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MedWorm: Biomedical Science



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in Biomedical Science



Last Build Date: Mon, 28 Mar 2016 05:15:12 +0100

 



Revisiting protein kinase-substrate interactions: Toward therapeutic development.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 03:05:02 +0100

Authors: de Oliveira PS, Ferraz FA, Pena DA, Pramio DT, Morais FA, Schechtman D Abstract Despite the efforts of pharmaceutical companies to develop specific kinase modulators, few drugs targeting kinases have been completely successful in the clinic. This is primarily due to the conserved nature of kinases, especially in the catalytic domains. Consequently, many currently available inhibitors lack sufficient selectivity for effective clinical application. Kinases phosphorylate their substrates to modulate their activity. One of the important steps in the catalytic reaction of protein phosphorylation is the correct positioning of the target residue within the catalytic site. This positioning is mediated by several regions in the substrate binding site, which is typically a shallow c...

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A large Rab GTPase encoded by CRACR2A is a component of subsynaptic vesicles that transmit T cell activation signals.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 03:05:02 +0100

Authors: Srikanth S, Kim KD, Gao Y, Woo JS, Ghosh S, Calmettes G, Paz A, Abramson J, Jiang M, Gwack Y Abstract More than 60 members of the Rab family of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) exist in the human genome. Rab GTPases are small proteins that are primarily involved in the formation, trafficking, and fusion of vesicles. We showed thatCRACR2A(Ca(2+)release-activated Ca(2+)channel regulator 2A) encodes a lymphocyte-specific large Rab GTPase that contains multiple functional domains, including EF-hand motifs, a proline-rich domain (PRD), and a Rab GTPase domain with an unconventional prenylation site. Through experiments involving gene silencing in cells and knockout mice, we demonstrated a role for CRACR2A in the activation of the Ca(2+)and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling p...



A peptide of the RGS domain of GRK2 binds and inhibits Gαq to suppress pathological cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 03:05:02 +0100

Authors: Schumacher SM, Gao E, Cohen M, Lieu M, Kurt Chuprun J, Koch WJ Abstract G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) play a critical role in cardiac function by regulating GPCR activity. GRK2 suppresses GPCR signaling by phosphorylating and desensitizing active GPCRs, and through protein-protein interactions that uncouple GPCRs from their downstream effectors. Several GRK2 interacting partners, including Gαq, promote maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy, which leads to heart failure, a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) domain of GRK2 interacts with and inhibits Gαqin vitro. We generated TgβARKrgs mice with cardiac-specific expression of the RGS domain of GRK2 and subjected these mice to pressure overload to trigger adaptive ...



Carotid Intima-Media Thickness as the Cardiometabolic Risk Indicator in Patients with Nonfunctional Adrenal Mass and Metabolic Syndrome Screening.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 17:11:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS We found that the increased insulin resistance, increased risk of cardiovascular disease with the increase in the thickness of carotid intima-media and diastolic disfunction parameters, although the patients with adrenal incidentaloma are nonfunctional. PMID: 27015815 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)



Comparison of Effects of Separate and Combined Sugammadex and Lipid Emulsion Administration on Hemodynamic Parameters and Survival in a Rat Model of Verapamil Toxicity.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 17:11:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS Verapamil overdose is has a comparatively high mortality rate and there is no effective antidote. Treatment generally involves gastric decontamination and symptomatic treatment to counteract the drug's negative effects. In animal studies sugammadex and lipid emulsion had a positive effect on survival in patients with calcium channel blocker toxicity. Sugammadex and intralipid increased survival in a rat model of verapamil toxicity. The combination of both drugs may decrease cardiotoxicity. Sugammadex alone or combined with 20% lipid emulsion reduce the need for inotropic agents. The mechanism requires clarification with larger studies. PMID: 27012816 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)



Purification, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Flammulina velutipes residue

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study, we isolated polysaccharides from Flammulina velutipes residue (FVRP) using microwave-assisted extraction and then purified the polysaccharides by column chromatography to yield FVRP-1, FVRP-2 and FVRP-3. The structural characteristics of FVRP-1, FVRP-2 and FVRP-3 were investigated, and their antioxidant activities against ABTS+, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals were also analyzed in vitro. FVRP-1 was found to be neutral and rich in galactose. However, FVRP-2 and FVRP-3 were acidic polysaccharides and were rich in glucose. The average molecular weight of FVRP-1, FVRP-2 and FVRP-3 were 29,930, 62,290, and 36,310Da, respectively. The glycosyl residue of FVRP-1 was an α-type glycosidic linkage, whereas FVRP-2 and FVRP-3 were β-type glycosidic linkages. We found FVRP-1, FVRP-2 and FV...

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Cortico-muscular communication for motor control of the tongue in humans: a review

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion This review provides a detailed description of the functional connection between the bilateral cortex and each side of the tongue during sustained tongue movements in humans, using CMC analyses. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)



Puerarin Attenuates Anoxia/Reoxygenation Injury Through Enhancing Bcl-2 Associated Athanogene 3 Expression, a Modulator of Apoptosis and Autophagy.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 05:16:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS Puerarin can directly increase BAG3 transcription and translation in cardiomyocytes after A/RI. The elevated BAG3 expression presents protective effects on A/RI at least through enhancing autophagy and reducing apoptosis, which is a novel protective mechanism of puerarin in ARI. PMID: 27011313 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)



Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and In-Hospital Mortality of Venous Thromboembolism in Liver Cirrhosis: A Single-Center Retrospective Observational Study.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 05:16:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS VTE was observed in 0.4% of patients with liver cirrhosis during hospitalization and it significantly increased the in-hospital mortality. Elevated PT/INR aggravated the risk of VTE. PMID: 27009380 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)



Effective production of Pro–Gly by mutagenesis of l-amino acid ligase

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering Author(s): Haruka Kino, Shota Nakajima, Toshinobu Arai, Kuniki Kino l-Amino acid ligase (Lal) catalyzes dipeptide synthesis from unprotected l-amino acids by hydrolysis ATP to ADP. Each Lal displays unique substrate specificity, and many different dipeptides can be synthesized by selecting suitable Lal. We have already successfully synthesized Met–Gly selectively by replacing the Pro85 residues of Lal from Bacillus licheniformis (BL00235). From these results, we deduced that the amino acid residue at position 85 had a key role in enzyme activity, and applied these findings to other Lals. When Pro and Gly were used as substrates, TabS from Pseudomonas syringae, synthesized the salt taste...



Are anti-Müllerian hormone and its receptor polymorphism associated with the hormonal condition of undescended testes?

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion The AMHRII −482 A>G, AMHRII IVS 10+77 A>G, AMHRII IVS 5–6 C>T and AMH Ile49Ser genotypes should be determined in a much larger group of boys with cryptorchidism. (Source: Advances in Medical Sciences)

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Minimizing Postsampling Degradation of Peptides by a Thermal Benchtop Tissue Stabilization Method.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:36:02 +0100

This study shows that conductive heat transfer is an easy-to-use and efficient procedure for the preservation of the molecular composition in biological samples. Region- and peptide-specific critical steps were identified and stabilization enabled the optimization of tissue handling and opioid peptide analysis. The result is improved diagnostic and research value of the samples with great benefits for basic research and clinical work. PMID: 27007059 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biopreservation and Biobanking)



Establishment and Maintenance of Primary Fibroblast Repositories for Rare Diseases-Friedreich's Ataxia Example.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:36:02 +0100

Authors: Li Y, Polak U, Clark AD, Bhalla AD, Chen YY, Li J, Farmer J, Seyer L, Lynch D, Butler JS, Napierala M Abstract Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) represents a rare neurodegenerative disease caused by expansion of GAA trinucleotide repeats in the first intron of the FXN gene. The number of GAA repeats in FRDA patients varies from approximately 60 to <1000 and is tightly correlated with age of onset and severity of the disease symptoms. The heterogeneity of Friedreich's ataxia stresses the need for a large cohort of patient samples to conduct studies addressing the mechanism of disease pathogenesis or evaluate novel therapeutic candidates. Herein, we report the establishment and characterization of an FRDA fibroblast repository, which currently includes 50 primary cell lines deri...



Epidemiology of hospital-acquired pneumonia: Results of a Central European multicenter, prospective, observational study compared with data from the European region.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:35:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The present study was the first to collect multicenter data on the epidemiology of HAP in the Central European Region, with respect to the incidence of etiologic agents causing HAP. It was concerned with relationships between 30-day patient mortality and the type of HAP, etiologic agent and adequacy of initial empirical antibiotic therapy. PMID: 27003315 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub)



MicroRNAs in the key events of systemic lupus erythematosus pathogenesis.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:35:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Distinct miRs are differentially expressed in both SLE mice models and human patients and promote autoimmune features of immune processes. MiRs are important molecules modulating susceptibility to SLE as well as its onset, clinical diversity and progression. PMID: 27003314 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub)



Biodegradable system for drug delivery of hydrolytically labile azanucleoside drugs.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:35:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence that microbead formulations of the hydrolytically labile azanucleoside drugs could prevent their chemical decomposition in aqueous solution, and effectively increase plasma circulation time. PMID: 27003313 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub)

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Development and evaluation of an internet-based blended-learning module in biomedicine for university applicants – Education as a challenge for the future –

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Biomedical science, especially biomaterials, is an expanding field in medicine. Universities are being challenged to gain the best students for a later academic career. Pre-university assessment of pupils has ... (Source: Head and Face Medicine)



The anti-cancerous activity of recombinant trichosanthin on prostate cancer cell PC3

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Trichosanthin produced in the root tube of Trichosanthes kirilowii shows anti-tumor activity on a series of cancer cells including Hela, MCF-7, HL-60. But there is little information about its effect on the carci... (Source: Biological Research)



Localizing PRL-2 expression and determining the effects of dietary Mg 2+ on expression levels

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract The phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) is a group of protein tyrosine phosphatases that play a key role in cancer progression and metastasis. We previously showed that PRL-2 modulates intracellular Mg2+ levels and sustains cancer phenotypes by binding to the Mg2+ transporter CNNM3. However, the physiological functions of PRL-2 in animals remain largely unknown. To better understand which cell types are associated with PRL-2 function, we characterized its expression in mouse tissues using a PRL-2 β-galactosidase reporter mouse model. Our results demonstrated that PRL-2 was ubiquitously expressed, with the highest expression levels observed in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons, ependymal cells, cone and rod photoreceptor cells, endocardium, vascular and bronchial smo...



SULF1/SULF2 reactivation during liver damage and tumour growth

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract Both SULF1 and SULF2 enzymes are undetectable in normal adult liver tissue despite their high level expression during foetal development. Most hepatocellular carcinomas unlike the normal adult liver, however, express variable levels of these enzymes with a small proportion not expressing either SULF1 or SULF2. SULF1 expression, however, is not restricted to only foetal and tumour tissues but is also abundant in liver tissues undergoing injury-induced tissue regeneration as we observed during fatty liver degeneration, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Unlike SULF1, the level of SULF2 activation during injury-induced regeneration, however, is much lower when compared to foetal or tumour growth. Although a small fraction of liver tumours and some liver tumour cell lines can g...



Structural characterization of low molecular weight polysaccharide from Astragalus membranaceus and its immunologic enhancement in recombinant protein vaccine against systemic candidiasis

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 10 July 2016 Source:Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 145 Author(s): Fan Yang, Chunyu Xiao, Jing Qu, Guiyun Wang Structure and immunologic enhancement of low molecular weight polysaccharide (LMW-ASP) isolated from the root of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge. Were detected in recombinant protein vaccine. Structure analysis of LMW-ASP revealed that LMW-ASP (Mw =5.6kDa) was an acid heteropolysaccharide, which consisted of Glc, Gal, Ara, Xyl and GalA in ratio of 10.0:1.3:1.7:1.0:0.9. Recombinant protein (rP-HSP90C) contained epitope C (LKVIRK) from heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) of Candida albicans was used as a vaccine. The results indicated that LMW-ASP significantly promoted specific antibody titers IgG, IgG1, IgG2b, and IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 in sera of mic...

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Self-assembly and β-carotene loading capacity of hydroxyethyl cellulose-graft-linoleic acid nanomicelles

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 10 July 2016 Source:Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 145 Author(s): Yang Yang, Yanzhu Guo, Runcang Sun, Xiaohui Wang A series of linoleic acid conjugated hydroxyethyl cellulose polymers (HEC-g-LA) were synthesized and characterized. And their solubilities in a variety of solvents were compared. The prepared HEC-g-LA polymers showed typical properties of amphiphilic polymers and were able to self-assemble into spherical nanomicelles in aqueous solution. The micelle sizes and critical micelle concentrations (CMC) were found correlated with the molecular structure of polymers, and were varied in the range of 20–50nm and 1.92–21.76μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the hydrophobic active component β-carotene (β-C) was successfully encapsulated into the HEC-g-LA micel...



Changes in physicochemical properties of chitin at developmental stages (larvae, pupa and adult) of Vespa crabro (wasp)

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study presents findings on how chitin matrix is changing physicochemically through discrete morphological stages – larva, pupa and adult – of an insect (Vespa crabro). Chitin content of the organisms were found to increase gradually as the organism grew; 2.1, 6.2 and 10.3%, with a dramatic increase in chitin deposition (nearly 3 folds) during the instar from larva to pupa. Enzymatic digestion test demonstrated that chitin isolates were close to pure. Chitin isolates were also subjected to thermal pyrolysis and no variations were observed in the thermal stability of the samples. However, it was observed that surface characteristics of chitin changed greatly as the insect grew. (Source: Carbohydrate Polymers)



Motor Subtype as a Predictor of Future Working Memory Performance in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study used structural equation modelling to explore the longitudinal relationship between the two subtypes and working memory assessed at a 2-year follow-up. The study comprised 84 males and 30 females (N = 114), aged between 39 and 85 (M = 64.82, SD = 9.23) with confirmed PD. There was no significant relationship between motor subtype at Time 1 and working memory at Time 2. Postural symptom severity at Time 1 predicted Time 2 spatial working memory for the PIGD subtype (p = .011) but not the TD subtype. Tremor symptoms were not associated with Time 2 working memory in either subtype. Predictive significance of Time 1 postural symptoms only in the PIGD subtype suggests an interaction between symptom dominance (subtype) and symptom severity that future subtyping should consider. This s...



Anti-Human VEGF Repebody Effectively Suppresses Choroidal Neovascularization and Vascular Leakage

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

by Da-Eun Hwang, Jeong-Hyun Ryou, Jong Rok Oh, Jung Woo Han, Tae Kwann Park, Hak-Sung Kim Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss and blindness among people over the age of 60. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a major role in pathological angiogenesis in AMD. Herein, we present the development of an anti- human VEGF repebody, which is a small-sized protein binder consisting of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) modules. The anti-VEGF repebody selected through a phage-display was shown to have a high affinity and specificity for human VEGF. We demonstrate that this repebody effectively inhibits in vitro angiogenic cellular processes, such as proliferation and migration, by blocking the VEGF-mediated signaling pathway. The repebody was also shown to ...



A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013–2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The inf...

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Identification of Non-HLA Genes Associated with Celiac Disease and Country-Specific Differences in a Large, International Pediatric Cohort

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

by Ashok Sharma, Xiang Liu, David Hadley, William Hagopian, Edwin Liu, Wei-Min Chen, Suna Onengut-Gumuscu, Ville Simell, Marian Rewers, Anette-G. Ziegler, Åke Lernmark, Olli Simell, Jorma Toppari, Jeffrey P. Krischer, Beena Akolkar, Stephen S. Rich, Daniel Agardh, Jin-Xiong She, TEDDY Study Group Objectives There are significant geographical differences in the prevalence and incidence of celiac disease that cannot be explained by HLA alone. More than 40 loci outside of the HLA region have been associated with celiac disease. We investigated the roles of these non-HLA genes in the development of tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA) and celiac disease in a large international prospective cohort study. Methods A total of 424,788 newborns from the US and European general populations...



The Advantage of Playing Home in NBA: Microscopic, Team-Specific and Evolving Features

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study thus adds evidence of the home advantage phenomenon and contributes to a deeper understanding of this effect over the course of games. (Source: PLoS One)



Association between Diurnal Variation of Ozone Concentration and Stroke Occurrence: 24-Hour Time Series Study

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

by Myung-Hoon Han, Hyeong-Joong Yi, Young-Seo Kim, Yong Ko, Young-Soo Kim Background and Purpose Increasing ozone concentrations have been known to damage human health and ecosystems. Although ozone tends to display diurnal variation, most studies have reported only on the association between daily ozone concentrations and ischemic stroke occurrence on the same day, or with a 1-day lag. We investigated the effect of the diurnal variation of ozone on ischemic stroke occurrence during the same day. Methods We included a consecutive series of 1,734 patients from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2014, at a single tertiary hospital in Seoul, South Korea. We evaluated differences between temperature and pollutants at the time of stroke onset for each time interval and averaged those parameters a...



FCGR2C Polymorphisms Associated with HIV-1 Vaccine Protection Are Linked to Altered Gene Expression of Fc-γ Receptors in Human B Cells

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

by Xinxia Peng, Shuying S. Li, Peter B. Gilbert, Daniel E. Geraghty, Michael G. Katze The phase III Thai RV144 vaccine trial showed an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) to prevent HIV-1 infection of 31.2%, which has motivated the search for immune correlates of vaccine protection. In a recent report, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FCGR2C were identified to associate with the level of VE in the RV144 trial. To investigate the functional significance of these SNPs, we utilized a large scale B cell RNA sequencing database of 462 individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project to examine associations between FCGR2C SNPs and gene expression. We found that the FCGR2C SNPs that associated with vaccine efficacy in RV144 also strongly associated with the expression of FCGR2A/C and one o...



Reliability of Phase Velocity Measurements of Flexural Acoustic Waves in the Human Tibia In-Vivo

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions The high reliability of this non-invasive approach and its intrinsic sensitivity to mechanical properties opens perspectives for the rapid and inexpensive clinical assessment of bone pathologies, as well as for monitoring programmes without any radiation exposure for the patient. (Source: PLoS One)

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Enhancement of Radiation Sensitivity in Lung Cancer Cells by a Novel Small Molecule Inhibitor That Targets the β-Catenin/Tcf4 Interaction

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

by Qinghao Zhang, Mei Gao, Guifen Luo, Xiaofeng Han, Wenjing Bao, Yanyan Cheng, Wang Tian, Maocai Yan, Guanlin Yang, Jing An Radiation therapy is an important treatment choice for unresectable advanced human lung cancers, and a critical adjuvant treatment for surgery. However, radiation as a lung cancer treatment remains far from satisfactory due to problems associated with radiation resistance in cancer cells and severe cytotoxicity to non-cancer cells, which arise at doses typically administered to patients. We have recently identified a promising novel inhibitor of β-catenin/Tcf4 interaction, named BC-23 (C21H14ClN3O4S), which acts as a potent cell death enhancer when used in combination with radiation. Sequential exposure of human p53-null non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H1299 cel...



Laboratory Evaluation of Isaria fumosorosea CCM 8367 and Steinernema feltiae Ustinov against Immature Stages of the Colorado Potato Beetle

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

by Hany M. Hussein, Oxana Skoková Habuštová, Vladimír Půža, Rostislav Zemek The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, has developed resistance to most registered pesticides and has become one of the most difficult insect pests to control. Development of new biopesticides targeting this pest might solve the resistance problem and contribute to sustainable crop production. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea (syn. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) strain CCM 8367 against L. decemlineata when applied alone or combined with the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae. The last-instar larvae of the Colorado potato beetle showed the highest susceptibility to I. fumosorosea followed by pre-pupae and pupae. The median lethal concent...



Evaluation of mRNA Biomarkers to Identify Risk of Hospital Acquired Infections in Children Admitted to Paediatric Intensive Care Unit

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study our objective was to evaluate mRNA candidate biomarkers for HAI prediction in a pediatric intensive care unit. Design Serial blood samples were collected from patients admitted to pediatric intensive care unit between March and June 2012. Candidate gene expression (IL1B, TNF, IL10, CD3D, BCL2, BID) was quantified using RT-qPCR. Comparisons of relative gene expression between those that did not develop HAI versus those that did were performed using Mann Whitney U-test. Patients Exclusion criteria were: age (Source: PLoS One)



RAGE and TGF-β1 Cross-Talk Regulate Extracellular Matrix Turnover and Cytokine Synthesis in AGEs Exposed Fibroblast Cells

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study contributes to the understanding of impaired wound healing associated with diabetes complications. (Source: PLoS One)



Individual Differences in the Frequency-Following Response: Relation to Pitch Perception

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

by Emily B. J. Coffey, Emilia M. G. Colagrosso, Alexandre Lehmann, Marc Schönwiesner, Robert J. Zatorre The scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR) is a measure of the auditory nervous system’s representation of periodic sound, and may serve as a marker of training-related enhancements, behavioural deficits, and clinical conditions. However, FFRs of healthy normal subjects show considerable variability that remains unexplained. We investigated whether the FFR representation of the frequency content of a complex tone is related to the perception of the pitch of the fundamental frequency. The strength of the fundamental frequency in the FFR of 39 people with normal hearing was assessed when they listened to complex tones that either included or lacked energy at the fundamental ...

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Autonomic Predictors of Hospitalization Due to Heart Failure Decompensation in Patients with Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Simple, noninvasive autonomic indices can be helpful in identifying individuals with increased risk of hospitalization due to the heart failure decompensation among clinically stable patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, even when adjusted for other well-known clinical parameters. (Source: PLoS One)



Overweight Is an Independent Risk Factor for Reduced Lung Volumes in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions This study shows that, in DM1 patients, overweight further reduces lung volumes, as does impaired inspiratory muscle strength. Additionally, body composition is abnormal in almost all DM1 patients. (Source: PLoS One)



Association between prenatal and current exposure to selected LCPUFAs and school performance at age 7

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

The objective of this study was to determine the association between levels of the LCPUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (Osbond acid, ObA) at study entry, 22 weeks of pregnancy, 32 weeks of pregnancy, at partus, in umbilical cord plasma and child's plasma at age 7 and school performance scores at age 7. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)



Impact of different aortic valve calcification patterns on the outcome of transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a finite element study

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) can treat symptomatic patients with calcific aortic stenosis. However, the severity and distribution of the calcification of valve leaflets can impair the TAVI efficacy. Here we tackle this issue from a biomechanical standpoint, by finite element simulation of a widely adopted balloon-expandable TAVI in three models representing the aortic root with different scenarios of calcific aortic stenosis. We developed a modeling approach realistically accounting for aortic root pressurization and complex anatomy, detailed calcification patterns, and for the actual stent deployment through balloon-expansion. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)



The Centre of Rotation of the Shoulder Complex and the Effect of Normalisation

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Shoulder motions consist of a composite movement of three joints and one pseudo-joint, which together dictate the humerothoracic motion. The purpose of this work was to quantify the location of the centre of rotation (CoR) of the shoulder complex as a whole. Dynamic motion of 12 participants was recorded using optical motion tracking during coronal, scapular and sagittal plane elevation. The instantaneous CoR was found for each angle of elevation using helical axes projected onto the three planes of motion. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)

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Compressive and shear hip joint contact forces are affected by pediatric obesity during walking

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study sought to determine the relationships between body mass and compressive and shear hip joint contact forces during walking. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during treadmill walking at 1m•s−1 in 10 obese and 10 healthy-weight 8–12 year-olds. We estimated body composition, segment masses, lower-extremity alignment, and femoral neck angle via radiographic images, created personalized musculoskeletal models in OpenSim, and computed muscle forces and hip joint contact forces. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)



The probability of false positives in zero-dimensional analyses of one-dimensional kinematic, force and EMG trajectories

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

A false positive is the mistake of inferring an effect when none exists, and although α controls the false positive (Type I error) rate in classical hypothesis testing, a given α value is accurate only if the underlying model of randomness appropriately reflects experimentally observed variance. Hypotheses pertaining to one-dimensional (1D) (e.g. time-varying) biomechanical trajectories are most often tested using a traditional zero-dimensional (0D) Gaussian model of randomness, but variance in these datasets variance is clearly 1D. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)



A self-contrast approach to evaluate the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenetin, in the absence and presence of artemisinin, on the in vivo P-glycoprotein-mediated digoxin transport activity.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, our self-contrast study suggested that CHR, especially when combined with ART in a ratio of 1:2, inhibited P-gp activity while ART alone has no effect. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 27012321 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC)



Early Detection of Left Atrial Energy Loss and Mechanics Abnormalities in Diabetic Patients with Normal Left Atrial Size: A Study Combining Vector Flow Mapping and Tissue Tracking Echocardiography.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 17:21:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS LA energy loss and deformation mechanics are already impaired in diabetic patients with normal LA size and the long-term parameter of glycemic control was correlated with them. VFM combined with 2DTT might be a promising tool for the early detection of LA dysfunction caused by impaired glucose metabolism. PMID: 27005947 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)



Experimental Validation of Plastic Mandible Models Produced by a "Low-Cost" 3-Dimensional Fused Deposition Modeling Printer.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 17:21:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS Plastic models generated using the low-cost 3D printer UPplus2® provide dimensional accuracies comparable to other well-established rapid prototyping technologies. Validated low-cost 3D printers could represent a step toward the better accessibility of rapid prototyping technologies in the medical field. PMID: 27003456 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)

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Resistin-Like Molecule-β Promotes Invasion and Migration of Gastric Carcinoma Cells.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 17:21:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS RELMβ-overexpression can facilitate invasion and migration of gastric carcinoma cells and it increases the expression of EMT-related proteins, such as N-cadherin, Snail, Vimentin, but decreases E-cadherin level, thus promoting the progression of EMT. PMID: 27001185 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)



Brain induces preference for caloric food for energy storage

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) Given the choice between eating something caloric with an unpleasant taste and more palatable food with no calories, some vertebrates may choose the former, prioritizing energy to assure their survival. This finding comes from a study performed by researchers at Yale University in the United States, in collaboration with colleagues at the University of São Paulo's Biomedical Science Institute and the Federal University of the ABC's Center for Mathematics, Computation & Cognition in Brazil. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)



Reactive oxygen species effect PASMCs apoptosis via regulation of dynamin-related protein 1 in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study, ROS inhibitor, hypoxic rodent PAH models, small interfering RNA, polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used. We determined that ROS, mainly derive from mitochondria, mediate mitochondria fission of PASMCs contributing to pulmonary vascular remodeling. Meanwhile, we also observed that hypoxia-induced DRP1 expression depends on ROS generation, especially mitochondrial ROS (mROS). Moreover, the levels of ROS and mROS evoked by hypoxia were regulated by DRP1. Furthermore, we verified the apoptosis suppression of PASMCs under hypoxia due to the interaction between ROS/mROS and DRP1. Our study reveals a novel mechanism of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling, suggesting a new therapeutic strategy which is...



Design, synthesis and evaluation of molecularly targeted hypoxia-activated prodrugs

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Nature Protocols 11, 781 (2016). doi:10.1038/nprot.2016.034 Authors: Liam J O'Connor, Cindy Cazares-Körner, Jaideep Saha, Charles N G Evans, Michael R L Stratford, Ester M Hammond & Stuart J Conway Regions of insufficient oxygen supply—hypoxia—occur in diverse contexts across biology in both healthy and diseased organisms. The difference in the chemical environment between a hypoxic biological system and one with normal oxygen levels provides an opportunity for targeting compound delivery to hypoxic regions by using (Source: Nature Protocols)



Label-free quantification in ion mobility–enhanced data-independent acquisition proteomics

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Nature Protocols 11, 795 (2016). doi:10.1038/nprot.2016.042 Authors: Ute Distler, Jörg Kuharev, Pedro Navarro & Stefan Tenzer Unbiased data-independent acquisition (DIA) strategies have gained increased popularity in the field of quantitative proteomics. The integration of ion mobility separation (IMS) into DIA workflows provides an additional dimension of separation to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and it increases the achievable analytical depth of DIA (Source: Nature Protocols)

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Genome-wide profiling of RNA polymerase transcription at nucleotide resolution in human cells with native elongating transcript sequencing

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Nature Protocols 11, 813 (2016). doi:10.1038/nprot.2016.047 Authors: Andreas Mayer & L Stirling Churchman Many features of how gene transcription occurs in human cells remain unclear, mainly because of a lack of quantitative approaches to follow genome transcription with nucleotide precision in vivo. Here we present a robust genome-wide approach for studying RNA polymerase II (Pol II)–mediated transcription (Source: Nature Protocols)



The association between polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption and the transition to psychosis in ultra-high risk individuals

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

PUFA deficiencies in cellular membranes have been observed in ultra-high risk (HR) individuals and in early schizophrenia. It is uncertain whether dietary PUFA consumption can be associated with the risk of transition to psychosis in HR individuals. The aim of the study was to assess PUFA consumption and confirm whether dietary habits are related to the risk of transition to full-threshold psychosis in HR individuals during a 12-month follow-up. PUFA consumption during the previous year was analyzed in 62 h individuals and 33 healthy controls (HC) at the beginning of the follow-up period using a validated Food-Frequency Questionnaire and the Polish Food Composition Tables. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)



Dietary Calanus oil antagonizes angiotensin II-induced hypertension and tissue wasting in diet-induced obese mice

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study expands upon our previous observations by examining whether dietary supplementation with Calanus oil could antagonize angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and ventricular remodeling in mice given a high fat diet (HFD). (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)



The Influence of Wheelchair Propulsion Hand Pattern on Upper Extremity Muscle Power and Stress

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

The hand pattern (i.e., full-cycle hand path) used during manual wheelchair propulsion is frequently classified as one of four distinct hand pattern types: arc, single loop, double loop and semicircular. Current clinical guidelines recommend the use of the semicircular pattern, which is based on advantageous levels of broad biomechanical metrics implicitly related to the demand placed on the upper extremity (e.g., lower cadence). However, an understanding of the influence of hand pattern on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand (e.g., muscle power and stress) is needed to help make such recommendations, but these quantities are difficult and impractical to measure experimentally. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)



Genomic Characterization and Comparison of Multi-Regional and Pooled Tumor Biopsy Specimens

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, sequencing pooled samples has the benefit of detecting many variants with moderate allele frequency that occur in partial regions, but it is not applicable for detecting low-frequency mutations that require deep sequencing. (Source: PLoS One)

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Reconciling Longitudinal Naive T-Cell and TREC Dynamics during HIV-1 Infection

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

by Julia Drylewicz, Nienke Vrisekoop, Tendai Mugwagwa, Anne Bregje de Boer, Sigrid A. Otto, Mette D. Hazenberg, Kiki Tesselaar, Rob J. de Boer, José A. M. Borghans Naive T cells in untreated HIV-1 infected individuals have a reduced T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) content. Previous mathematical models have suggested that this is due to increased naive T-cell division. It remains unclear, however, how reduced naive TREC contents can be reconciled with a gradual loss of naive T cells in HIV-1 infection. We performed longitudinal analyses in humans before and after HIV-1 seroconversion, and used a mathematical model to investigate which processes could explain the observed changes in naive T-cell numbers and TRECs during untreated HIV-1 disease progression. Both CD4+ and CD8+ naive T...



Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Inoculation to Enhance Vegetative Growth, Nitrogen Fixation and Nitrogen Remobilisation of Maize under Greenhouse Conditions

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study provides evidence that PGPR inoculation, namely, B. pumilus S1r1 can biologically fix atmospheric N2 and provide an alternative technique, besides plant breeding, to delay N remobilisation in maize plant for higher ear yield (up to 30.9%) with reduced fertiliser-N input. (Source: PLoS One)



Microsatellite Genotyping of Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Pregnant Women in Four Malaria Endemic Countries

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We present the results of a study aimed at characterizing the genetic structure of P. vivax populations obtained from pregnant women from different malaria endemic settings. Between June 2008 and October 2011 nearly 2000 pregnant women were recruited during routine antenatal care at each site and followed up until delivery. A capillary blood sample from the study participants was collected for genotyping at different time points. Seven P. vivax microsatellite markers were used for genotypic characterization on a total of 229 P. vivax isolates obtained from Brazil, Colombia, India and Papua New Guinea. In each population, the number of alleles per locus, the expected heterozygosity and the levels of multilocus linkage disequilibrium were assessed. The extent of genetic differentiation among...



Effect of Footwear Modifications on Oscillations at the Achilles Tendon during Running on a Treadmill and Over Ground: A Cross-Sectional Study

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Differences in shoe configurations may lead to variations in running technique and impact forces and therefore result in alterations of the vibration behavior at the Achilles tendon. The absence of power attenuation may have been caused by either a short distance between the two accelerometers or high stiffness of the tendon. High stiffness of the tendon will lead to complete transmission of the signal along the Achilles tendon and therefore no attenuation occurs. (Source: PLoS One)



The Role of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus in Cardiac Autonomic Control during Sleep

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions These findings suggest that the SCN does not play a dominant role in cardiac autonomic control during sleep. (Source: PLoS One)

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Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting of Rickettsia prowazekii-Infected Host Cells Based on Bacterial Burden and Early Detection of Fluorescent Rickettsial Transformants

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

by Lonnie O. Driskell, Aimee M. Tucker, Andrew Woodard, Raphael R. Wood, David O. Wood Rickettsia prowazekii, the causative agent of epidemic typhus, is an obligate intracellular bacterium that replicates only within the cytosol of a eukaryotic host cell. Despite the barriers to genetic manipulation that such a life style creates, rickettsial mutants have been generated by transposon insertion as well as by homologous recombination mechanisms. However, progress is hampered by the length of time required to identify and isolate R. prowazekii transformants. To reduce the time required and variability associated with propagation and harvesting of rickettsiae for each transformation experiment, characterized frozen stocks were used to generate electrocompetent rickettsiae. Transformation expe...



Sleep Duration Trajectories and Body Composition in Adolescents: Prospective Birth Cohort Study

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

by Antônio Augusto Schäfer, Marlos Rodrigues Domingues, Darren Lawrence Dahly, Fernanda Oliveira Meller, Helen Gonçalves, Fernando César Wehrmeister, Maria Cecília Formoso Assunção We aimed to estimate the association between sleep duration trajectories and body composition in adolescents. We used data from participants of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study who were later followed up at age 18 years (response rate of 81.3%). At the time, 3974 adolescents had complete data on body composition, which was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Sleep duration was self-reported by participants at ages 11 and 18 years. Analyses were sex-stratified. The mean sleep duration at 11 years was 9.7 (SD 1.4) and 8.4 (SD 1.9) at 18 years. Sleep duration was dichotomized as inadeq...



Saccadic Eye Movements in Anorexia Nervosa

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Discussion The results suggest a potential role of GABA in the superior colliculus in the psychopathology of AN. (Source: PLoS One)



Glycosylation Status of CD43 Protein Is Associated with Resistance of Leukemia Cells to CTL-Mediated Cytolysis

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study, we sought to identify cell-surface molecules associated with resistance of leukemia cells to cytotoxic T cell (CTL)-mediated cytolysis. To this end, we first established thousands of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that react with MLL/AF9 mouse leukemia cells. Only two of these mAbs, designated R54 and B2, bound preferentially to leukemia cells resistant to cytolysis by a tumor cell antigen–specific CTLs. The antigens recognized by these mAbs were identified by expression cloning as the same protein, CD43, although their binding patterns to subsets of hematopoietic cells differed significantly from each other and from a pre-existing pan-CD43 mAb, S11. The epitopes of R54 and B2, but not S11, were sialidase-sensitive and expressed at various levels on leukemia cells, suggestin...



A Computational Model of Inhibition of HIV-1 by Interferon-Alpha

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

by Edward P. Browne, Benjamin Letham, Cynthia Rudin Type 1 interferons such as interferon-alpha (IFNα) inhibit replication of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) by upregulating the expression of genes that interfere with specific steps in the viral life cycle. This pathway thus represents a potential target for immune-based therapies that can alter the dynamics of host-virus interactions to benefit the host. To obtain a deeper mechanistic understanding of how IFNα impacts spreading HIV-1 infection, we modeled the interaction of HIV-1 with CD4 T cells and IFNα as a dynamical system. This model was then tested using experimental data from a cell culture model of spreading HIV-1 infection. We found that a model in which IFNα induces reversible cellular states that block both early and ...

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Zinc Isotope Ratios as Indicators of Diet and Trophic Level in Arctic Marine Mammals

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We report here on the measurement of zinc, carbon and nitrogen isotopes in 47 marine mammals from the archaeological site of Arvik in the Canadian Arctic. We undertook this study to test and demonstrate the utility of Zn isotopes in recent mammal bone minerals as a dietary indicator by comparing them to other isotopic dietary tracers. We found a correlation between δ66Zn values and trophic level for most species, with the exception of walruses, which may be caused by their large seasonal movements. δ6Zn values can therefore be used as a dietary indicator in marine ecosystems for both modern and recent mammals. (Source: PLoS One)



Quantitative Assessment of the Polymorphisms in the HOTAIR lncRNA and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 8 Case-Control Studies

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

by Tian Tian, Chunjian Li, Jing Xiao, Yi Shen, Yihua Lu, Liying Jiang, Xun Zhuang, Minjie Chu HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that functions as an oncogenic molecule in different cancer cells. Genetic variants of HOTAIR may affect the activity of certain regulatory factors and further regulate the aberrant expression of HOTAIR, which might be underlying mechanisms that affect tumour susceptibility and prognosis. Recently, several studies have been performed to examine the possible link between polymorphisms in HOTAIR and cancer risk; however, the results have been inconclusive. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to estimate the associations between HOTAIR polymorphisms (rs920778, rs4759314 and rs1899663) and cancer risk. Eight studie...



Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye. (Source: PLoS One)



Information on 'Overdiagnosis' in Breast Cancer Screening on Prominent United Kingdom- and Australia-Oriented Health Websites

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Online information about overdiagnosis has become more widely available in 2015–16 compared with the limited accessibility indicated by older research. However, there may be scope to offer more information on DCIS and overdiagnosis statistics on Australian websites. Moreover, the variability in how estimates are presented across UK websites may be confusing for the general public. (Source: PLoS One)



Gating mechanism of mechanosensitive channel of large conductance: a coupled continuum mechanical-continuum solvation approach.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Zhu L, Wu J, Liu L, Liu Y, Yan Y, Cui Q, Chen X Abstract Gating transition of the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) represents a good example of important biological processes that are difficult to describe using atomistic simulations due to the large (submicron) length scale and long (millisecond) time scale. Here we develop a novel computational framework that tightly couples continuum mechanics with continuum solvation models to study the detailed gating behavior of E. coli-MscL. The components of protein molecules are modeled by continuum elements that properly describe their shape, material properties and physicochemical features (e.g., charge distribution). The lipid membrane is modeled as a three-layer material in which the lipid head group and ta...

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Insights into the DNA-binding mechanism of a LytTR-type transcription regulator.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Behr S, Heermann R, Jung K Abstract Most bacterial response regulators make contact with DNA through a recognition α-helix in their DNA-binding domains. An emerging class of response regulators interacts with DNA via a relatively novel type of binding domain, called the LytTR domain, which is mainly composed of beta-strands. YpdB belongs to this latter class, is part of a nutrient-sensing network in Escherichia coli and triggers expression of its only target gene, yhjX, in response to extracellular pyruvate. Expression of yhjX mainly occurs in the late exponential growth phase, and in a pulsed manner. Although the DNA-binding sites for YpdB are well defined, exactly how YpdB initiates pulsed gene expression has remained elusive. To address this question, we measured the b...



A novel live cell assay to measure diacylglycerol lipase α activity.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Singh PK, Markwick R, Howell FV, Williams G, Doherty P Abstract Diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα) hydrolyses DAG to generate the principal endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the central nervous system. DAGLα dependent cannabinoid signalling has been implicated in numerous processes including axonal growth and guidance, adult neurogenesis, and retrograde signalling at the synapse. Recent studies have implicated DAGLα as an emerging drug target for several conditions including pain and obesity. Activity assays are critical to the drug discovery process; however measurement of DAGL activity using its native substrate generally involves low throughput mass spectrometry techniques. Some relatively high-throughput membrane based assays utilising surrogate substra...



Development and validation of a sensitive LC-MS/MS assay for quantification of bruceine D in rat plasma.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 27012305 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC)



Rapid screening and identification of lycodine-type alkaloids in Lycopodiaceae and Huperziaceae plants by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study established a rapid and reliable method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS/MS) for comprehensive characterization of lycodine-type alkaloids for the first time. The lycodine-type alkaloids were detected successfully from Lycopodiastrum casuarinoides, Huperzia serrata and Phlegmarirus carinatus in seven plants of Lycopodiaceae and Huperziaceae families, based on the established characteristic MS fragmentation of five known alkaloids. Furthermore, a total of 13 lycodine-type alkaloids were identified, of which three pairs of isomers were structurally characterized and differentiated. This study further improves mass analysis of lycodine-type alkaloids and demonstra...



Secondhand Smoke and Allergies in Kids

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 19:48:09 +0100

This study did not include children who were exposed during pregnancy. This made it easy to determine the effects of secondhand smoke. Results from this study clearly showed that secondhand smoke exposure resulted in increased sensitization of children starting at age four. This sensitization to food allergens persisted into adolescence. Food allergies can have a tremendous impact on children's lives, and the health care costs associated with managing this long-term health concern are significant. How can you protect children from the health effects of secondhand smoke? First, do not smoke around your children, where you live or in your car. Second, do not permit anyone else to do so either. Third, choose babysitters, daycares and schools that are smoke free. If you suspect your child is...

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Using magnetic forces to control neurons, study finds the brain plays key role in glucose metabolism

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 18:02:39 +0100

A new tool to control neurons in mice avoids the downfalls of current methods by using magnetic forces to remotely control the flow of ions into specifically targeted cells. Applying this method to a group of neurons in the hypothalamus, researchers found that the brain plays a surprisingly vital role in maintaining blood glucose levels. More » (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)



Illinois High School EMT Students Move toward International Competition

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 14:03:00 +0100

Two high school students enrolled in the emergency medical technician program at Technology Center of DuPage recently took first place at the 2016 Health Occupations Student Association State Leadership Conference. HOSA is a national leadership organization for students in health education classes. Five students from TCD's medical science programs participated in the conference and qualified through written examinations to compete in several contests. Joseph Egan of Willowbrook High School and Matthew Slonoff of Hinsdale Central, both seniors in TCD's EMT program, were the first-place team in the EMT competition. They are now eligible to compete in the International HOSA Leadership Conference in June in Nashville. Marynels Garcines of Glenbard West, a senior in TCD's nursing assistant t...



GroE chaperonins assisted functional expression of bacterial enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 09:34:04 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering)



Silencing of Transient Receptor Potential Channel 4 Alleviates oxLDL-induced Angiogenesis in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells by Inhibition of VEGF and NF-κB.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 05:26:01 +0100

CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that silencing of TRPC4 alleviates angiogenesis induced by oxLDL in HCAECs through inactivation of VEGF and NF-κB. Suppression of TRPC4 might be an alternative therapeutic strategy for atherosclerotic neovascularization. PMID: 26999308 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)

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Association of miR-34a-3p/5p, miR-141-3p/5p, and miR-24 in Decidual Natural Killer Cells with Unexplained Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 05:26:01 +0100

CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that miR-34a-3p/5p, miR-141-3p/5p, and miR-24 in decidual NK cells could be associated with URSA. These findings might contribute to the panel of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers with clinical utility, and facilitate the development of new strategies for targeted therapy against URSA. PMID: 26996957 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)






Biomaterials for hollow organ tissue engineering

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Tissue engineering is a rapidly advancing field that is likely to transform how medicine is practised in the near future. For hollow organs such as those found in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems or ... (Source: Fibrogenesis and Tissue Repair)



Laccase immobilization on bacterial nanocellulose membranes: Antimicrobial, kinetic and stability properties

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 10 July 2016 Source:Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 145 Author(s): Liliana M.P. Sampaio, Jorge Padrão, Jorge Faria, João P. Silva, Carla J. Silva, Fernando Dourado, Andrea Zille This work studied the physical immobilization of a commercial laccase on bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) aiming to identify the laccase antibacterial properties suitable for wound dressings. Physico-chemical analysis demonstrates that the BNC structure is manly formed by pure crystalline Iα cellulose. The pH optimum and activation energy of free laccase depends on the substrate employed corresponding to pH 6, 7, 3 and 57, 22, 48kJmol−1 for 2,6-dimethylphenol (DMP), catechol and 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), respectively. The Michaelis–Menten constant...



A novel method for fabricating hybrid biobased nanocomposites film with stable fluorescence containing CdTe quantum dots and montmorillonite-chitosan nanosheets

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 10 July 2016 Source:Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 145 Author(s): Yawen Guo, Xuesong Ge, Jing Guan, Lin Wu, Fuhua Zhao, Hui Li, Xindong Mu, Yijun Jiang, Aibing Chen A method was presented for fabricating the fluorescent nanocomposites containing CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and montmorillonite (MMT)-chitosan (CS). MMT-CS/CdTe QDs nanocomposites were prepared via a simple, versatile and robust approach combination of covalent and electrostatic assembly methods (Scheme 1). The negatively charged MMT was initially modified with positively charged CS through electrostatic assembly, followed by incorporation of CdTe-QDs into the MMT-CS nanosheets by covalent connections between the amino groups of CS and the carboxylic acid groups of thioglycollic acid (TGA). The X-ray di...

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Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity in Suzuki coupling and catalase-like reactions of new chitosan supported Pd catalyst

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 10 July 2016 Source:Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 145 Author(s): Talat Baran, Tülden Inanan, Ayfer Menteş The aim of this study is to analyze the synthesis of a new chitosan supported Pd catalyst and examination of its catalytic activity in: 1. Suzuki coupling reactions by improving a simple, fast, and solvent-free microwave method. 2. H2O2 decomposition reaction to find out its redox potential. Pd catalyst was synthesized using chitosan as a biomaterial and characterized with FTIR, TG/DTG, XRD, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, SEM-EDAX, ICP-OES, Uv–vis spectroscopies, and magnetic moment, along with molar conductivity analysis. Biomaterial supported Pd catalyst indicated high activity and long life time as well as excellent turnover number (TON) and turnover frequency (TOF) ...



Chitosan oligosaccharide suppresses tumor progression in a mouse model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer through AMPK activation and suppression of NF-κB and mTOR signaling

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study investigated the effects of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) on CRC progression and their underlying mechanisms and safety profiles in mice. Using a mouse model of colitis-associated CRC, we found that oral administration of COS (500mg/kg/day) resulted in a ∼60% reduction of tumor size and tumor numbers/sectioning. In addition, COS treatment increased AMPK activity, suppressed the NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response and reduced the expressions of cyclin D1, phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6, and MMP-9 in the colon tissues of these mice. Importantly, administration of COS (500mg/kg/day; 50 days) had no adverse effects on renal or liver functions. Our results indicate that COS suppressed CRC progression via AMPK activation and the suppression of NF-κB and mTOR signaling. COS...



Synthesis and characterization of new chitosan-based Schiff base compounds

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 10 July 2016 Source:Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 145 Author(s): Vasak B. Gavalyan Chitin (Cn) was extracted from the armors of crustaceans Astacus leptodactylus (Lake Sevan, Armenia) and then converted to chitosan (Cs), its deacetylated derivative. Novel Schiff bases (CsSB) were synthesized by interaction of Cs with 4-(2-chloroethyl)benzaldehyde (aldehyde-1) and 4-(2-bromoethyl)benzaldehyde (aldehyde-2), and underwent dehydrohalogenation, under basic conditions (10°C), to yield respective vinyl derivatives. All newly synthesized compounds were structurally characterized by solubility tests, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TGA), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (Source: Carbohydrate Polymers)



Evaluation of the (1-24) adrenocorticotropin stimulation test for the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: The ACTH test may not be useful as a screening or confirmatory test, but the test may be useful for differentiating between patients with confirmed PA and the rest of the cohort. The positive finding of the ACTH test may at least support a higher likelihood of lateralizing on adrenal venous sampling. (Source: Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System : JRAAS)



The potential role of atrial natriuretic peptide in the effects of Angiotensin-(1-7) in a chronic atrial tachycardia canine model

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Ang-(1–7) prevented atrial structural and electrical remodeling induced by ARP. Furthermore, Ang-(1–7) promoted ANP secretion, and ANP played a crucial role in the cardiac protection of the former. (Source: Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System : JRAAS)

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The association of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphisms with adaptation to high altitude: A meta-analysis

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Our findings suggested that the DD genotype of ACE is a risk factor for HA maladaptation and that the presence of fewer ACE DD allele carriers in a population indicates a greater ability of that population to adapt to HA. (Source: Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System : JRAAS)



Therapeutic effect of renin angiotensin system inhibitors on liver fibrosis

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Renin angiotensin system inhibitor therapy results in a reduction in liver fibrosis score and liver fibrosis area in patients with hepatic fibrosis with good safety profile. However, randomized controlled trials of high-quality will clarify the effectiveness of renin angiotensin system inhibitors on liver fibrosis. (Source: Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System : JRAAS)



Comparison of the relative importance of vascular and plasma drug concentrations to the hypotensive effect of telmisartan in rats

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: The vascular drug concentration, not the plasma drug concentration, may be related to the hypotensive effect after administration of telmisartan. (Source: Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System : JRAAS)



Association of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) -344 T/C polymorphism with diabetic nephropathy: A meta-analysis

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Our meta-analysis indicates that aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) gene polymorphism may contribute to diabetic nephropathy development, especially in Asian group, with the T allele acting as a risk factor. (Source: Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System : JRAAS)



Evaluation of subacute change in RAAS activity (as indicated by urinary aldosterone:creatinine, after pharmacologic provocation) and the response to ACE inhibition

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Increases in UAldo:C, despite ACEI administration, is evidence of IRB in this subacute model of experimental RAAS activation and suppression. (Source: Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System : JRAAS)

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Chronic pancreatitis and the composition of plasma phosphatidylcholine fatty acids

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an irreversible inflammatory disorder characterized by the destruction of both exocrine and endocrine tissue. There is growing evidence that dysregulation of fatty acid (FA) metabolism is connected with many diseases; however, there are few data concerning FA composition in CP. Therefore, we analyzed FA profiles in plasma phosphatidylcholines in 96 patients with CP and in 108 control subjects (CON).The patients with CP had, in comparison with CON, increased sum of monounsaturated FA (ΣMUFA) and decreased content of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in both n-6 and n-3 families. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)



In vitro and in vivo bimodal effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplements on redox status and platelet function

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a prominent nutrient of marine lipids. Together with eicosapentaenoic acid, it is recognized as a protective molecule against atherosclerosis and thrombosis through the regulation of blood cell functions, especially platelets. Its high unsaturation index may however make it prone to peroxidation, which is usually considered as deleterious. This short review takes into consideration this possibility related to DHA concentrations both in vitro and in vivo. It is suggested that protective effects of DHA on platelet activation depend on the reduction of oxidative stress, and appear bimodal with the abolishment of such a protection when DHA is used at relatively high concentrations. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)



Maternal characteristics influence response to DHA during pregnancy

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We explored the degree to which maternal and offspring outcomes resulting from consuming prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 800mg/day) in a clinical trial were influenced by maternal characteristics. Among non-smokers, women who received DHA had heavier babies (adjusted mean difference (MD)=99g 95% CI 45 to 153, p (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)



Association of polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk with fatty acid desaturase gene polymorphisms among chinese lactating mothers

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

The fatty acid desaturase (FADS) controls polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthesis in human tissues and breast milk. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)



Numerical simulation of the role of the utriculo-endolymphatic valve in the rotation-sensing capabilities of semicircular canals

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

The utriculo-endolymphatic valve (UEV) has an uncertain function, but its opening and closure have been predicted to maintain a constant endolymphatic pressure within the semicircular canals (SCCs) and the utricle of the inner ear. Here, the study's aim was to examine the role of the UEV in regulating the capabilities of the 3 SCCs in sensing angular acceleration by using the finite element method. The results of the developed model showed endolymphatic flow and cupula displacement patterns in good agreement with previous experiments. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)

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