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MedWorm: Pathology provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in Pathology

Last Build Date: Mon, 28 Mar 2016 00:22:51 +0100


IL-6 Overexpression in ERG-Positive Prostate Cancer Is Mediated by Prostaglandin Receptor EP2.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 18:55:02 +0100

Authors: Merz C, von Mässenhausen A, Queisser A, Vogel W, Andrén O, Kirfel J, Duensing S, Perner S, Nowak M Abstract Prostate cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in men and multiple risk factors and genetic alterations have been described. The TMPRSS2-ERG fusion event and the overexpression of the transcription factor ERG are present in approximately 50% of all prostate cancer patients, however, the clinical outcome is still controversial. Prostate tumors produce various soluble factors, including the pleiotropic cytokine IL-6, regulating cellular processes such as proliferation and metastatic segregation. Here, we used prostatectomy samples in a tissue microarray format and analyzed the co-expression and the clinicopathologic data of ERG and IL-6 using immunohistochemical double...

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Saturated and Unsaturated Dietary Fats Differentially Modulate Ethanol-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiome and Metabolome in a Mouse Model of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 18:55:02 +0100

Authors: Kirpich IA, Petrosino J, Ajami N, Feng W, Wang Y, Liu Y, Beier JI, Barve SS, Yin X, Wei X, Zhang X, McClain CJ Abstract Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) ranks among major causes of morbidity and mortality. Diet and crosstalk between the gut and liver are important determinants of ALD. We evaluated the effects of different types of dietary fat and ethanol on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity and the effect of these changes on liver injury in ALD. Compared with ethanol and a saturated fat diet (medium chain triglycerides enriched), an unsaturated fat diet (corn oil enriched) exacerbated ethanol-induced endotoxemia, liver steatosis, and injury. Major alterations in gut microbiota, including a reduction in Bacteroidetes and an increase in Proteobacteria and Ac...

The Dualistic Model of Ovarian Carcinogenesis: Revisited, Revised, and Expanded.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 18:55:02 +0100

Authors: Kurman RJ, Shih IeM Abstract Since our proposal of a dualistic model of epithelial ovarian carcinogenesis more than a decade ago, a large number of molecular and histopathologic studies were published that have provided important insights into the origin and molecular pathogenesis of this disease. This has required that the original model be revised and expanded to incorporate these findings. The new model divides type I tumors into three groups: i) endometriosis-related tumors that include endometrioid, clear cell, and seromucinous carcinomas; ii) low-grade serous carcinomas; and iii) mucinous carcinomas and malignant Brenner tumors. As in the previous model, type II tumors are composed, for the most part, of high-grade serous carcinomas that can be further subdivided in...

This Month in AJP.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 18:55:02 +0100

Authors: Abstract The following highlights summarize research articles that are published in the current issue of The American Journal of Pathology. PMID: 27012189 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Pathology)

Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 13:00:02 +0100

Authors: Tambo A, Roshan MH, Pace NP Abstract Cardiovascular disease [CVD] is a leading cause of mortality accounting for a global incidence of over 31%. Atherosclerosis is the primary pathophysiology underpinning most types of CVD. Historically, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were suggested to precipitate CVD. Recently, epidemiological studies have identified emerging risk factors including hypotestosteronaemia, which have been associated with CVD. Previously considered in the realms of reproductive biology, testosterone is now believed to play a critical role in the cardiovascular system in health and disease. The actions of testosterone as they relate to the cardiac vasculature and its implication in cardiovascular pathology is reviewed. PMID: 27014372 [PubMed] ...

B1a cells play a pathogenic role in the development of autoimmune arthritis.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In this study, we found that peritoneal B1a cells underwent proliferation and migrated to the inflamed joint tissue with upregulated RANKL expression during collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) development in mice. Adoptive transfer of B1a cells exacerbated arthritic severity and joint damage while intraperitoneal depletion of B1 cells ameliorated both arthritic symptoms and joint pathology in CIA mice. In culture, RANKL-expressing B1a cells significantly promoted the expansion of osteoclasts derived from bone marrow cells, which were in accord with the in vivo findings of increased osteoclastogenesis in CIA mice transferred with B1a cells. Together, these results have demonstrated a pathogenic role of B1a cells in the development of autoimmune arthritis through RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenes...

Analysis of mutational and clinicopathologic characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma with clear cell component.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Lung adenocarcinoma with clear cell component is a rare, malignant tumor with poor prognosis and displays more frequent EGFR and KRAS mutations. PMID: 27013585 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)

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Ablation of fast-spiking interneurons in the dorsal striatum, recapitulating abnormalities seen post-mortem in Tourette syndrome, produces anxiety and elevated grooming

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 2 June 2016 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 324 Author(s): M. Xu, L. Li, C. Pittenger Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome (TS), are thought to involve pathology of cortico-basal ganglia loops, but their pathology is not well understood. Post-mortem studies have shown a reduced number of several populations of striatal interneurons, including the parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), in individuals with severe, refractory TS. We tested the causal role of this interneuronal deficit by recapitulating it in an otherwise normal adult mouse using a combination transgenic-viral cell ablation approach. FSIs were reduced bilaterally by ∼40%, paralleling the deficit found post-mortem. This did not produce spontaneous stereotypies or tic-like movements, ...

A GABBR2 gene variant modifies pathophysiology in Huntington’s disease

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 4 May 2016 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 620 Author(s): April L. Philpott, Paul B. Fitzgerald, Neil W. Bailey, Andrew Churchyard, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Tarrant D.R. Cummins Striatal degeneration in Huntington’s disease (HD) causes changes in cortico-subcortical pathways. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a valuable tool for assessing pathophysiology within these pathways, yet has had limited application in HD. As cortico-subcortical pathways are largely mediated by GABA and dopamine receptor genes, understanding how these genes modulate neurophysiology in HD may provide new insights into how underlying pathology maps onto clinical phenotype. Twenty-nine participants with HD underwent motor cortex stimulation, while corticospinal excitabilit...

A case of adenocarcinoma with enteroblastic differentiation of the ampulla of Vater

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Cancer of the ampulla of Vater is rare, though it has various histological types and its histogenesis is fascinating in view of the anatomically complex nature of the ampulla. Fetal gut‐like adenocarcinoma, usually found in the stomach, can also develop in the ampullary region in extremely rare cases. Here we present a case of ampullary adenocarcinoma with enteroblastic and neuroendocrine differentiation. A 55‐year‐old woman presented with an epigastric pain. Endoscopic examination revealed a 2‐cm submucosal tumor‐like lesion in the ampulla. The surgical specimen showed that an exposed protruding type of tumor appeared as a well‐demarcated whitish‐yellow solid mass. Microscopically, the tumor had proliferated in the common channel and invaded the duodenal submucosa with mucos...

Muscle biopsies from human muscle diseases with myopathic pathology reveal common alterations in mitochondrial function

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 20:22:37 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Neurochemistry)

Ultrasound diagnosis of uterine myomas.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 17:33:02 +0100

Authors: Fascilla FD, Cramarossa P, Cannone R, Olivieri C, Vimercati A, Exacoustos C Abstract Myomas represent a large part of benign gynecological pathology, widely spread in fertile female population. First step to diagnose fibroids is ultrasound (US) that can be 2-dimensional (2D), 3-dimensional (3D), Color Doppler (CD) and sonohysterography (SHG). This review develops according to MUSA's sonographic features (Morphological Uterus Sonographic Assessment). One of the main topic of interest for ultrasonographer today is endo/myometrial Junctional Zone (JZ) because it may be useful to discern a diagnosis of myoma and adenomyosis. Another important aspect of ultrasound is the analysis of vasculariza- tion in front of an uterine lesion. Indeed, vascular pattern can be used to make di...

High-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and risk of progression to vaginal cancer: a multicentre study of the Italian Society of Colposcopy and Cervico-Vaginal Pathology (SICPCV).

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:11:03 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: A higher rate of progression to vaginal cancer was reported in women diagnosed with VaIN3 on biopsy and in women with previous hysterectomy for HPV-related cervical disease. These patients should be considered at higher risk, thus a long lasting and accurate follow up is recommended. PMID: 27010135 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences)

p57Kip2 knock‐in mouse reveals CDK‐independent contribution in the development of Beckwith‐Wiedemann syndrome

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 08:34:27 +0100

Abstract CDKN1C encodes the cyclin‐CDK inhibitor p57Kip2 (p57), a negative regulator of the cell cycle and putative tumor suppressor. Genetic and epigenetic alterations causing loss of p57 function are the most frequent cause of Beckwith‐Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), a genetic disorder characterized by multiple developmental anomalies and increased susceptibility to tumour development during childhood. So far, BWS development has been attributed entirely to the deregulation of proliferation caused by loss of p57‐mediated CDK inhibition. However, a fraction of BWS patients have point mutations in CDKN1C located outside of the CDK inhibitory region, suggesting the involvement of other parts of the protein in the disease. To test this possibility, we generated knock‐in mice deficient for ...

Association of Cervical Microglandular Hyperplasia With Exogenous Progestin Exposure

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 08:13:15 +0100

Conclusions: Our data show that a significantly higher percentage of women with microglandular hyperplasia had progestin exposure than women who do not exhibit this benign lesion. Clinicians and pathologists should be aware of this association, as well as the benign nature of the lesion. (Source: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease)

Distinguishing Erosive Lichen Planus From Differentiated Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 08:13:15 +0100

Conclusions: A small subset of clinically diagnosed vulvovaginal erosive LP will show on histopathology a regenerative erosive vulvitis with loss of epithelial maturation and nuclear changes, which requires clinicopathologic correlation to distinguish from dVIN. (Source: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease)

Professor Sir Roddy MacSween – Obituary

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Histopathology)

Accuracy of preoperative endometrial sampling diagnosis for predicting the final pathology grading in uterine endometrioid carcinoma

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Preoperative endometrial sampling was found to be only a modest overall predictor of postoperative histological grading. A selective staging policy based on predictive models to avoid lymph node dissections in endometrial cancer should take into account additional parameters. (Source: European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO))

Catecholamines and their O -methylated metabolites in vitreous humor in hypothermia cases

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Globally considered, our findings seem to suggest that, contrary to urine catecholamines and their O-methylated metabolites, vitreous levels of these compounds appear to be of limited value in characterizing human antemortem stress reactions due to cold exposure and can hardly be used in the forensic setting to support the diagnosis of hypothermia. (Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)

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A rare report of fatal torture

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)

An Association of Hippocampal Malformations and Sudden Death? We Need More Data

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)

Pathological alpha‐synuclein in gastrointestinal tissues from prodromal parkinson's disease patients

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study investigates whether Lewy pathology is present in various gastrointestinal tract tissues from Parkinson's disease patients in the prodromal phase. Methods: We used the Danish National Pathology Registry, to identify archived paraffin embedded tissue blocks from 57 Parkinson's disease patients (98 blocks) and 90 control subjects (98 blocks). We employed two different immunohistochemistry techniques visualizing aggregated α ‐synuclein and phosphorylated α ‐synuclein. Results: Thirty‐nine Parkinson's disease patients contributed tissues obtained in the prodromal disease phase, whilst 18 Parkinson's disease patients contributed tissues obtained solely after Parkinson's diagnosis. Prodromal tissues were obtained on average 7.0 years prior to diagnosis (range: 20 years – 4 m...

Immunocytochemical utility of claudin‐4 versus those of Ber‐EP4 and MOC‐31 in effusion cytology

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsSince CL4 exhibited similar or superior usefulness to Ber‐EP4 and MOC‐31, it could become the first choice for the above differential diagnosis in effusion cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Diagnostic Cytopathology)

The Etiology and Arthroscopic Surgical Management of Cam Lesions

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Cam-type deformity of the proximal femur is a relative increase in the discrepancy of the femoral head–neck offset. The etiology is unknown; several conditions have been implicated in the development of abnormal proximal femoral anatomy. Recent evidence suggests that high-impact sports place stress on the immature physis during growth may play an important role. Imaging is essential in the initial diagnostic workup, characterization of pathology, preoperative planning, and intraoperative decision making. Short-term and mid-term outcomes for arthroscopic osteoplasty of cam lesions for both isolated cam-type deformity and mixed cam–pincer femoroacetabular impingement have been well-described and are favorable. (Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine)

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An Empirical Study of Personality Disorders Among Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract The primary aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of personality disorders in problem gamblers, to explore the relationship between personality disorders and problem gambling severity, and to explore the degree to which the psychological symptoms highlighted in the biosocial developmental model of borderline personality disorder (impulsivity, distress tolerance, substance use, PTSD symptoms, psychological distress and work/social adjustment) are associated with problem gambling. A secondary aim was to explore the strength of the relationships between these symptoms and problem gambling severity in problem gamblers with and without personality disorder pathology. Participants were 168 consecutively admitted problem gamblers seeking treatment from a specialist o...

Coprophagia in neurologic disorders

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We report on the unusual behavior of coprophagia (eating one’s own feces) in neurologic disorders. The Mayo Clinic Health Sciences-computerized clinical database was queried for all patients evaluated at our institution between 1995 and 2015 in which coprophagia was documented in the medical records. Twenty-six patients were identified of which 17 had coprophagia. Of the 17 patients, five were excluded due to age at onset less than 10 years, leaving 12 adult patients for this study. The median age at onset of coprophagia in the 12 patients was 55 years (range 20–88 years), and half were female. Additional behaviors were common including scatolia (fecal smearing), hypersexuality, aggression, and pica (eating objects of any kind). Coprophagia was associated with neurodegenerative deme...

DoD re-ups Philips contract for $77m

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 22:06:12 +0100

Royal Philips (NYSE:PHG) won a maximum $77 million modification through the U.S. Department of Defense as the 7th year in a possible 9-year contract for medical equipment. The contract positions Philips to supply the DoD with patient monitoring systems, subsystems, accessories, consumables, spare or repair parts and training on the systems, and comes as a fixed-price with economic price adjustment contract. The Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps and federal civilian agencies are included in the contract, with appropriation from the fiscal 2016 to the fiscal 2017 years, according to a DoD press release. Earlier this month, Philips said it won security compliance certification from the DoD for its digital pathology solutions, claiming it is the pathology IT system to win clearance under the...

Gender-related differences in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: a population-based study from the Swedish National Registry of Urinary Bladder Cancer.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 21:31:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based cohort comprising virtually all patients diagnosed with UBC in Sweden between 1997 and 2011, female gender was associated with inferior cancer-specific and relative survival. Although women had a higher rate of aggressive tumours, a smaller proportion of women than men received optimal treatment. PMID: 27002743 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Urology)

Endoplasmic reticulum stress and its effects on renal tubular cells apoptosis in ischemic acute kidney injury.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 21:30:02 +0100

Authors: Xu Y, Guo M, Jiang W, Dong H, Han Y, An XF, Zhang J Abstract Ischemia is the most frequent cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is characterized by apoptosis of renal tubular cell. A common result of ischemia in AKI is dysfunction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which causes the protein-folding capacity to lag behind the protein-folding load. The abundance of misfolded proteins stressed the ER and results in induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). While the UPR is an adaptive response, over time it can result in apoptosis when cells are unable to recover quickly. Recent research suggests that ER stress is a major factor in renal tubular cell apoptosis resulting from ischemic AKI. Thus, ER stress may be an important new progression factor in the pathology of i...

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Red Blood Cell Processing Method and In-hospital MortalityRed Blood Cell Processing Method and In-hospital Mortality

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:00:25 +0100

Fresh whole blood filtered units are associated with increased in-hospital mortality compared with mid-age red cell filtered units, researchers from Canada have observed. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)

Cortical Inhibition, MST in Depression, Suicidal IdeationCortical Inhibition, MST in Depression, Suicidal Ideation

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 18:46:55 +0100

Inhibition in the frontal cortex could serve as a biomarker for whether patients with treatment-resistant depression and suicidal ideation will recover with magnetic seizure therapy (MST), new research suggests. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Pathology Headlines)

Association of HMGCR polymorphism with late-onset Alzheimer's disease in Han Chinese.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

In conclusion, our study demonstrates A allele of HMGCR rs3846662 acts as a protective factor for LOAD in northern Han Chinese. PMID: 27009838 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)

Tubular atrophy in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease progression

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Abstract The longstanding focus in chronic kidney disease (CKD) research has been on the glomerulus, which is sensible because this is where glomerular filtration occurs, and a large proportion of progressive CKD is associated with significant glomerular pathology. However, it has been known for decades that tubular atrophy is also a hallmark of CKD and that it is superior to glomerular pathology as a predictor of glomerular filtration rate decline in CKD. Nevertheless, there are vastly fewer studies that investigate the causes of tubular atrophy, and fewer still that identify potential therapeutic targets. The purpose of this review is to discuss plausible mechanisms of tubular atrophy, including tubular epithelial cell apoptosis, cell senescence, peritubular capillary rarefacti...

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Resilience: A psychobiological construct for psychiatric disorders - Shrivastava A, Desousa A.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

Understanding of psychopathology of mental disorder is evolving, particularly with availability of newer insight from the field of genetics, epigenetics, social, and environmental pathology. It is now becoming clear how biological factors are contributing ... (Source: SafetyLit)

[Series] Mitral valve disease—current management and future challenges

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:07:08 +0100

The field of mitral valve disease diagnosis and management is rapidly changing. New understanding of disease pathology and progression, with improvements in and increased use of sophisticated imaging modalities, have led to early diagnosis and complex treatment. In primary mitral regurgitation, surgical repair is the standard of care. Treatment of asymptomatic patients with severe mitral regurgitation in valve reference centres, in which successful repair is more than 95% and surgical mortality is less than 1%, should be the expectation for the next 5 years. (Source: LANCET)

Arthroscopic Treatment of Traumatic Hip Dislocation.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 10:11:02 +0100

Authors: Begly JP, Robins B, Youm T Abstract Traumatic hip dislocations are high-energy injuries that often result in considerable morbidity. Although appropriate management improves outcomes, associated hip pathology may complicate the recovery and lead to future disability and pain. Historically, open reduction has been the standard of care for treating hip dislocations that require surgical intervention. The use of hip arthroscopy to treat the sequelae and symptoms resulting from traumatic hip dislocations recently has increased, however. When used appropriately, hip arthroscopy is a safe, effective, and minimally invasive treatment option for intra-articular pathology secondary to traumatic hip dislocation. PMID: 27007728 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Jou...

Diagnostic Errors Get the Attention of the Institute of Medicine, Reinforcing Efforts by Nation’s Clinical Pathology Laboratory Scientists to Improve Patient Safety

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 10:00:32 +0100

Along with its assessment of the rate of errors in diagnosis, the IOM has a plan to improve, but will doctors accept the IOM’s advice, or continue business as usual? Diagnostic errors in the American healthcare system is a problem that is now on the radar screen of policymakers at the Institute of Medicine (IOM). […] (Source: Dark Daily)

Prostate cancer: from Gleason scoring to prognostic grade grouping.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 07:45:02 +0100

Authors: Montironi R, Santoni M, Mazzucchelli R, Burattini L, Berardi R, Galosi AB, Cheng L, Lopez-Beltran A, Briganti A, Montorsi F, Scarpelli M Abstract The Gleason grading system was developed in the late 1960s by Dr. Donald F. Gleason. Due to changes in prostatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) detection and treatment, newer technologies to better characterize prostatic pathology, subsequently described variants of PAC and further data relating various morphologic patterns to prognosis, the application of the Gleason grading system changed substantially in surgical pathology. First in 2005 and more recently in 2014, consensus conferences were held to update PAC grading. Here, we review of the successive changes in the grading of PAC from the original system, with emphasis on the newest pr...

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Injuries in jumpers - are there any patterns?

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 06:50:02 +0100

Authors: Rocos B, Chesser TJ Abstract Suicide as a cause of death, affects every health system, and is a particular problem in heavily urbanised states and low and middle income countries (which account for 75% of suicide deaths). The World Health Organisation records that 800000 commit suicide each year, representing 1.4% of annual global deaths, and that suicide was the second leading cause of death in 15-29 year-olds across the world in 2012. In the United Kingdom, jumping from height accounts for 3%-5% of the 140000 suicide attempts annually is similar incidence to the rest of Europe. The Medline and EMBASE were interrogated for studies examining suicide caused by jumping from height. Manual screening of titles and abstracts was used to identify relevant works before data was e...

Current trends and controversies in reproductive surgery.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:38:02 +0100

Authors: Choussein S, Hariton E, Bortoletto P, Gargiulo A Abstract Even in the context of the expansion of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), reproductive surgery continues to fulfill its deserved place in the arsenal of fertility treatments. Rather than being competitive, these two avenues of treatment can optimize fertility care when utilized as an adjunct to one another. Surgical indications and techniques in modern reproductive surgery continue to evolve based on new information about the effects of pelvic pathology on infertility and new technology. This review aims to disentangle some of the common clinical dilemmas facing reproductive specialists in regard to the effect of benign gynecologic pathology on fertility and the relevance of surgical intervention in enhancin...

Is Bad Luck the Cause of Most Cancers in Nigeria?

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 02:39:28 +0100

This article was originally published by the University of Michigan Risk Science Center -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website. (Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post)

Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Inhibits Oxygen-Induced Retinal Neovascularization in a Murine Model.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 00:32:03 +0100

CONCLUSION: Locally administered PEDF is a potentially effective vascular inhibitory factor for the treatment and prevention of retinopathy of prematurity. PMID: 27003382 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology)

Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma arising in fibroadenoma of the breast-A case report–

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Myofibroblastic sarcoma or myofibrosarcoma is a malignant tumor of myofibroblasts and known to develop rarely in the breast, but its underlying lesion and tumor cell origin have never been reported yet. (Source: Diagnostic Pathology)

Adrenal Imaging: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:44:02 +0100

Authors: McCarthy CJ, McDermott S, Blake MA Abstract The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys and play an important role in the endocrine system. Each adrenal gland contains an outer cortex, responsible mainly for the secretion of androgens and corticosteroids, and an inner medulla, which secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. Here, we review the anatomy of the adrenal glands and explain the current imaging modalities that are most useful for the assessment of the various conditions - both benign and malignant - that can affect these glands. As adrenal lesions are often identified incidentally on cross-sectional imaging performed for other reasons, the management of such adrenal 'incidentalomas' is also discussed. In many cases, adrenal lesions have distinctive imag...

Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:44:02 +0100

Authors: Warren Frunzac R, Richards M Abstract Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are advanced imaging modalities that are not typically utilized as part of the initial evaluation of thyroid and parathyroid pathology. However, both modalities have applications in complex cases, particularly in the reoperative setting and in operative planning for initial or recurrent carcinomas. As part of a multimodal approach, CT and MRI can increase the successful preoperative localization of abnormal parathyroid glands. Newer imaging modalities, such as PET-CT and SPECT-CT in thyroid imaging, and 4D-CT in parathyroid imaging, can provide information on the anatomy as well as the function of pathologic tissues. Both modalities provide excellent assessment of the extent...

Molecular Imaging of Pituitary Pathology.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:44:02 +0100

Authors: de Herder WW Abstract The presence of large numbers and/or the high affinity of dopamine D2 and/or somatostatin receptors on pituitary adenomas may enable their visualization with radionuclide-coupled receptor agonists or antagonists. However, the role of these imaging modalities in the differential diagnosis of or therapeutic purposes for pituitary lesions is very limited. Only in very specific cases might these molecular imaging techniques become helpful. These include the differential diagnosis of pituitary lesions, ectopic production of pituitary hormones, such as adrenocorticotrophic hormone, growth hormone (GH) or their releasing hormones (corticotropin-releasing hormone and GH-releasing hormone), and the localization of metastases from pituitary carcinomas. PMI...

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Accuracy of vision technicians in screening ocular pathology at rural vision centres of southern India

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionAs there is good agreement between the vision technicians and the ophthalmologist for screening and referral of anterior segment pathology but moderate to fair for glaucoma suspects and retinal pathology, vision technicians would be a good resource at the primary level to screen for anterior segment pathology; however, they may need further training to detect posterior segment pathology. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Optometry)

Monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis in the Netherlands, 2013–2015

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

The objective of the present study was to analyse the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolates from post-mortem samples from pigs in the Netherlands. S. suis isolates originated from diagnostic submissions of pigs sent to the Pathology Department of GD Animal Health, from April 2013 till June 2015. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of in total 15 antimicrobials were assessed by broth microdilution following CLSI recommendations. MIC50 and MIC90 values were determined and MICs were interpreted as susceptible, intermediate and resistant using CLSI veterinary breakpoints (when available). Emergence of resistance among S. suis (n=1163) derived from clinical submissions of pigs appeared to be limited. Resistance to ampicillin, ceftiofur, clindamycin, enrofloxa...

Links between coagulation, inflammation, regeneration, and fibrosis in kidney pathology

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Beatriz Suárez-Álvarez, Helen Liapis & Hans-Joachim Anders (Source: Laboratory Investigation)

A robust nonlinear tissue-component discrimination method for computational pathology

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Jacob S Sarnecki, Kathleen H Burns, Laura D Wood, Kevin M Waters, Ralph H Hruban, Denis Wirtz & Pei-Hsun Wu (Source: Laboratory Investigation)

Inflammation Mediated by JNK in Myeloid Cells Promotes the Development of Hepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Cell Reports Author(s): Myoung Sook Han, Tamera Barrett, Michael A. Brehm, Roger J. Davis The cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is required for the development of hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A role for JNK in liver parenchymal cells has been proposed, but more recent studies have implicated non-parenchymal liver cells as the relevant site of JNK signaling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that myeloid cells mediate this function of JNK. We show that mice with myeloid cell-specific JNK deficiency exhibit reduced hepatic inflammation and suppression of both hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. These data identify myeloid cells as a site of pro-inflammatory signaling by JNK that can promote liver path...

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How should we manage early tricuspid valve regurgitation after heart transplantation?

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Tricuspid valvular regurgitation (TVR) is the most frequent valvular pathology after heart transplantation (HTx), with a reported incidence ranging from 19% to 84% [1]. In our center, early TVR, defined as moderate to severe insufficiency at post transplant discharge, was observed in 23% of patients [2]. Although the clinical course of TVR is often assumed to be benign, the development of early TVR in our transplant population was associated with impaired survival [2]. We have, therefore, starting in 2010, adapted a more active approach with surgical intervention for patients who developed severe TVR early after HTx. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)

Mitral valve disease—current management and future challenges

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 26 March–1 April 2016 Source:The Lancet, Volume 387, Issue 10025 Author(s): Rick A Nishimura, Alec Vahanian, Mackram F Eleid, Michael J Mack The field of mitral valve disease diagnosis and management is rapidly changing. New understanding of disease pathology and progression, with improvements in and increased use of sophisticated imaging modalities, have led to early diagnosis and complex treatment. In primary mitral regurgitation, surgical repair is the standard of care. Treatment of asymptomatic patients with severe mitral regurgitation in valve reference centres, in which successful repair is more than 95% and surgical mortality is less than 1%, should be the expectation for the next 5 years. Transcatheter mitral valve repair with a MitraClip device is also pr...

Dura mater is a potential source of Aβ seeds

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain parenchyma and vessels is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD). Recent observations of Aβ deposition in iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) after dural grafting or treatment with pituitary extracts raised concerns whether Aβ is capable of transmitting disease as seen in prion diseases by the disease-associated prion protein. To address this issue, we re-sampled and re-evaluated archival material, including the grafted dura mater of two cases with iCJD (28 and 33-years-old) without mutations in the AβPP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 genes, and carrying ε3/ε3 alleles of the APOE gene. In addition, we evaluated 84 dura mater samples obtained at autopsy (mean age 84.9 ± 0.3) in the community-based VITA study for the pre...

Microstructural and compositional contributions towards the mechanical behavior of aging human bone measured by cyclic and impact reference point indentation

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

The assessment of fracture risk often relies primarily on measuring bone mineral density, thereby accounting for only a single pathology: the loss of bone mass. However, bone's ability to resist fracture is a result of its biphasic composition and hierarchical structure that imbue it with high strength and toughness. Reference point indentation (RPI) testing is designed to directly probe bone mechanical behavior at the microscale in situ, although it remains unclear which aspects of bone composition and structure influence the results at this scale. (Source: Bone)

This Month in AJP

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

The following highlights summarize research articles that are published in the current issue of The American Journal of Pathology. (Source: American Journal of Pathology)

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Mechanisms of Lung Fibrosis Resolution

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Fibrogenesis involves a dynamic interplay between factors that promote the biosynthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix along with pathways that degrade the extracellular matrix and eliminate the primary effector cells. Opposing the often held perception that fibrotic tissue is permanent, animal studies and clinical data now demonstrate the highly plastic nature of organ fibrosis that can, under certain circumstances, regress. This review describes the current understanding of the mechanisms whereby the lung is known to resolve fibrosis focusing on degradation of the extracellular matrix, removal of myofibroblasts, and the role of inflammatory cells. (Source: American Journal of Pathology)

The Detection of Infectious Prions

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This commentary highlights the article by Gray et al describing a novel diagnostic protocol for rapidly testing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. (Source: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics)

Author Reply

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We appreciate the editorial comment and agree with the editor's take-home message of our paper.1 Detection of high-grade prostate cancer is not likely to be improved by increasing the number of cores in systematic core biopsy. Instead, we need to adopt and further refine modern imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging- or magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasound-fusion to detect high-grade tumor and to guide core biopsy. The editor raised two important issues. One is whether pathologists can define risk subgroups of Gleason pattern 4 and the second is whether the presence of any amount of Gleason pattern 4 on needle biopsy should be considered as “clinically significant” cancer. (Source: Urology)

Compressive and shear hip joint contact forces are affected by pediatric obesity during walking

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study sought to determine the relationships between body mass and compressive and shear hip joint contact forces during walking. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during treadmill walking at 1m•s−1 in 10 obese and 10 healthy-weight 8–12 year-olds. We estimated body composition, segment masses, lower-extremity alignment, and femoral neck angle via radiographic images, created personalized musculoskeletal models in OpenSim, and computed muscle forces and hip joint contact forces. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)

Cholinergic System and Post-translational Modifications: An Insight on the Role in Alzheimer's Disease.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: Despite the accumulating evidences, the interaction between cholinergic neurotransmission and the physiological significance of PTM events remain speculative and still needs further exploration. This review focuses on the role of cholinergic system and discusses the significance of PTMs in pathological progression of AD and highlights some important future directions. PMID: 27012953 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Neuropharmacology)

LumiThera wins Health Canada nod for photobiomodulation trial

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 21:14:23 +0100

LumiThera said today it won Health Canada approval for its Lightsite clinical trial examining the effect of its non-invasive photobiomodulation treatment in patients with age-related macular degeneration. The Seattle-based company’s study is being sponsored by a grant from the National Institute of Health and the division of the National Eye Institute. “The design of the study is to extend the previous clinical benefits in a double-masked, randomized, sham-controlled, parallel group study to assess the safety and efficacy of PBM in subjects with dry AMD. We believe this study will lay a solid foundation for the LumiThera device as a novel therapeutic approach to treating a very debilitating, degenerative ocular disease,” co-investigator Dr. Sam Markowitz said in prepared...

Adult Degenerative Scoliosis

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 20:34:54 +0100

The treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis begins in the outpatient setting when evaluating a patient both radiographically. Assessing the flexibility of the deformity is essential in determining what techniques will be required to achieve the goals of correction. Ultimately the surgeon’s comfort and experience and the patient’s medical risk stratification determine the strategy needed to address either a focal pathology or ultimate deformity correction. (Source: Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques)

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Cytokine profile and lymphocyte subsets in type 2 diabetes.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 20:18:03 +0100

In conclusion, this study shows increased numbers of circulating IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells in patients with T2D, suggesting that these cytokines are involved in the immune pathology of this disease. PMID: 27007651 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Med Biol Res)

The Use of Minipigs for Preclinical Safety Assessment by the Pharmaceutical Industry: Results of an IQ DruSafe Minipig Survey.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 19:34:01 +0100

Conclusions of this survey indicate that minipig is an acceptable nonrodent species largely limited to studies using small molecules, primarily dermal products, and results are comparable to those reported 5 years ago. PMID: 27006130 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Toxicologic Pathology)

Patient-Derived Xenograft: An Adjuvant Technology for the Treatment of Metastatic Disease

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 18:34:25 +0100

The occurrence of metastases severely affects prognosis for patients with cancer, making metastatic disease a daily societal challenge. Because of resistance to drugs, the potential curability with chemotherapy at the metastatic stage remains low. Large genomic analyses to identify new targets have their limitations due to intratumor heterogeneity when they are performed on tumor samples from primary tumors and because the functional value of molecular abnormalities in a cancer is usually not known. Additional tools are thus required for the development of new anticancer agents. The use of preclinical models is a key component of translational research in oncology. For four decades, xenograft models of human cancer cell lines injected subcutaneously in immunocompromised mice have been wide...

Below the Callus Surface: Applying Paleohistological Techniques to Understand the Biology of Bone Healing in Skeletonized Human Remains

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 18:34:25 +0100

Conclusion: The outer surface of a bone lesion may not give a complete picture of the biology of the tissue's response. Accordingly, microscopic analysis is essential to differentiate, characterize, and classify trauma signs.Pathobiology 2016;83:177-195 (Source: Pathobiology)

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A Subset of Ectomesenchymal Chondromyxoid Tumors of the Tongue shows EWSR1 Rearrangements and is Genetically Linked to Soft Tissue Myoepithelial Neoplasms: A study of 11 cases

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 18:34:11 +0100

ConclusionsWe identified EWSR1 rearrangement in > 25% of ECTs. These results suggest that some ECTs are at least genetically related to myoepithelioma of the soft parts. Finally, PLAG1 aberrations do not appear to be critical in the pathogenesis of ECT of the tongue.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Histopathology)

Immunohistochemical expression of GLUT‐1, GLUT‐3, and carbonic anhydrase IX in benign odontogenic lesions

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 18:34:10 +0100

ConclusionsThese results suggest that GLUT‐1 may be involved in the metabolic regulation of glucose in odontogenic lesions studied. In addition, CA IX appears to influence the development of AM, OK, and DC which can explain the differences their biological behavior. (Source: Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine)

Dual-Drug Strategy Reduces Carpet of Polyps in FAP PatientsDual-Drug Strategy Reduces Carpet of Polyps in FAP Patients

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 18:32:31 +0100

Colon carpeted with polyps in FAP patients can be favorably affected with a novel dual-drug strategy that offers the first really tenable treatment for this condition. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Pathology Headlines)

Intensive Exercise May Delay Cognitive Decline by 10 Years Intensive Exercise May Delay Cognitive Decline by 10 Years

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 18:02:05 +0100

Two new analyses using data from the Northern Manhattan Study support the idea that exercise and good cardiovascular health can slow cognitive decline in later years. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Pathology Headlines)

The mechanical control of CNS development & pathology

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 16:39:00 +0100

This Wolfson CARD seminar will be presented by Dr Kristian Franz of the University of Cambridge and hosted by Professor Liz Bradbury. (Source: Institute of Psychiatry | Events)

Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Surgery in Restricted ROM PatientsArthroscopic Rotator Cuff Surgery in Restricted ROM Patients

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 16:00:00 +0100

Does preoperative restricted range of motion alter the postoperative outcomes of arthroscopic repair for rotator cuff pathology? BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders (Source: Medscape Orthopaedics Headlines)

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Four Neuroendocrine Tumor Types and Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Duodenum: Analysis of 203 Cases

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:43:24 +0100

Conclusion: Our careful analysis of a large series of duodenal NENs identified five histologically and prognostically different histotypes of potential clinical relevance.Neuroendocrinology (Source: Neuroendocrinology)

High-risk follicular dendritic cell sarcoma of the tonsil mimicking nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:58:02 +0100

Authors: Horváth E, Mocan S, Chira L, Erno E, Turcu M Abstract Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is often misdiagnosed as a carcinoma or malignant lymphoma due to morphological variability. In FDCS application of routine antibody panels without CD21 and CD23 increases the misdiagnosis rate, because the tumor cells often show focal positivity for usual immunohistochemical markers. Our new case showed a distinct picture due to the uncommon tumor architecture, with extensive areas of necrosis and hemorrhage, the presence of nuclear atypia, and an increased mitotic count and Ki-67 index. These features suggest the classification of this tumor in the category of high-risk malignancies, with uncommon features of FDCSs. PMID: 27003778 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Polish Jou...

Asymptomatic gastric heterotopia in the rectum with Helicobacter pylori infection.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:58:02 +0100

We report a case of a 58-year-old woman with asymptomatic gastric heterotopia in the rectum, incidentally revealed during colonoscopy as a small, sessile polyp. The presence of H. pylori was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. This finding supports the opinion that H. pylori may pass along the gastrointestinal tract in a viable form and that the fecal-oral route of transmission is possible. PMID: 27003777 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Polish Journal of Pathology)

Histopathological assessment of residual retroperitoneal mass removed in patients after chemotherapy for non-seminomatous germ cell tumours of the testis.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:58:02 +0100

Authors: Jaszczyński J, Wilk W, Kruczak A, Wohadlo Ł, Faron P, Łuczyńska E, Chłosta P, Stelmach A, Jakubowicz J Abstract Between 1990 and 1999, 182 men were treated for non-seminomatous germ cell testicular tumours. In 24 of them after chemotherapy a residual retroperitoneal mass was removed. In 14 of them additional immunohistochemical (IHC) examinations using antibodies against cytokeratins, vimentin, PLAP, CD30, AFP, βhCG, p53, and MIB-1 were performed. We compared the results of those additional studies with the results of routine histopathological examination. Histological assessment revealed most frequently (ca. 54% of cases) non-neoplastic lesions, i.e. fibro-cystic, necrotic or inflammatory tumours and lymphatic tissue. In about 33% of cases, surviving live neoplastic...

Expression of β-catenin and its correlation with metastatic progression of esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:58:02 +0100

Authors: Wlodarczyk J, Rudnicka-Sosin L, Kużdżał J Abstract The evaluation of β-catenin expression in adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction and its influence on cancer progression. Sixty-one patients who were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction were examined. We evaluated β-catenin distribution in the cell membrane and the cell nucleus in adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction type 1 and type 3. Our findings showed lack of a statistically significant difference in evaluation of adenocarcinoma type 1 and type 3 aggressiveness. However, we found a statistically significant association with the T and N stage, although we did not find an effect of them on patient survival. Patients with cellular membrane and cell nucleus staining comprise...

Morphometric differentiation of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the cervix.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:58:02 +0100

Authors: Wesoła M, Jeleń M Abstract The aim of the study was to define the morphometric characteristics of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) cells and identify opportunities to differentiate these tumors based on determination of the morphometric characteristics in order to use the results of research in the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Pap smears with two histopathologically confirmed cervix cancers were used for testing. For the morphometric assessment of cancer cells the dotSlide program was used. The mean nucleus area for AC cells was 126.62 × 10-6 m2, while this value for SCC was 145.07 × 10-6 m2 (p = 0.000132). The mean circumference of AC cells was 42.43 × 10-6 m, while for SCC cells it was 46.67 × 10-6 m (p = 0.00). AC cell diameter was 13.83 µm,...

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Research on genesis of adipocytic metaplasia in uterine fibroids.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:58:02 +0100

Authors: Sośnik H, Jeleń M, Kosiński M, Sośnik K Abstract The genesis of lipoleiomyoma has not been explained yet. Immunohistochemical examinations were performed on 17 lipoleiomyomas in women aged 43-82 (mean age: 51 ±9 years). Four types of myomas were distinguished: 1) pure leiomyoma, 2) fibroleiomyoma, 3) hyalinizing leiomyoma, 4) strongly hyalinized myoma, along with three degrees of progression of adipocytic metaplasia: 1) up to 25% of lipocytes, 2) up to 50% of lipocytes, and 3) over 50% of lipocytes in the analyzed sample, along with three degrees of progression of adipocytic metaplasia: 1) up to 25% of lipocytes, 2) up to 50% of lipocytes, and 3) over 50% of lipocytes in the analyzed sample. A positive correlation was found between the age of women and rate of develop...

Mast cells in systemic and cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:58:02 +0100

Authors: Kaczmarczyk-Sekuła K, Dyduch G, Kostański M, Wielowieyska-Szybińska D, Szpor J, Białas M, Okoń K Abstract Mast cells (MCs) are known to be regulators of inflammation and immunity, due to the released mediators and expressed cell surface molecules. Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a group of diseases which can be systemic or limited to the skin. Due to the fact that cytokines and chemokines produced by inflammatory cells contribute to the pathogenesis of LE, we quantified the number of mast cells present in the skin. The aim of the study was to compare the chymase-positive and tryptase-positive mast cell counts within skin biopsies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE). The ...

Prognostic value of p53 protein expression in giant cell tumor of bone.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:58:02 +0100

In conclusion, we believe that p53 may be used as a marker for the biological behavior of GCTB. PMID: 27003771 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Polish Journal of Pathology)

Rhabdomyosarcoma in children in the light of isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:58:02 +0100

Authors: Taran K, Frączek T, Sitkiewicz A, Paneth P, Kobos J Abstract Rhabdomyosarcoma is the third most common solid tumor in children and the most common soft tissue sarcoma in this age group. However, 5-year survival is only observed in approximately 70% of cases, and the prognosis for patients with progressive disease is still poor. The authors hypothesize that the still unidentified differences in embryonal and alveolar tumor biology reflect the complex chemical reactions occurring during cell growth and metabolism and may be pursued in isotopic fractionation processes. Presented herein is the first evaluation of the nitrogen and carbon isotope ratio using isotope ratio mass spectrometry in the two major rhabdomyosarcoma histologic types. 15N enrichment was found in tumor tis...

The prognostic significance of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase and the receptors for transforming growth factor β and interferon γ in metastatic lymph nodes in malignant melanoma.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:58:02 +0100

Authors: Pelak MJ, Śnietura M, Lange D, Nikiel B, Pecka KM Abstract We analyzed the prognostic significance of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and type 1 receptors for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-βR1) and interferon gamma (IFN-γR1) in resected nodal metastases of 48 malignant melanoma patients. In 32 cases the corresponding skin tumors were available. We used immunohistochemical (IHC) staining which was assessed by pathologists and by a computer-aided algorithm that yielded quantitative results, both absolute and relative. We correlated the results with the patient outcome. We identified absolute computer-assessed IDO levels as positively correlated with increased risk of death in a multivariate model (HR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.002-1.04; p = 0.03). In univariate analysis, ...

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Determinants of liver disease progression in children with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:58:02 +0100

Authors: Pokorska-Śpiewak M, Kowalik-Mikołajewska B, Aniszewska M, Pluta M, Walewska-Zielecka B, Marczyńska M Abstract Histopathological features and determinants of liver disease progression were analyzed in 42 treatment-naïve children (mean age: 10.7 ±3.7) with chronic hepatitis C (14/42 infected vertically and 26/42 horizontally). Histopathological evaluation was performed according to Knodell's modified system. Predictors of necroinflammation and fibrosis were identified using linear regression analyses. Most children presented with mild necroinflammation and fibrosis (mean grade 4.3 ±2.7, mean staging 1.2 ±0.8), irrespective of the mode of transmission. Vertically infected children were younger than those infected horizontally (8.6 ±2.5 vs. 11.5 ±3.7 years, p = 0.02)....

Spectrum of biopsy-proven renal diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A single center study.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:58:02 +0100

Authors: Wągrowska-Danilewicz M, Danilewicz M Abstract This is the first report from Poland documenting biopsy-proven renal diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We analyzed the data of 76 patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent renal biopsy and were diagnosed in the Department of Nephropathology, Medical University of Lodz. The patients were divided into the following three groups according to the histological diagnosis: group I - isolated non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD); group II - NDRD superimposed on underlying diabetic nephropathy (NDRD + DN); and group III - isolated diabetic nephropathy (DN). Non-diabetic renal disease was found in 38 patients (50%), non-diabetic renal disease superimposed on underlying diabetic nephropathy was diagnosed in 11 patients (14.5%), and is...

Clinicopathologic analysis of isolated hematuria in child/adolescent and adult patients.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:58:02 +0100

Authors: Chen G, Zhu J, Song M, Ma L, Pan T, Yang Q, Zhang W Abstract To our knowledge, no in-depth clinicopathologic study of isolated hematuria (IH) is currently available. To address this gap, we analyzed the clinicopathologic features of IH as it manifests in child/adolescent and adult patients. The clinical data and pathological types of 543 IH patients who underwent renal pathological examinations from January 2005 to June 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical manifestations differed among the age groups: children/adolescents exhibited the highest percentage of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (41.78%), whereas adults showed the highest percentage of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) (52.39%). In addition, the percentage of IH patients who were classified a...

Androgen receptor in male breast cancer.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:58:02 +0100

We present the androgen receptor (AR) status in 32 breast cancers diagnosed in male patients. Androgen receptor expression was found in 62.5% tumors and it was more frequent (85% of cases) in estrogen-positive tumours. The analyses of its impact on treatment results showed that AR immmunopositivity is a prognostic factor for overall survival, and AR immunonegativity is also correlated with worse prognosis (distant metastases developed more frequently and earlier). PMID: 27003765 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Polish Journal of Pathology)

Hypoxia in breast cancer.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:58:02 +0100

Authors: Badowska-Kozakiewicz AM, Budzik MP, Przybylski J Abstract Breast cancer continues to be one of the most common malignancies and is a serious problem particularly in women, although men may also be affected. Such lesions are commonly accompanied by hypoxia, and therefore hypoxia-dependent mechanisms, such as overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), the mechanisms are studied as part of the search for a novel method of cancer treatment. Blocking the activity of HIF and HIF-dependent molecular changes raises hopes for identification of a molecular target to inhibit the tumor growth or even to completely prevent its progression. However, this is difficult due to the crucial role HIF plays in numerous processes occurring not only in cancer cells but mostly in healthy s...

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Bipolar disorder and substance use disorders. Madrid study on the prevalence of dual disorders/pathology - Arias F, Szerman N, Vega P, Mesías B, Basurte I, Rentero D.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 02:14:47 +0100

The objective was to evaluate the characteristics of patients from community mental health and substance... (Source: SafetyLit)

Evaluating the Clinical Applicability of the European Staging System for Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 01:35:19 +0100

Conclusions Without templated radiology, surgery, and pathology reports, the ESS cannot be applied to current clinical/research practice. Although resection continues to provide significant survival benefit to patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, lack of an accurate prognostic tool for resectability and outcomes continues to be a major impediment to progress in the field. (Source: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery)

Trans-Balloon Visualisation During Dilatation (TBVD) of Oesophageal Strictures: a Novel Innovation

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 01:35:19 +0100

Conclusions TBVD is a safe technique with a short learning curve and is one of the important factors that allow potentially difficult dilatations to be performed safely with an exceptionally low rate of adverse events of less than 1 %. (Source: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery)

Apocrine mixed tumor of the eyelid: a case report

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Apocrine mixed tumor is usually found in parotid glands. Its cutaneous counterpart is rare and its occurrence in the eyelids is even rarer. (Source: Diagnostic Pathology)

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Primary HPV testing: a proposal for co‐testing in initial rounds of screening to optimise sensitivity of cervical cancer screening

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:34:13 +0100

This article proposes a compromise: cytology and HPV co‐testing for the first two screening tests to optimise the sensitivity of the test as a whole. Registrations of invasive and in situ carcinoma of the uterine cervix in England indicate that the prevalence of the disease is highest in young women in the early rounds of screening. Calculations of the likely impact on the workload of this proposal have been based on a service evaluation of 295 cytology tests received at St Thomas’ Hospital, which suggests that the volume of cytology tests would be reduced by approximately 60% compared with 80% for primary HPV testing alone. This proposal should be debated openly before irrevocable changes are made to a skilled workforce. (Source: Cytopathology)

Comparative study of indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay, and the Tzanck smear test for the diagnosis of pemphigus

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:34:08 +0100

ConclusionsThe serial test for the Tzanck smear test and enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay may represent a simple, rapid, and reliable way to definitive diagnosis of pemphigus. It is recommended as a common test for the diagnosis of pemphigus in dental clinics. (Source: Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine)

The microbiota–gut–brain axis and its potential therapeutic role in autism spectrum disorder

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 2 June 2016 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 324 Author(s): Q. Li, J.-M. Zhou Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a series of neurodevelopmental disorders that are characterized by deficits in both social and cognitive functions. Although the exact etiology and pathology of ASD remain unclear, a disorder of the microbiota–gut–brain axis is emerging as a prominent factor in the generation of autistic behaviors. Clinical studies have shown that gastrointestinal symptoms and compositional changes in the gut microbiota frequently accompany cerebral disorders in patients with ASD. A disturbance in the gut microbiota, which is usually induced by a bacterial infection or chronic antibiotic exposure, has been implicated as a potential contributor to ASD. The bidirectional microb...

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Differences in Host Cell Invasion and Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Expression between Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi A and Nontyphoidal S. Typhimurium [Molecular Pathogenesis]

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Active invasion into nonphagocytic host cells is central to Salmonella enterica pathogenicity and dependent on multiple genes within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). Here, we explored the invasion phenotype and the expression of SPI-1 in the typhoidal serovar S. Paratyphi A compared to that of the nontyphoidal serovar S. Typhimurium. We demonstrate that while S. Typhimurium is equally invasive under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions, S. Paratyphi A invades only following growth under microaerobic conditions. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), Western blot, and secretome analyses established that S. Paratyphi A expresses much lower levels of SPI-1 genes and secretes lesser amounts of SPI-1 effector proteins than S. Typhimurium, especiall...

Is Huntington's disease a tauopathy?

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Tauopathies are a subclass of neurodegenerative diseases typified by the deposition of abnormal microtubule-associated tau protein within the cerebral tissue. Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, chronic traumatic encephalopathy and some fronto-temporal dementias are examples of the extended family of tauopathies. In the last decades, intermittent reports of cerebral tau pathology in individuals afflicted with Huntington’s disease—an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that manifests by severe motor, cognitive and psychiatric problems in adulthood—have also begun to surface. These observations remained anecdotal until recently when a series of publications brought forward compelling evidence that this monogenic disorder may, too, be a tauopathy. ...