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Preview: MedWorm: Molecular Biology

MedWorm: Molecular Biology News



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Thousands of medical RSS feeds are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news in Molecular Biology



Last Build Date: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 03:21:30 +0100

 



Frauke Melchior receives the 2018 FEBS | EMBO Women in Science Award

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(EMBO) EMBO and the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS) announce Frauke Melchior from the Center for Molecular Biology (ZMBH) at Heidelberg University, Germany, as the recipient of the 2018 FEBS | EMBO Women in Science Award. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)

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Genes activated in metastasis also drive the first stages of tumour growth

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)) Researchers headed by Jordi Casanova at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) now demonstrate that genes activated during metastasis are also able to initiate primary tumour development, and they explain the molecular mechanism involved. Made using the fly model Drosophila melanogaster, this finding has been published in PloS Genetics this week. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Blood, Urine Test Could Help Diagnose Autism Earlier In Children

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 17:56:06 +0100

This study does not tell us how effectively this measure can differentiate between autism and other neurodevelopmental or mental health conditions such as ADHD and anxiety.” Autism is a developmental disorder that mainly affects social interaction, causing a wide spectrum of behavioral problems, including hyperactivity, anxiety or speech disturbances. An estimated 30% of cases have been found to have genetic causes. The remaining 70% are thought to be caused by a combination of environmental factors, mutations and genetics, according to the study. Currently, if a child is suspected of having autism, doctors carry out a series of behavioral tests, which take time and may not not give an accurate diagnosis. A biological test, like a blood test, would provide a faster and more definitiv...



Pattern formation: The paradoxical role of turbulence

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Ludwig-Maximilians-Universit ä t M ü nchen) The formation of self-organizing molecular patterns in cells is a critical component of many biological processes. Researchers from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have proposed a new theory to explain how such patterns emerge in complex natural systems. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Using Biology of Atopic Dermatitis to Improve Therapy

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:35:00 +0100

(MedPage Today) -- Following psoriasis model of molecular targeting (Source: MedPage Today Allergy)



David Geffen School Medicine at UCLA presents award for excellence in basic science research

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 09:02:42 +0100

Dr. Huda Zoghbi, a Baylor College of Medicine professor whose work holds promise for treating a range of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, received an annual award for excellence in biological and biomedical sciences research from theDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.The medical school ’s dean, Dr. Kelsey Martin, presented Zoghbi with the 2017Switzer Prize during a Feb. 16 ceremony. Zoghbi received a $25,000 honorarium and a statuette.“Her story is a beautiful illustration of the connection between medicine and science, and a lesson in the value of maintaining curiosity and open-mindedness,” Martin said.Zoghbi, who holds faculty appointments at Baylor in pediatrics, molecular and human genetics, neurology, and neuroscience, said she was humbled by the recognition and...

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David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA presents award for excellence in basic science research

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 23:31:00 +0100

Dr. Huda Zoghbi, a Baylor College of Medicine professor whose work holds promise for treating a range of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, received an annual award for excellence in biological and biomedical sciences research from theDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.The medical school ’s dean, Dr. Kelsey Martin, presented Zoghbi with the 2017Switzer Prize during a Feb. 16 ceremony. Zoghbi received a $25,000 honorarium and a statuette.“Her story is a beautiful illustration of the connection between medicine and science, and a lesson in the value of maintaining curiosity and open-mindedness,” Martin said.Zoghbi, who holds faculty appointments at Baylor in pediatrics, molecular and human genetics, neurology, and neuroscience, said she was humbled by the recognition and...



Why Pig Organs Could Be the Future of Transplants

Thu, 15 Feb 2018 13:15:10 +0100

Making human tissue in a lab has always been more sci-fi than sci-fact, but powerful genetic technologies may change that soon. For the most part, the only way to replace diseased or failing hearts, lungs, kidneys and livers is with donor organs. Even then, many people struggle to find a good biological match with a donor, and 8,000 die each year in the U.S. while waiting for an organ. In one promising solution to the shortage, researchers have been putting a new DNA editing tool called CRISPR through rigorous tests in organ regeneration. Last August, a group of scientists led by George Church, professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School, generated more than a dozen pigs that were bred without certain viruses that had made many of their organs unusable for human transplant. Pig genomes...



Immune system simulation shows need for multi-target treatments for sepsis

Thu, 15 Feb 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(PLOS) Using a computational model of the human immune system, scientists have shown that efforts to combat sepsis might be more effective if they targeted multiple steps in the molecular processes that drive the illness. This finding is presented in PLOS Computational Biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)



Natural noncanonical protein splicing yields products with diverse {beta}-amino acid residues

Thu, 15 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0100

Current textbook knowledge holds that the structural scope of ribosomal biosynthesis is based exclusively on α-amino acid backbone topology. Here we report the genome-guided discovery of bacterial pathways that posttranslationally create β-amino acid–containing products. The transformation is widespread in bacteria and is catalyzed by an enzyme belonging to a previously uncharacterized radical S-adenosylmethionine family. We show that the β-amino acids result from an unusual protein splicing process involving backbone carbon-carbon bond cleavage and net excision of tyramine. The reaction can be used to incorporate diverse and multiple β-amino acids into genetically encoded precursors in Escherichia coli. In addition to enlarging the set of basic amino acid compon...



Protein backbone, broken and mended

Thu, 15 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: ScienceNOW)

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Scientists fill in a piece of the copper transport puzzle

Wed, 14 Feb 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Researchers have identified the protein that carries copper into mitochondria, where copper is required for the functioning of the cell's energy conversion machinery. The discovery, published in the Feb. 9 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry, fills in a piece of the puzzle of how copper is distributed and used in the cell. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Understanding a fly's body temperature may help people sleep better

Tue, 13 Feb 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center) In findings that one day may help people sleep better, scientists have uncovered the first molecular evidence that two anciently conserved proteins in the brains of insects and mammals share a common biological ancestry as regulators of body temperature rhythms crucial to metabolism and sleep. Publishing their data in the journal Genes& Development, the scientists study fruit flies (Drosophila) and mice to solve mysteries about body temperature rhythms in insects and mammals. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)



New guide for finding genes linked with behavior

Mon, 12 Feb 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Rice University) Scientists interested in finding specific genes that influence the behavior of humans and animals have a new tool, thanks to a two-year research effort aimed at describing how to apply the latest techniques of molecular genomics to the study of complex behavior. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Device that measures cell strength could help identify drugs for asthma, hypertension and muscular dystrophy

Fri, 09 Feb 2018 00:29:00 +0100

Engineers, doctors and scientists at UCLA and Rutgers University have developed a tool that measures the physical strength of individual cells 100 times faster than current technologies.The new device could make it easier and faster to test and evaluate new drugs for diseases associated with abnormal levels of cell strength, including hypertension, asthma and muscular dystrophy. It could also open new avenues for biological research into cell force. It is the first high-throughput tool that can measure the strength of thousands of individual cells at a time.“Our tool tracks how much force individual cells exert over time, and how they react when they are exposed to different compounds or drugs,” said Dino Di Carlo, professor of bioengineering at theUCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineer...



Autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder share molecular traits, study finds

Thu, 08 Feb 2018 19:11:00 +0100

Most medical disorders have well-defined physical characteristics seen in tissues, organs and bodily fluids. Psychiatric disorders, in contrast, are not defined by such pathology, but rather by behavior.A UCLA-led study,publishedin Science, has found that autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share some physical characteristics — and important differences — at the molecular level, specifically, patterns of gene expression in the brain. Gene expression is the process by which instructions in DNA are converted into a product, such as a protein.“These findings provide a molecular, pathological signature of these disorders, which is a large step forward,” said senior author Daniel Geschwind, a distinguished professor of neurology, psychiatry and human genetics and director of the ...

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Circulating lipids play roles in many diseases

Thu, 08 Feb 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Lipids are fatty molecules that play important signaling and storage roles in the body, but having an excess of some lipids, like cholesterol, is a risk factor for many metabolic diseases. Recent articles in the Journal of Lipid Research investigate the role of cholesterol and other lipids in the blood in cardiovascular disease, hepatitis, and rare genetic disorders. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)



Harnessing the power of genomic sequencing augments diagnosis and treatment of lymphoid cancer

Thu, 08 Feb 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Elsevier) A new study published in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics has established that hybrid-capture sequencing is the method of choice for sequencing 'actionable' gene mutations across the most common forms of lymphoid cancer. Due to its applicability in routinely acquired formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, this assay can be implemented by clinical laboratories into routine diagnostic workflows. It reliably identifies potentially actionable gene mutations in 91 percent of patients, bringing the benefits of precision diagnosis and individualized therapy to patients with lymphoid cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



A pathway for mitotic chromosome formation

Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0100

Mitotic chromosomes fold as compact arrays of chromatin loops. To identify the pathway of mitotic chromosome formation, we combined imaging and Hi-C analysis of synchronous DT40 cell cultures with polymer simulations. Here we show that in prophase, the interphase organization is rapidly lost in a condensin-dependent manner, and arrays of consecutive 60-kilobase (kb) loops are formed. During prometaphase, ~80-kb inner loops are nested within ~400-kb outer loops. The loop array acquires a helical arrangement with consecutive loops emanating from a central "spiral staircase" condensin scaffold. The size of helical turns progressively increases to ~12 megabases during prometaphase. Acute depletion of condensin I or II shows that nested loops form by differential action of the two condensins, w...



Programming gene and engineered-cell therapies with synthetic biology

Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0100

Gene and engineered-cell therapies promise to treat diseases by genetically modifying cells to carry out therapeutic tasks. Although the field has had some success in treating monogenic disorders and hematological malignancies, current approaches are limited to overexpression of one or a few transgenes, constraining the diseases that can be treated with this approach and leading to potential concerns over safety and efficacy. Synthetic gene networks can regulate the dosage, timing, and localization of gene expression and therapeutic activity in response to small molecules and disease biomarkers. Such "programmable" gene and engineered-cell therapies will provide new interventions for incurable or difficult-to-treat diseases. (Source: ScienceNOW)



Tracking mitotic chromosome formation

Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: ScienceNOW)

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Toward programmed therapeutics

Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: ScienceNOW)



Scientists unlock the molecular secret behind long-lived bat species

Wed, 07 Feb 2018 19:00:00 +0100

Scientists have identified part of the molecular mechanism that gives long-lived bat species their extraordinary lifespans compared to other animals. (Source: University of Bristol news)



Back to the Future: Institute for Scientific Information Re-established Within Clarivate Analytics

Wed, 07 Feb 2018 17:41:45 +0100

Clarivate Analytics, the global leader in providing trusted insights and analytics to accelerate the pace of innovation, today announced it will re-establish the prestigious Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) to its Scientific and Academic Research Group. This new incarnation of the institute will be focused on the development of existing and new bibliometric and analytical approaches, fostering collaborations with partners and customers across the academic community. Annette Thomas, CEO of the Scientific and Academic Research group at Clarivate Analytics explains: “For 50 years the Institute for Scientific Information was the key source of research and product development in the world of scientometrics. It was the founding company of all that is Clarivate Analytics and the he...



Russian and Japanese scientists are studying the possibility of correcting bad heredity

Wed, 07 Feb 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Ural Federal University) Scientists of Ural Federal University in collaboration with colleagues from Japan won a grant from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. The grant will allow to develop the project " Molecular mechanisms of hybrid genesis (elimination of the genome) " . (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Scientists can now measure activity of key cancer cell-survival protein

Tue, 06 Feb 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) A recent study from the University of Michigan Life Sciences Institute and the University of California, San Francisco, has opened new options to further develop a potential cancer-fighting therapy, clearing an early hurdle in the lengthy drug-discovery process. The findings, published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, reveal new ways to measure the activity of a protein that is associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients -- heat shock protein 70, or Hsp70 -- and remove a barrier to developing potential Hsp70-based therapies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)

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Molecular influence of anterior cruciate ligament tear remnants on chondrocytes: a biologic connection between injury and osteoarthritis - Chinzei N, Brophy RH, Duan X, Cai L, Nunley RM, Sandell LJ, Rai MF.

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 09:42:48 +0100

OBJECTIVE: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury initiates a cascade of events often leading to osteoarthritis. ACL reconstruction does not alter the course of osteoarthritis, suggesting that heightened osteoarthritis risk is likely due to factors in add... (Source: SafetyLit)



New insight into the molecular weapons of the plant microbiome

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) In a study published in the Feb. 2 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry, researchers at McMaster University in Canada pinpointed the identity of a toxin used by a soil-dwelling bacterium that protects plants from disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



NIEHS grantee Chang wins prestigious NAS award

Sat, 03 Feb 2018 03:41:57 +0100

The National Academy of Science Award in Molecular Biology recognized NIEHS grantee Howard Chang for his discovery of long noncoding RNA. (read more) (Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter)



MSU-based scientists discovered a molecular timer based on stalling ribosomes

Fri, 02 Feb 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Lomonosov Moscow State University) A molecular biologist from Lomonosov Moscow State University together with foreign colleagues discovered a special mechanism of protein synthesis regulation that they called a 'molecular timer'. It controls the number of protein molecules produced by a cell and prevents the generation of extra molecules. When activated with drugs, such a timer may help efficiently combat cancerous tumors. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Measuring molecular interactions

Thu, 01 Feb 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(ETH Zurich) ETH researchers have used a new approach to discover previously unknown interactions between proteins and small metabolic molecules in bacterial cells. The technique can also be used to test the effect of medications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)

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Self-defense by avoiding self-targeting

Thu, 01 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: ScienceNOW)



The piRNA targeting rules and the resistance to piRNA silencing in endogenous genes

Thu, 01 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0100

Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence transposons to safeguard genome integrity in animals. However, the functions of the many piRNAs that do not map to transposons remain unknown. Here, we show that piRNA targeting in Caenorhabditis elegans can tolerate a few mismatches but prefer perfect pairing at the seed region. The broad targeting capacity of piRNAs underlies the germline silencing of transgenes in C. elegans. Transgenes engineered to avoid piRNA recognition are stably expressed. Many endogenous germline-expressed genes also contain predicted piRNA targeting sites, and periodic An/Tn clusters (PATCs) are an intrinsic signal that provides resistance to piRNA silencing. Together, our study revealed the piRNA targeting rules and highlights a distinct strategy that C. elegans uses to di...



These bacteria produce gold by digesting toxic metals

Wed, 31 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Martin-Luther-Universit ä t Halle-Wittenberg) High concentrations of heavy metals, like copper and gold, are toxic for most living creatures. This is not the case for the bacterium C. metallidurans, which has found a way to extract valuable trace elements from a compound of heavy metals without poisoning itself. One interesting side-effect: the formation of tiny gold nuggets. A team of researchers led by Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) has discovered the molecular processes that take place inside the bacteria. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Discovery of molecular nets inside heart muscles hold promise for new treatment

Wed, 31 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(National University Health System) Local researchers have discovered that a group of molecules, called chondroitin sulfate, normally found only in connective tissues such as the cartilage, accumulates and causes inflammation in the hearts of patients with heart failure. The discovery was made jointly by the National University Health System (NUHS), A*STAR's Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS) and the National University of Singapore (NUS) Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, and is now published in Circulation, a journal from the American Heart Association. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



UCLA scientists use stem cells to study genetics of germ cell tumors

Mon, 29 Jan 2018 23:11:06 +0100

UCLA researchers have made new inroads into understanding germ cell tumors, a diverse and rare group of cancers that begin in germ cells — the cells that develop into sperm and eggs. The researchers developed a protocol to recreate germ cell tumor cells from stem cells and used the new model to study the genetics of the cancer.Their findings could point the way toward new drugs to treat germ cell tumors, which account for around 3 percent of all cases of childhood and adolescent cancer.The study, published in Stem Cell Research, was led by Amander Clark, a UCLA professor of molecular cell and developmental biology and a member of theEli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA.Germ cell tumors most often develop during embryonic development, in the ...

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CRAG and UB researchers find basic mechanisms for root growth and cell replenishment

Mon, 29 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Centre for Research in Agricultural Genomics) Interdisciplinary collaboration between physics and molecular biology enabled researchers to solve fundamental doubts on plant root growth.These findings provide opportunities to create more drought-resistant plants, which is one of the most important problems in the current context of the climate change. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



The sugar-attaching enzyme that defines colon cancer

Fri, 26 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Researchers have identified an enzyme that is absent in healthy colon tissue but abundant in colon cancer cells, according to a report in the Jan. 26 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry. The enzyme appears to drive the conversion of normal colon tissue into cancer by attaching sugar molecules, or glycans, to certain proteins in the cell. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)



Researchers Discover 10 New Immune Systems in Bacteria

Thu, 25 Jan 2018 14:01:00 +0100

The findings more than double the number of known defense mechanisms, piquing the interests of molecular biology tool developers. (Source: The Scientist)



Startup receives FDA clearance for polymer to aid bone regrowth

Thu, 25 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(University of California - Davis) A biotechnology startup enabled by UC Davis, Molecular Matrix Inc., has received Food and Drug Administration clearance for a carbohydrate-based polymer that can help injured bones heal and regrow. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



From quasiparticles to highly sensitive sensors

Thu, 25 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena) Professor Dr. Stefanie Gr ä fe from the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany received an ERC grant. Now she can invastigate ultrafast time- and space-resolved dynamics in molecular-plasmonic hybrid systems. Her project QUEM-CHEM is to provide fundamentals and new theories in the next five years in order to subsequently be able to develop potential applications, for instance in highly sensitive sensors. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)

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When the 'guardian' and the 'caretaker' of the genome join forces

Thu, 25 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(University of Konstanz) Achievement in the field of cancer research: Biologists and chemists at the University of Konstanz decipher a molecular mechanism of the cell with relevance for the development of cancer and the fight against that disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)



Spermidine in health and disease

Thu, 25 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0100

Interventions that delay aging and protect from age-associated disease are slowly approaching clinical implementation. Such interventions include caloric restriction mimetics, which are defined as agents that mimic the beneficial effects of dietary restriction while limiting its detrimental effects. One such agent, the natural polyamine spermidine, has prominent cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects and stimulates anticancer immunosurveillance in rodent models. Moreover, dietary polyamine uptake correlates with reduced cardiovascular and cancer-related mortality in human epidemiological studies. Spermidine preserves mitochondrial function, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties, and prevents stem cell senescence. Mechanistically, it shares the molecular pathways engaged by other calo...



Mayo Clinic-Backed Startup Will Use AI to Target Unmet Medical Needs

Tue, 23 Jan 2018 20:40:03 +0100

The objective is to figure out how to maximize the cohort that has an unmet need. If the subset is a reasonable subset, it's still interesting from a commercial standpoint." Hear Mark Wehde, of Mayo Clinic's Division of Engineering, discuss new product iteration at the MD&M West Conference on February 7, 2018. Use promo code "MDDI" for 20% off registration. The Qrativ Approach Qrativ formed after Dr. Andrew Badley, Mayo Clinic's director of the Office of Translation, accomplished in two months what his lab had been unable to accomplish in the prior two years by using nference's nferX synthesis platform. "We had a longstanding data analytics problem we were previously unable to resolve," said Badley, who also serves as Qrativ's cofounder and chief medical officer. "I explained the probl...



Scientists elucidate molecular basis of myostatin activation, key process in muscle health

Tue, 23 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(The Yates Network) For the first time, this new study defines at the molecular level the structural changes that take place in the protein during the activation process of myostatin. Myostatin (or GDF8) is a key signaling protein involved in regulation of muscle mass and function. The research elucidated the central role of the tolloid enzyme in generating active myostatin. These insights enable the targeting of myostatin to develop novel therapies for many severe diseases. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Cryo-EM reveals critical protein-modifying complex and potential drug target

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Van Andel Research Institute) Scientists have revealed the atomic-level structure of a molecular complex responsible for modifying proteins, possibly paving the way for the development of new medications for cancer and a host of other diseases. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)

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Belgian PhD student decodes DNA, wins a Bitcoin

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(European Molecular Biology Laboratory - European Bioinformatics Institute) DNA Storage scientist Nick Goldman issued the Bitcoin Challenge at World Economic Forum meeting in Davos, January 2015. One week before the Jan. 21, 2018 deadline, PhD student Sander Wuyts of the University of Antwerp is the first to decode the Bitcoin, and so takes ownership. The decryption of encoded information in the DNA sample demonstrates that the digital storage method is practical. The initiative of the bioengineering PhD student inspires future research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Piecework at the nano assembly line

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Technical University of Munich (TUM)) Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have developed a novel electric propulsion technology for nanorobots. It allows molecular machines to move a hundred thousand times faster than with the biochemical processes used to date. This makes nanobots fast enough to do assembly line work in molecular factories. The new research results will appear as the cover story on 19th January in the renowned scientific journal Science. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Study finds convergent evolution of gene regulation in humans and mice

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(University of California - Santa Cruz) Organisms that aren't closely related may evolve similar traits as they adapt to similar challenges. It's called convergent evolution, and familiar examples include the wings of birds, bats, and insects, and echolocation in bats and dolphins. Now, molecular biologists have found evidence of convergent evolution in an important mechanism of gene regulation in humans and mice. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



'Liquid biopsy for cancer promises early detection

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: ScienceNOW)



Large-scale gene synthesis in tiny droplets

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: ScienceNOW)

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Multiplexed gene synthesis in emulsions for exploring protein functional landscapes

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0100

Improving our ability to construct and functionally characterize DNA sequences would broadly accelerate progress in biology. Here, we introduce DropSynth, a scalable, low-cost method to build thousands of defined gene-length constructs in a pooled (multiplexed) manner. DropSynth uses a library of barcoded beads that pull down the oligonucleotides necessary for a gene’s assembly, which are then processed and assembled in water-in-oil emulsions. We used DropSynth to successfully build more than 7000 synthetic genes that encode phylogenetically diverse homologs of two essential genes in Escherichia coli. We tested the ability of phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase homologs to complement a knockout E. coli strain in multiplex, revealing core functional motifs and reasons underlying ho...



Toward dynamic structural biology: Two decades of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0100

Classical structural biology can only provide static snapshots of biomacromolecules. Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) paved the way for studying dynamics in macromolecular structures under biologically relevant conditions. Since its first implementation in 1996, smFRET experiments have confirmed previously hypothesized mechanisms and provided new insights into many fundamental biological processes, such as DNA maintenance and repair, transcription, translation, and membrane transport. We review 22 years of contributions of smFRET to our understanding of basic mechanisms in biochemistry, molecular biology, and structural biology. Additionally, building on current state-of-the-art implementations of smFRET, we highlight possible future directions for smFRET ...



Data explained: gene descriptions

Wed, 17 Jan 2018 22:16:39 +0100

WormBase writes and displays short summaries about genes, in the ‘Overview’ widget on the very top of gene pages.  When we realized we couldn’t keep up with both updating and writing new gene descriptions, we developed an automated gene descriptions data pipeline that looks at primary data from the most recent WormBase release, in order to write gene descriptions for the next WormBase release (eg., the gene descriptions for the WS262 release of WormBase are based on the WS261 WormBase data release). The data we currently include in a gene description are – orthology to human for C. elegans genes and orthology to C. elegans for non-elegans species genes (such as C. briggsae), biological process, molecular function and cellular localization (based on Gene Ontology (G...



A primer in access and benefit-sharing for DNA barcoders

Wed, 17 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Pensoft Publishers) Molecular biodiversity approaches, such as DNA barcoding, areaiding in the globalization of research efforts and practical applications in important areas of human activity. A new open-access book by Canadian experts provides an overview of the Nagoya Protocol to the Convention of Biological Diversity and offers practical tips for scientists and practitioners working in the field of DNA barcoding on adhering to best practices and ensuring legal compliance of their international collaborative activities. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)



Strangest things: fossils reveal how fungus shaped life on Earth

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 06:00:16 +0100

Fossil fungi from over 400m years ago have altered our understanding of early life on land and climate change over deep timeMuch of the weirdness depicted in the TV show Stranger Things is distinctly fungal. The massive organic underground network, the floating spores, and even the rotting pumpkin fields all capture the “otherness” of fungi: neither plants nor animals, often bizarre-looking, and associated with decay. As weird as they may seem to us, fungi are integral to the story of the evolution of our landscapes and climate.Molecular studies show us that animals and fungi share a more recent common ancestor than either group does with plants, and that these groups had all diverged over a billion years ago. A sparse fossil record for fungi is not entirely surprising, given the low p...

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New molecular probes to allow non-destructive analysis of bioengineered cartilage

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) A new study describes novel probes that enable non-invasive, non-destructive, direct monitoring of the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in real-time during the formation of engineered cartilage to replace damaged or diseased tissue. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Researchers devise decoy molecule to block pain where it starts

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(University of Texas at Dallas) For anyone who has accidentally injured themselves, Dr. Zachary Campbell not only sympathizes, he's developing new ways to blunt pain. Campbell, who researches pain on the molecular level at the University of Texas at Dallas, recently published a study in the journal Nature Communications that describes a new method of reducing pain-associated behaviors with RNA-based medicine, creating a new class of decoy molecules that prevent the onset of pain. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



How climate change alters plant growth

Fri, 12 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Martin-Luther-Universit ä t Halle-Wittenberg) Global warming affects more than just plant biodiversity -- it even alters the way plants grow. A team of researchers at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) joined forces with the Leibniz Institute for Plant Biochemistry (IPB) to discover which molecular processes are involved in plant growth. In the current edition of the internationally renowned journal " Current Biology " , the group presents its latest findings on the mechanism controlling growth at high temperatures. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)



Researchers map genetic ‘switches’ behind human brain evolution

Thu, 11 Jan 2018 14:02:50 +0100

FINDINGSUCLA researchers have developed the first map of gene regulation in human neurogenesis, the process by which neural stem cells turn into brain cells and the cerebral cortex expands in size. The scientists identified factors that govern the growth of our brains and, in some cases, set the stage for several brain disorders that appear later in life.BACKGROUNDThe human brain differs from that of mice and monkeys because of its large cerebral cortex. The organ ’s most highly developed part, the cerebral cortex is responsible for thinking, perceiving and sophisticated communication. Scientists are just beginning to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms that drive the growth of the human brain and the major role they play in human cognition.Brain development is guided by the...



New Bioinformatics Training for Librarians beginning January 29!

Thu, 11 Jan 2018 12:00:54 +0100

The NNLM Training Office has announced a new learning opportunity for bioinformatics and biology training. Bioinformatics and Biology Essentials For Librarians: Databases, Tools, and Clinical Applications is a 16-week, self-paced course worth 25 hours of continuing education credit from the Medical Library Association. The course will run January 29 – May 18, 2018. An introductory, online bioinformatics course for librarians conducted in the Moodle learning management system, this course is designed for librarians who offer, or intend to offer, bioinformatics services; as well as for librarians who use bioinformatics information on a periodic or irregular basis to serve their patrons. Modules offer in-depth exploration of several NCBI databases, including Gene, Nucleotide, Protein, Struc...

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MDI Biological Laboratory discovery could lead to new therapies for diabetics

Thu, 11 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory) New research by MDI Biological Laboratory scientist Sandra Rieger, Ph.D., has demonstrated that an enzyme she had previously identified as playing a role in peripheral neuropathy induced by cancer chemotherapy also plays a role in peripheral neuropathy caused by diabetes. The significance of the identification of a common molecular mechanism is that the drug candidates she identified to treat chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy could potentially be used to treat peripheral neuropathy caused by diabetes as well. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)



Drinking too much can cause cancer, damaging cellular DNA, study finds

Tue, 09 Jan 2018 22:46:08 +0100

(Natural News) An animal study published in the journal Nature revealed how excessive alcohol intake might lead to the subsequent onset of cancer. A team of researchers at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge gave mice models ethanol to examine the effects of alcohol on the animals. The experts then analyzed the animals’ DNA structure... (Source: NaturalNews.com)



Identical twins can share more than identical genes

Tue, 09 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Baylor College of Medicine) Independent of their identical genes, identical twins share an additional level of molecular similarity that influences their biological characteristics. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)



James Bliska to Lead Dartmouth Cystic Fibrosis Research Cluster

Mon, 08 Jan 2018 18:26:25 +0100

Noted molecular biologist James Bliska, PhD, is joining the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth as a Distinguished Professor in Microbiology and Immunology and senior lead faculty member of the Personalized Treatments for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Cluster, a cross-Dartmouth group of investigators established to develop innovative, personalized medicine and treatments for CF and lung infections caused by opportunistic pathogens. (Source: News at Dartmouth Medical School)



Interactions between simple molecular mechanisms give rise to complex infection dynamics

Mon, 08 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Institute of Science and Technology Austria) Bacteria can themselves be infected -- by viruses. Not all viruses are harmful to bacteria and some can even benefit them. Can bacteria tell good and bad viruses apart? Scientists now studied how infections with potentially beneficial viruses play out in bacteria that carry a certain type of anti-viral immune mechanism called restriction-modification. They show that population-level interactions between viruses and bacteria influence how the infection proceeds. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)

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Throwing molecular wrench into gene control machine leads to 'melting away' of leukemia

Mon, 08 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory) Researchers have figured out a way to prevent MYB, one of the most potent cancer-aiding proteins, from activating genes in AML, an aggressive form of leukemia. Tested in mice, the new method resulted in dramatic cancer reduction and no harm to healthy cells. This could lead to a new therapy for AML and possibly other cancers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



How bacteria turbocharged their motors

Mon, 08 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Imperial College London) Using detailed 3-D images, researchers have shown how bacteria have evolved molecular motors of different powers to optimize their swimming. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Received an at-home DNA test as a holiday gift? Proceed with caution

Fri, 05 Jan 2018 18:48:52 +0100

If you or a family member received a consumer genetic testing kit as a holiday gift, you probably weren ’t alone. Sales of at-home DNA testing kits reportedly soared in 2017, as people sought clues to their ancestry or future health. Some genetic-testing companies encouraged the purchase of kits as holiday gifts — even offering free gift wrapping.However, the results from at-home DNA tests are proving problematic for some people, even as the tests ’ growing popularity helps to raise public awareness of the link between one’s genetic make-up and their health.“We’ve definitely seen a steady increase in at-home genetic tests and an uptick recently, in part because of the new trend to give these tests as a family gift,” saidWayne Grody, director of the UCLA Molecular Diagnostic L...



Bright and stable: New acid-tolerant green fluorescent protein for bioimaging

Thu, 04 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Osaka University) Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are powerful tools for visualization of molecular and cellular processes; however, most FPs lose fluorescence at a pH lower than their neutral pKa (~6). A team of Osaka University researchers developed the acid-tolerant green FP -- termed Gamillus -- cloned from flower hat jellyfish. Gamillus exhibits excellent brightness, maturation speed, and photostablity, even in low pH environments, making it a feasible molecular tag for imaging in acidic organelles. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Transferrin receptor 1 is a reticulocyte-specific receptor for Plasmodium vivax

Thu, 04 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0100

Plasmodium vivax shows a strict host tropism for reticulocytes. We identified transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) as the receptor for P. vivax reticulocyte-binding protein 2b (PvRBP2b). We determined the structure of the N-terminal domain of PvRBP2b involved in red blood cell binding, elucidating the molecular basis for TfR1 recognition. We validated TfR1 as the biological target of PvRBP2b engagement by means of TfR1 expression knockdown analysis. TfR1 mutant cells deficient in PvRBP2b binding were refractory to invasion of P. vivax but not to invasion of P. falciparum. Using Brazilian and Thai clinical isolates, we show that PvRBP2b monoclonal antibodies that inhibit reticulocyte binding also block P. vivax entry into reticulocytes. These data show that TfR1-PvRBP2b invasion pathway is critica...

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Drinking causes cancer by permanently damaging genes

Wed, 03 Jan 2018 18:11:57 +0100

A team at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, found alcohol is broken down in the body into a poisonous chemical that causes damage to DNA. (Source: the Mail online | Health)



An unusual form of antibiotic resistance in pandemic cholera

Wed, 03 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Researchers at the University of Georgia have now shown that the enzyme that makes the El Tor family of V. cholerae resistant to those antibiotics has a different mechanism of action from any comparable proteins observed in bacteria so far. Understanding that mechanism better equips researchers to overcome the challenge it presents in a world with increasing antibiotic resistance. The results of this research are published in the Dec. 22 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Zooming in on protein to prevent kidney stones

Tue, 02 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Case Western Reserve University) Researchers have applied Nobel prize-winning microscope technology to uncover an ion channel structure that could lead to new treatments for kidney stones. In a recent study published in Nature Structural and Molecular Biology, researchers revealed atomic-level details of the protein that serves as a passageway for calcium across kidney cell membranes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



A phospholipid pathway from plants to parasites

Fri, 29 Dec 2017 05:00:00 +0100

(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Recent findings by researchers at Washington University in St. Louis may aid in the development of therapies to treat parasitic infections, including malaria, and may help plant scientists one day produce hardier crops. The research team's work will be published in the Dec. 29 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Netherlands University Researchers Question Validity of More Than 30,000 Published Scientific Studies; Findings Have Implications for Medical Laboratories

Wed, 27 Dec 2017 11:00:02 +0100

Radboud University researchers fear oncology, molecular biology, pharmacology, and other cell-centric medical research efforts are at risk due to verification that at least 30,000 studies published in 33,000 scientific journals included data derived from misidentified or contaminated cell lines Many research findings that underpin the science behind various diagnostic technologies used regularly by clinical laboratories […] (Source: Dark Daily)

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Mass spectrometric imaging technique makes diagnosis easier and smarter

Tue, 26 Dec 2017 05:00:00 +0100

(DGIST (Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology)) A research team from Korea succeeded develop mass spectrometry imaging system to analyze living biological samples in the atmospheric pressure environment at resolution of 3μm. The approach could be applied in molecular biology and medical diagnosis fields. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



FDA Sets Record for Recent Drug Approvals

Fri, 22 Dec 2017 15:28:42 +0100

Best Year Since 1996 FDA hit 46 approvals for the year. That ’s the most in at least a decade. The tally includes NMEs (New Molecular Entities – traditional drugs) and BLAs (Biologic License Applications – these are manufactured biologics, which do not include vaccines). (Source: Pharma Marketing News)



Researchers map molecular interaction that prevents aggressive breast cancer

Thu, 21 Dec 2017 05:00:00 +0100

(Rockefeller University Press) Researchers in Italy have discovered how specific versions of a protein called Numb protect the key tumor suppressor p53 from destruction. The study, which will be published Dec. 21 in the Journal of Cell Biology, suggests that the loss of these particular Numb proteins makes breast cancers more aggressive and resistant to chemotherapy, but points the way toward new therapeutic approaches that could improve patient outcome by preserving p53 levels. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)



Distinct human mutations can alter the effect of medicine

Wed, 20 Dec 2017 11:00:00 +0100

Every person has a unique DNA sequence in their genome. Now researchers from the University of Copenhagen and the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge have tried to quantify what these differences in the genome mean in the context of the genes targeted by drugs. In a new study published in the scientific journal Cell they look at certain receptors (GPCRs) in the human cell. (Source: World Pharma News)



Two studies find stress reprograms cells

Wed, 20 Dec 2017 05:00:00 +0100

(Case Western Reserve University) In a pair of publications, researchers have shown how cells adapt to stressors -- like water loss -- by reprogramming their internal signaling networks. The studies describe previously unknown mechanisms that cells use to send signals between cellular machinery and avoid cell death. According to the authors, drugs that enhance the adaptation mechanisms could help cells stave off multiple diseases, including type 2 diabetes. The studies were published in Cell Reports and Molecular Cell. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)

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Defending against environmental stressors may shorten lifespan

Wed, 20 Dec 2017 05:00:00 +0100

(NIH/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences) A shorter life may be the price an organism pays for coping with the natural assaults of daily living, according to researchers at the National Institutes of Health and their colleagues in Japan. The scientists used fruit flies to examine the relationship between lifespan and signaling proteins that defend the body against environmental stressors, such as bacterial infections and cold temperatures. Since flies and mammals share some of the same molecular pathways, the work may demonstrate how the environment affects longevity in humans. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Molecular printing technology could recreate chemical environments resembling human body

Tue, 19 Dec 2017 05:00:00 +0100

(Queen Mary University of London) New patterning technology which could open opportunities to recreate complex biological environments has been developed by researchers at Queen Mary University of London. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Gaining insight into the molecular mechanisms behind squamous cell cancer

Tue, 19 Dec 2017 05:00:00 +0100

(Kanazawa University) Researchers at Kanazawa University report in EMBO Reports a new molecular mechanisms regulating cellular fate of squamous cell carcinomas. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



UCLA grant program funds interdisciplinary brain cancer research

Mon, 18 Dec 2017 22:31:06 +0100

When a neurosurgeon looks at a glioblastoma, an aggressive form of brain cancer, she sees a dark mass bullying its way through the brain. When an oncologist talks to a patient with glioblastoma, he tempers expectations, talking in months rather than years. When a molecular biologist thinks about glioblastoma, she thinks about the tumor ’s sweet tooth — the sugar it consumes to fuel its frenetic growth. And when you put all these people together — you get a plan to fight cancer.Armed with new research tools and a grant from the David Geffen School of Medicine ’s newSeed Grant Program, a team of UCLA researchers, including neurosurgeons, neuro-oncologists, molecular biologists, and pharmacologists, is now studying how the metabolism traits of glioblastomas may represent a weak spot i...



UCLA researchers create skeletal muscle from stem cells

Mon, 18 Dec 2017 19:02:00 +0100

UCLA scientists have developed a new strategy to efficiently isolate, mature and transplant skeletal muscle cells created from human pluripotent stem cells, which can produce all cell types of the body. The findings are a major step toward  the development of a stem cell replacement therapy for muscle diseases including Duchenne muscular dystrophy, which affects approximately 1 in 5,000 boys in the U.S. and is the most common fatal childhood genetic disease.The study, which was published in the journal Nature Cell Biology, was led by senior author April Pyle, associate professor of microbiology, immunology and molecular genetics and member of the  Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA.Using the natural human development process as a guide,  ...

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Shedding light on a shadowy organizational hub in cells

Mon, 18 Dec 2017 05:00:00 +0100

(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Researchers have shed light on the role that a large, enigmatic protein plays in assembling microtubules, paving the way for better cancer treatments. The results of the research are published in the Dec. 15 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Mysterious new seafloor species sheds light on early animal evolution

Sun, 17 Dec 2017 05:00:00 +0100

(University of Tsukuba) Japanese researchers described a new species of the enigmatic marine worm Xenoturbella, named Xenoturbella japonica. Two specimens of this new species were dredged from the seafloor of the western Pacific. These primitive worms, lacking a centralized nervous system, kidneys, and anus, are important for understanding the early evolution of the Bilateria. MicroCT scanning revealed previously unknown structures, and molecular genomic analysis suggested that features of this species may be ancestral to Xenoturbella. This newly identified species is promising for further research on early bilaterian evolution. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



KAIST team develops technology to find optimum drug target for cancer

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 05:00:00 +0100

(The Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)) A KAIST research team led by Professor Kwang-Hyun Cho of the Department of Bio and Brain Engineering developed technology to find the optimum drug target according to the type of cancer cell. The team used systems biology to analyze molecular network dynamics that reflect genetic mutations in cancer cells and to predict drug response. The technology could contribute greatly to future anti-cancer drug development. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Distinct human mutations can alter the effect of medicine

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 05:00:00 +0100

(University of Copenhagen The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences) About one third of all medicine binds to the same type of receptor in the human body. An estimated 3 percent of the population have receptors of this type that are so genetically different that they are predisposed to altered, ineffective or adverse responses to medicine, a new study from the University of Copenhagen and the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge shows. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)



First-of-its-kind chemical oscillator offers new level of molecular control

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 05:00:00 +0100

(University of Texas at Austin) UT researchers successfully constructed a first-of-its-kind chemical oscillator that uses DNA components. DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)

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Supercoiling pushes molecular handcuffs along chromatin fibers

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 05:00:00 +0100

(Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics) As it squeezes down the chromatin fiber, the cohesin protein complex extrudes a growing loop of DNA -- a bit like the quick-lacing system of trail-running shoes. But what is powering the movement of the protein? A team of SIB scientists has found that the driving force could be the supercoiling of upstream DNA. Their research, published in Nucleic Acids Research, is thereby adding a key piece to the puzzle of gene expression regulation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Enzyme-free nucleic acid dynamical systems

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0100

Chemistries exhibiting complex dynamics—from inorganic oscillators to gene regulatory networks—have been long known but either cannot be reprogrammed at will or rely on the sophisticated enzyme chemistry underlying the central dogma. Can simpler molecular mechanisms, designed from scratch, exhibit the same range of behaviors? Abstract chemical reaction networks have been proposed as a programming language for complex dynamics, along with their systematic implementation using short synthetic DNA molecules. We developed this technology for dynamical systems by identifying critical design principles and codifying them into a compiler automating the design process. Using this approach, we built an oscillator containing only DNA components, establishing that Watson-Crick base-pairin...



Multiplex recording of cellular events over time on CRISPR biological tape

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0100

Although dynamics underlie many biological processes, our ability to robustly and accurately profile time-varying biological signals and regulatory programs remains limited. Here we describe a framework for storing temporal biological information directly in the genomes of a cell population. We developed a "biological tape recorder" in which biological signals trigger intracellular DNA production that is then recorded by the CRISPR-Cas adaptation system. This approach enables stable recording over multiple days and accurate reconstruction of temporal and lineage information by sequencing CRISPR arrays. We further demonstrate a multiplexing strategy to simultaneously record the temporal availability of three metabolites (copper, trehalose, and fucose) in the environment of a cell population...



A rationally designed DNA-based oscillator

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: ScienceNOW)



A CRISPR device to record time

Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: ScienceNOW)

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Structure of channelrhodopsin determined

Wed, 13 Dec 2017 05:00:00 +0100

(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) Researchers discover structure and mechanism of action of molecular light switch, paving the way for new applications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Research reveals how diabetes in pregnancy affects baby ’s heart

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 22:12:47 +0100

Researchers at the  Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA have discovered how high glucose levels — whether caused by diabetes or other factors — keep heart cells from maturing normally. Their findings help explain why babies born to women with diabetes are more likely to develop congenital heart disease.The study, which was led by Atsushi “Austin” Nakano, a UCLA associate professor of molecular, cell, and developmental biology and member of the Broad Stem Cell Research Center, was published today in the journal eLife.When developing heart cells are exposed to high levels of glucose, the researchers found, the cells generate more building blocks of DNA than usual, which leads the cells to continue reproducing rather than mature.  “...



Perking up and crimping the 'bristles' of polyelectrolyte brushes

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 05:00:00 +0100

(Georgia Institute of Technology) A molecular-sized brush that looks like a shoe brush has properties with great potential for the materials industry and medicine, but polyelectrolyte brushes can be sensitive, and getting them to work right tricky. New research shows what can make them break down, but also what can get them to systematically recover. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Important new aspects are revealed about the control of cell division

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 05:00:00 +0100

(University of Seville) University of Seville researchers from the Andalusian Centre for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine (Centro Andaluz de Biolog í a Molecular y Medicina Regenerativa - Cabimer) have published a study on the fundamental role that the nucleus plays in the coordination of these processes (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)