic research is focusing on the optimization of the clinical approach to the tumor disease, through the development of new therapeutic strategies combining currently used antineoplastic drugs to targeted delivery systems. In fact, due to the drugs poor selectivity for cancer cells, an highly aggressive style of dosing is necessary to eradicate tumors, causing severe toxicity to normal cells. Therefore, localized drug delivery would, ideally, improve the therapeutic efficacy, minimizing side effects. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been proposed a...

Evidence-based medical oncology and interventional radiology paradigms for liver-dominant colorectal cancer metastases.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This report aims to review evidence-based conceptual, pharmacological, and technological paradigm shifts in parenteral and percutaneous treatment strategies as well as forthcoming evidence regarding next-generation systemic, locoregional, and local treatment approaches for this patient population. PMID: 27003990 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)

Dextran based nanosized for the controlled and targeted delivery of curcumin to liver cancer cells.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Anirudhan TS, Binusreejayan Abstract Curcumin (Cur), a poly phenolic yellow colored compound present in Indian spice turmeric, has wide variety of biological properties. Bioavailability of Cur is limited by its low water solubility, rapid metabolism and low stability. In the present study, we mainly focus on synthesis and characterization of dextran based nano-sized drug carrier (GHDx) for the delivery of Cur. A liver targeting moiety is incorporated in GHDx so as to improve the therapeutic efficiency and decrease adverse effects of conventional cancer therapy. The effect of different parameters on grafting variables was studied. GHDx was characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR XRD, TG/DTG, TEM, SEM, AFM, DLS and zeta potential analyses. Adsorption experiments were carried out for...

Paclitaxel enhances tumoricidal potential of TRAIL via inhibition of MAPK in resistant gastric cancer cells.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 17:53:03 +0100

Authors: Li L, Wen XZ, Bu ZD, Cheng XJ, Xing XF, Wang XH, Zhang LH, Guo T, Du H, Hu Y, Fan B, Ji JF Abstract Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) holds promise for cancer therapy due to its unique capacity to selectively trigger apoptosis in cancer cells. However, TRAIL therapy is greatly hampered by its resistance. A preclinical successful strategy is to identify combination treatments that sensitize resistant cancers to TRAIL. In the present study, we fully assessed TRAIL sensitivity in 9 gastric cancer cell lines. We found combined administration of paclitaxel (PTX) markedly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in resistant cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitization to TRAIL was accompanied by activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway,...

Nobiletin inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human non-small cell lung cancer cells by antagonizing the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 17:53:03 +0100

Authors: Da C, Liu Y, Zhan Y, Liu K, Wang R Abstract Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical cellular process in cancer metastasis, during which epithelial polarized cells become motile mesenchymal cells. Since transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a potent inducer of EMT, blocking of TGF-β/Smad signaling has become a promising cancer therapy. Nobiletin, a polymethoxy flavonoid from Citrus depressa, has been shown to be valuable for cancer treatment, yet the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, lung adenocarcinoma A549 and H1299 cells were used to evaluate the effect of nobiletin on EMT induced by TGF-β1. Nobiletin successfully inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT, migration, invasion and adhesion in vitro, accompanied by attenuation of MMP-2, MMP-9, p-Src...

Role of the tumor microenvironment in tumor progression and the clinical applications (Review).

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 17:53:03 +0100

Authors: Yuan Y, Jiang YC, Sun CK, Chen QM Abstract Oncogene activation and tumor-suppressor gene inactivation are considered as the main causes driving the transformation of normal somatic cells into malignant tumor cells. Cancer cells are the driving force of tumor development and progression. Yet, cancer cells are unable to accomplish this alone. The tumor microenvironment is also considered to play an active role rather than simply acting as a by-stander in tumor progression. Through different pathways, tumor cells efficiently recruit stromal cells, which in turn, provide tumor cell growth signals, intermediate metabolites, and provide a suitable environment for tumor progression as well as metastasis. Through reciprocal communication, cancer cells and the microenvironment act ...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

cRGD inhibits vasculogenic mimicry formation by down-regulating uPA expression and reducing EMT in ovarian cancer.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 17:51:03 +0100

Authors: Tang J, Wang J, Fan L, Li X, Liu N, Luo W, Wang J, Wang Y, Wang Y Abstract Vasculogenic minicry (VM), an alternative blood supply modality except to endothelial cells-mediated vascular network, is a potential therapeutic target for ovarian cancer due to VM correlated with poor prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. Accelerated extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation is prerequisite for VM formation induced by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Previous reports demonstrate uPA has ability to degrade ECM thereby promoting tumor angiogenesis. Also, exogenous cRGD sequence enables to modulate uPA expression, attenuate EMT and suppress endothelial-lined channels. Till now, the correlation of uPA and VM formation and the effect of exogenous cRGD on VM formation remain unknow...

Armored long non-coding RNA MEG3 targeting EGFR based on recombinant MS2 bacteriophage virus-like particles against hepatocellular carcinoma.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 17:51:03 +0100

Authors: Chang L, Wang G, Jia T, Zhang L, Li Y, Han Y, Zhang K, Lin G, Zhang R, Li J, Wang L Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide. However, the treatment of patients with HCC is particularly challenging. Long non-coding RNA maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) has been identified as a potential suppressor of several types of tumors, but the delivery of long RNA remains problematic, limiting its applications. In the present study, we designed a novel delivery system based on MS2 virus-like particles (VLPs) crosslinked with GE11 polypeptide. This vector was found to be fast, effective and safe for the targeted delivery of lncRNA MEG3 RNA to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive HCC cell lines without the activa...

β-casein nanovehicles for oral delivery of chemotherapeutic drug combinations overcoming P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in human gastric cancer cells.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 17:51:03 +0100

Authors: Bar-Zeev M, Assaraf YG, Livney YD Abstract Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a primary obstacle to curative cancer therapy. We have previously demonstrated that β-casein (β-CN) micelles (β-CM) can serve as nanovehicles for oral delivery and target-activated release of hydrophobic drugs in the stomach. Herein we introduce a novel nanosystem based on β-CM, to orally deliver a synergistic combination of a chemotherapeutic drug (Paclitaxel) and a P-glycoprotein-specific transport inhibitor (Tariquidar) individually encapsulated within β-CM, for overcoming MDR in gastric cancer. Light microscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analyses revealed solubilization of these drugs by β-CN, suppressing drug crystallization. Spectrophotometry demonstrated high loading cap...

Protein kinase C beta II suppresses colorectal cancer by regulating IGF-1 mediated cell survival.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 17:51:03 +0100

Authors: Dowling CM, Phelan J, Callender JA, Cathcart MC, Mehigan B, McCormick P, Dalton T, Coffey JC, Newton AC, O'Sullivan J, Kiely PA Abstract Despite extensive efforts, cancer therapies directed at the Protein Kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases have failed in clinical trials. These therapies have been directed at inhibiting PKC and have, in some cases, worsened disease outcome. Here we examine colon cancer patients and show not only that PKC Beta II is a tumour suppressor, but patients with low levels of this isozyme have significantly decreased disease free survival. Specifically, analysis of gene expression levels of all PKC genes in matched normal and cancer tissue samples from colon cancer patients revealed a striking down-regulation of the gene coding PKC Be...

eIF3f reduces tumor growth by directly interrupting clusterin with anti-apoptotic property in cancer cells.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 17:51:03 +0100

Authors: Lee JY, Kim HJ, Rho SB, Lee SH Abstract Clusterin is a secretory heterodimeric glycoprotein and the overexpression of secretory clusterin (sCLU) promotes cancer cell proliferation and reduces chemosensitivity. Therefore, sCLU might be an effective target for anticancer therapy. In the current study, we identified eIF3f as a novel CLU-interacting protein and demonstrated its novel function as a CLU inhibitor. The overexpression of eIF3f retarded cancer cell growth significantly and induced apoptosis. In addition, eIF3f interacted with the α-chain (1-227) of sCLU. This interaction blocked modification of psCLU, thereby decreasing the expression and secretion of α/β CLU. Consequently, the overexpression of eIF3f suppressed Akt and ERK signaling and subsequently depleted CL...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Differential expression and clinical relevance of MUC1 in renal cell carcinoma metastasis

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions MUC1 is differentially expressed in benign renal tissue, primary RCC and RCC metastasis. Membranous MUC1 expression was significantly elevated in pulmonary metastases compared to non-pulmonary lesions, which may reflect individual biology and putative response to MUC1-based anti-cancer therapy. (Source: World Journal of Urology)

Tirapazamine has no Effect on Hepatotoxicity of Cisplatin and 5‐Fluorouracil but Interacts with Doxorubicin Leading to Side Changes in Redox Equilibrium

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 19:35:40 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology)

Secondary bone marrow malignancies after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: a report of 2 cases and a review of the literature.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 12:25:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: By literature review, these 2 cases do not support the relationship between primary tumor treatment and secondary cancer, but strongly suggest the need for histologic samples when bone metastasis occurred after years from diagnosis of breast cancer. In this setting, the oncologist should take into account a secondary bone marrow tumor before starting treatment for breast cancer. PMID: 26979247 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tumori)

The normal tissue effects of microbeam radiotherapy: What do we know, and what do we need to know to plan a human clinical trial?

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 06:21:01 +0100

Conclusion Few pre-clinical studies are specifically designed to evaluate the dose-response of normal tissue to MRT. However, it remains clear that a range of normal tissues can tolerate peak MRT doses at least an order of magnitude higher than CRT. Furthermore, the dose deposited in the valley regions, predominantly determined by microbeam spacing, has a greater influence on the normal tissue response to MRT compared to the peak regions. The development of a new normal tissue complication probability model for MRT, in conjunction with a treatment planning system, will be pivotal in the collection of robust normal tissue toxicity data and the translation of MRT to clinical use. PMID: 26982077 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)

Therapy of solid tumors using probiotic Symbioflor-2 - restraints and potential.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 05:56:02 +0100

Authors: Kocijancic D, Felgner S, Frahm M, Komoll RM, Iljazovic A, Pawar V, Rohde M, Heise U, Zimmermann K, Gunzer F, Hammer J, Crull K, Leschner S, Weiss S Abstract To date, virulent bacteria remain the basis of most bacteria mediated cancer therapies. For clinical application attenuation is required. However, this might result in a drastically lowered therapeutic capacity. Herein we argue that the E. coli probiotic Symbioflor-2, with a history of safe application may constitute a viable tumor therapeutic candidate. We demonstrate that Symbioflor-2 displays a highly specific tumor targeting ability as determined in murine CT26 and RenCa tumor models. The excellent specificity was ascribed to reduced levels of adverse colonization. A high safety standard was demonstrated in WT and ...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Mutation based treatment recommendations from next generation sequencing data: a comparison of web tools.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 05:56:02 +0100

Authors: Patel JM, Knopf J, Reiner E, Bossuyt V, Epstein L, DiGiovanna M, Chung G, Silber A, Sanft T, Hofstatter E, Mougalian S, Abu-Khalaf M, Platt J, Shi W, Gershkovich P, Hatzis C, Pusztai L Abstract Interpretation of complex cancer genome data, generated by tumor target profiling platforms, is key for the success of personalized cancer therapy. How to draw therapeutic conclusions from tumor profiling results is not standardized and may vary among commercial and academically-affiliated recommendation tools. We performed targeted sequencing of 315 genes from 75 metastatic breast cancer biopsies using the FoundationOne assay. Results were run through 4 different web tools including the Drug-Gene Interaction Database (DGidb), My Cancer Genome (MCG), Personalized Cancer Therapy (PCT...

shRNA-armed conditionally replicative adenoviruses: a promising approach for cancer therapy.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 05:56:02 +0100

Authors: Zhang J, Ding M, Xu K, Mao L, Zheng J Abstract The small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been employed to knockdown the expression of cancer-associated genes and shown some promise in cancer therapy. However, synthetic siRNA duplexes or plasmid mediated delivery of siRNAs have several problems, such as short half-life, low transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity associated with transfection. Conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAds) as the delivery vector for short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) could overcome these limitations and have shown augmented anti-tumor effects in experimental studies and preclinical trials. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the developmnt of CRAds-shRNA for cancer treatment. Combination of CRAds-shRNA with chemotherapeutics, radiation, d...

Spontaneous Hepatocellular Carcinoma after the Combined Deletion of Akt Isoforms

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 17 March 2016 Source:Cancer Cell Author(s): Qi Wang, Wan-Ni Yu, Xinyu Chen, Xiao-ding Peng, Sang-Min Jeon, Morris J. Birnbaum, Grace Guzman, Nissim Hay Akt is frequently hyperactivated in human cancers and is targeted for cancer therapy. However, the physiological consequences of systemic Akt isoform inhibition were not fully explored. We showed that while combined Akt1 and Akt3 deletion in adult mice is tolerated, combined Akt1 and Akt2 deletion induced rapid mortality. Akt2 −/− mice survived hepatic Akt1 deletion but all developed spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is associated with FoxO-dependent liver injury and inflammation. The gene expression signature of HCC-bearing livers is similar to aggressive human HCC. Consiste...

Cardio-Oncology: An Update on Cardiotoxicity of Cancer-Related Treatment.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Lenneman CG, Sawyer DB Abstract Through the success of basic and disease-specific research, cancer survivors are one of the largest growing subsets of individuals accessing the healthcare system. Interestingly, cardiovascular disease is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors after recurrent malignancy. This recognition has helped stimulate a collaboration between oncology and cardiology practitioners and researchers, and the portmanteau cardio-oncology (also known as onco-cardiology) can now be found in many medical centers. This collaboration promises new insights into how cancer therapies impact cardiovascular homeostasis and long-term effects on cancer survivors. In this review, we will discuss the most recent views on the cardiotoxicity...

Zoledronic acid increases the circulating soluble RANKL level in mice, with a further increase in lymphocyte-derived soluble RANKL in zoledronic acid- and glucocorticoid-treated mice stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Abe T, Sato T, Kokabu S, Hori N, Shimamura Y, Sato T, Yoda T Abstract The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (BP) zoledronic acid (ZA) is a potent antiresorptive drug used in conjunction with standard cancer therapy to treat osteolysis or hypercalcemia due to malignancy. However, it is unclear how ZA influences the circulating levels of bone remodeling factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ZA on the serum levels of soluble receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The following four groups of C57BL/6 mice were used (five mice per group): (1) the placebo+phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group, in which placebo-treated mice were injected once weekly with PBS for 4weeks; (2) the placebo+ZA group, in which placebo-treated mic...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Aurora kinase A induces papillary thyroid cancer lymph node metastasis by promoting cofilin-1 activity.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Maimaiti Y, Jie T, Jing Z, Changwen W, Pan Y, Chen C, Tao H Abstract Aurora-A (Aur-A), a member of the serine/threonine Aurora kinase family, plays an important role in ensuring genetic stability during cell division. Previous studies indicated that Aur-A possesses oncogenic activity and may be a valuable therapeutic target in cancer therapy. However, the role of Aur-A in the most common thyroid cancer, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), remains largely unknown. In patients with PTC, cancer cell migration and invasion account for most of the metastasis, recurrence, and cancer-related deaths. Cofilin-1 (CFL-1) is the most important effector of actin polymerization and depolymerization, determining the direction of cell migration. Here, we assessed the correlation between Aur-A...

Autocrine TGF-β/ZEB/microRNA-200 signal transduction drives epithelial-mesenchymal transition:Kinetic models predict minimal drug dose to inhibit metastasis.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Rateitschak K, Kaderali L, Wolkenhauer O, Jaster R Abstract The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the crucial step that cancer cells must pass before they can undergo metastasis. The transition requires the activity of complex functional networks that downregulate properties of the epithelial phenotype and upregulate characteristics of the mesenchymal phenotype. The networks frequently include reciprocal repressions between transcription factors (TFs) driving the EMT and microRNAs (miRs) inducing the reverse process, termed mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). In this work we develop four kinetic models that are based on experimental data and hypotheses describing how autocrine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signal transduction induces and maintains an...

[Immunology] Lymphocytes force target cells to die

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 21:34:11 +0100

The ability of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to kill target cells is essential for immune system function and recent cancer therapies. Basu et al. show that CTLs induce cell – [Read More] (Source: Editors' Choice)

Postepy Hig Med Dosw 2016; 70:200-209 "Liposomes as non-viral carriers for genetic drugs"

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 15:20:56 +0100

Methods in cancer therapy particularly in recent years, are rapidly changing, due to the need of design of new, more effective therapeutic strategies. Very promising approach to treatment of the neoplastic diseases is antisense gene therapy. Due to the low toxicity of treatment and eliminating not only the symptoms but also the molecular causes of the disease it may represent a breakthrough in cancer therapies. Delivery of a therapeutic DNA or RNA oligonucleotides to the target cells in vivo requires suitable carrier system. Non-viral drug carriers are increasingly used in new systems of targeted gene therapy. This review presents new generation of non-viral carriers, and is focused on immunoliposomes finding potential application in targeted gene therapy. (Source: Postepy higieny i medycy...

Moffitt: Neutralizing tumor acidic environment improves immune-targeting therapies

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute) Cancer cells have the ability to grow in an acidic tumor environment that is detrimental to other cells, including immune cells. In a Cancer Research cover article published this week, Moffitt Cancer Center reported that neutralizing the acidic tumor environment increases the efficacy of several immune-targeting cancer therapies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Downregulation of the Ca2+‐activated K+ channel KCa3.1 by histone deacetylase inhibition in human breast cancer cells

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract The intermediate‐conductance Ca2+‐activated K+ channel KCa3.1 is involved in the promotion of tumor growth and metastasis, and is a potential therapeutic target and biomarker for cancer. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have considerable potential for cancer therapy, however, the effects of HDACis on ion channel expression have not yet been investigated in detail. The results of this study showed a significant decrease in KCa3.1 transcription by HDAC inhibition in the human breast cancer cell line YMB‐1, which functionally expresses KCa3.1. A treatment with the clinically available, class I, II, and IV HDAC inhibitor, vorinostat significantly downregulated KCa3.1 transcription in a concentration‐dependent manner, and the plasmalemmal expression of the KCa3.1 protein...

Author Reply

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We greatly value your comment. In 2006, after publication of American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations for preserving fertility in patients with cancer, a new paradigm has emerged. Whereas the key point of cancer chemotherapy was mainly focused on patient survival, the new paradigm emphasized on the reproductive potential of young cancer patients further than their successful cancer control. The recommendations of American Society of Clinical Oncology ask clinicians to take fertility preservation measures before initiation of cancer therapy. (Source: Urology)

A Drug-free Tumor Therapy Strategy: Cancer Cell Targeting Calcification.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Zhao R, Wang B, Yang X, Xiao Y, Wang X, Shao C, Tang R Abstract Herein, we propose a drug-free approach to cancer therapy that involves cancer cell targeting calcification (CCTC). Several types of cancer cells, such as HeLa cells, characterized by folate receptor (FR) overexpression, can selectively adsorb folate (FA) molecules and then concentrate Ca(2+) locally to induce specific cell calcification. The resultant calcium mineral encapsulates the cancer cells, inducing their death, and in vivo assessments confirm that CCTC treatment can efficiently inhibit tumor growth and metastasis without damaging normal cells compared with conventional chemotherapy. Accordingly, CCTC remarkably improve the survival rate of tumor mice. Notably, both FA and calcium ions are essential ...

AA-PMe in gastric cancer therapy

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 22:39:19 +0100

Jing Y, Wang G, Ge Y, Xu M, Tang S, Gong Z (Source: OncoTargets and Therapy)