Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:20:11 +0100
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100Abstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains an important pathogen in transplant patients. Sensitive and rapid turnaround quantitative PCR based monitoring coupled with the availability of effective antiviral therapy has reduced the overall burden of CMV disease after transplantation. However, in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients, the increasing use of new donor and stem cell sources present new challenges in the prevention and treatment of CMV. Gastrointestinal disease is now the most common end-organ manifestation of CMV infection after HSCT, whereas pneumonia remains associated with high mortality. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100Background: Pediatric patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have a high risk of invasive fungal infection. Due to the excellent results from prospective studies in adults, we have been using posaconazole for antifungal prophylaxis in pediatric patients for several years now. In addition to posaconazole oral suspension, posaconazole has recently been formulated as a tablet. In this analysis safety, feasibility, initial data on efficacy and posaconazole serum concentrations of posaconazole suspension were compared to posaconazole tablet in pediatric patients after HSCT. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 07:00:00 +0100Stem cell treatment on rats with spinal cord injury has led to regeneration of functional tissue that enabled the rats to move their forepaws. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100ConclusionsThis study unveiled an immunomodulatory role of STRO‐1+CD146+ PDLSCs in negatively regulating DC‐mediated T‐cell immune responses, demonstrating their potential to be utilized in promising new stem cell therapies. (Source: Journal of Periodontal Research)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 21:07:09 +0100In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that PFOS decreased the proliferation of C17.2 cells via the negative modulation of the GSK‐3β/β‐catenin pathway. We present the potential mechanisms underlying the PFOS‐induced toxic effects on NSCs to provide novel insights into the neurotoxic mechanism of PFOS. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (Source: Journal of Applied Toxicology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:56:53 +0100Fortus Medical, a startup that spurs bone growth with stem cells, is halfway through a $1 million round of funding, according to a regulatory filing. Led by CEO and serial entrepreneur Bob Assell, Minneapolis-based Fortus is developing technology that combines stem cells harvested from a patient's bone marrow with a material to create a bone graft. Such grafts are used to repair gaps between bones created by fractures or other damage. It's especially common for physicians to use them in connection… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:10 +0100Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in the testes serve as a source of spermatozoa after puberty, and are differentiated from gonocytes during ′mini-puberty,′ immediately after birth. By using a cryptorchid animal model, we found that the epigenetic regulation of certain genes influences the SSC differentiation process; however, the entire differentiation process is not completely clear. Some recent studies propose the importance of the microenvironment surrounding the SSCs, including Sertoli cells, in this process. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100Most prostate tumors are adenocarcinoma with glandular differentiation, and a small percentage, found most frequently in advanced diseases, are small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma without glandular differentiation. The LuCaP series is a family of prostate cancer xenografts propagated in male mice. LuCaP CR variants were obtained from passages in castrated hosts. Expression of stem cell transcription factor (TF) genes LIN28A, NANOG, POU5F1, SOX2 was examined in the LuCaP lines because some LuCaP lines were found to express stem cell markers. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100Vaginal distension (VD) in rats results in a reproducible injury to urethral continence mechanism that is recoverable in 2 weeks. VD injury has been shown to cause ischemia. Stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1), is a known chemokine involved in angiogenesis and chemo attraction of stem cells into injury area. Previously in animal and human studies, delivery of non-viral human SDF-1 plasmid (pSDF-1), which expresses SDF-1 for 2-3 weeks, has shown safety, increased vessel density and improved patient status in ischemic heart and vascular diseases. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100The use of xenotransplants has been considered for years as a possible solution to the organ shortage, but the risks of xenograft loss rejection and zoonoses have limited the clinical application of this kind of treatments. There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from embryonic kidney (metanephroi) avoided rejection from non-immunosuppressed hosts. We recently generated a functional kidney de novo using a minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure to trasplant metanephroi. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100The attenuation of spermatogonial stem cell activity in cryptorchid testes alters spermatogenesis and affects fertility. We have shown that lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5A (Kdm5a) is more highly expressed in undescended testes than in normal testes of juvenile rats, suggesting that Kdm5a regulates spermatogenesis via histone H3K4 modification (J Urol., 2014). In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the function of Kdm5a, a key epigenetic regulator, in the testes in vitro. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of various genitourinary tumors. Although it is a very effective, its use is limited by its renal and testicular toxicity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are pluripotent undifferentiated cells that have the ability to differentiate and divide into another cell types and can self renew. Our aim was to investigate the possible protective role of MSCs against Cisplatin induced testicular apoptosis and damaged oxidant/antioxidant balance in rats. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100Cancer/Testis antigens (CTAs) are encoded by genes that are normally expressed only in human germ lines, but are also expressed in various tumor types. The discovery of CTAs established a theory that aberrant expression of the silenced gametogenic program in somatic cells, and that this programmatic acquisition is one of the driving forces of tumorigenesis. The purpose of this study is to clarify the function of prostate cancer CTAs in spermatogenesis. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100Estrogens have been implicated in prostate development and cancer; however, specific roles of estrogen receptor-α and estrogen receptor-β are not well established. Using human prostate stem-progenitor cells we have previously shown that non-genomic pathways are involved in estrogen actions. Our present study sought to elucidate specific roles for ERα and ERβ via membrane initiated signaling in stem-progenitor cells. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100We report the results of the first human phase 1 trial with autologous adipose derived regenerative stem cells (ADRCs) used freshly isolated after a liposuction. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100According to preclinical studies, intracavernous injections of autologous Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF) improve erectile function. SVF is a pool of various adipose-derived cells, among which there are regenerative stem cells whose clinical use seems promising. Our main objective is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of SVF in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100Postoperative damage of the urethral rhabdosphincter and nerve-vascular networks is a major operative complication of radical prostatectomy. It is generally recognized that this unavoidable surgical damage to the muscle-nerve-blood vessel units causes urethral incontinence and/or erectile dysfunction, which adversely affect quality of life. To overcome this problem, we attempted to treat this damage using human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells, which are able to reconstitute muscle-nerve-blood vessel units. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100Stem cell based therapy has emerged as a promising alternative to current female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) treatments. Human urine-derived stem cells (USCs) have no risk from biopsy but have not previously been investigated for SUI. One therapeutic mechanism of action of stem cells is secretion of bioactive growth factors or ″secretome″ that drives the regulation of many physiological processes via paracrine actions. We hypothesized that USCs or their secretome alone would promote functional recovery in a rodent model of female SUI. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100We studied the efficacy of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) Zubton with mannose for rat pancreatic fistula model (PF). (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100One of the problems of bladder tissue engineering is the lack of a biomaterial with ideal thickness that serves as a suitable scaffold for the bladder regeneration process. Due to the limitations of vascular supply in the inner regions of the thick scaffolds the seeded cells do not survive. Thus, in this study, we attempted to demonstrate that human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) seeded on multilayered Poly (l-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) (PLCL) sheet facilitate compliance and contractility of the bladder in a mucosa preserving partial cystectomy (MPPC) rat model. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100In the developing kidney, the formation of new nephrons relies on a small population of self renewing nephrogenic progenitors characterized by the co-expression of Six2 and Cited1. Unfortunately, despite their essential role in the renal formation and maturation, isolation and culture of human nephrogenic progenitor lines has not been successfully achieved and what is known about them is mostly based on rodent models. In this project we report for the first time the isolation of a live cell population co-expressing Six2 and Cited1 from human fetal kidneys and its comparison with a recently subpopulation of Six2+Cited1+ from human amniotic fluid (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:07 +0100Acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major challenge in critical care medicine, with high rates of in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Preclinical studies suggested that administered cultured stem cells protected kidney function against AKI induced by IRI. Due to several concerns regarding the implantation of cultured stem cells into humans, however, recent clinical studies have focused on the use of stromal vascular fraction (SVF) in treating various diseases. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:06 +0100Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is a lethal urologic disease with 10 year survival less than 5 percent. Recent developments in cell signalling and small molecule therapy for mRCC have impacted progression free survival (PFS) only. High-dose IL-2 immunotherapy can produce durable complete responses (CR) but the response rate is low (16%), highlighting the need for novel therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capacity to mobilize to sites of inflammation. Recently, MSCs were reported to traffic to murine RCC lung metastases via inflammatory signals, opening the potential of delivering tumor site-specific treatment. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:06 +0100Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS) is one of the most severe forms of male factor infertility and is classically thought to be devoid of germ cells. However, evidence from microsurgical testicular sperm extractions (TESE) on patients with SCOS has revealed the presence of rare focal areas of spermatogenesis, thereby suggesting the presence of spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) in at least some patients with SCOS. We hypothesize that SSCs are present in most patients with SCOS and that it is abnormal differentiation of the SSC into spermatogonia (SPG) A and/or B that leads to SCOS. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:06 +0100Mammalian spermatogenesis is regulated through paracrine-endocrine activity, cell signaling, and local control mechanisms. These highly specific signaling interactions are effectively absent upon placing testicular cells into two-dimensional (2D) primary culture. Current protocols to produce mature germ cells in vitro are inefficient and are limited in supporting post-meiotic cells. In order to address these limitations we have developed a 3D testis organoid in vitro by combining stem cell and tissue engineering approaches. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:06 +0100The human germline is essential for the maintenance of our species and thus must be protected from insults. A candidate to have a role in germline protection is the X-linked reproductive homeobox (RHOX) gene cluster, which encodes a large set of transcription factors expressed in the reproductive tract, including male and female germ cells. While the RHOX transcription factors have been well studied in rodents, little is known about their function in humans. Of particular interest is human RHOXF2, which we previously showed is expressed in human spermatogonia and regulates genes that have the potential to provide genome protective roles, including GDAP1 and UNC5C. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:06 +0100Ketamine has been abused as a hallucinogenic drug and is increasingly being used by young people. Ketamine abuse promotes the development of lower urinary tract symptoms that resemble interstitial cystitis (IC). The present study evaluated the therapeutic effect of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a ketamine-induced cystitis (KC) rat model. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:06 +0100NANOG is an essential transcription factor for self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonal stem cells. Recently, it has been reported that NANOG is expressed in various somatic cancers, including prostate cancer, and drive tumor development, and that increased NANOG expression in human prostate cancer tissues is correlated with an increased Gleason score. NANOG (hereinafter NANOG1) has many pseudogenes, and only NANOGP8 pseudogene encodes the full-length NANOG1 protein with high sequence similarity, and NANOGP8 is reported to be expressed in most of various cancer cells as a primary contributor of NANOG mRNA expression and to increase the malignant potential. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:04 +0100Delayed vascularization with an overactive inflammatory response after substitution urethroplasty (UP) may increase fibrosis and stricture recurrence. We explored the use of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and CD34+ cells in a rat model of substitution UP in order to investigate the potential to modulate aspects of inflammation and the healing process. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100The CXCR4 receptor directs homing of hematopoietic stem cells to CXCL12 ligand-rich bone marrow. Previous studies demonstrated that the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis promotes prostate cancer (PC) invasion and bone metastasis. We showed that CXCR4 expression is transcriptionally upregulated by TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions in PC tumors, and its localization in lipid raft membrane microdomains promotes expression of invasive proteases. To identify novel lipid raft-associated CXCR4 regulators supporting invasion and metastasis, we performed proteomics analysis of lipid raft microdomains from stable CXCR4-overexpressing (CXCR4) and CXCR4-knockdown (shCXCR4) PC3 cell lines generated by lentiviral infection. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are a highly tumorigenic cell type related to tumor recurrence, metastasis and chemo-resistance and recent study indicated high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity appeared to be a functional marker of prostate cancer (PCa) stem/progenitor cells. However, the origins of CSCs and their maintenance are poorly understood. Clinical study showed high circulating CXCL8 was related to a poor prognosis among PCa patients and it contributed to metastatic behavior, progression toward castration and chemo- resistance. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100Castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a type of relapse after various forms of androgen ablation therapy (ADT) and is a major causes of mortality in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Yet the mechanism of CRPC remains poorly understood. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100Prostate cancer (PC) bone and brain metastases are terminal. In contrast to PC bone metastasis, PC brain metastasis is largely detected by autopsies with a prevalence of 0.2-11.1%. We correlated the expression of cytokeratin 13 (KRT13), an intermediate filament protein, in clinical primary and metastatic PC specimens with its function in cancer metastasis using human PC cell lines. This epithelial stem cell differentiation marker has biologically directive roles in human PC bone and brain metastases. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100In this study, we set up a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method to detect epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem cell gene expression status in peripheral blood to validate whether they could complement CTC enumeration in predicting the prognosis of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100To investigate the effect of chemotherapeutic agents on the behavior of cancer stem cell (CSC) subsets-side population in primary urothelial carcinoma cells (UCC). (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been documented as one of the key components involved in chemo-resistance, and the variant isoforms of CD44 that contain v8-v10 (CD44v8-10) have been identified as one of the new cell surface markers associated with CSCs. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical role of CD44v8-10 and the molecular mechanism in the acquisition of cisplatin (CDDP)-resistance through CD44v8-10 in urothelial cancer (UC). (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:02 +0100The paracrine effect is the major mechanism of stem cell therapy. However, the details of the effect's mechanism remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can ameliorate cavernous nerve injury-induced erectile dysfunction (CNIED) rats and to determine its mechanism. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:02 +0100We previously reported a novel nanotechnology improved stem cell therapy in an animal model by retaining stem cells in the corpus cavernosum (CC) after intracavernosal injection (ICI). The present study was designed to look at the underlying mechanisms. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:02 +0100This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs)-based micro-tissues (MTs) on erectile dysfunction (ED) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:02 +0100Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and cellular differentiation. We have previously shown synergy with cisplatin preferentially against cancer stem cells in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) is a critical transcription factor in immune regulation and also preferentially expressed in various epithelial cancers. Foxp3 forms complexes with histone acetylases and deacetylases, which may modulate their activity. The purpose of this study is to define the role of Foxp3 in modulating sensitivity to HDAC inhibitors. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:02 +0100This study evaluated the possibility and mechanisms of DMED treatment with endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) genetically modified to express human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:02 +0100We investigated combined therapeutic efficacy of human adipose-derived stem cells (h-ADSCs) application on injured cavernous nerve and low-energy shockwave therapy (SWT) on the corpus cavernosum in a rat model of post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:02 +0100Epitelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a well characterised process linked to tumour progression and metastasis in a number of carcinomas. EMT enables carcinoma cells to lose cell to cell contacts and endows them with stem cell-like properties to invade and initiate metastasis. Recent reports have identified EMT as potentially playing a significant role in RCC disease recurrence, invasion and metastasis. Several signalling pathways like HIF/2 and IL-6/STAT, are well known inducers of the EMT phenotype. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 18:20:02 +0100CONCLUSIONS: Substantial advances in regenerative endodontics are allowing a better understanding of a multitude of factors that govern stem cell-mediated regeneration and repair of the damaged pulp-dentin complex. REPs promote healing of apical periodontitis, continued radiographic root development, and, in certain cases, vitality responses. Despite the clinical success of these procedures, they appear to promote a guided endodontic repair process rather than a true regeneration of physiological-like tissue. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Immature teeth with pulpal necrosis with otherwise poor prognosis can be treated with REPs. These procedures do not preclude the possibility of apexification procedures if attempts are unsuccessful. Therefore, REPs may be considered first treatment options ...
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 17:07:02 +0100Colorado Clinic is now an R3 Stem Cell Center of Excellence, and is now offering regenerative medicine procedures at six locations. The procedures are offered by Board Certified physicians, and are...(PRWeb March 28, 2016)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2016/03/prweb13286558.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 15:46:19 +0100Researchers have successfully directed stem cell-derived neurons to regenerate lost tissue in damaged corticospinal tracts of rats, resulting in functional benefit, a new article reports. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:30:05 +0100Conclusions: After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, high catabolism was associated with longer length of hospital stay, the need of total parenteral nutrition and platelet and neutrophil engraftment times. Nutritional parameters were not associated with overall survival. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:01:59 +0100Working with human breast cancer cells and mice, scientists say new experiments explain how certain cancer stem cells thrive in low oxygen conditions. Proliferation of such cells, which tend to resist chemotherapy and help tumors spread, are considered a major roadblock to successful cancer treatment. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) A new study demonstrates that iPSC have the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages of functional lymphocytes, including CD4+ T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells, without bias. The ability to generate truly functional lymphocytes from somatic cell-derived hematopoietic stem cells supports the clinical application of iPSC technology to develop treatments for hematological disorders, as concluded in the study published in Stem Cells and Development. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100(Johns Hopkins Medicine) Working with human breast cancer cells and mice, scientists at the Johns Hopkins University say new experiments explain how certain cancer stem cells thrive in low oxygen conditions. Proliferation of such cells, which tend to resist chemotherapy and help tumors spread, are considered a major roadblock to successful cancer treatment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100This study investigated whether the expression of CD44 variant 9 (CD44v9) might be a functional marker of tumor‐initiating stem‐like cells in primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV)+ patients and provide an indicator of patient survival, as well as associated mechanisms. A total of 90 HCV+ HCC patients who underwent surgery from 2006 to 2011 were enrolled and monitored for 2–8 years. Expression of CD44v9 was validated immunohistochemically in all HCCs, followed by comparative proteome, survival, and clinicopathological analyses. CD44 variant 8–‐10 was further evaluated in diethylnitrosamine‐induced HCCs of C57Bl/6J mice. Focally localized CD44v+ cells with a membranous staining pattern were detected in human HCV+ and mouse HCCs. CD44v9+ cells of HCCs...
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100Upfront autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has shown favourable outcome in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), but the role of risk‐adapted upfront ASCT consolidation has not been evaluated in PCNSL. As PCNSL patients with the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group (IELSG) prognostic score ≥2 or those who did not achieve complete response after two courses of induction chemotherapy (non‐CR1) have shown inferior outcomes, we retrospectively analysed the role of upfront ASCT in 66 high‐risk (IELSG ≥2 and/or non‐CR1) younger (age <65 years) immunocompetent PCNSL patients who achieved at least partial response after initial high‐dose methotrexate‐based chemotherapy. Nineteen patients who received upfront ASCT exhibited significantl...
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100ConclusionThe results of this study demonstrate the beneficial and systemic effects of MSC administration in the HOCl murine model of diffuse SSc, which is a promising finding from a clinical perspective. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100by Maitreyi Upadhyay, Yesenia Martino Cortez, SiuWah Wong-Deyrup, Leticia Tavares, Sean Schowalter, Pooja Flora, Corinne Hill, Mohamad Ali Nasrallah, Sridar Chittur, Prashanth Rangan Germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal and differentiation are required for the sustained production of gametes. GSC differentiation in Drosophila oogenesis requires expression of the histone methyltransferase dSETDB1 by the somatic niche, however its function in this process is unknown. Here, we show that dSETDB1 is required for the expression of a Wnt ligand, Drosophila Wingless type mouse mammary virus integration site number 4 (dWnt4) in the somatic niche. dWnt4 signaling acts on the somatic niche cells to facilitate their encapsulation of the GSC daughter, which serves as a differentiation cue. dSETDB1 is...
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100This study was designed to distinguish Mn effect on the critical stage of adult neurogenesis, ie, proliferation, migration, survival and differentiation from the SVZ via the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb (OB). Adult rats received a single ip-dose of BrdU at the end of 4-week Mn exposure to label proliferating cells. Immunostaining and cell-counting showed a 48% increase of BrdU(+) cells in Mn-exposed SVZ than in controls (P < .05). These BrdU(+) cells were identified as a mixed population of mainly GFAP(+) type-B neural stem cells, Nestin(+) type-C transit progenitor cells, DCX(+) migratory neuroblasts and Iba1(+) microglial cells. Another group of adult rats received 3 daily ip-injections of BrdU followed by subchronic Mn exposure. By 4-week post BrdU labeling, most of...
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100In conclusion, although CDI may be overdiagnosed in HSCT recipients, it is difficult to clinically distinguish between CDI and CD colonization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Transplantation)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100In the September 2015 issue of J. Clin. Virol., Calarota and coll. exhaustively reviewed methods for monitoring virus and non virus specific T cell response in solid organ transplantation (SOT) (1). Principally Elispot and Quantiferon are more and more used in routine to predict risk of CMV viremia and disease (2). Also in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), immunological monitoring has emerged as an important tool to target pre-emptive therapies (3). Between January 2014 and June 2015 we conducted a prospective study to verify the clinical benefit of Quantiferon in identifying HSCT patients at risk of contracting complicated CMV infections. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100Vol. 212 No. 5, February 29, 2016. Pages 545–560. After publication, the authors discovered an error in Fig. 8 J. In the published version, arrowheads were inadvertently left out of the image. The authors... (Source: Journal of Cell Biology)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100Abstract Directing stem cell lineage commitment prevails as the holy grail of translational stem cell research, particularly to those interested in the application of mesenchymal stem cells and adipose‐derived stem cells in tissue engineering. However, elucidating the mechanisms underlying their phenotypic specification persists as an active area of research. In recent studies, the primary cilium structure has been intimately associated with defining cell phenotype, maintaining stemness, as well as functioning in a chemo, electro, and mechanosensory capacity in progenitor and committed cell types. Many hypothesize that the primary cilium may indeed be another important player in defining and controlling cell phenotype, concomitant with lineage‐dictated cytoskeletal dynamics. Many of th...
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100Abstract Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are capable of both self‐renewing throughout the lifetime of an organism and differentiating into all lineages of the blood system. A proper balance between quiescence and proliferation is critical for the self‐renewal and functions of HSCs. The choice of HSCs to remain quiescent or to enter proliferation has been tightly regulated by a variety of cell intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Identifying molecular players that control HSC quiescence and proliferation may lead to new treatment strategies and therapeutic interventions for hematologic disorders. To identify the functions of the slicer endonuclease Argonaute (Ago) 2 in the physiology of HSCs, we generated Ago2Hem‐KO mice, that are deficient for Ago2 in HSCs and in their progeny. Analysis...
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100In this study, we used classic clonal expansion techniques to identify novel self‐renewing Islet 1 (Isl‐1) positive primitive progenitor cells (PPC) within rat bone marrow that exhibited canonical stem cell markers and preferential differentiation towards a smooth muscle‐like fate. We subsequently used molecular tagging to select Isl‐1 positive clonal populations from expanded and de novo marrow cell populations. We refer to these previously undescribed cells as the PPC given its stem cell marker profile, and robust self‐renewal capacity. PPC could be directly converted into induced smooth muscle cells (iSMC) using single transcription factor (Kruppel‐like factor 4) knockdown or transactivator (myocardin) overexpression in contrast to three control cells (HEK 293, endothelial c...
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100This study provides novel pathophysiological data, including a mechanistic explanation for the observed hypoexcitability in patient‐derived MNs and a new therapeutic strategy to provide neuroprotection in MNs affected by ALS. Stem Cells 2016 (Source: Stem Cells)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100In this study, we evaluated an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) inhibitor of IKKβ and found that IKKβ ASO ameliorated diet‐induced metabolic dysfunctions in mice. Interestingly, IKKβ ASO also inhibited adipocyte differentiation and reduced adiposity in high‐fat (HF)‐fed mice, indicating an important role of IKKβ signaling in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation. Indeed, CRISPR/Cas9‐mediated genomic deletion of IKKβ in 3T3‐L1 preadipocytes blocked these cells differentiating into adipocytes. To further elucidate the role of adipose progenitor IKKβ signaling in diet‐induced obesity, we generated mice that selectively lack IKKβ in the white adipose lineage and confirmed the essential role of IKKβ in mediating adipocyte differentiation in vivo. Deficiency of IKKβ dec...
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100Abstract Brain tumor‐initiating cells (BTICs) are self‐renewing multipotent cells critical for tumor maintenance and growth. Using single‐cell microfluidic profiling, we identified multiple subpopulations of BTICs coexisting in human glioblastoma, characterized by distinct surface marker expression and single‐cell molecular profiles relating to divergent bulk tissue molecular subtypes. These data suggest BTIC subpopulation heterogeneity as an underlying source of intra‐tumoral bulk tissue molecular heterogeneity, and will support future studies into BTIC subpopulation‐specific therapies. Stem Cells 2016 In this work, we use single‐cell microfluidic profiling to test the fundamental hypothesis that multiple subsets of brain tumor‐initiating cells coexist, and underlie human...
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100Abstract Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into injured or diseased tissue—for the in situ delivery of a wide variety of MSC‐secreted therapeutic proteins—is an emerging approach for the modulation of the clinical course of several diseases and traumata. From an emergency point‐of‐view, allogeneic MSCs have numerous advantages over patient‐specific autologous MSCs since “off‐the‐shelf” cell preparations could be readily available for instant therapeutic intervention following acute injury. Although we confirmed the in vitro immunomodulatory capacity of allogeneic MSCs on antigen‐presenting cells with standard coculture experiments, allogeneic MSC grafts were irrevocably rejected by the host's immune system upon either intramuscular or intracerebral tran...
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100Abstract The transition of embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency to differentiation is accompanied by an expansion of mRNA and proteomic diversity. Post‐transcriptional regulation of ESCs is critically governed by cell type‐specific splicing. However, little is known about the splicing factors and the molecular mechanisms directing ESC early lineage differentiation. Our study identifies RNA binding motif protein 24 (Rbm24) as a key splicing regulator that plays an essential role in controlling post‐transcriptional networks during ESC transition into cardiac differentiation. Using an inducible mouse ESC line in which gene expression could be temporally regulated, we demonstrated that forced expression of Rbm24 in ESCs dramatically induced a switch to cardiac specification. Genome‐w...
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100CONCLUSIONSThe results of the current analysis indicate that late recurrences remain a major concern after autologous stem cell transplantation among patients with AML, indicating the need for close monitoring of minimal residual disease and additional leukemic control measures after transplantation. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. (Source: Cancer)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100• Development of the therapeutic combination by an anti-VEGF strategy with angiopoietin 2 targeted agents• Exploitation of the interactions of bone morphogenic protein (BMP) with the other angiogenic factors for improvement of anti-angiogenic therapy• Targeting hypoxia for enhancing anti-angiogenic agents in cancer treatment• Targeting the endothelial barrier function as a potential intervention targets for cancer metastasis• Exploitation of the cross-link between tumour angiogenesis and the metabolic defects of tumour for new biomarkers and therapeutic targets• Shedding a new insight on the roles of tumour vascular niches in cancer stem cells including acute myeloid leukaemia• Systematically reviewing the current anti-angiogenic agent for gastric cancer treatment (Source: Ca...
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a surgical technique used to regenerate bone. The aim of this study was to improve the bone quality and quantity during DO by the addition of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). (Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100(Source: Annals of Hematology)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-documented complication of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Dialysis after HSCT is associated with a lower overall survival (OS); however, the association between less severe AKI and OS is unclear. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100While the pace of traumatic brain injury (TBI) research has accelerated, the treatment options remain limited. Clinical trials are yet to yield successful treatment options, leading to innovative strategies to overcome the severe debilitating consequences of TBI. Stem cells may act as a potential treatment option. They have two key characteristics, the ability of self-renewal and the ability to give rise to daughter cells, which in the case of neural stem cells (NSCs) includes neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. They respond to the injury environment providing trophic support and have been shown to differentiate and integrate into the host brain. In this review, we introduce the notion of an NSC and describe the two neurogenic niches in the mammalian brain. The literature supporting ...
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100Conclusions: Although the addition of ATG doesn't guarantee a reduction in the incidences of acute and chronic GVHD, pre-transplantation ATG may result in lower non-relapse mortality in the context of matched related-donor HSCT with a busulfan/fludarabine conditioning regimen. However, caution is needed when using ATG because of a possibility to increase relapse rate. PMID: 27017944 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 15:44:25 +0100A woman from Twickenham who survived leukaemia meets the man who donated the stem cells which saved her life. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 08:12:37 +0100Researchers have successfully used stem cells to treat cats with a debilitating mouth disease. The findings could translate into potential therapies for humans suffering from similar ailments. Ben... -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100Authors: Nishida M, Kumagai Y, Ihara H, Fujii S, Motohashi H, Akaike T Abstract Redox signaling is a key modulator of oxidative stress induced by nonspecific insults of biological molecules generated by reactive oxygen species. Current redox biology is revisiting the traditional concept of oxidative stress, such that toxic effects of reactive oxygen species are protected by diverse antioxidant systems upregulated by oxidative stress responses that are physiologically mediated by redox-dependent cell signaling pathways. Redox signaling is thus precisely regulated by endogenous electrophilic substances that are generated from reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and its derivative reactive species during stress responses. Among electrophiles formed endogenously, 8-nitroguanosine ...
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100Authors: Shen JX, Liu J, Li GW, Huang YT, Wu HT Abstract Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) consists of a family of intracellular enzymes, highly expressed in stem cells populations of leukemia and some solid tumors. Up to now, 6 isoforms of ALDH1 have been reported. However, the expression patterns and the identity of ALDH1 isoenzymes contributing to ALDH1 activity, as well as the prognostic values of ALDH1 isoenzymes in cancers all remain to be elucidated. Here, we studied the expressions of ALDH1 transcripts in gastric cancer (GC) compared with the normal controls using the ONCOMINE database. Through the Kaplan-Meier plotter database, which contains updated gene expression data and survival information of 876 GC patients, we also investigated the prognostic values of ALDH1 isoenzy...
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100Authors: Hyun KA, Goo KB, Han H, Sohn J, Choi W, Kim SI, Jung HI, Kim YS Abstract The dissemination of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) requires the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal transition (EMT), in which cells lose their epithelial characteristics and acquire more mesenchymal-like phenotypes. Current isolation of CTCs relies on affinity-based approaches reliant on the expression of Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM). Here we show EMT-induced breast cancer cells maintained in prolonged mammosphere culture conditions possess increased EMT markers and cancer stem cell markers, as well as reduced cell mass and size by quantitative phase microscopy; however, EpCAM expression is dramatically decreased in these cells. Moreover, CTCs isolated from breast cancer patients using a label-fr...
Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology)
Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100In conclusion, hPSCs promote the expression of integrin α6β1, and nuclear localization and inactivation of FAK to supports stem cell self‐renewal. Stem Cells 2016; 00:000—000 (Source: Stem Cells)
Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Abstract There is a growing demand for the development of experimental strategies for efficient articular cartilage repair. Current tissue engineering‐based regenerative strategies make use of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). However, when implanted in a cartilage defect, control of hMSCs differentiation toward the chondrogenic lineage remains a significant challenge. We have recently demonstrated that silencing the antichondrogenic regulator microRNA‐221 (miR‐221) was highly effective in promoting in vitro chondrogenesis of monolayered hMSCs in the absence of the chondrogenic induction factor TGF‐β. Here we investigated the feasibility of this approach first in conventional 3D pellet culture and then in an in vivo model. In pellet cultures, we observed that miR‐221 sile...
Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Abstract Histone‐modifying enzymes dynamically regulate the chromatin status and have been implicated in the fate specification of stem cells, including neural stem cells (NSCs), which differentiate into three major cell types: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Lysine‐specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, also known as KDM1A) catalyzes the demethylation of H3K4me1/2 and H3K9me1/2, and it was recently suggested that functional disruption of LSD1 links to various human diseases. However, the mechanism by which LSD1 regulates human neural development remains unclear. Here, we present evidence that specific inhibition of LSD1 suppresses the neurogenesis of cultured human fetal NSCs (hfNSCs) isolated from the human fetal neocortex. Notably, we found that LSD1 directly associates with the p...
Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Summary Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is a potent immunotherapy with curative potential for several haematological disorders. Overcoming the immunological barrier of acute graft‐versus‐host disease (GVHD) remains a fundamental impediment to expanding the efficacy of HCT. GVHD reflects a complex pathological interaction between the innate and adaptive immune systems of the host and donor. Over the past decade there has been a tremendous advancement in our understanding of the cellular and molecular underpinnings of this devastating disease. In this review, we cover several recently appreciated facets of GVHD pathogenesis including novel extracellular mediators of inflammation, immune subsets, intracellular signal transduction, post‐translation modifications...
Sat, 26 Mar 2016 14:34:12 +0100Conclusion: Results support the feasibility of having patients with HSCT participate in an exercise training program during the acute recovery phase from an HSCT transplant, even with various levels of thrombocytopenia and identified exercise barriers to exercise including nausea. A prescribed exercise program in this setting may minimize side effects of inactivity. (Source: The Journal of Acute Care Physical Therapy)
Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:11:03 +0100CONCLUSIONS: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation may have a bright future in the clinical setting for the treatment of ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Apoptotic human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells may have more effective than normal human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of acute lung injury. PMID: 27010158 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences)
Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:11:03 +0100CONCLUSIONS: TGF-β1 promotes homing of bone marrow (BM) MSCs in I/R injury's myocardial. The study provided useful data on the role of TGF-β1 in regulating SDF-1/CXCR4 axis-induced MSCs homing. PMID: 27010148 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences)
Sat, 26 Mar 2016 07:44:23 +0100Infections that are typically innocuous in immunocompetent persons may cause significant disease states in immunocompromised hosts. These individuals may be immunosuppressed secondary to many different causes such as drugs, malignancy, solid-organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, HIV/AIDS, or anatomic reasons (asplenia). These immunocompromised hosts are at high risk for developing opportunistic infections. Here, we discuss some of these infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. Clinicians should be aware of the risk factors, common clinical presentations, diagnostic modalities, and treatment options for these potentially fatal illnesses. (Source: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly)
Sat, 26 Mar 2016 02:39:56 +0100This week we witnessed a world coming together and a world falling apart, a world between engagement and terror. For the first time in nearly 90 years, an American president visited Cuba, turning upside down the anti-Yanqui narrative that has been the raison d'être of one of the Western Hemisphere's most longest-lasting dictatorships. In Havana, President Barack Obama promised to work toward lifting the embargo on Cuba just as he has done in Iran, where the advance of reformists in last month's election has already demonstrated the fruits of that opening. In Brussels, it appears that some children of Muslim immigrants expressed their explosive alienation in terror attacks in the very city many of them grew up, which also happens to be the capital of Europe. As the French scholar Olivier ...
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Publication date: 26 March 2016 Source:New Scientist, Volume 229, Issue 3066 Author(s): Helen Thomson (Source: New Scientist)
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Stem Cells)
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) induce the generation of a novel subset of alternatively activated macrophages (MMSC), via the release of PGE2. MMSC are characterized by high expression of CD14, CD16, CD206, HLA‐II, CD11b, CD163, and CD209 and secrete high amounts of IL‐1β, IL‐10, and TGF‐β. These cytokines contribute to the immunoregulatory properties of MMSC. Interacting with autologous activated NK cells, MMSC inhibit both the expression of activating molecules such as NKp44, CD69 and CD25 and the production of IFNγ. Moreover, MMSC inhibit the proliferation of CD8+ T cells and induce the expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg). LPS revert the phenotypic and functional features of MMSC to those of M1 immunostimulator...
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Abstract Myelofibrosis (MF) and polycythemia vera (PV) are BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms associated with somatic hematopoietic stem cell mutations leading to over activation of JAK–STAT signaling. MF and PV are pathogenically related and share specific clinical features such as splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms. The MF phenotype is dominated by the effects of progressive bone marrow fibrosis resulting in shortened survival. In contrast, elevated thrombosis risk due to erythrocytosis is the primary clinical concern in PV. Ruxolitinib, an oral JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, is approved in the USA for the treatment of patients with intermediate- or high-risk MF and patients with PV who have had an inadequate response to or are intolerant of hydroxyurea. For MF, result...
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT) is a potentially curative treatment for high risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). For patients with relapsed disease after transplant intensive chemotherapy followed by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) or a second allo-SCT may result in a durable response in some patients. High intensity chemotherapy and less aggressive therapy with hypomethylating agents (HA) with and without DLI are often used for post allo-SCT relapse. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematological malignancy with an aggressive clinical course. It is grouped with acute myeloid leukemia-related precursor neoplasms in the 2008 World Health Organization classification. Most patients with BPDCN have skin lesions at diagnosis and subsequent or simultaneous involvement of the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and lymph nodes. Patients usually respond to initial chemotherapy but often relapse. Stem cell transplant may improve survival. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Authors: Hall J, Prabhakar S, Balaj L, Lai CP, Cerione RA, Breakefield XO Abstract Extracellular vesicles present an attractive delivery vehicle for therapeutic proteins. They intrinsically contain many proteins which can provide information to other cells. Advantages include reduced immune reactivity, especially if derived from the same host, stability in biologic fluids, and ability to target uptake. Those from mesenchymal stem cells appear to be intrinsically therapeutic, while those from cancer cells promote tumor progression. Therapeutic proteins can be loaded into vesicles by overexpression in the donor cell, with oligomerization and membrane sequences increasing their loading. Examples of protein delivery for therapeutic benefit in pre-clinical models include delivery of: ca...
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:34:24 +0100Conclusions: Blocking Smad2/3 signaling in pluripotent stem cells results in epigenetic changes that enhance the capacity for endoderm differentiation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Developmental Dynamics)
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:58:03 +0100CONCLUSIONS: HIF1α and LDH5 are markers of poor outcome in patients with bladder cancer treated with radiotherapy. Blockage of anaerobic metabolism may prove of importance in clinical radiotherapy. PMID: 27010533 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100Authors: Aguirre-Alvarado C, Segura-Cabrera A, Velázquez-Quesada I, Hernández-Esquivel MA, García-Pérez CA, Guerrero-Rodríguez SL, Ruiz-Moreno AJ, Rodríguez-Moreno A, Pérez-Tapia SM, Velasco-Velázquez MA Abstract CD44 is a receptor for hyaluronan (HA) that promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), induces cancer stem cell (CSC) expansion, and favors metastasis. Thus, CD44 is a target for the development of antineoplastic agents. In order to repurpose drugs as CD44 antagonists, we performed consensus-docking studies using the HA-binding domain of CD44 and 11,421 molecules. Drugs that performed best in docking were examined in molecular dynamics simulations, identifying etoposide as a potential CD44 antagonist. Ligand competition and cell adhesion assays in MDA-MB-...