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MedWorm: Antiviral Therapy



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Antiviral Therapy category.



Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:23:05 +0100

 



Cytomegalovirus

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains an important pathogen in transplant patients. Sensitive and rapid turnaround quantitative PCR based monitoring coupled with the availability of effective antiviral therapy has reduced the overall burden of CMV disease after transplantation. However, in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients, the increasing use of new donor and stem cell sources present new challenges in the prevention and treatment of CMV. Gastrointestinal disease is now the most common end-organ manifestation of CMV infection after HSCT, whereas pneumonia remains associated with high mortality. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Characterisation of chronic hepatitis B virus carriers with viral load and correlation with other viral markers

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

This study was carried out with objectives; profiling of viral markers in HBV carriers with viral load, correlation of ALT levels, HBe Ag status with their viral load, to determine the mutation and response to antiviral therapy in treated and treatment naïve individuals. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Utility of quantitative real time PCR in detection and monitoring of viral infections in post renal transplant recipients

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Renal transplant patients frequently develop one or more viral infections at a time. Regular monitoring with qRT-PCR and prompt antiviral therapy with reduction in immunosuppression may be an ideal approach for management of these patients. (Source: Indian Journal of Transplantation)



Novel dengue virus inhibitor 4-HPR activates ATF4 independent of protein kinase R–like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase and elevates levels of eIF2α phosphorylation in virus infected cells

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study provides the first detailed insight into the cellular effects modulated by 4-HPR in DENV-infected cells, critical to progressing 4-HPR towards the clinic. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)



Influenza A and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus co-infection in rhesus macaques – A model of severe pneumonia

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Discussion This was the first nonhuman primate study of influenza and bacterial co-infection where high-resolution computed tomography scanning of the lungs was used to quantitatively assess pneumonia over the course of illness and where hypoxemia was correlated with pneumonia severity. With additional validation this model may serve as a pathway for regulatory approval of vaccines and therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of severe influenza pneumonia. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)



In vitro antiviral activity of adenosine analog NITD008 against tick-borne flaviviruses

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 23 March 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Michael K. Lo, Pei-Yong Shi, Yen-Liang Chen, Mike Flint, Christina F. Spiropoulou There are currently no antiviral therapies available for the tick-borne flaviviruses associated with hemorrhagic fevers: Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV), both classical and the Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) subtype, and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV). In this brief study, we describe the in vitro antiviral activity of adenosine analog NITD008 against KFDV, AHFV, OHFV, as well as Tick-borne Encephalitis virus (TBEV). Alongside the well-established activity of NITD008 against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, our results have demonstrated the feasibility of identifying nucleoside analog inhibitors that ha...

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Clinical impact of five large‐scale screening projects for chronic hepatitis B in Chinese migrants in the Netherlands

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsIn our screening project in first generation Chinese migrants, antiviral treatment, strict follow‐up because of high hepatitis B DNA levels and/or surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma were considered indicated in three out of four analysed HBsAg positive patients. These data show that detection of hepatitis B in Chinese migrants can have considerable impact on patient care.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Liver International)



Is increased hepatitis C virus case‐finding combined with current or 8‐week to 12‐week direct‐acting antiviral therapy cost‐effective in UK prisons? A prevention benefit analysis

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Increased HCV testing in UK prisons (such as through opt‐out testing) is borderline cost‐effective compared to status quo voluntary risk‐based testing under a £20,000 willingness to pay with current treatments but likely to be cost‐effective if short‐course IFN‐free DAAs are used and could be highly cost‐effective if PWID treatment rates were increased. (Hepatology 2016) (Source: Hepatology)



Simeprevir plus sofosbuvir (12 and 8 weeks) in hepatitis C virus genotype 1‐infected patients without cirrhosis: OPTIMIST‐1, a phase 3, randomized study

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Simeprevir+sofosbuvir for 12 weeks is highly effective in the treatment of HCV GT1‐infected patients without cirrhosis, including those with Q80K. (Hepatology 2016) (Source: Hepatology)



Association of HBV DNA replication with antiviral treatment outcomes in the patients with early-stage HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing curative resection.

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 09:08:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: High baseline HBV DNA levels are associated with poor prognosis in the patients with early-stage HCC, and the antiviral treatment could generate survival benefits for the patients. Therefore, antiviral treatment should be given for these patients. However, the effect of antiviral treatment on the patients with low viral load remains unclear, and further investigation is warranted. PMID: 26992891 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chinese Journal of Cancer)



3-(imidazo[1,2-a:5,4-b′]dipyridin-2-yl)aniline inhibits pestivirus replication by targeting a hot spot drug binding pocket in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: May 2016 Source:Antiviral Research, Volume 129 Author(s): Simone Musiu, Pieter Leyssen, Mathy Froeyen, Jean-Michel Chezal, Johan Neyts, Jan Paeshuyse The compound 3-(imidazo[1,2-a:5,4-b′]dipyridin-2-yl)aniline (CF02334) was identified as a selective inhibitor of the cytopathic effect (CPE) caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a virus-cell-based assay. The EC50-values for inhibition of CPE, viral RNA synthesis and the production of infectious virus progeny were 13.0 ± 0.6 μM, 2.6 ± 0.9 μM and 17.8 ± 0.6 μM, respectively. CF02334 was found to be inactive in the hepatitis C subgenomic replicon system. CF02334-resistant BVDV was obtained and was found to carry the N264D mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Molecular mo...

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Activity-Based and Fraction-Guided Analysis of Phyllanthus urinaria Identifies Loliolide as a Potent Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus Entry

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 21 March 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Chueh-Yao Chung, Ching-Hsuan Liu, Thierry Burnouf, Guey-Horng Wang, Shun-Pang Chang, Alagie Jassey, Chen-Jei Tai, Cheng-Jeng Tai, Ching-Jang Huang, Christopher D. Richardson, Ming-Hong Yen, Chun-Ching Lin, Liang-Tzung Lin Without a vaccine, hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a global medical and socio-economic burden, predisposing about 170 million carriers worldwide to end-stage liver diseases including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the recently developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have revolutionized hepatitis C treatment, most of them are unsuitable for monotherapy due to risks of resistance, thus necessitating combination with interferon (IFN)-alpha, ribavirin, or a...



Liver mortality attributable to chronic hepatitis C virus infection in Denmark and Scotland—Using spontaneous resolvers as the benchmark comparator

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: In Denmark and Scotland, the majority of liver death in the CHC‐diagnosed population can be attributed to CHC—nevertheless, an appreciable fraction cannot, cautioning that liver mortality in this population is a compound problem that can be reduced, but not solved, through antiviral therapy alone. (Hepatology 2016) (Source: Hepatology)



Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum glucosidases is required for in vitro and in vivo dengue antiviral activity by the iminosugar UV-4

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: May 2016 Source:Antiviral Research, Volume 129 Author(s): Kelly L. Warfield, Emily M. Plummer, Andrew C. Sayce, Dominic S. Alonzi, William Tang, Beatrice E. Tyrrell, Michelle L. Hill, Alessandro T. Caputo, Sarah S. Killingbeck, P. Robert Beatty, Eva Harris, Ren Iwaki, Kyoko Kinami, Daisuke Ide, J.L. Kiappes, Atsushi Kato, Michael D. Buck, Kevin King, William Eddy, Mansoora Khaliq, Aruna Sampath, Anthony M. Treston, Raymond A. Dwek, Sven G. Enterlein, Joanna L. Miller, Nicole Zitzmann, Urban Ramstedt, Sujan Shresta The antiviral activity of UV-4 was previously demonstrated against dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) in multiple mouse models. Herein, step-wise minimal effective dose and therapeutic window of efficacy studies of UV-4B (UV-4 hydrochl...



Immunogenicity of an adeno-vector vaccine expressing the F protein of a respiratory syncytial virus manufactured from serum-free suspension culture

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Hsiao-Yun Shao, Huai-Sheng Hsu, Shu-Ling Yu, Shang-Rung Wu, Kai-Chieh Hu, Ching-Kun Chang, Chia-Chyi Liu, Yen-Hung Chow We have developed an efficient cell culture process to scale up the production of a recombinant adenovirus that expresses the membrane-trunked fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; Ad-F0ΔTM). Adherent cells of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293-derived cell, 293A, which supports the production of E1/E3-deleted Ad-F0ΔTM when cultured in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS), were adapted to suspension growth under serum-free medium. In doing so, we studied the immunogenicity of Ad-F0ΔTMsus, which propagated in a bioreactor that was cultured with serum-free susp...



Zika Virus: History, Emergence, Biology, and Prospects for Control

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 18 March 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Scott C. Weaver, Federico Costa, Mariano A. Garcia-Blanco, Albert I. Ko, Guilherme S. Ribeiro, George Saade, Pei-Yong Shi, Nikos Vasilakis Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illnes...

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Efficacy of PEGylated Interferon in Treatment-Experienced Chinese Patients With HBeAg Positive Chronic Hepatitis B

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 20:30:00 +0100

Conclusions: PEGylated interferon was effective in treatment-experienced patients with HBeAg positive CHB, and showed higher rates of virological response, HBeAg loss, and seroconversion. The results provide important information regarding the role of re-treatment with PEGylated interferon in treatment-experienced HBeAg positive patients.,Patients and Methods: A total of 55 treatment-experienced, HBeAg positive Chinese patients were enrolled in this study. Of these patients, 33 were NUCs-experienced and 22 were interferon-experienced. PEGylated interferon was administered to 34 patients; and 21 patients were retreated with conventional interferon.,Results: Of the 34 treatment-experienced patients who received PEGylated interferon, 52.9% achieved virologic response, and 41.2% achieved HBeAg...



Non-initiation of hepatitis C virus antiviral therapy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus co-infection.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 12:52:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Race/ethnicity alone is not predictive of reasons for HCV therapy non-initiation. Targeted interventions are needed to improve access to therapy for all co-infected patients, including minorities. PMID: 26981174 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)



Immune Responses Induced by Recombinant Bacillus Subtilis Expressing the Spike Protein of Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus in pigs

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 14 March 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Chunxiao Mou, Liqi Zhu, Xianping Xing, Jian Lin, Qian Yang Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) causes severe diarrhea in suckling piglets, results in enormous economic loss in swine-producing areas of the world. To develop an effective, safe, and convenient vaccine for the prevention of TGE, we have constructed a recombinant Bacillus subtilis strain (B. subtilis CotGSG) displaying the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) spike (S) protein and discussed its immune function to intestinal submucosal dendritic cells (DCs). Our results showed that the recombinant B. subtilis had the ability to recruit more DCs to sample B. subtilis CotGSG, migrate to MLNs, and induce immune responses. Immunized pi...



Co-delivery of HIV-1 entry inhibitor and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor shuttled by nanoparticles: cocktail therapeutic strategy for antiviral therapy

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 20:34:28 +0100

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that the combination of entry inhibitor with NNRTI encapsulated in nanoparticles (T1144-NP-14f) was highly effective in inhibiting HIV-1 infection. This new cocktail-like drug delivery platform could serve as an effective anti-HIV-1 regimen by taking advantage of the extrinsic and intrinsic antiviral activity of individual drugs. (Source: AIDS)



No selection of CXCR4-using variants in cell reservoirs of dual-mixed HIV-infected patients on suppressive maraviroc therapy

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 20:34:28 +0100

We used ultradeep sequencing to investigate the evolution of the frequency of CXCR4-using viruses in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 22 patients infected with both CCR5 and CXCR4-using viruses treated with the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc for 24 weeks and a stable antiviral therapy. The mean CXCR4-using virus frequency in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was 59% before maraviroc intensification and 52% after 24 weeks of effective treatment, indicating no selection by maraviroc. (Source: AIDS)

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Hepatitis B virus receptors and molecular drug targets

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. Virus-induced diseases include cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current therapeutic strategies may at best control infection without reaching cure. Complementary antiviral strategies aimed at viral cure are therefore urgently needed. HBV entry is the first step of the infection cycle, which leads to the formation of cccDNA and the establishment of chronic infection. Viral entry may thus represent an attractive target for antiviral therapy. This review summarizes the molecular virology and cell biology of HBV entry, including the discovery and development of new HBV entry inhibitors, and discusses their potential in future treatment of HBV infection. (Source: Hepa...



Efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir for the treatment of patients with hepatitis C virus re‐infection after liver transplantation

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionAntiviral treatment with SOF/LDV is highly effective, safe, and well tolerated in OLT recipients. The addition of RBV often results in severe anemia, requiring dose reduction or discontinuation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Transplant Infectious Disease)



Association of IFNL3 and IFNL4 polymorphisms with hepatitis C virus infection in a population from southeastern Brazil

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, there was an association of the three polymorphisms with both clinical outcome and response to treatment with PEG-IFN and RBV. The polymorphisms rs12979860 and rs368234815 were associated with increased sensitivity (97.7 %, 95 % CI 87.2-100, and 93.3 %, 95 % CI 81.3-98.3; respectively) and with a greater predictive value of a positive response to treatment. In multivariable analysis adjusted by gender, age and ancestry, the haplotype G/T/ΔG was related to non-response to treatment (OR = 21.09, 95 % CI 5.33-83.51; p < 0.001) and to a higher chance of developing chronic infection (OR = 5.46, 95 % CI 2.06-14.46; p = 0.001) when compared to the haplotype T/C/TT. These findings may help to adjust our treatment policies for HCV infection based on greater certainty in stu...



Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells

Sun, 13 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 12 March 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Zhan-Qi Dong, Ting-Ting Chen, Jun Zhang, Nan Hu, Ming-Ya Cao, Fei-Fan Dong, Ya-Ming Jiang, Peng Chen, Cheng Lu, Min-Hui Pan Although current antiviral strategies can inhibit baculovirus infection and decrease viral DNA replication to a certain extent, novel tools are required for specific and accurate elimination of baculovirus genomes from infected insects. Using the newly developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) technology, we disrupted a viral genome in infected insect cells in vitro as a defense against viral infection. We optimized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit foreign and viral genome in insect cells. Using Bombyx mo...



Apobec3G-Based Strategies to Defeat HIV Infection.

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 02:36:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Here we present a review that discuss the role of A3G as a host innate immunity factor and its application in HIV therapy. PMID: 26957196 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current HIV Research)

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Antiviral activity of various interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines in non-transformed cultured hepatocytes infected with hepatitis B virus

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Nathalie Isorce, Barbara Testoni, Maëlle Locatelli, Judith Fresquet, Michel Rivoire, Souphalone Luangsay, Fabien Zoulim, David Durantel In HBV-infected patients, therapies with nucleoside analogues or IFNα remain ineffective in eradicating the infection. Our aim was to re-analyze the anti-HBV activity of a large panel of IFNs and cytokines in vitro using non-transformed cultured hepatocytes infected with HBV, to identify new immune-therapeutic options. HepaRG cells and primary human hepatocytes were infected with HBV and, when infection was established, treated with various concentrations of different IFNs or inflammatory cytokines. Viral parameters were evaluated by quantifying HBV nucleic ac...



3-(imidazo[1,2-a:5,4-b']dipyridin-2-yl)aniline inhibits pestivirus replication by targeting a hot spot drug binding pocket in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 9 March 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Simone Musiu, Pieter Leyssen, Mathy Froeyen, Jean-Michel Chezal, Johan Neyts, Jan Paeshuyse The compound 3-(imidazo[1,2-a:5,4-b']dipyridin-2-yl)aniline (CF02334) was identified as a selective inhibitor of the cytopathic effect (CPE) caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a virus-cell-based assay. The EC50-values for inhibition of CPE, viral RNA synthesis and the production of infectious virus progeny were 13.0 ± 0.6 μM, 2.6 ± 0.9 μM and 17.8 ± 0.6 μM, respectively. CF02334 was found to be inactive in the hepatitis C subgenomic replicon system. CF02334-resistant BVDV was obtained and was found to carry the N264D mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Molecular mode...



Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for herpes simplex virus prepared for WHO PD-VAC.

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Johnston C, Gottlieb SL, Wald A Abstract Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and -2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent global pathogens which commonly cause recurrent oral and genital ulcerations. Less common but more serious complications include meningitis, encephalitis, neonatal infection, and keratitis. HSV-2 infection is a significant driver of the HIV epidemic, increasing the risk of HIV acquisition 3 fold. As current control strategies for genital HSV-2 infection, including antiviral therapy and condom use, are only partially effective, vaccines will be required to reduce infection. Both preventive and therapeutic vaccines for HSV-2 are being pursued and are in various stages of development. We will provide an overview of efforts to develop HSV-2 vaccines, including a dis...



Hepatitis B Reactivation During Immunosuppressive Therapy or Cancer Chemotherapy, Management, and Prevention: A Comprehensive Review

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 17:08:37 +0100

Conclusions: Identification of patients at the risk of HBVr before immunosuppressive therapy is an undeniable part of treatment. Starting the antiviral therapy, based on the type of immunosuppressive drugs and the underlying disease, could lead to better management of disease.,Results: It was found that the positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), the high baseline HBV DNA level, the positive hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg), and an absent or low hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titer prior to starting treatment are the most important viral risk factors. Furthermore, rituximab, anthracycline, and different types of TNF-α inhibitors were identified as the high-risk therapies. By analyzing the efficiency of prophylaxis on the prevention of HBVr, it was concluded that those with ...



Novel dDengue Virus Inhibitor 4-HPR Activates ATF4 Independent of Protein Kinase R–like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase and Elevates Levels of eIF2α Phosphorylation in Virus Infected Cells.

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study provides the first detailed insight into the cellular effects modulated by 4-HPR in DENV-infected cells, critical to progressing 4-HPR towards the clinic. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)

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Primary Care Physician Perspectives on Hepatitis C Management in the Era of Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Although the majority of PCPs are up to date with CHC screening recommendations, few are able to routinely screen in practice. Most PCPs are not up to date with treatment and do not feel comfortable treating CHC. Interventions to overcome screening barriers and expand treatment into primary care settings are needed to maximize access to and use of curative therapies. (Source: Digestive Diseases and Sciences)



Heme Oxygenase-1-Derived Bilirubin Counteracts HIV Protease Inhibitor-Mediated Endothelial Cell Dysfunction.

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Liu XM, Durante ZE, Peyton KJ, Durante W Abstract The use of HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) has extended the duration and quality of life for HIV-positive individuals. However there is increasing concern that this antiviral therapy may promote premature cardiovascular disease by impairing endothelial cell (EC) function. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HIV PIs on EC function and determined if the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO-1) influences the biological action of these drugs. We found that three distinct PIs, including ritonavir, atazanavir, and lopinavir, stimulated the expression of HO-1 protein and mRNA. The induction of HO-1 was associated with an increase in NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS). PIs also stimulated HO...



Full protection of swine against foot-and-mouth disease by a bivalent B-cell epitope dendrimer peptide

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 5 March 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Esther Blanco, Beatriz Guerra, Beatriz G. de la Torre, Sira Defaus, Aldo Dekker, David Andreu, Francisco Sobrino Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. We have reported (Cubillos et al., 2008) that a synthetic dendrimeric peptide consisting of four copies of a B-cell epitope [VP1(136-154)] linked through thioether bonds to a T-cell epitope [3A(21-35)] of FMDV [B4T(thi)] elicits potent B- and T-cell specific responses and confers solid protection in pigs to type C FMDV challenge. Herein we show that downsized versions of this peptide bearing two copies of a B-cell epitope from a type O isolate and using thioether [B2T(thi)] or maleimide [B2T...






Hepatitis B virus replication is upregulated in proliferated peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Sun, 06 Mar 2016 05:15:02 +0100

Authors: Yan Q, Lan YH, Huang YX, Fan RS, Liu L, Song SP, Li YG Abstract Increasing evidence indicates that the hepatitis B virus (HBV) replicates in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), but at a low level. The present study aimed to establish a reliable and sensitive method that effectively detects HBV viral products for monitoring antiviral therapy, organ transplantation screening, and diagnosing occult HBV infection. In the present study, PBMCs (obtained from six healthy volunteers) were inoculated with HBV, and cultured with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and interleukin‑2 (IL‑2) to stimulate cell proliferation. PBMCs were harvested, and quantitative detection of HBV DNA in cell suspension and intracellular hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was conducted on days 0, 1...

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Cytomegalovirus Colitis in a Critically Ill Patient Following Severe Legionella Pneumonia with Multiple Organ Failure.

Sat, 05 Mar 2016 12:00:02 +0100

Authors: Nakashima K, Aoshima M, Suzuki F, Watanabe J, Otsuka Y Abstract A 68-year-old man visited an emergency department complaining of dyspnea. He was diagnosed to have Legionella pneumonia with multiple organ failure. Although his multiple organ failure improved, he suffered from persistent abdominal pain and diarrhea with continuous minor bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed a longitudinal ulcer of the rectum, below the peritoneal reflection. He was diagnosed with cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis. Antiviral therapy with ganciclovir was initiated. He finally underwent a colostomy after a bowel stricture caused an intestinal outlet obstruction, which made oral intake impossible. Based on the present case, we believe that CMV colitis must be considered as one of the differential diagnoses...



The prevalence and impact of thrombocytopenia, anaemia and leucopenia on sustained virological response in patients receiving hepatitis C therapy: evidence from a large ‘real world’ cohort

Sat, 05 Mar 2016 01:07:34 +0100

Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the extent of thrombocytopenia (TCP), anaemia and leucopenia in patients with hepatitis C and evaluate how they impact the management of antiviral therapy, the attainment of sustained virological response (SVR), and some therapy-related adverse events. Materials and methods: The Scottish Hepatitis C Clinical Database was used in this retrospective study. The prevalence of TCP, anaemia and leucopenia was evaluated. The impact of the three deficiencies on antiviral therapy management, serious adverse events and SVR attainment was assessed in patients who received therapy. Results: The prevalence of TCP, anaemia and leucopenia was 18.5, 0.9 and 0.2% among 4907 treated patients at baseline, increasing to 72, 25.8 and 5.4% during treatment, resp...



HCV evolutionary genetics of SVR versus virologic Failure assessed from the vaniprevir phase III registration trials

Sat, 05 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Steven W. Ludmerer, Tomona Hirano, Stuart Black, Anita Y.M. Howe, Wei Chang, Akiko Takase, Keisuke Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Tanaka, Hiromitsu Kumada, Norio Hayashi, David Nickle In the phase III registration studies conducted in Japan, Japanese HCV gt1 patients administered vaniprevir 300 mg twice daily plus pegylated interferon/ribavirin for 12 or 24 weeks achieved SVR24 rates of 83.7-84.5% among treatment-naïve patients, and 92.0-96.2% and 61.9% among breakthrough/ relapsers or null-responders to prior interferon based therapy. As evidenced by direct sequencing, patients who did not achieve SVR24 principally failed due to treatment-emerging mutations at D168 or in a few cases R155. In this work...



Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum glucosidases is required for in vitro and in vivo dengue antiviral activity by the iminosugar UV-4

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Kelly L. Warfield, Emily M. Plummer, Andrew C. Sayce, Dominic S. Alonzi, William Tang, Beatrice E. Tyrrell, Michelle L. Hill, Alessandro T. Caputo, Sarah S. Killingbeck, P. Robert Beatty, Eva Harris, Ren Iwaki, Kyoko Kinami, Daisuke Ide, J.L. Kiappes, Atsushi Kato, Michael D. Buck, Kevin King, William Eddy, Mansoora Khaliq, Aruna Sampath, Anthony M. Treston, Raymond A. Dwek, Sven G. Enterlein, Joanna L. Miller, Nicole Zitzmann, Urban Ramstedt, Sujan Shresta The antiviral activity of UV-4 was previously demonstrated against dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) in multiple mouse models. Herein, step-wise minimal effective dose and therapeutic window of efficacy studies of UV-4B (UV-4...



A live, attenuated pseudorabies virus strain JS-2012 deleted for gE/gI protects against both classical and emerging strains

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, a gE/gI deleted PRV strain JS-2012-△gE/gI was generated from a PRV variant strain using homologous DNA recombination. Compared to the parental strain JS-2012, JS-2012-△gE/gI grew slowly and showed small plaque morphology on Vero cells. The safety and immunological efficacy of JS-2012-△gE/gI was evaluated as a vaccine candidate. JS-2012-△gE/gI was avirulent to suckling piglets, but was able to provide full protection for young piglets against challenge with both the classical virulent PRV and the emerging PRV variant. After sows were vaccinated with the gE/gI-deleted strain, their suckling offspring were resistant to an otherwise lethal challenge with the classical and the variant PRVs. Piglets inoculated with JS-2012-△gE/gI did not develop PRV-specific gE-ELISA ant...

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HLA‐C and KIR combined genotype as new response marker for HBeAg‐positive chronic hepatitis B patients treated with interferon‐based combination therapy

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Summary Current treatment for chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) consists of interferon‐based therapy. However, for unknown reasons, a large proportion of patients with CHB do not respond to this treatment. Hence, there is a pressing need to establish response markers to select patients who will benefit from therapy and to spare potential nonresponders from unnecessary side effects of antiviral therapy. Here, we assessed whether HLA‐C and KIR genotypes were associated with treatment outcome for CHB. Twelve SNPs in or near the HLA‐C gene were genotyped in 86 CHB patients (41 HBeAg positive; 45 HBeAg negative) treated with peginterferon alfa‐2a + adefovir. Genotyping of killer immunoglobin‐like receptors (KIRs) was performed by SSP‐PCR. One SNP in HLA‐C (rs2308557) was signifi...



Comprehensive outcomes of on‐ and off‐antiviral prophylaxis in hepatitis B patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy: A competing risks analysis

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, hepatitis B flare‐ups are not rare in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy during and after anti‐HBV prophylaxis, even when potent antivirals are used. Patients with hematopoietic or lymphoid neoplasms or high viral burdens should receive prolonged and powerful HBV prophylaxis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)



Thymoma with immunodeficiency with multiple recurrent oral herpetic infections

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: March 2016 Source:Journal of Dental Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 1 Author(s): Yavuz Sinan Aydintug, Gurkan Rasit Bayar, Aydin Ozkan, Omer Gunhan, Ugur Musabak Thymomas with immunodeficiency (formerly Good's syndrome) are a rare acquired disease of combined T- and B-cell immunodeficiency accompanying a thymoma. Recurrent opportunistic infections associated with disorders of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity frequently accompany this rare primary, adult-onset immunodeficiency. This is a report of a case of a thymoma with immunodeficiency in a 65-year-old male patient who developed recurrent oral herpetic infections. He consulted us about recurrent vesiculo-ulcerative lesions on his tongue, lower lip, and buccal mucosa. Results of laboratory examinations indicated...



Should surveillance for liver cancer be modified in hepatitis c patients after treatment‐related cirrhosis regression?

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Liver International)



The many faces of the flavivirus NS1 protein offer a multitude of options for inhibitor design

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article forms part of a symposium on flavivirus drug discovery in Antiviral Research. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)

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Recombinant duck enteritis viruses expressing major structural proteins of the infectious bronchitis virus provide protection against infectious bronchitis in chickens

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Huixin Li, Yulong Wang, Zongxi Han, Yu Wang, Shulin Liang, Lu Jiang, Yonghao Hu, Xiangang Kong, Shengwang Liu To design an alternative vaccine for control of infectious bronchitis in chickens, three recombinant duck enteritis viruses (rDEVs) expressing the N, S, or S1 protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were constructed using conventional homologous recombination methods, and were designated as rDEV-N, rDEV-S, and rDEV-S1, respectively. Chickens were divided into five vaccinated groups, which were each immunized with one of the rDEVs, covalent vaccination with rDEV-N & rDEV-S, or covalent vaccination with rDEV-N & rDEV-S1, and a control group. An antibody response agains...



Extending our confidence in sustained virological response

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Liver International)



Seizures as a Potential Complication of Treatment With Simeprevir and Sofosbuvir

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 06:00:00 +0100

We present a case of seizures as a potential side effect of antiviral therapy with sofosbuvir and simeprevir. (Source: American Journal of Therapeutics)



Risk Assessment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Transient Elastography Vs. Liver Biopsy in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Receiving Antiviral Therapy

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 06:00:00 +0100

Abstract: Liver stiffness (LS) assessed using transient elastography (TE) can assess the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We evaluated whether TE, when compared with histological data as a reference standard, can predict the risk of HCC development in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients starting antiviral therapy. Observational cohort database of 381 patients with CHB who underwent liver biopsy (LB) and TE were reviewed. All patients underwent surveillance for HCC development using ultrasonography and alpha-fetoprotein. During the median follow-up period of 48.1 (interquartile range 30.3–69.3) months, HCC developed in 34 (8.9%) patients. In patients with HCC development, age, proportion of diabetes mellitus, histological fibrosis stage, and LS value were significantly ...



Liver Support With Albumin Dialysis Reduces Hepatitis C Virus Viremia and Facilitates Antiviral Treatment of Severe Hepatitis C Virus Recurrence After Liver Transplantation

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, the use of MARS may facilitate the achievement of SVR and improve the prognosis of patients with severe HCV‐recurrence after LT by reducing viral load and improving liver function prior to antiviral therapy. (Source: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis)

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The anti‐lymphoma activity of antiviral therapy in HCV‐associated B‐cell non‐Hodgkin lymphomas: a meta‐analysis

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, in the current meta‐analysis, the overall response rate of HCV‐NHL under AVT justifies the recommendation for AVT as first‐line treatment in patients who do not need immediate conventional treatment. The strong correlation of SVR and lymphoma regression supports the hypothesis of a causal relationship of HCV and lymphomagenesis. (Source: Journal of Viral Hepatitis)



Therapeutic outcome of 6198 interferon‐naïve Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C: a real‐life experience and lessons to be learned in DAAs’ era

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Summary Antiviral therapy for HCV infection has been validated in randomized controlled clinical trials, but its value in the real world is less well studied. There is relatively little data on real‐world responses to interferon‐based therapies for patients with genotype 4 infection. We aimed to examine experience with large‐scale access to antiviral therapy in chronic HCV in a real‐life clinical setting in Egypt. Detailed pretreatment data of 6198 IFN‐naïve chronic HCV patients who had received PEG‐IFN/RBV therapy at Cairo‐Fatemic Hospital, Egypt, between 2009 and 2012 were obtained from the HCV database. At week 12, 95.7% of patients had undetectable HCV RNA, and by week 24 and 48, breakthrough was 6% and 4%, respectively. However, 43.7% of patients discontinued treatment ...



Real‐world medical costs of antiviral therapy among patients with chronic HCV infection and advanced hepatic fibrosis

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsDue to the lower SVR rates, the cost per SVR of IFN‐based treatment increased when patients with more advanced liver disease were treated. Additional costs of IFN‐free therapy could be limited among these patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)



Toll-like receptor 9 ligand D-type oligodeoxynucleotide D35 as a broad inhibitor for influenza A virus replication that is associated with suppression of neuraminidase activity

Sun, 28 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 February 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Hiroshi Yamada, Satoshi Nagase, Kazuo Takahashi, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Hiroshi Kida, Shigefumi Okamoto The most effective drugs available to treat influenza are neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, which provide important additional measures for the control of influenza virus infections. However, since the emergence of NA inhibitor-resistant viruses may compromise the clinical utility of this class of anti-influenza agents, it is very important to develop new anti-influenza agents which target a different region in NA responsible for its sensitivity from that for NA inhibitors and could be used to treat NA inhibitors-resistant isolates. The oligodeoxynucleotide D35, multimerized and aggregated, suppresse...



Influenza A and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Co-infection in Rhesus Macaques ‐‐ A Model of Severe Pneumonia

Sun, 28 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Discussion This was the first nonhuman primate study of influenza and bacterial co-infection where high-resolution computed tomography scanning of the lungs was used to quantitatively assess pneumonia over the course of illness and where hypoxemia was correlated with pneumonia severity. With additional validation this model may serve as a pathway for regulatory approval of vaccines and therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of severe influenza pneumonia. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)

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The Association of Chronic Hepatitis C with Respiratory Microbiota Disturbance on the Basis of Decreased Haemophilus Spp. Colonization.

Sat, 27 Feb 2016 12:50:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS The obtained data suggest that chronic hepatitis C, together with antiviral therapy, may influence the respiratory tract microbiota composition as found using haemophili, mainly H. parainfluenzae. PMID: 26912163 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)






Pseudotumoral recto-sigmoid herpes simplex virus type 2 in an HIV-infected patient: dramatic improvement with thalidomide.

Fri, 26 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a very frequent sexually transmitted infection and affects between 50 and 90% of human immunodeficiency virus 1(HIV-1) infected patients [1]. In this population, herpetic lesions are often more chronic, extensive or atypical (e.g. pseudotumoral, ulcerative, hypertrophic) and impairs quality of life [2,3]. Treatment of pseudotumoral anogenital forms of HSV-2 is challenging since conventional antiviral therapy (acyclovir, foscavir and cidofovir) is often deceptive in healing lesions or to prevent recurrences [3,4]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)



Timing of Hepatitis C Antiviral Therapy in Liver Transplant Recipients With Direct-acting Agents.

Fri, 26 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Suraweera D, Saab EG, Tong MJ, Saab S Abstract Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is a substantial health care burden worldwide and is the leading cause of liver transplant in adults. In patients with detectable hepatitis C virus RNA at the time of transplant, interferon-based therapies for hepatitis C virus were poorly tolerated with low virologic response rates. Although reinfection after transplant is inevitable, the recent advent of direct-acting antiviral agents has revolutionized treatment of hepatitis C virus in the pre- and posttransplant settings. These antiviral agents have been shown to have high-sustained virologic response rates, shorter courses of treatment, and decreased frequencies of adverse effects. Here, we review the current literature on the use of di...



Influenza Illness in Pregnant Indian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 05:36:02 +0100

Authors: Koul PA, Bali NK, Mir H, Jabeen F, Ahmad A Abstract Data about burden of influenza in pregnancy in India are scant. In order to assess the contribution of influenza to acute respiratory illness (ARI) in pregnancy, 266 north Indian pregnant females with febrile ARI were studied from December 2014 to May 2015. Twin nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were obtained and tested for influenza viruses by RT-PCR. Fifty (18.8%) patients tested positive for influenza (A/H1N1pdm09 in 41, A/H3N2 in 8, and influenza B Yamagata in 1). Rigors, headache, and a family history of ARI were significantly more frequent in influenza positive patients. Oseltamivir and supportive therapy were administered to all confirmed cases. Nine influenza positive cases needed hospitalization for their respir...

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Care delivery and outcomes among US veterans with hepatitis B: A national cohort study

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: We observed a low prevalence of recommended laboratory testing, antiviral therapy initiation, and liver imaging among a national cohort of veterans with hepatitis B infection; antiviral therapy and liver imaging were independently associated with decreased mortality. (Hepatology 2016) (Source: Hepatology)



Safety and efficacy of simeprevir plus sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin in patients with decompensated genotype 1 hepatitis C cirrhosis

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, SOF plus SIM was very well tolerated in patients with advanced Child B/C decompensated cirrhosis. Overall, 74% of patients achieved SVR12; 100% of patients with genotype 1b decompensated cirrhosis achieved SVR12. Liver Transpl 22:281‐286, 2016. © 2015 AASLD. (Source: Liver Transplantation)



Corrigendum: Predictive Factors for Sustained Remission after Discontinuation of Antiviral Therapy in Patients with HBeAg-positive Chronic Hepatitis B.

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Jun BG, Lee SH, Kim HS, Kim SG, Kim YS, Kim BS, Jeong SW, Jang JY, Kim YD Abstract This correction is being published to correct the error in Fugure 4 in above article. PMID: 26907490 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Korean J Gastroenter...)



The cyclophilin-inhibitor Alisporivir stimulates antigen presentation thereby promoting antigen-specific CD8-T-cell activation

Wed, 24 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) establishes persistence in a high rate of patients, resulting in more than 160 million chronic infections worldwide. During the last years direct acting antivirals and host targeting antivirals were identified, representing new perspectives for antiviral therapy of patients chronically infected with HCV [1]. Characteristic for host targeting antivirals is their broad genotype coverage as well as their high barrier to resistance [1]. One such compound is the cyclophilin (Cyp)-inhibitor Alisporivir, which targets the cellular protein and HCV host factor cyclophilin A (CypA) and has been in clinical development for HCV therapy [2–4]. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)



Design, synthesis, and in vitro biological evaluation of novel 6-methyl-7-substituted-7-deaza purine nucleoside analogs as anti-influenza A agents

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of hitherto unknown 6-methyl-7-substituted-7-deaza purine nucleoside analogs, and evaluated for their biological activities against influenza A virus strains, H1N1 and H3N2. From the viral inhibition assay, we identified some effective compounds, among which, compounds 5x (IC50 = 5.88 μM and 6.95 μM for H1N1 and H3N2, respectively) and 5z (IC50 = 3.95 μM and 3.61 μM for H1N1 and H3N2, respectively) demonstrated potent anti-influenza A activity. On the basis of selectivity index, we conceive that compound 5x may serve as a chemical probe of interest for further lead optimization studies with a general aim of developing novel and effective anti-influenza A virus agents. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)

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Meeting report: 4th ISIRV antiviral group conference: Novel antiviral therapies for influenza and other respiratory viruses

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: May 2016 Source:Antiviral Research, Volume 129 Author(s): Jennifer L. McKimm-Breschkin, Alicia M. Fry The International Society for Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases (isirv) held its 4th Antiviral Group Conference at the University of Texas on 2–4 June, 2015. With emerging resistance to the drugs currently licensed for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza viruses, primarily the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu) and the M2 inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine, and the lack of effective interventions against other respiratory viruses, the 3-day programme focused on the discovery and development of inhibitors of several virus targets and key host cell factors involved in virus replication or mediating the inflammatory response. Vir...






Genetic diversity, viraemic and aminotransferases levels in chronic infected hepatitis B patients from Cameroon

Mon, 22 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

HBV infection annually accounts for 1 million deaths worldwide as a result of cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition to varying responses to antiviral therapy, HBV genotypes have a... (Source: BMC Research Notes)



Coxsackievirus A16-like particles produced in Pichia pastoris elicit high-titer neutralizing antibodies and confer protection against lethal viral challenge in mice

Sun, 21 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 21 February 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Chao Zhang, Qingwei Liu, Zhiqiang Ku, Yang Hu, Xiaohua Ye, Yingyi Zhang, Zhong Huang Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouse disease (HFMD) which has been affecting millions of young children annually in the Asia-Pacific region over the last seven years. However, no commercial CA16 vaccines are currently available. In the present study, we investigated the expression of virus-like particles (VLPs) of CA16 in Pichia pastoris yeast and their immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice. We found that CA16-VLPs could be produced at relatively high levels in P. pastoris yeast transformed with a construct co-expressing the P1 and 3CD proteins of CA16. Mice imm...



Evolution of entecavir-resistant hepatitis B virus during entecavir and adefovir dipivoxil combination therapy.

Sat, 20 Feb 2016 10:15:03 +0100

Authors: Wang Y, Liu S, Chen YU, Zheng S, Zhou LI, Hua T, Sui S, Lu F, Duan Z Abstract The emergence of entecavir (ETV) resistance is rare, particularly in a longitudinal study. The aim of the present study was to characterize the evolution of ETV-resistant variants during antiviral therapy using entecavir monotherapy followed by ETV-adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) combination therapy. The study included a prospective cohort of 53 consecutive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. During the 60-month period of ETV therapy, 2 patients exhibited ETV resistance and their medical records were comprehensively reviewed. A total of 25 consecutive serum samples were regularly collected from the 2 patients. All the samples were used to characterize the evolution of the polymerase gene mutations using...

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Statins can exert dual, concentration dependent effects on HCV entry in vitro

Sat, 20 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: April 2016 Source:Antiviral Research, Volume 128 Author(s): Matthieu Blanchet, Quoc-Tuan Le, Nabil G. Seidah, Patrick Labonté Statins are used daily by a large and increasing number of individuals worldwide. They were initially designed as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) inhibitors to treat patients with hypercholesterolemia. Recent studies on HCV chronically infected individuals have suggested that their use in vivo in combination with PEG-IFN and ribavirin favor the sustained viral response (SVR). Herein, we describe the effects of a set of statins on HCV entry and on HCV key entry factors in vitro. Our results suggest that all tested statins exert a proviral effect through the upregulation of LDLR. Interestingly, at higher concentra...



Factors involved in continuance of atazanavir-based regimens: results from a cohort of HIV1-positive patients

Sat, 20 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 20 February 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Andrea Giacomelli, Letizia Oreni, Marco Franzetti, Valentina di Cristo, Elisa Colella, Anna Lisa Ridolfo, Massimo Galli, Stefano Rusconi We evaluated predictive factors involved in durability and therapeutic failure of atazanavir (ATV)-based antiretroviral regimens with or without ritonavir (r) in real life setting. This retrospective study of HIV-1-positive patients evaluated the factors related to ATV continuance and the time-dependent probability of therapeutic failure (HIV-RNA >200 copies/mL and concomitant discontinuation of ATV). We also investigated the rate of therapeutic failure and the variations in total bilirubin levels from starting unboosted ATV-based regimens. The study ...



Prevalence and characteristics of naturally occurring sofosbuvir resistance‐associated variants in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b infection

Sat, 20 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsWe provide clear evidence of the high prevalence of two potential naturally occurring NS5B RAVs (C316N and L159F) in Japan. It may be important to pay particular attention to these new potential RAVs, especially when conducting SOF‐based therapy in patients with RAVs due to previous direct‐acting antiviral therapy failure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Hepatology Research)



Impact of cytomegalovirus reactivation on relapse and survival in patients with acute leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first remission.

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 13:16:02 +0100

Authors: Yoon JH, Lee S, Kim HJ, Jeon YW, Lee SE, Cho BS, Lee DG, Eom KS, Kim YJ, Min CK, Cho SG, Min WS, Lee JW Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-reactivation is associated with graft-vs-leukemia (GVL) effect by stimulating natural-killer or T-cells, which showed leukemia relapse prevention after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We enrolled patients with acute myeloid leukemia (n = 197) and acute lymphoid leukemia (n = 192) who underwent allogeneic-HSCT in first remission. We measured RQ-PCR weekly to detect CMV-reactivation and preemptively used ganciclovir (GCV) when the titer increased twice consecutively, but GCV was sometimes delayed in patients without significant graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) by reducing immunosuppressive agents. In the entire group, CMV-reactiva...



An Open Label, Block-Randomized, Ribavirin Efficacy Trial for Management of RSV Infections in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant (HCT) Recipients: Clinical and Economic Implications

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 10:35:25 +0100

Aerosolized ribavirin (AR) may prevent pneumonia in HCT recipients with RSV infections; however, its use is controversial due to inconvenience of administration, cost, and lack of randomized controlled trials. We have developed an immunodeficiency scoring index for RSV (ISI-RSV) to identify allo-HCT recipients at risk for pneumonia who may benefit from antiviral therapy. We conducted an open label clinical trial to compare the efficacy of oral ribavirin (OR) versus AR therapy to prevent pneumonia in HCT recipients. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)

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Development and optimization of a sensitive TaqMan® real‐time PCR with synthetic homologous extrinsic control for quantitation of Human cytomegalovirus viral load

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 19:19:06 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)



Immunological and biochemical characterizations of Coxsackievirus A6 and A10 viral particles

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, CV-A6 and CV-A10 were individually cultured in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells grown in medium containing serum, harvested and concentrated. In viral downstream purification, two viral fractions were separated by sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation and detected using a SDS-PAGE analysis and a virus infectivity assay. These two viral fractions were formalin-inactivated, and only the infectious particle fraction was found to be capable of inducing CV-A serotype-specific neutralizing antibody responses in animal immunogenicity studies. These mouse and rabbit antisera also failed to cross-neutralize EV-A71 and CV-A16 infections. Only a combination of formalin-inactivated EV-A71, CV-A6, CV-A10 and CV-A16 multivalent vaccine candidates elicited cross-neutralizing antibody respo...



Association of hepatic oxidative stress and iron dysregulation with HCC development after interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Measurement of hepatic oxidative stress before antiviral therapy is useful for the prediction of HCC development after interferon therapy. Low baseline levels of the intracellular iron regulators of FBXL5 in addition to a suppressed hepcidin level might be associated with severe hepatic iron deposition in CHC patients. Trial registration number UMIN 000001031. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)



Dual antiviral therapy for HIV and hepatitis C - drug interactions and side effects.

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 17:43:02 +0100

Authors: Esposito I, Labarga P, Barreiro P, Fernandez-Montero JV, de Mendoza C, Benítez-Gutiérrez L, Peña JM, Soriano V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Roughly 20% of HIV-positive persons worldwide are coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The recent advent of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) that cure most hepatitis C patients has attracted much attention. Knowledge on drug interactions between DAA and antiretrovirals (ARV) may allow maximizing antiviral efficacy while minimizing drug-related toxicities. AREAS COVERED: We review the most frequent side effects and clinically significant drug interactions between DAA and ARV. We further discuss how they can be prevented and managed in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. EXPERT OPINION: The safety profile of current DAA and the most rece...



HBIG Remains Significant in the Era of New Potent Nucleoside Analogues for Prophylaxis Against Hepatitis B Recurrence After Liver Transplantation.

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 14:23:02 +0100

We present this review of different prophylaxis regimens including HBIG and antiviral monotherapy, combination of HBIG with antivirals, and withdrawal of HBIG and whole prophylaxis. HBIG monotherapy in either the intramuscular or the subcutaneous form is an accepted choice for prevention of HBV re-infection after liver transplantation in low risk patients. Withdrawal of HBIG monotherapy may be considered but should only occur after transitioning to an oral antiviral therapy such as adefovir, tenofovir, or entecavir. Lamivudine monotherapy may be associated with a higher recurrence rate compared to more potent antivirals. In high risk patients, intramuscular or subcutaneous HBIG in combination with an antiviral, most commonly lamivudine, is currently considered the standard of care. Complet...

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Generation and characterization of novel DNA aptamers against coat protein of grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV) with antiviral activities and delivery potential in grouper cells

Tue, 16 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, three novel DNA aptamers (A5, A10, and B11) that specifically target the coat protein (CP) of grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV) were selected using SELEX. Secondary structures and minimum free energy (ΔG) predictions indicated that these aptamers could form stable, secondary stem-loop structures. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, K d measurements, the co-localization of tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA) labeled-aptamers with the CP and flow cytometry analysis revealed that these aptamers could specifically bind the CP with high (nanomolar) affinities. In addition, competition analysis suggested the aptamers shared some common CP binding sites with the anti-CP antibody. Moreover, all three aptamers did not show any cytotoxic effects in...



Antiviral therapy in seasonal influenza and 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza: Korean experiences and perspectives.

Sun, 14 Feb 2016 16:32:09 +0100

Authors: Song JY, Noh JY, Choi WS, Cheong HJ, Kim WJ Abstract Influenza is a major cause of substantial morbidity and mortality in humans every year. Vaccination is the main strategy to prevent influenza infection, but antiviral agents also play an important role in the control of both seasonal and pandemic influenza. During the influenza A/H1N1 pandemic in 2009, early prompt antiviral therapy may have reduced the severity of the influenza outcomes including pneumonia, hospitalization and mortality in the Republic of Korea. Since the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, there have been increasing usages of antiviral agents for the treatment of patients with seasonal influenza. Although currently rare, antiviral resistance among influenza viruses may emerge and increase with increased use of neurami...



Evaluating the current surgical strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Sun, 14 Feb 2016 15:29:02 +0100

Authors: Takamoto T, Sugawara Y, Hashimoto T, Makuuchi M Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite careful surveillance programs and the development of antiviral therapy for hepatitis virus infection, the occurrence rate of HCC remains high. Liver resection and liver transplantation are mainstay curative treatments. Most patients with HCC have impaired liver function, and surgical treatment is always accompanied by the risk of decompensation of the remnant liver, especially when the volume of the remnant liver is too small and the liver function too low to meet metabolic demands. The mortality of liver resection has dramatically decreased over the last three decades from 20% to less than 5% due to the accumulation...



Therapy of hepatitis C by direct-acting anti-virals: the end of HCV in dialysis population?

Sun, 14 Feb 2016 14:15:02 +0100

Authors: Fabrizi F, Messa P Abstract The advent of direct-acting anti-viral (DAA) drugs is dramatically changing the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with intact kidney function ('cure rates' >90% and infrequent adverse events). The information on efficacy and safety of DAAs for HCV therapy in patients with renal failure is limited. We have reviewed the available evidence regarding efficacy and safety of numerous DAAs (boceprevir, telaprevir, sofosbuvir, simeprevir, grazoprevir, elbasvir, ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, dasabuvir, ledispavir, daclatasvir, asunaprevir, beclabuvir) in treating HCV-infected patients with renal impairment and/or end-stage renal disease. The major limitation of this review is the paucity of published data and its reliance on abst...



How have the recent advances in antiviral therapy impacted the management of virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma?

Sun, 14 Feb 2016 14:10:02 +0100

Authors: Wang CC, Kao JH Abstract INTRODUCTION: Whether the recent advances in antiviral therapy including nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) or interferon (IFN) impacts the management of patients with virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Area covered: The beneficial effects of antiviral therapy on HCC patients receiving curative treatment, transhepatic arterial chemoembolization (TACE), or radiotherapy are reviewed and discussed. Expert opinion: For patients with HCV-related HCC after curative treatment, interferon (IFN)-based therapy has been shown to improve the survival and reduces the risk of HCC recurrence. However, it carries the risk of adverse effects, especially in cirrhotic patients. Therefore, the benefit of IFN should be weighted against its risk in e...

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Management of hepatitis B during pregnancy.

Sun, 14 Feb 2016 14:10:02 +0100

Authors: Kar P, Mishra S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Women of childbearing age or who are pregnant and have hepatitis B infection require specialized management both during and after pregnancy. Effective maternal screening along with judicious use of available antivirals and immunoprophylaxis greatly reduces the perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and dramatically declines the incidence and prevalence of chronic hepatitis B and its sequelae. AREAS COVERED: A systematic literature search was done using Embase, Medline and Cochrane library from January 1990 to July 2015 and appropriate articles selected for this review. This review highlights the timing of therapy, choice of antiviral agent along with passive and active immunoprophylaxis for infants. Issues regarding bre...



Cytomegalovirus and ulcerative colitis: Place of antiviral therapy.

Sun, 14 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Pillet S, Pozzetto B, Roblin X Abstract The link between cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and inflammatory bowel diseases remains an important subject of debate. CMV infection is frequent in ulcerative colitis (UC) and has been shown to be potentially harmful. CMV reactivation needs to be diagnosed using methods that include in situ detection of viral markers by immunohistochemistry or by nucleic acid amplification techniques. Determination of the density of infection using quantitative tools (numbers of infected cells or copies of the genome) is particularly important. Although CMV reactivation can be considered as an innocent bystander in active flare-ups of refractory UC, an increasing number of studies suggest a deleterious role of CMV in this situation. The presence of...



Economic assessment of eltrombopag in the treatment of thrombocytopenia.

Sat, 13 Feb 2016 13:54:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: The use of eltrombopag in HCV patients with thrombocytopenia is cost-effective as it leads to a reduction in disease progression and thus a drop in the number of patients with advanced liver disease. PMID: 26176754 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research)



Prevalence of mutations in HBV DNA polymerase gene associated with nucleos(t)ide resistance in treatment-naive patients with CHB in Central China

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Spontaneous HBV resistance mutations in HBV DNA polymerase were found in treatment-naive patients with CHB in Central China. These findings suggest that we should analyze HBV DNA polymerase resistance mutation associated with NAs before giving antiviral therapy such as LAM, ADV, and LdT. (Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Diagnosis, antiviral therapy, and prophylaxis of varicella-zoster virus infections

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), an important member of the Herpesviridae family, is the etiological agent of varicella as primary infection and zoster as recurrence. An outstanding feature is the lifelong viral latency in dorsal root and cranial nerve ganglia. Both varicella and zoster are worldwide widespread diseases that may be associated with significant complications. However, there is a broad spectrum of laboratory methods to diagnose VZV infections. In contrast to many other viral infections, antiviral treatment of VZV infections and their prevention by vaccination or passive immunoprophylaxis are well established in medical practice. The present manuscript provides an overview about the basic knowledge of VZV infections, their laboratory diagnosis, antiviral therapy...

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Safety and efficacy of dual direct-acting antiviral therapy (daclatasvir and asunaprevir) for chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection in patients on hemodialysis

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions The therapy with daclatasvir and asunaprevir has high antiviral efficacy in patients receiving hemodialysis with a comparable safety profile to patients without renal dysfunction. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology)



Impact of a Cytomegalovirus Kinase Inhibitor on Infection and Neuronal Progenitor Cell Differentiation

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 11 February 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Tarin M. Bigley, Jered V. McGivern, Allison D. Ebert, Scott S. Terhune Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of congenital infections. Symptomatic newborns present with a range of sequelae including disorders of the CNS such as visual impairment, microcephaly, mental retardation and hearing loss. HCMV congenital infection causes gross changes in brain morphology and disturbances in glial and neuronal distribution, number and migration. In these studies, we have evaluated the effectiveness of the antiviral maribavir in inhibiting HCMV infections of ES cell-derived neuronal progenitor cells (NPC). We used EZ-spheres generated from H9 ES cells which are pre-rosette NPCs that retain long-...



Dynamic changes of CD45RAFoxp3 T regulatory cells in chronic HCV patients during antiviral therapy

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Prevalence of mutations in HBV DNA polymerase gene associated with nucleos(t)ide resistance in treatment-naive patients with CHB in Central China.

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: Spontaneous HBV resistance mutations in HBV DNA polymerase were found in treatment-naive patients with CHB in Central China. These findings suggest that we should analyze HBV DNA polymerase resistance mutation associated with NAs before giving antiviral therapy such as LAM, ADV, and LdT. PMID: 26876337 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)



Dynamic changes in CD45RAFoxp3 regulatory T-cells in chronic hepatitis C patients during antiviral therapy

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the causes of chronic liver disease, and HCV infection results in the development of chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.1,2 One of the reasons for the high rates of chronic HCV infection is immunosuppression, which may be specifically mediated by the regulatory T-cells (Treg cells).3,4 The accumulation of Treg cells plays a pivotal role in suppressing the antiviral effector T-cells that are essential for viral clearance.5,6 (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Dynamic changes in CD45RA−Foxp3high regulatory T-cells in chronic hepatitis C patients during antiviral therapy

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the causes of chronic liver disease, and HCV infection results in the development of chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.1,2 One of the reasons for the high rates of chronic HCV infection is immunosuppression, which may be specifically mediated by the regulatory T-cells (Treg cells).3,4 The accumulation of Treg cells plays a pivotal role in suppressing the antiviral effector T-cells that are essential for viral clearance.5,6 (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



The Hepatitis C virus treatment cascade at an urban postincarceration transitions clinic

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 03:34:35 +0100

Summary Transitions clinics, which provide medical care to individuals who have been released from incarceration, reach a population at high risk for hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection. We used the HCV treatment cascade to describe HCV care at an urban postincarceration transitions clinic, identifying gaps in care and determining reasons for lapses in care. In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed electronic health records for all formerly incarcerated individuals receiving care at the Bronx Transitions Clinic. HCV treatment cascade measures included the following: detection of HCV antibodies, confirmation of chronic infection, specialist referral, specialist evaluation, initiation of treatment, completion of treatment and achievement of SVR. We recorded reasons for lapses in care. O...



Contrasting effect of new HCMV pUL54 mutations on antiviral drug susceptibility: Benefits and limits of 3D analysis

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 10 February 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): D. Andouard, M.-C. Mazeron, G. Ligat, A. Couvreux, C. Pouteil-Noble, R. Cahen R, Y. Yasdanpanah, M. Deering, N. Viget, S. Alain, S. Hantz Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) resistance to antiviral drugs is a major drawback of repeated or long-duration treatment in immunocompromised patients. Resistance testing is usually performed by genotypic assays. For accurate interpretation of these assays, the role of new mutations in HCMV resistance has to be assessed. Two previously unknown UL54 single point mutations (D515Y and V787A) were characterized for phenotypic drug-resistance by marker transfer analysis using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) mutagenesis. Increases in 50% inhibitory concentr...



Lactimidomycin is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of dengue and other RNA viruses

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 10 February 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Margot Carocci, Priscilla L. Yang Dengue virus, a member of the Flaviviridae family, is a mosquito-borne pathogen and the causative agent of Dengue Fever. Despite the nearly 400 million new infections estimated annually, no vaccines or specific antiviral therapeutics are currently available. We identified lactimidomycin (LTM), a recently established inhibitor of translation elongation, as a potent inhibitor of dengue virus 2 infection in cell culture. The antiviral activity is observed at concentrations that do not affect cell viability. We show that Kunjin virus and Modoc virus, two other members of the Flaviviridae family, as well as vesicular stomatitis virus and poliovirus 1, are also sensitive...