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MedWorm: Neurology



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in Neurology



Last Build Date: Mon, 28 Mar 2016 17:37:25 +0100

 



Executive Impairment Is Associated with Impaired Memory Performance in Working-Aged Stroke Patients

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 15:36:32 +0100

Research ArticlesKatri E.A. Turunen, Siiri P.K. Laari, Tatu V. Kauranen, Satu Mustanoja, Turgut Tatlisumak, Erja Poutiainen Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society,FirstView Article(s), 10 pagesAbstract (Source: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society)

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The UCLA study of Predictors of Cognitive Functioning Following Moderate/Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 15:36:32 +0100

Research ArticlesLisa M. Moran, Talin Babikian, Larissa Del Piero, Monica U. Ellis, Claudia L. Kernan, Nina Newman, Christopher C. Giza, Richard Mink, Jeffrey Johnson, Christopher Babbitt, Robert Asarnow Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society,FirstView Article(s), 8 pagesAbstract (Source: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society)



Dynamic regional phase synchrony (DRePS)

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 15:35:00 +0100

In this study, we introduce dynamic regional phase synchrony (DRePS), a novel analysis approach that measures mean local instantaneous phase coherence within adjacent fMRI voxels. We evaluate the DRePS framework on simulated data showing that the proposed measure is able to estimate synchrony at higher temporal resolution than sliding windows of local connectivity. We applied DRePS analysis to task‐free fMRI data of 20 control subjects, revealing ultra‐slow dynamics of local connectivity in different brain areas. Spatial clustering based on the DRePS feature time series reveals biologically congruent local phase synchrony networks (LPSNs). Taken together, our results demonstrate three main findings. Firstly, DRePS has increased temporal sensitivity compared to sliding window correlatio...



Nuc‐ErbB3 regulates H3K27me3 levels and HMT activity to establish epigenetic repression during peripheral myelination

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 15:34:58 +0100

Nuc‐ErbB3 an alternative transcript from the ErbB3 locus binds to a specific DNA motif and associates with Schwann cell chromatin. Here we generated a nuc‐ErbB3 knockin mouse that lacks nuc‐ErbB3 expression in the nucleus without affecting the neuregulin‐ErbB3 receptor signaling. Nuc‐ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit hypermyelination and aberrant myelination at the paranodal region. This phenotype is attributed to de‐repression of myelination associated gene transcription following loss of nuc‐ErbB3 and histone H3K27me3 promoter occupancy. Nuc‐ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit reduced association of H3K27me3 with myelination‐associated gene promoters and increased RNA Pol‐II rate of transcription of these genes. In addition, nuc‐ErbB3 directly regulates levels of H3K27me3 in Schwan...



How can rAAV‐α‐synuclein and the fibril α‐synuclein models advance our understanding of Parkinson disease?

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 15:34:36 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Neurochemistry)



High cumulative JC virus seroconversion rate during long‐term use of natalizumab

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 15:34:27 +0100

ConclusionThe annualized seroconversion rate of 7.1% in patients using natalizumab, cumulatively leading to more than 25% of seronegative patients becoming seropositive in 4 years, is of clinical relevance and should be taken into account in the risk assessment when considering the start of natalizumab therapy. (Source: European Journal of Neurology)



GABAergic signaling in the rat pineal gland

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 15:22:08 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Pineal Research)



Neurosurgeon: Blackwell fight 'should have stopped three rounds earlier'

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:53:46 +0100

Leading neurosurgeon says it was clear by round seven that Blackwell, who is in a coma, was being badly beaten by Chris Eubank JrThe British title fight that left Nick Blackwell in an induced coma should have been stopped three rounds earlier, according to a leading neurosurgeon who has operated on boxers with life-threatening head injuries.The series of blows that Chris Eubank Jr landed on Blackwell was enough to halt the middleweight contest in the seventh round, said Peter Hamlyn, who performed five operations on Michael Watson after the boxer suffered a near-fatal brain injury in a 1991 clash with Chris Eubank Sr. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)



Emergent Synapse Organizers: LAR-RPTPs and Their Companions.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:53:02 +0100

Authors: Han KA, Jeon S, Um JW, Ko J Abstract Leukocyte common antigen-related receptor tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) have emerged as key players that organize various aspects of neuronal development, including axon guidance, neurite extension, and synapse formation and function. Recent research has highlighted the roles of LAR-RPTPs at neuronal synapses in mediating distinct synaptic adhesion pathways through interactions with a host of extracellular ligands and in governing a variety of intracellular signaling cascades through binding to various scaffolds and signaling proteins. In this chapter, we review and update current research progress on the extracellular ligands of LAR-RPTPs, regulation of their extracellular interactions by alternative splicing and heparan sulfates, ...



Morning Break: No Sale for Anti-Vax Film; More Planned Parenthood Woes; Drug-Seeking Patients

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:35:04 +0100

(MedPage Today) -- Health news and commentary from around the Web, gathered by the MedPage Today staff (Source: MedPage Today Neurology)



Modern techniques of magnetic resonance in the evaluation of primary central nervous system lymphoma: contributions to the diagnosis and differential diagnosis

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:30:05 +0100

This report is a review of the most relevant contributions of nonconventional magnetic resonance techniques to the imaging diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma, the differential diagnosis of this disease, and the prognosis of patients. This paper aims to describe a wide range of presentations of primary central nervous system lymphoma, their appearance in imaging, and the differential diagnoses of this disease. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia)



Hemolytic vascular inflammation: an update

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:30:05 +0100

This report is a review of the most relevant contributions of nonconventional magnetic resonance techniques to the imaging diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma, the differential diagnosis of this disease, and the prognosis of patients. This paper aims to describe a wide range of presentations of primary central nervous system lymphoma, their appearance in imaging, and the differential diagnoses of this disease. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia)



Guidelines on the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia: Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:30:05 +0100

This report is a review of the most relevant contributions of nonconventional magnetic resonance techniques to the imaging diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma, the differential diagnosis of this disease, and the prognosis of patients. This paper aims to describe a wide range of presentations of primary central nervous system lymphoma, their appearance in imaging, and the differential diagnoses of this disease. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia)



Hematological manifestations of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 infection: a possible association with autoimmune myelofibrosis

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:30:05 +0100

This report is a review of the most relevant contributions of nonconventional magnetic resonance techniques to the imaging diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma, the differential diagnosis of this disease, and the prognosis of patients. This paper aims to describe a wide range of presentations of primary central nervous system lymphoma, their appearance in imaging, and the differential diagnoses of this disease. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia)



RHD*weak D type 38: a family study

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:30:05 +0100

This report is a review of the most relevant contributions of nonconventional magnetic resonance techniques to the imaging diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma, the differential diagnosis of this disease, and the prognosis of patients. This paper aims to describe a wide range of presentations of primary central nervous system lymphoma, their appearance in imaging, and the differential diagnoses of this disease. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia)

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A difficult case of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma to diagnose

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:30:05 +0100

This report is a review of the most relevant contributions of nonconventional magnetic resonance techniques to the imaging diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma, the differential diagnosis of this disease, and the prognosis of patients. This paper aims to describe a wide range of presentations of primary central nervous system lymphoma, their appearance in imaging, and the differential diagnoses of this disease. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia)



Systemic fungal infection by Histoplasma capsulatum: intracellular fungus in peripheral leukocytes

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:30:05 +0100

This report is a review of the most relevant contributions of nonconventional magnetic resonance techniques to the imaging diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma, the differential diagnosis of this disease, and the prognosis of patients. This paper aims to describe a wide range of presentations of primary central nervous system lymphoma, their appearance in imaging, and the differential diagnoses of this disease. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia)



What is the adequate mononuclear cell content for selecting umbilical cord blood units for cryopreservation?

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:30:05 +0100

This report is a review of the most relevant contributions of nonconventional magnetic resonance techniques to the imaging diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma, the differential diagnosis of this disease, and the prognosis of patients. This paper aims to describe a wide range of presentations of primary central nervous system lymphoma, their appearance in imaging, and the differential diagnoses of this disease. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia)



Zika virus and its implication in transfusion safety

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:30:05 +0100

This report is a review of the most relevant contributions of nonconventional magnetic resonance techniques to the imaging diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma, the differential diagnosis of this disease, and the prognosis of patients. This paper aims to describe a wide range of presentations of primary central nervous system lymphoma, their appearance in imaging, and the differential diagnoses of this disease. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia)



The management of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in the acute general medical hospital: a longitudinal cohort study

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:25:26 +0100

ConclusionsAntipsychotic medications and psychosocial interventions were the main methods used to manage BPSD; however, these were not implemented or monitored in a systematic fashion. (Source: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry)

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Diagnostic yield of 24‐hour esophageal manometry in non‐cardiac chest pain

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:22:08 +0100

Conclusions & InferencesIn the work‐up of NCCP, ambulatory 24‐h manometry has a low additional diagnostic yield. However, it remains the best technique to identify esophageal spasm as the cause of symptoms. This is particularly useful when an unequivocal diagnosis is needed before treatment. Comparing the diagnostic yield of high‐resolution manometry and 24‐h ambulatory pressure monitoring in patients with non‐cardiac chest pain, we found that when the Chicago classification v3.0 was applied, HRM did not identify any of the four (6.8%) patients with esophageal spasm on 24‐h measurement. However, taking into account other more subtle abnormalities, such as simultaneous (rapid) or repetitive contractions, HRM had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 98.2% for the diagno...



Molecular mechanism for higher brain functions, neuropsychiatric disorders

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:51:35 +0100

Intracellular protein trafficking is important for higher brain functions such as learning and memory, new research has found. The research group showed that a molecule, ARHGAP33 regulates synaptic functions and behaviors via intracellular protein trafficking and that the lack of ARHGAP33 causes neuropsychiatric disorder-related impaired higher brain functions. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)



Time Is On My Side (Gwen Moritz Editor's Note)

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:13:10 +0100

I’m lucky to have a patient husband who doesn’t make fun of me when I pause midsentence in search of that … noun … that is right on the tip of my tongue. For us, Albert Brooks’ great line from “Broadcast News” is no longer a joke: “I’ll meet you at the place near the thing where we went that time.” I’ll be 55 in a few months, and I’m not the multitasker I once was — or maybe I just thought I was. Our CEO, Olivia Farrell, talks about the “friction” involved in changing from one task to another, and that friction is more obvious to me all the time. It’s natural, then, that I turned up the car radio when I heard that NPR correspondent Barbara Bradley Hagerty was about to report on the idea of &ld...



Incredible ‘Living’ Alzheimer’s Implant Clears Mouse Brains Of Toxic Junk

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 11:31:19 +0100

Alzheimer’s may be the cruelest of brain diseases. Decades before the first signs of dementia strike, toxic protein clumps called amyloid plaques have been slowly, insidiously building up in the brain. The plaques clog the brain’s waste disposal system and wreak havoc on the delicate molecular machinery that underlies our memories, our history, our personality. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website. (Source: Science - The Huffington Post)



Mood Lighting for Stress-Free Chickens

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 11:00:00 +0100

An energy efficient lighting system designed specifically for poultry farms emits a light spectrum adjusted for chicken vision, helping to promote happy and stress-free fowl. Matthew Stock... -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)

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Neuronal central nervous system syndromes probably mediated by autoantibodies

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

We describe the main clinical symptoms characterizing the patients and discuss conflicting arguments regarding the pathogenicity of these antibodies. Recent investigations have studied the pathogenic role of specific autoantibodies associated with autoimmune CNS syndromes. In this review, we present converging and conflicting evidences regarding a pathogenic role of autoantibodies directed against neuronal cell‐surface antigens. These experimental arguments have been obtained in in vitro or in vivo models by cell biology, electrophysiology and behavioral studies. (Source: European Journal of Neuroscience)



A Practical Approach to Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Headache

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

This article will review the pathophysiology and presence of autonomic dysfunction in headache and will provide techniques to help in headache diagnosis in patients with autonomic dysfunction. (Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports)



History, Evolution, and Importance of Emergency Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Abstract More than 800,000 people in North America suffer a stroke each year, with ischemic stroke making up the majority of these cases. The outcomes of ischemic stroke range from complete functional and cognitive recovery to severe disability and death; outcome is strongly associated with timely reperfusion treatment. Historically, ischemic stroke has been treated with intravenous thrombolytic agents with moderate success. However, five recently published positive trials have established the efficacy of endovascular treatment in acute ischemic stroke. In this review, we will discuss the history of stroke treatments moving from various intravenous thrombolytic drugs to intra-arterial thrombolysis, early mechanical thrombectomy devices, and finally modern endovascular devices. Ea...



Medulloblastoma: Tumor Biology and Relevance to Treatment and Prognosis Paradigm

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Abstract Medulloblastoma is a malignant embryonic brain tumor arising in the posterior fossa and typically occurring in pediatric patients. Current multimodal treatment regimes have significantly improved the survival rates; however, a marked heterogeneity in therapy response is observed, and one third of all patients die within 5 years after diagnosis. Large-scale genetic and transcriptome analysis revealed four medulloblastoma subgroups (WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4) associated with different demographic parameters, tumor manifestation, and clinical behavior. Future treatment protocols will integrate molecular classification schemes to evaluate subgroup-specific intensification or de-escalation of adjuvant therapies aimed to increase tumor control and reduce iatrogenic induc...



Mapping the Connectome Following Traumatic Brain Injury

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Abstract There is a paucity of accurate and reliable biomarkers to detect traumatic brain injury, grade its severity, and model post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) recovery. This gap could be addressed via advances in brain mapping which define injury signatures and enable tracking of post-injury trajectories at the individual level. Mapping of molecular and anatomical changes and of modifications in functional activation supports the conceptual paradigm of TBI as a disorder of large-scale neural connectivity. Imaging approaches with particular relevance are magnetic resonance techniques (diffusion weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomographic met...

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Time-course of serotonin transporter occupancy by single dose of three SSRIs in human brain: a positron emission tomography study with [11C]DASB

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Sixteen healthy volunteers were enrolled and divided into four groups according to the single administration of 10mg or 20mg escitalopram, 50mg sertraline, or 20mg paroxetine. Four positron emission tomography scans with [11C]DASB were performed on each subject, the first prior to taking the drug, followed by the others at 4, 24, and 48hours after. Serotonin transporter occupancies of the drugs at each time point were calculated. All drugs showed maximum occupancy at 4hours after dosing and then decreasing occupancies with time. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)



The effects of assisted cycling therapy (ACT) and voluntary cycling on reaction time and measures of executive function in adolescents with Down syndrome

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

DiscussionsThese and previous results support the hypothesis of increased neuroplasticity and prefrontal cortex function following ACT and, to a smaller extent, following VC. Both ACT and VC appear to be associated with cortical benefits, but based on current and previous results, ACT seems to maximize the benefits. (Source: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research)



Postoperative sore throat: a systematic review

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Summary Postoperative sore throat has a reported incidence of up to 62% following general anaesthesia. In adults undergoing tracheal intubation, female sex, younger age, pre‐existing lung disease, prolonged duration of anaesthesia and the presence of a blood‐stained tracheal tube on extubation are associated with the greatest risk. Tracheal intubation without neuromuscular blockade, use of double‐lumen tubes, as well as high tracheal tube cuff pressures may also increase the risk of postoperative sore throat. The expertise of the anaesthetist performing tracheal intubation appears to have no influence on the incidence in adults, although it may in children. In adults, the i‐gel™ supraglottic airway device results in a lower incidence of postoperative sore throat. Cuffed supraglot...



Raynaud phenomenon

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Publication date: May 2016 Source:Reviews in Vascular Medicine, Volumes 4–5 Author(s): I. Silva, G. Teixeira, M. Bertão, R. Almeida, A. Mansilha, C. Vasconcelos Raynaud's phenomenon is a common clinical disorder characterized by recurrent vasospasm episodes of digital arteries, arterioles, pre-capillary and post-capillary venules triggered by exposure to cold or emotional stress. RP can be classified as primary (idiopathic), or secondary to several diseases or conditions. The pathogenesis of RP is still not entirely clear or understood, but recent insights into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying Raynaud's phenomenon include vascular, neuronal and intravascular abnormalities which may identify crucial key points and potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review...



Potentially Avoidable Pediatric Interfacility Transfer is a Costly Burden for Rural Families: A Cohort Study

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsPotentially avoidable pediatric inter‐hospital transfer is common and is responsible for significant healthcare‐related costs. Future work should focus on improving selection of children who benefit from inter‐hospital transfer for high‐yield conditions, to reduce the costly and distressing burden that PAT places on rural patients and their families.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Academic Emergency Medicine)

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A Neuroendocrine Tumor Invading All Portal Venous System Components

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Authors: Omer Ozturk, Yusuf Bayraktar & Aytekin Akyol (Source: The American Journal of Gastroenterology)



Incidence and risk factors for Central Nervous System thrombosis in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia during intensive asparaginase treatment: a single‐centre cohort study

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Summary Central Nervous System (CNS) thrombosis is a complication of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treatment that is potentially associated with significant morbidity and neurological sequelae. Its presumably multifactorial aetiology is poorly characterized. We conducted a single‐centre, retrospective cohort study on 346 ALL paediatric patients (1–16 years old) treated with asparaginase intensive Dana Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) protocols from 1998 to 2011. The incidence, risk factors and outcome of CNS thrombosis were evaluated. CNS thrombosis occurred in 3·8% (13/346) of the patients (95% confidence interval 2·0–6·3%). Twelve events were diagnosed during intensification, all of which resolved within 2 weeks without neurological sequelae or significant impact in surviv...



Rituximab, bendamustine and lenalidomide in patients with aggressive B‐cell lymphoma not eligible for anthracycline‐based therapy or intensive salvage chemotherapy – SAKK 38/08

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, R‐BL can be considered a treatment option for elderly patients with treatment naïve or relapsed/refractory aggressive lymphoma not eligible for standard aggressive regimens. (Source: British Journal of Haematology)



Anatomy and function of an excitatory network in the visual cortex

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Nature advance online publication 28 March 2016. doi:10.1038/nature17192 Authors: Wei-Chung Allen Lee, Vincent Bonin, Michael Reed, Brett J. Graham, Greg Hood, Katie Glattfelder & R. Clay Reid Circuits in the cerebral cortex consist of thousands of neurons connected by millions of synapses. A precise understanding of these local networks requires relating circuit activity with the underlying network structure. For pyramidal cells in superficial mouse visual cortex (V1), a consensus is emerging that neurons with similar visual response properties excite each other, but the anatomical basis of this recurrent synaptic network is unknown. Here we combined physiological imaging and large-scale electron microscopy to study an excitatory network in V1. We found that layer 2/3 neurons organiz...



Tissue Response to Deep Brain Stimulation and Microlesion: A Comparative Study

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

We present data that demonstrates a reciprocal relationship of microglia and neural precursor cells in the presence of acute high frequency stimulation. In our hands, stimulated animals demonstrate significantly lower numbers of activated microglia (p = 0.026) when compared to microlesion and sham animals. The subthalamic region surrounding the DBS stimulating electrode reveals a significant increase in the number of neural precursor cells expressing cell cycle markers, plasticity and precursor cell markers (Ki67; p = 0.0013, MCM2; p = 0.0002). InterpretationWe conclude that in this animal model, acute DBS results in modest local progenitor cell proliferation and influenced the total number of activated microglia. This could be of clinical significance in patients with PD, as i...

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Adrenergic activation attenuates astrocyte swelling induced by hypotonicity and neurotrauma

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Edema in the central nervous system can rapidly result in life‐threatening complications. Vasogenic edema is clinically manageable, but there is no established medical treatment for cytotoxic edema, which affects astrocytes and is a primary trigger of acute post‐traumatic neuronal death. To test the hypothesis that adrenergic receptor agonists, including the stress stimulus epinephrine protects neural parenchyma from damage, we characterized its effects on hypotonicity‐induced cellular edema in cortical astrocytes by in vivo and in vitro imaging. After epinephrine administration, hypotonicity‐induced swelling of astrocytes was markedly reduced and cytosolic 3'‐5'‐cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was increased, as shown by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer nanosensor...



Effects of change in FreeSurfer version on classification accuracy of patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Abstract Studies have found non‐negligible differences in cortical thickness estimates across versions of software that are used for processing and quantifying MRI‐based cortical measurements, and issues have arisen regarding these differences, as obtained estimates could potentially affect the validity of the results. However, more critical for diagnostic classification than absolute thickness estimates across versions is the inter‐subject stability. We aimed to investigate the effect of change in software version on classification of older persons in groups of healthy, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's Disease. Using MRI samples of 100 older normal controls, 100 with mild cognitive impairment and 100 Alzheimer's Disease patients obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroim...



Intensity‐based masking: A tool to improve functional connectivity results of resting‐state fMRI

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Abstract Seed‐based functional connectivity (FC) of resting‐state functional MRI data is a widely used methodology, enabling the identification of functional brain networks in health and disease. Based on signal correlations across the brain, FC measures are highly sensitive to noise. A somewhat neglected source of noise is the fMRI signal attenuation found in cortical regions in close vicinity to sinuses and air cavities, mainly in the orbitofrontal, anterior frontal and inferior temporal cortices. BOLD signal recorded at these regions suffers from dropout due to susceptibility artifacts, resulting in an attenuated signal with reduced signal‐to‐noise ratio in as many as 10% of cortical voxels. Nevertheless, signal attenuation is largely overlooked during FC analysis. Here we first...



Impact of PICALM and CLU on hippocampal degeneration

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

This study revealed novel PICALM and CLU interaction effects on hippocampal degeneration along aging, and validated effectiveness of diffeomorphometry in imaging genetics study. Hum Brain Mapp, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Human Brain Mapping)



Two different motor systems are needed to generate human speech

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, humans generate speech by activating two motor systems. They generate vocalization by activating the prefrontal‐PAG‐NRA‐motoneuronal pathway, and, at the same time, they modulate this vocalization into words and sentences by activating the corticobulbar fibers to the face, mouth, tongue, larynx, and pharynx motoneurons. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1558–1577, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: The Journal of Comparative Neurology)

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The Journal of Comparative Neurology, Table of Content, Vol. 524, No. 8, June 01, 2016

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

(Source: The Journal of Comparative Neurology)



Exposure to an Inflammatory Challenge Enhances Neural Sensitivity to Negative and Positive Social Feedback

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 28 March 2016 Source:Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Author(s): Keely A. Muscatell, Mona Moieni, Tristen K. Inagaki, Janine M. Dutcher, Ivana Jevtic, Elizabeth C. Breen, Michael R. Irwin, Naomi I. Eisenberger Inflammation, part of the body’s innate immune response, can lead to “sickness behaviors,” as well as alterations in social and affective experiences. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with increased neural sensitivity to social rejection and social threat, but also decreased neural sensitivity to rewards. However, recent evidence suggests that inflammation may actually enhance sensitivity to certain social rewards, such as those that signal support and care. Despite a growing interest in how inflammatio...



A population of atypical CD56-CD16+ Natural Killer cells is expanded in PTSD and is associated with symptom severity

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

This study is the first to characterize NK cell subsets in individuals with PTSD. The results suggest that combat-exposed men with PTSD exhibit an aberrant profile of NK cells with significantly higher frequencies of an atypical population of CD56-CD16+ cells and possibly lower frequencies of the functional CD56brightCD16- NK cell subsets. Higher proportions of dysfunctional CD56-CD16+ cells have been reported in certain chronic viral infections and in senescent individuals. It is possible that this could contribute to immune dysfunctions and prematurely senescent phenotypes seen in PTSD. (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)



Shedding pounds could help boost brain power in later life, new study claims

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 20:57:57 +0100

LOSING weight could prevent dementia and memory loss in middle age, according to new research. (Source: Daily Express - Health)



Development and characterization of embelin-loaded nanolipid carriers for brain targeting.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 17:10:02 +0100

The objective of present work was to enquire the potential use of embelin-loaded nanolipid carriers for brain targeting. The average particle size and polydispersity index (PDI) of optimized formulation (F19) were found to be 152 ± 19.7 nm and 0.143 ± 0.023, respectively. Nanolipid carrier (NLC) was also significantly attenuated pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced biochemical parameters in comparison to plain embelin that results in an increase in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrite, and reduction in the level of glutathione. From the results, it was concluded that embelin-NLCs developed as a beneficial carrier to achieve sustained release and brain targeting through nasal route. PMID: 27012597 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine...



Numbness after Transradial Cardiac Catheterization: the Results from a Nerve Conduction Study of the Superficial Radial Nerve.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 13:03:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: A transient injury of the superficial radial nerve could be one reason for numbness after a TRC. A large sheath size was an independent predictor of numbness; therefore, large sized sheaths should be used with caution when performing a TRC. PMID: 27014346 [PubMed] (Source: Korean Circulation Journal)

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Heart Disease in Disorders of Muscle, Neuromuscular Transmission, and the Nerves.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 13:03:02 +0100

Authors: Finsterer J, Stöllberger C Abstract Little is known regarding cardiac involvement (CI) by neuromuscular disorders (NMDs). The purpose of this review is to summarise and discuss the major findings concerning the types, frequency, and severity of cardiac disorders in NMDs as well as their diagnosis, treatment, and overall outcome. CI in NMDs is characterized by pathologic involvement of the myocardium or cardiac conduction system. Less commonly, additional critical anatomic structures, such as the valves, coronary arteries, endocardium, pericardium, and even the aortic root may be involved. Involvement of the myocardium manifests most frequently as hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy and less frequently as restrictive cardiomyopathy, non-compaction, arrhythmogenic right-...



Vertebrobasilar stroke secondary to giant-cell arteritis without biological inflammatory syndrome.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 12:01:01 +0100

Authors: Hussami A, Casulli C, Fayard C, Caillier-Minier M, Vion P, Minier D PMID: 27013298 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revue Neurologique)



[New mutation described in a young woman with splenomegaly, diagnosed with Niemann-Pick disease type C].

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 11:36:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: p.N916S is a new mutation detected as a cause of NPC disease in a patient without severe neurological symptoms. PMID: 27016452 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medicina Clinica)



Tocotrienol improves learning and memory deficit of aged rats.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

Authors: Kaneai N, Sumitani K, Fukui K, Koike T, Takatsu H, Urano S Abstract To define whether tocotrienol (T-3) improves cognitive deficit during aging, effect of T-3 on learning and memory functions of aged rats was assessed. It was found that T-3 markedly counteracts the decline in learning and memory function in aged rats. Quantitative analysis of T-3 content in the rat brain showed that the aged rats fed T-3 mixture-supplemented diet revealed the transport of α- and γ-T-3 to the brain. In contrast, normal young rats fed the same diet did not exhibit brain localization. Furthermore, the T-3 inhibited age-related decreases in the expression of certain blood brain barrier (BBB) proteins, including caludin-5, occludin and junctional adhesion molecule (JAM). It was found that the...

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Redox signaling regulated by electrophiles and reactive sulfur species.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

Authors: Nishida M, Kumagai Y, Ihara H, Fujii S, Motohashi H, Akaike T Abstract Redox signaling is a key modulator of oxidative stress induced by nonspecific insults of biological molecules generated by reactive oxygen species. Current redox biology is revisiting the traditional concept of oxidative stress, such that toxic effects of reactive oxygen species are protected by diverse antioxidant systems upregulated by oxidative stress responses that are physiologically mediated by redox-dependent cell signaling pathways. Redox signaling is thus precisely regulated by endogenous electrophilic substances that are generated from reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and its derivative reactive species during stress responses. Among electrophiles formed endogenously, 8-nitroguanosine ...



Critical reappraisal of DBS targeting for movement disorders.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 06:35:01 +0100

Authors: Guzzi G, Della Torre A, Chirchiglia D, Volpentesta G, Lavano A Abstract Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used as a surgical treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia and essential tremor. Fundamental understanding of DBS effects on the pathological neural circuitry remains insufficient. In 2002 DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus internus (GPi) was approved for use in patients with PD. Next year, DBS of Gpi and STN for dystonia received a Humanitarian Device exemption from the FDA. The commonly targets for DBS are subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus internus (GPi) for Parkinson's disease, Gpi for dystonia and ventro- intermediate (VIM) nucleus of the thalamus for essential tremor. However Vim DBS cannot sufficien...



The retinoblastoma protein regulates hypoxia-inducible genetic programs, tumor cell invasiveness and neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer cells.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In this report, we further characterized the role Rb plays in mediating hypoxia-regulated genetic programs by stably ablating Rb expression with retrovirally-introduced short hairpin RNA in LNCaP and 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells. DNA microarray analysis revealed that loss of Rb in conjunction with hypoxia leads to aberrant expression of hypoxia-regulated genetic programs that increase cell invasion and promote neuroendocrine differentiation. For the first time, we have established a direct link between hypoxic tumor environments, Rb inactivation and progression to late stage metastatic neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Understanding the molecular pathways responsible for progression of benign prostate tumors to metastasized and lethal forms will aid in the development of more effective ...



Oxidative stress at low levels can induce clustered DNA lesions leading to NHEJ mediated mutations.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Sharma V, Collins LB, Chen TH, Herr N, Takeda S, Sun W, Swenberg JA, Nakamura J Abstract DNA damage and mutations induced by oxidative stress are associated with various different human pathologies including cancer. The facts that most human tumors are characterized by large genome rearrangements and glutathione depletion in mice results in deletions in DNA suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause gene and chromosome mutations through DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). However, the generation of DSBs at low levels of ROS is still controversial. In the present study, we show that H2O2 at biologically-relevant levels causes a marked increase in oxidative clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs) with a significant elevation of replication-independent DSBs. Although it is frequ...



PGE2-EP3 signaling pathway contributes to protective effects of misoprostol on cerebral injury in APP/PS1 mice.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Tian X, Ji C, Luo Y, Yang Y, Kuang S, Mai S, Ma J, Yang J Abstract Epidemiological studies indicate chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which inhibit the enzymatic activity of the inflammatory cyclooxygenases (COX), reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in normal aging populations. Considering multiple adverse side effects of NSAIDs, findings suggest that COX downstream prostaglandin signaling function in the pre-clinical development of AD. Our previous study found that misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor agonist, has neuroprotection against brain injury induced by chronic aluminum overload. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of misoprostol on neurodegeneration in overexpressin...

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From kinetics and cellular cooperations to cancer immunotherapies.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Trautmann A Abstract In this review will be underlined two simple ideas of potential interest for the design of cancer immunotherapies. One concerns the importance of kinetics, with the key notion that a single cause may trigger two opposite effects with different kinetics. The importance of this phenomenon will be underlined in neurobiology, transcription networks and the immune system. The second idea is that efficient immune responses have been selected against pathogens, throughout evolution. They are never due to a single cell type, but always require multiple, complex cellular cooperations. One cannot recognize this fact and persist in the presently dominant T-cell centered view of cancer immunotherapies. Suggestions will be made to incorporate these simple ideas for...



MiR-206 suppresses epithelial mesenchymal transition by targeting TGF-β signaling in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that miR-206 inhibits TGF-β transcription and autocrine production, as well as downstream target genes of EMT. Restoring miR-206 expression may provide an effective therapeutic strategy for ER positive BC. PMID: 27014911 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)



Up-regulation of serotonin receptor 2B mRNA and protein in the peri-infarcted area of aged rats and stroke patients.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Buga AM, Ciobanu O, Bădescu GM, Bogdan C, Weston R, Slevin M, DiNapoli M, Popa-Wagner A Abstract Despite the fact that a high proportion of elderly stroke patients develop mood disorders, the mechanisms underlying late-onset neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive symptoms have so far received little attention in the field of neurobiology. In rodents, aged animals display depressive symptoms following stroke, whereas young animals recover fairly well. This finding has prompted us to investigate the expression of serotonin receptors 2A and 2B, which are directly linked to depression, in the brains of aged and young rats following stroke. Although the development of the infarct was more rapid in aged rats in the first 3 days after stroke, by day 14 the cortical infarcts were si...



Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) regulates autophagy through promoting the expression of Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) in human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In this study, In Silico Analysis using Oncomine and Kaplan Meier plotter revealed that FADD is significantly up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and closely associated with a poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. To better understanding the FADD functions in breast cancer, we performed proteomics analysis by LC-MS/MS detection and found that Rheb-mTORC1 pathway was dysregulated in MCF-7 cells when FADD knockdown. The mTORC1 pathway is a key regulator in many processes, including cell growth, metabolism and autophagy. Here, FADD interference down-regulated Rheb expression and repressed mTORC1 activity in breast cancer cell lines. The autophagy was induced by FADD deficiency in MCF7 or MDA-231 cells but rescued by recovering Rheb expression. Similarly, growth defect in FADD-knock...



Faecal virome of red foxes from peri-urban areas.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:20:02 +0100

In this study, we evaluated the faecal virome of juvenile and adult foxes from peri-urban areas in central Croatia. The dominating mammalian viruses were fox picobirnavirus and parvovirus. The highest number of viral reads (N=1412) was attributed to a new fox circovirus and complete viral genome was de novo assembled from the high-throughput sequencing data. Fox circovirus is highly similar to dog circoviruses identified in diseased dogs in USA and Italy, and to a recently discovered circovirus of foxes with neurologic disease from the United Kingdom. Our fox picobirnavirus was more closely related to the porcine and human picobirnaviruses than to known fox picobirnaviruses. PMID: 27012914 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases.)

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Influence of magnetostimulation therapy on rheological properties of blood in neurological patients.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 04:49:02 +0100

Authors: Marcinkowska-Gapińska A, Kowal P Abstract The aim of the study is to test the influence of in vivo magnetostimulation on the rheological properties of blood in neurological patients. Blood circulation in the body depends both on the mechanical properties of the circulatory system and on the physical and physicochemical properties of blood. The main factors influencing the rheological properties of blood are as follows: hematocrit, plasma viscosity, whole-blood viscosity, red cells aggregability, deformability, and the ability of red cells to orient in the flow. The blood samples were collected from neurological patients with pain. Blood samples were collected twice from each patient, that is, before the magnetostimulation and immediately after the therapy. For each blood ...



Targeting astrocytes in bipolar disorder.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 02:38:36 +0100

Authors: Peng L, Li B, Verkhratsky A Abstract Astrocytes are homeostatic cells of the central nervous system, which are critical for development and maintenance of synaptic transmission and hence of synaptically connected neuronal ensembles. Astrocytic densities are reduced in bipolar disorder, and therefore deficient astroglial function may contribute to overall disbalance in neurotransmission and to pathological evolution. Classical anti-bipolar drugs (lithium salts, valproic acid and carbamazepine) affect expression of astroglial genes and modify astroglial signalling and homeostatic cascades. Many effects of both antidepressant and anti-bipolar drugs are exerted through regulation of glutamate homeostasis and glutamatergic transmission, through K(+) buffering, through regulatio...



Lapses in skin conductance responding across anatomical sites: Comparison of fingers, feet, forehead, and wrist

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 02:34:31 +0100

Abstract The fingers are widely accepted as the gold standard for skin conductance (SC) recording, with the feet as a strong alternative. However, there are gaps in the current literature comparing these sites. There is also a great deal of interest in alternative recording sites to permit mobility, but data evaluating these are few and inconsistent. The present report compared multiple sites (fingers, abductor hallucis of the foot, arch of the foot, toes, forehead, and wrist) from 45 college student participants in a short‐term sedentary laboratory setting and found large variation in both tonic and phasic SC responses, as well as crucial lapses in responding at nonpalmar sites. Across‐site correlations between participants and within participants were also examined. The present data ...



A tentative framework for the acquisition of language and modern human cognition.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 02:17:02 +0100

Authors: Tattersal I Abstract Modern human beings process information symbolically, rearranging mental symbols to envision multiple potential realities. They also express the ideas they form using structured articulate language. No other living creature does either of these things. Yet it is evident that we are descended from a non-symbolic and non-linguistic ancestor. How did this astonishing transformation occur? Scrutiny of the fossil and archaeological records reveals that the transition to symbolic reasoning happened very late in hominid history - indeed, within the tenure of anatomically recognizable Homo sapiens. It was evidently not simply a passive result of the increase in brain size that typified multiple lineages of the genus Homo over the Pleistocene. Instead, a brain ...

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Genetics of Bladder Malignant Tumors in Childhood.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 00:22:02 +0100

Authors: Zangari A, Zaini J, Gulìa C Abstract Bladder masses are represented by either benign or malignant entities. Malignant bladder tumors are frequent causes of disease and death in western countries. However, in children they are less common. Additionally, different features are found in childhood, in which non epithelial tumors are more common than epithelial ones. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common pediatric bladder tumor, but many other types of lesions may be found, such as malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and neuroblastoma. Other rarer tumors described in literature include urothelial carcinoma and other epithelial neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma is associated to a variety of genetic syndromes and many genes are involved in tumor developmen...



Smoking in pregnancy and risk of cancer among young children: A population‐based study

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:13:51 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: International Journal of Cancer)



The p75 neurotrophin receptor augments survival signaling in the striatum of pre-symptomatic Q175WT/HD mice

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 2 June 2016 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 324 Author(s): A.B. Wehner, A.M. Milen, R.L. Albin, B.A. Pierchala Huntington’s disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a constellation of motor, cognitive, and psychiatric features. Striatal medium spiny neurons, one of the most affected populations, are dependent on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) anterogradely transported from the cortex for proper function and survival. Recent studies suggest both receptors for BDNF, TrkB and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75), are improperly regulated in the striata of HD patients and mouse models of HD. While BDNF–TrkB signaling almost exclusively promotes survival and metabolic function, p75 signaling is able to induce survival or apo...



Ablation of fast-spiking interneurons in the dorsal striatum, recapitulating abnormalities seen post-mortem in Tourette syndrome, produces anxiety and elevated grooming

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 2 June 2016 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 324 Author(s): M. Xu, L. Li, C. Pittenger Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome (TS), are thought to involve pathology of cortico-basal ganglia loops, but their pathology is not well understood. Post-mortem studies have shown a reduced number of several populations of striatal interneurons, including the parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), in individuals with severe, refractory TS. We tested the causal role of this interneuronal deficit by recapitulating it in an otherwise normal adult mouse using a combination transgenic-viral cell ablation approach. FSIs were reduced bilaterally by ∼40%, paralleling the deficit found post-mortem. This did not produce spontaneous stereotypies or tic-like movements, ...



Calbindin-D-28K like immunoreactivity in superficial dorsal horn neurons and effects of sciatic chronic constriction injury

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 2 June 2016 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 324 Author(s): M.J. Stebbing, S. Balasubramanyan, P.A. Smith The neuropathic pain that results from peripheral nerve injury is associated with alterations in the properties of neurons in the superficial spinal laminae. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the rat sciatic nerve increases excitatory synaptic drive to excitatory neurons in the substantia gelatinosa while limiting that to inhibitory neurons. Since the calcium-binding protein calbindin D-28K has been associated with excitatory neurons, we examined whether CCI altered the properties of neurons expressing calbindin-like immunoreactivity (Cal+). These account for 30% of the neurons in lamina I and II. Calbindin did not co-localize with any particular electrophysiologic...

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The relationship of bone-tumor-induced spinal cord astrocyte activation and aromatase expression to mechanical hyperalgesia and cold hypersensitivity in intact female and ovariectomized mice

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 2 June 2016 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 324 Author(s): B.A. Smeester, E.E. O’Brien, K.S. Michlitsch, J.-H. Lee, A.J. Beitz Recently, our group established a relationship between tumor-induced spinal cord astrocyte activation and aromatase expression and the development of bone tumor nociception in male mice. As an extension of this work, we now report on the association of tumor-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and cold hypersensitivity to changes in spinal cord dorsal horn GFAP and aromatase expression in intact (INT) female mice and the effect of ovariectomy on these parameters. Implantation of fibrosarcoma cells produced robust mechanical hyperalgesia in INT animals, while ovariectomized (OVX) females had significantly less mechanical hyperalgesia. Cold hyperse...



Meta-analysis of association between Helicobacter pylori infection and multiple sclerosis

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 4 May 2016 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 620 Author(s): Gang Yao, Ping Wang, Xiang-Dan Luo, Ting-Min Yu, Robert A. Harris, Xing-Mei Zhang Despite recent research focus on the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and multiple sclerosis (MS) there is no consensus about the findings. To obtain a more comprehensive estimate of the association we conducted a meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection in MS patients and healthy controls. Pubmed and EMBASE were searched to identify eligible studies. Nine studies were selected for inclusion, involving 2806 cases (1553 patients with MS and 1253 controls). Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection in MS patients was lower than that in control groups (24.66% vs. 31.84...



A GABBR2 gene variant modifies pathophysiology in Huntington’s disease

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 4 May 2016 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 620 Author(s): April L. Philpott, Paul B. Fitzgerald, Neil W. Bailey, Andrew Churchyard, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Tarrant D.R. Cummins Striatal degeneration in Huntington’s disease (HD) causes changes in cortico-subcortical pathways. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a valuable tool for assessing pathophysiology within these pathways, yet has had limited application in HD. As cortico-subcortical pathways are largely mediated by GABA and dopamine receptor genes, understanding how these genes modulate neurophysiology in HD may provide new insights into how underlying pathology maps onto clinical phenotype. Twenty-nine participants with HD underwent motor cortex stimulation, while corticospinal excitabilit...



Interplay of orientation selectivity and the power of low- and high-gamma bands in the cat primary visual cortex

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 4 May 2016 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 620 Author(s): Vishal Bharmauria, Lyes Bachatene, Afef Ouelhazi, Sarah Cattan, Nayan Chanauria, Faustin Armel Etindele-Sosso, Jean Rouat, Stéphane Molotchnikoff Gamma oscillations are ubiquitous in brain and are believed to be inevitable for information processing in brain. Here, we report that distinct bands (low, 30–40Hz and high gamma, 60–80Hz) of stimulus-triggered gamma oscillations are systematically linked to the orientation selectivity index (OSI) of neurons in the cat primary visual cortex. The gamma-power is high for the highly selective neurons in the low-gamma band, whereas it is high for the broadly selective neurons in the high-gamma band. We suggest that the low-gamma band is principally implicat...



“Targeting astrocytes in CNS injury and disease: A translational research approach”

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Progress in Neurobiology Author(s): Angela R. Filous, Jerry Silver Astrocytes are a major constituent of the central nervous system. These glia play a major role in regulating blood-brain barrier function, the formation and maintenance of synapses, glutamate uptake, and trophic support for surrounding neurons and glia. Therefore, maintaining the proper functioning of these cells is crucial to survival. Astrocyte defects are associated with a wide variety of neuropathological insults, ranging from neurodegenerative diseases to gliomas. Additionally, injury to the CNS causes drastic changes to astrocytes, often leading to a phenomenon known as reactive astrogliosis. This process is important for protecting the surrounding healthy ti...

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Dosage of copy number variation at 22q11.2 mediates changes in cognition, social function and brain structure in autism spectrum disorder

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Journal of the Formosan Medical Association Author(s): Hsin-I Chen, Yi-Ling Chien, Hsio-Mei Liao, Wei-Hsien Chien, Chia-Hsiang Chen, Yu-Chieh Chen, Susan Shur-Fen Gau Microdeletion at 22q11.2, a common copy number variation (CNV) noted in neurodevelopmental disorders, may be associated with cognitive impairment. However, cognitive function in individuals with microduplication remains unclear. This work presents the genetic, clinical, and brain structural data of two men out of 335 probands with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) who had different CNV dosages at 22q11.2, and comparison with their siblings, 55 ASD probands, and 73 controls. Both showed severe autistic symptoms, but the proband with microduplication demonstrated b...



A case of adenocarcinoma with enteroblastic differentiation of the ampulla of Vater

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Cancer of the ampulla of Vater is rare, though it has various histological types and its histogenesis is fascinating in view of the anatomically complex nature of the ampulla. Fetal gut‐like adenocarcinoma, usually found in the stomach, can also develop in the ampullary region in extremely rare cases. Here we present a case of ampullary adenocarcinoma with enteroblastic and neuroendocrine differentiation. A 55‐year‐old woman presented with an epigastric pain. Endoscopic examination revealed a 2‐cm submucosal tumor‐like lesion in the ampulla. The surgical specimen showed that an exposed protruding type of tumor appeared as a well‐demarcated whitish‐yellow solid mass. Microscopically, the tumor had proliferated in the common channel and invaded the duodenal submucosa with mucos...



Brain, hormone and appetite responses to glucose versus fructose

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 9 Author(s): Kathleen A Page, A James Melrose Emerging data suggest that the monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, have disparate effects on the neuroendocrine circuits involved in appetite and reward processing. Compared to glucose, fructose ingestion results in smaller increases in circulating levels of insulin, leptin, and glucagon-like polypeptide-1, hormones that increase satiety. The central administration of fructose was shown to decrease hypothalamic satiety signaling and increase feeding in animals, whereas glucose increased satiety signaling and reduced food intake. Likewise, studies show that the hypothalamus responds differently to fructose versus glucose ingestion in humans. Moreover, fructo...



The mesolimbic system and eating addiction: what sugar does and does not do

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 9 Author(s): Johannes W De Jong, Louk JMJ Vanderschuren, Roger AH Adan Obesity and obesity-related disorders are a major threat to public health. It has been suggested that food addiction is a valid clinical concept and that food addiction is a contributing factor to the obesity epidemic. Research involving restricted access ‘binge’ diets has shown that rodents will display sucrose-related behavior that is reminiscent of substance addiction, under certain conditions. A question that remains, however, is if food or certain components of food possess addictive qualities akin to drugs of abuse. The alternative is that ‘food addiction’ (or rather ‘eating addiction’) is not a substance use disorde...



Comparative Connectomics

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences Author(s): Martijn P. van den Heuvel, Edward T. Bullmore, Olaf Sporns We introduce comparative connectomics, the quantitative study of cross-species commonalities and variations in brain network topology that aims to discover general principles of network architecture of nervous systems and the identification of species-specific features of brain connectivity. By comparing connectomes derived from simple to more advanced species, we identify two conserved themes of wiring: the tendency to organize network topology into communities that serve specialized functionality and the general drive to enable high topological integration by means of investment of neural resources in short communication paths, hu...

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Activity-dependent plasticity in the isolated embryonic avian brainstem following manipulations of rhythmic spontaneous neural activity

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Michael A. Vincen-Brown, Ann L. Revill, Jason Q. Pilarski When rhythmic spontaneous neural activity (rSNA) first appears in the embryonic chick brainstem and cranial nerve motor axons it is principally driven by nicotinic neurotransmission (NT). At this early age, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist nicotine is known to critically disrupt rSNA at low concentrations (0.1-0.5μM), which are levels that mimic the blood plasma levels of a fetus following maternal cigarette smoking. Thus, we quantified the effect of persistent exposure to exogenous nicotine on rSNA using an in vitro developmental model. We found that rSNA was eliminated by continuous bath applic...



LSD1 Mediates Neuronal Differentiation of Human Fetal Neural Stem Cells by Controlling The Expression of a Novel Target Gene, HEYL

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract Histone‐modifying enzymes dynamically regulate the chromatin status and have been implicated in the fate specification of stem cells, including neural stem cells (NSCs), which differentiate into three major cell types: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Lysine‐specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, also known as KDM1A) catalyzes the demethylation of H3K4me1/2 and H3K9me1/2, and it was recently suggested that functional disruption of LSD1 links to various human diseases. However, the mechanism by which LSD1 regulates human neural development remains unclear. Here, we present evidence that specific inhibition of LSD1 suppresses the neurogenesis of cultured human fetal NSCs (hfNSCs) isolated from the human fetal neocortex. Notably, we found that LSD1 directly associates with the p...



High prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with skin‐restricted lupus: a case–control study

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsThis study demonstrates a high prevalence of several psychiatric disorders (anxiety, depression, suicide risk, alcohol dependence) in patients with SRL. (Source: British Journal of Dermatology)



Regulation of Multidrug Resistance P‐Glycoprotein in the Developing Blood–Brain Barrier: Interplay between Glucocorticoids and Cytokines

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, maternal treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids appears to prematurely mature P‐gp mediated drug resistance at the foetal BBB in vivo and profoundly impact the subsequent responsiveness of P‐gp to pro‐inflammatory cytokines in the foetal BEC. The significance of these findings to foetal brain protection against xenobiotics and other P‐gp substrates in vivo requires further elaboration. However, the results of the present study may have implications for human pregnancy and foetal brain protection, particularly in cases of preterm birth combined with infection. (Source: Journal of Neuroendocrinology)



Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide on Circulating Steroid Levels in Healthy Subjects

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, LSD produces significant acute effects on circulating steroids, especially glucocorticoids. LSD‐induced changes in circulating glucocorticoids were associated with plasma LSD concentrations over time and showed no acute pharmacological tolerance. (Source: Journal of Neuroendocrinology)

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Issue Information

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Brain and Behavior)



Carotid siphon morphology: Is it associated with posterior communicating aneurysms?

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 20:48:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: This case-control study shows that the carotid siphon morphology seems not to be related to PComA aneurysm formation or rupture. PMID: 27012777 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Interventional Neuroradiology)



Muscle biopsies from human muscle diseases with myopathic pathology reveal common alterations in mitochondrial function

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 20:22:37 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Neurochemistry)



Sustained release of neurotrophin‐3 via calcium phosphate‐coated sutures promotes axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 20:22:17 +0100

This study uses peripheral nerve grafts (PNGs) as scaffolds for axonal growth while delivering neurotrophin‐3 (NT‐3) via calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings on surgical sutures. CaP coating was grown on sutures, and NT‐3 binding and release were characterized in vitro. Then, the NT‐3‐loaded sutures were tested in a complete SCI model. Rats were analyzed for functional improvement and axonal growth into the grafts. The CaP‐coated sutures exhibited a burst release of NT‐3, followed by a sustained release for at least 20 days. Functionally, the rats with PNGs + NT‐3‐loaded sutures and the rats treated with PNGs scored significantly higher than controls on day 56 postoperatively. However, functional scores in rats treated with PNGs + NT‐3‐loaded suture were not signi...

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[Optic Disk Drusen: Historical and Up-To-Date Aspects].

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 17:56:02 +0100

Authors: Nentwich MM, Maertz J, Rudolph G Abstract Optic disc drusen are an important differential diagnosis in the diagnostic evaluation of a prominent optic nerve head. Drusen of the optic disc occur in 0.34 to 2.4 % of human individuals and manifest themselves bilaterally in three of four cases. Drusen are found six times more often within histological sections than on funduscopic examination. It is known that optic disc drusen can occur in familial clusters without any other pathological ophthalmic findings. They can also be associated with retinitis pigmentosa, or with the Joubert or Alagille syndromes. Non-invasive diagnostic tools include fundus-autofluorescence (AF), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ultrasound. Drusen of the optic nerve head are asymptomatic in most...



Ocular, Neurologic and Systemic Findings of the Cases with Optic Nerve Hypoplasia.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 17:54:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: The vision of young children with ONH should be monitored at least annually, and any refractive errors should be treated. Neuroimaging of the brain and endocrinologic evaluation is necessary in all cases with ONH. PMID: 27014380 [PubMed] (Source: Open Ophthalmology Journal)



Moments Turn Into Memories -- Saying Goodbye to My Grandmother

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 15:49:15 +0100

What is in a moment? Is one moment not just a blip in all the moments of our lives? Sure it is. One moment is just that right? It is nothing more, nothing less. A moment is a piece of time that happens and then moves on as our lives propel forward. Or is it? I have had an awful lot of time to think about moments lately. I have to tell you, if you ask me, moments are so much more than the minutes and memories they contain. They are a part of us. They are a part of who we once were, but even more than that they are a part of who we are. We spend our lives saying goodbye. We do it on a daily basis. We kiss our spouses goodbye in the morning before we head off to work. We say goodbye to our children as they begin their school day. We say goodbye to friends after preschool drop off. We say go...



Outcome Measures for Persons With Acute Stroke: A Survey of Physical Therapists Practicing in Acute Care and Acute Rehabilitation Settings

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 14:34:12 +0100

Conclusions: Comfort, evidence, resources, and time influence OM use by physical therapists for persons with stroke. Use of StrokEDGE highly recommended OMs is associated with practice setting, but not with years of practice, APTA membership, or specialist certification. (Source: The Journal of Acute Care Physical Therapy)

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Rage Disorder Linked with Parasite Found in Cat Feces

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 13:16:58 +0100

Toxoplasmosis may alter brain chemistry is people exhibiting bouts of explosive anger -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)



A seven-year study on head injury in infants, Iran: the changing pattern - Fakharian E, Mohammadzadeh M, Behdad S, Babamohammadi A, Mirzadeh AS, Mohammadzadeh J.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:13:34 +0100

OBJECTIVE Head injury (HI) is the leading cause of mortality and life-long disability in infants. Infants have different anatomical and pathophysiological brain structures from other age groups. The aim of this study was to survey infant HI patients admit... (Source: SafetyLit)



Blast-induced traumatic brain injury: a new trend of blast injury research - Zhao Y, Wang ZG.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:13:34 +0100

Blast injury has become the major life- and function-threatening injuries in recent warfares. There is increased research interest in the mental disorders caused by blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), which has been proved as one of the "signature... (Source: SafetyLit)