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MedWorm: Biology



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in Biology



Last Build Date: Mon, 28 Mar 2016 05:24:12 +0100

 



Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 13:00:02 +0100

Authors: Tambo A, Roshan MH, Pace NP Abstract Cardiovascular disease [CVD] is a leading cause of mortality accounting for a global incidence of over 31%. Atherosclerosis is the primary pathophysiology underpinning most types of CVD. Historically, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were suggested to precipitate CVD. Recently, epidemiological studies have identified emerging risk factors including hypotestosteronaemia, which have been associated with CVD. Previously considered in the realms of reproductive biology, testosterone is now believed to play a critical role in the cardiovascular system in health and disease. The actions of testosterone as they relate to the cardiac vasculature and its implication in cardiovascular pathology is reviewed. PMID: 27014372 [PubMed] ...

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Often seen, rarely recognized: mast cell activation disease - a guide to diagnosis and therapeutic options.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 10:13:01 +0100

Authors: Afrin LB, H Butterfield J, Raithel M, J Molderings G Abstract Mast cell (MC) disease has long been thought to be just the rare disease of mastocytosis (in various forms, principally cutaneous and systemic), with aberrant MC mediator release at symptomatic levels due to neoplastic MC proliferation. Recent discoveries now show a new view is in order, with mastocytosis capping a metaphorical iceberg now called "MC activation disease" (MCAD, i.e. disease principally manifesting inappropriate MC activation), with the bulk of the iceberg being the recently recognized "MC activation syndrome" (MCAS), featuring inappropriate MC activation to symptomatic levels with little to no inappropriate MC proliferation. Given increasing appreciation of a great menagerie of mutations in MC re...



Redox signaling regulated by electrophiles and reactive sulfur species.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

Authors: Nishida M, Kumagai Y, Ihara H, Fujii S, Motohashi H, Akaike T Abstract Redox signaling is a key modulator of oxidative stress induced by nonspecific insults of biological molecules generated by reactive oxygen species. Current redox biology is revisiting the traditional concept of oxidative stress, such that toxic effects of reactive oxygen species are protected by diverse antioxidant systems upregulated by oxidative stress responses that are physiologically mediated by redox-dependent cell signaling pathways. Redox signaling is thus precisely regulated by endogenous electrophilic substances that are generated from reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and its derivative reactive species during stress responses. Among electrophiles formed endogenously, 8-nitroguanosine ...



mTOR complex-2 stimulates acetyl-CoA and de novo lipogenesis through ATP citrate lyase in HER2/PIK3CA-hyperactive breast cancer.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Chen Y, Qian J, He Q, Zhao H, Toral-Barza L, Shi C, Zhang X, Wu J, Yu K Abstract The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a major regulator of cell growth and is frequently dysregulated in cancer. While mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1) is a validated cancer target, the role of mTOR complex-2 (mTORC2) remains less defined. Here, we reveal mTORC2 as a critical regulator of breast cancer metabolism. We showed that hyperphosphorylation in ATP citrate lyase (ACL) occurs frequently in human breast tumors and correlates well with HER2+ and/or PIK3CA-mutant (HER2+/PIK3CAmut) status in breast tumor cell lines. In HER2+/PIK3CAmut cells, mTORC2 controls Ser-455 phosphorylation of ACL thereby promoting acetyl-CoA production, de novo lipogenesis and mitochondrial physiology, all of which w...



shRNA targeting long non-coding RNA CCAT2 controlled by tetracycline-inducible system inhibits progression of bladder cancer cells.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Li J, Zhuang C, Liu Y, Chen M, Zhou Q, Chen Z, He A, Zhao G, Guo Y, Wu H, Cai Z, Huang W Abstract Recent reports show that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as significant functional regulators in the development of tumors, including bladder cancer. Here, we found that CCAT2 was upregulated in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. Through the statistical analyses, we also found that the high expression level of CCAT2 was positively correlated with histological grade and TNM stage of bladder cancer. Further experimental results revealed that knockdown of CCAT2 could decrease cell proliferation and migration as well as induce apoptosis in bladder cancer cells. Besides, using the post-transcriptional device of synthetic biology, we create the tetracycline-inducible...



Effect of heat dissipation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in alternating magnetic field on three human cancer cell lines in magnetic fluid hyperthermia.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 04:49:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, it can be concluded that the nanoparticle dose of 80 µg/ml with diameter of 8 nm at the resonance frequency of coil for 30 min was sufficient to destroy all the cancerous cells in the flask. PMID: 27015154 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine)

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Illnesses caused by contact currents in showers.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 04:49:02 +0100

Authors: Milham S, Stetzer D PMID: 27015014 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine)



Influence of magnetostimulation therapy on rheological properties of blood in neurological patients.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 04:49:02 +0100

Authors: Marcinkowska-Gapińska A, Kowal P Abstract The aim of the study is to test the influence of in vivo magnetostimulation on the rheological properties of blood in neurological patients. Blood circulation in the body depends both on the mechanical properties of the circulatory system and on the physical and physicochemical properties of blood. The main factors influencing the rheological properties of blood are as follows: hematocrit, plasma viscosity, whole-blood viscosity, red cells aggregability, deformability, and the ability of red cells to orient in the flow. The blood samples were collected from neurological patients with pain. Blood samples were collected twice from each patient, that is, before the magnetostimulation and immediately after the therapy. For each blood ...



Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on experimental pain: A double-blind, randomized study in healthy young adults.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 04:49:02 +0100

Authors: Beaulieu K, Beland P, Pinard M, Handfield G, Handfield N, Goffaux P, Corriveau H, Léonard G Abstract Previous studies suggested that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy can decrease pain. To date, however, it remains difficult to determine whether the analgesic effect observed in patients are attributable to a direct effect of PEMF on pain or to an indirect effect of PEMF on inflammation and healing. In the present study, we used an experimental pain paradigm to evaluate the direct effect of PEMF on pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, and temporal summation of pain. Twenty-four healthy subjects (mean age 22 ± 2 years; 9 males) participated in the experiment. Both real and sham PEMF were administered to every participant using a randomized, double-blind, cross-ov...



Genetics of Bladder Malignant Tumors in Childhood.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 00:22:02 +0100

Authors: Zangari A, Zaini J, Gulìa C Abstract Bladder masses are represented by either benign or malignant entities. Malignant bladder tumors are frequent causes of disease and death in western countries. However, in children they are less common. Additionally, different features are found in childhood, in which non epithelial tumors are more common than epithelial ones. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common pediatric bladder tumor, but many other types of lesions may be found, such as malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and neuroblastoma. Other rarer tumors described in literature include urothelial carcinoma and other epithelial neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma is associated to a variety of genetic syndromes and many genes are involved in tumor developmen...



A socioeconomic analysis of biocontrol in integrated pest management: A review of the effects of uncertainty, irreversibility and flexibility

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences Author(s): Emmanuel. O. Benjamin, Justus. H.H. Wesseler European regulations on the sustainable use of pesticides aim to promote integrated pest management (IPM) strategy and the use of biological control agents. However, uncertainty over benefits and costs, irreversibility effects as well as flexibility in adoption of this technology needs to be considered. Economic evaluation of IPM using simple cost-benefit analysis may be inadequate. Therefore, the need to develop evaluation tools that takes the aforementioned constraints into consideration is imperative. To this end, we introduce the maximum incremental social tolerable irreversible costs (MISTICs) as a tool for such evaluation. Only...

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Effects of hyperthermia as a mitigation strategy in DNA damage-based cancer therapies

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Seminars in Cancer Biology Author(s): Theodora Mantso, George Goussetis, Rodrigo Franco, Sotiris Botaitis, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis Panayiotidis Utilization of thermal therapy (hyperthermia) is defined as the application of exogenous heat induction and represents a concept that is far from new as it goes back to ancient times when heat was used for treating various diseases, including malignancies. Such therapeutic strategy has gained even more popularity (over the last few decades) since various studies have shed light into understanding hyperthermia's underlying molecular mechanism(s) of action. In general, hyperthermia is applied as complementary (adjuvant) means in therapeutic protocols combining chemotherapy and/or irradiati...



Vulnerability to climate change of Anolis allisoni in the mangrove habitats of Banco Chinchorro Islands, Mexico

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We report field body (Tb) and preferred body temperatures in the laboratory (Tpref), operative temperatures (Te) and restriction of hours of activity. Anolis allisoni showed high and identical Tb and Tpref (33°C), not significantly different than the mean Te (32.15°C). The effectiveness of thermoregulation (E=−0.30) and the analysis of hours of restriction suggested that the high temperatures of Te (40 to 62.5°C) registered at midday (from 12:00 to 15:00) of A. allisoni habitat are hostile and force lizards to take refuge during a period of 3 h of their daily time of activity. The scarcity of opportunities to find alternative refuges for thermoregulation in Banco Chinchorro point out the vulnerability of A. allisoni and the risk of local extinction when considering future predictions ...



Thermal fluctuation within nests and predicted sex ratio of Morelet’s Crocodile

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Journal of Thermal Biology Author(s): Armando H. Escobedo-Galván, Marco A. López-Luna, Fabio G. Cupul-Magaña Understanding the interplay between thermal variations and sex ratio in reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination is the first step for developing long-term conservation strategies. In case of crocodilians, the information is fragmentary and insufficient for establishing a general framework to consider how thermal fluctuation influence sex determination under natural conditions. The main goal of this study was to analyze thermal variation in nests of Crocodylus moreletii and to discuss the potential implications for predicting offspring sex ratio. The study was carried out at the Centro de Estudios Tecnológ...



Genetic mouse embryo assay: improving performance and quality testing for assisted reproductive technology (ART) with a functional bioassay.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 17:42:03 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: This novel approach provides a superior MEA that is more meaningful and sensitive for detection of embryotoxicity than morphological assessment alone. PMID: 27009109 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reproductive Biology)



Scientists Build A Live, No-Frills Cell That Could Have A Big Future

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:54:54 +0100

A group of synthetic biologists report they've created an organism with a minimum number of genes required to survive and reproduce. (Source: NPR Health and Science)



MicroRNA‐122 Regulates Polyploidization in the Murine Liver

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:43:44 +0100

Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that miR‐122 is both necessary and sufficient in liver polyploidization. Among the different signals that have been associated with hepatic polyploidy, miR‐122 is the first liver‐specific signal identified. These studies will serve as the foundation for future work investigating miR‐122 in liver maturation, homeostasis and disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Hepatology)



Flexible Spinal Implants Help Paralyzed Rats Walk Again

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:30:00 +0100

New type of device stretches with the body to reduce inflammation -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)



Calendar

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 09:34:56 +0100

(Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)

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Contents

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 09:34:56 +0100

(Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)



Editorial Advisory Board

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 09:34:56 +0100

(Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)



Masthead

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 09:34:56 +0100

(Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)



10 Years of DNA Origami

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 02:04:41 +0100

This article was reproduced with... -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American Topic - Nanotechnology)



Mitochondrial dysfunctions in 7-ketocholesterol-treated 158N oligodendrocytes without or with α-tocopherol: Impacts on the cellular profil of tricarboxylic cycle-associated fatty acids, long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, oxysterols, cholesterol and cholesterol precursors

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Author(s): Valerio Leoni, Thomas Nury, Anne Vejux, Amira Zarrouk, Claudio Caccia, Meryam Debbabi, Agnès Fromont, Randa Sghaier, Thibault Moreau, Gérard Lizard In multiple sclerosis (MS) a process of white matter degradation leading to demyelination is observed. Oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, necrosis and/or autophagy result together into a progressive loss of oligodendrocytes. 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), found increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients, triggers a rupture of RedOx homeostasis associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions, aptoptosis and autophagy (oxiapoptophagy) in cultured murine oligodendrocytes (158N). α-tocopherol is able to m...

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Role of patulin in post-harvest diseases

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Fungal Biology Reviews Author(s): Shiri Barad, Edward Sionov, Dov Prusky Storage of freshly harvested deciduous fruits is a key factor in modulating their supply for several months after harvest. Penicillium expansum is a post-harvest pathogen that colonises these fruit during storage, having penetrated the fruit through wounds incurred at harvest. The fungus macerates the host tissue during the long periods of storage and simultaneously accumulates significant amounts of the mycotoxin patulin. Fungal decay is a concern for both retailers and consumers, due to the presence of mycotoxins that may appear in fresh fruit as well in their derived products, and patulin levels are therefore monitored. Patulin is a toxic secondary metabo...



Budget-limited thermal biology: design, construction and performance of a large, walk-in style temperature-controlled chamber

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We describe a partial redesign of the conventional air-conditioning system and apply it to the construction of a relatively large (1.87 m3 air mass), walk-in style temperature-controlled chamber (TCC) using parts easily obtained in most countries. We conducted several tests to demonstrate the performance of the TCC. Across the physiologically relevant range of 5-37°C, the TCC took 26.5-50.0min to reach the desired set point temperature. Once at set point, temperature inside the chamber was controlled with an accuracy of ±1.0°C. User-entry effects on deviations from and return times to set point temperature were minimal. Overall, performance of the TCC was sufficient to make precise physiological measurements of insect metabolic rate while controlling assay temperature. Major advantages ...



Grinding and polishing instead of sectioning for the tissue samples with a graft: Implications for light and electron microscopy

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Micron, Volume 85 Author(s): Rinat A. Mukhamadiyarov, Victoria V. Sevostyanova, Daria K. Shishkova, Andrey V. Nokhrin, Olga D. Sidorova, Anton G. Kutikhin A broad use of the graft replacement requires a detailed investigation of the host-graft interaction, including both histological examination and electron microscopy. A high quality sectioning of the host tissue with a graft seems to be complicated; in addition, it is difficult to examine the same tissue area by both of the mentioned microscopy techniques. To solve these problems, we developed a new technique of epoxy resin embedding with the further grinding, polishing, and staining. Graft-containing tissues prepared by grinding and polishing preserved their structure; however, sectioning frequ...

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Dual Targeted Poplar Ferredoxin NADP+ Oxidoreductase Interacts with Hemoglobin 1

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Plant Science Author(s): Soile Jokipii-Lukkari, Alexander J. Kastaniotis, Vimal Parkash, Robin Sundström, Nélida Leiva-Eriksson, Yvonne Nymalm, Olga Blokhina, Eija Kukkola, Kurt V. Fagerstedt, Tiina A. Salminen, Esa Läärä, Leif Bülow, Steffen Ohlmeier, J.Kalervo Hiltunen, Pauli T. Kallio, Hely Häggman Previous reports have connected non-symbiotic and truncated hemoglobins (Hbs) to metabolism of nitric oxide (NO), an important signalling molecule involved in wood formation. We have studied the capability of poplar (Populus tremula x tremuloides) Hbs PttHb1 and PttTrHb proteins alone or with a flavin-protein reductase to relieve NO cytotoxicity in living cells. Complementation tests in a Hb-deficient, NO-sensiti...



The response of mesophyll conductance to nitrogen and water availability differs between wheat genotypes.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:Plant Science Author(s): Margaret M. Barbour, Brent N. Kaiser Increased mesophyll conductance (gm) has been suggested as a target for selection for high productivity and high water-use efficiency in crop plants, and genotypic variability in gm has been reported in several important crop species. However, effective selection requires an understanding of how gm varies with growth conditions, to ensure that the ranking of genotypes is consistent across environments. We assessed the genotypic variability in gm and other leaf gas exchange traits, as well as growth and biomass allocation for six wheat genotypes under different water and nitrogen availabilities. The wheat genotypes differed in their response of gm to growth conditions, r...



Chemical composition antibacterial and antifungal activities of flowerhead and root essential oils of Santolina chamaecyparissus L., growing wild in Tunisia

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences Author(s): Karima Bel Hadj Salah-Fatnassi, Faten Hassayoun, Imed Cheraif, Saba Khan, Hichem Ben Jannet, Mohamed Hammami, Mahjoub Aouni, Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri The antimicrobial properties of essential oil from various Santolina species have not been enough investigated in the previous studies dealing with the biological activities of medicinal plants. In Tunisia, Santolina chamaecyparissus L. (Asteraceae) is the only Santolina species recorded and is used as vermifuge and emmanagogue. The chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils from the flowerheads and roots of spontaneous S. chamaecyparissus growing in Tunisia and the chemical composition which le...



Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Rhizopus stolonifer

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences Author(s): Khalid AbdelRahim, Sabry Younis Mahmoud, Ahmed Mohamed Ali Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has become a necessary field of applied science. Biological method for synthesis of AgNPs by Rhizopus stolonifer aqueous mycelial extract was used. The AgNPs were identified by UV–visible spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR). The presence of surface plasmon band around 420nm indicates AgNPs formation. The characteristic of the AgNPs within the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure are indicated by the peaks of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern corresponding to (111), (200) and (220) planes....



Soil microbial carbon use efficiency and biomass turnover in a long-term fertilization experiment in a temperate grassland

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, the study shows that N availability can control soil C cycling by affecting microbial CUE, while plant community-mediated changes in organic matter inputs and P and K availability played no important role for C partitioning of the microbial community in this temperate grassland. (Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry)

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Aims and Methods of Biosteganography

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:Journal of Biotechnology Author(s): Tyler D.P. Brunet Applications of biotechnology to information security are now possible and have potentially far reaching political and technological implications. This change in information security practices, initiated by advancements in molecular biological and biotechnology, warrants reasonable and widespread consideration by biologists, biotechnologists and philosophers. I offer an explication of the landmark contributions, developments and current possibilities of biosteganography—the process of transmitting secure messages via biological mediums. I address, i) how information can be stored and encoded in biological mediums, ii) how biological mediums (e.g. DNA, RNA, protein) and storage...



RNA metabolism and regulation of virulence programs in fungi

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology Author(s): Ane Sesma The development of RNA imaging techniques and the establishment of systems biology approaches, together with the improvement of large-scale RNA-protein crosslinking immunoprecipitation protocols have enormously expanded our knowledge of RNA networks and the function of RNA-binding proteins in metazoans and model yeasts. In pathogenic fungi, the biological role of the vast majority of RNA-binding proteins and non-coding RNAs is still largely unknown. However, many RNA-dependent mechanisms which shape fungal pathogenicity have been defined. Here, advances made in this field are reviewed and further theories of biological significance are discussed in the light of l...



Chemotherapy versus Hypomethylating Agents for the Treatment of Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant: A Retrospective Review

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT) is a potentially curative treatment for high risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). For patients with relapsed disease after transplant intensive chemotherapy followed by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) or a second allo-SCT may result in a durable response in some patients. High intensity chemotherapy and less aggressive therapy with hypomethylating agents (HA) with and without DLI are often used for post allo-SCT relapse. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)



Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: From the origin of the cell to targeted therapies; Review

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematological malignancy with an aggressive clinical course. It is grouped with acute myeloid leukemia-related precursor neoplasms in the 2008 World Health Organization classification. Most patients with BPDCN have skin lesions at diagnosis and subsequent or simultaneous involvement of the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and lymph nodes. Patients usually respond to initial chemotherapy but often relapse. Stem cell transplant may improve survival. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)

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Clinical feasibility of Axillary Reverse Mapping and its influence on breast cancer related lymphedema: a systematic review

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: May 2016 Source:European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Volume 200 Author(s): Nick Gebruers, Wiebren A.A. Tjalma Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. Fortunately, the overall survival is good. Therefore it is important to focus on the morbidities related to breast cancer treatment. One of the most dreaded morbidities is lymphedema. In 2007 the Axillary Reverse Mapping (ARM) was introduced to limit the invasiveness in the axilla during breast cancer surgery. It is hypothesized that ARM is able to limit the incidence of breast cancer related lymphedema (BCRL) considerably. This systematic review aims to answer the following research questions: (1) which approaches for ARM are described? (2) Is ARM surgical...



The Biology of Stature

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Most pediatricians are attuned to their patients' linear growth (height gain). At each visit, the child's height should be carefully measured and plotted. The clinician can then scrutinize the temporal pattern, and, if the linear growth appears abnormal, initiate an investigation to uncover the underlying problem. Despite this close interest in our patients' statural gains, linear growth itself often is considered as a “black box,” a mysterious process regulated by nutrition, hormones, genetics, and overall health. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)



Post-Operative Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT): A critical review to guide practice

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Post-operative stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for metastatic spinal tumors is increasingly being performed in clinical practice. Whereas the fundamentals of SBRT practice for intact spinal metastases are established, there are as yet no comprehensive practice guidelines for the post-operative indication. In particular, there are unique considerations for patient selection and treatment planning specific to post-operative spine SBRT that are critical for safe and effective management. The purpose of this critical review is to discuss the rationale for treatment, describe those factors impacting surgical decision making, introduce modern surgical trends, and summarize treatment outcomes for both conventional post-operative conventional external beam radiotherapy and post-operative spi...



Carbohydrate changes during growth and fruiting in Pleurotus ostreatus

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study the carbohydrate distribution in the compost and fruiting bodies of Pleurotus spp. was analysed. Sugar, polyol, polysaccharide and chitin content during different growth phases and in different regions of the mushroom were determined. Results indicate that trehalose, mannitol and glucose were first accumulated in the compost and then decreased during differentiation and growth of fruiting bodies. Meanwhile, trehalose, mannitol and glucose also accumulated in the fruiting bodies and primarily distributed in the stipe, base and pileus region respectively. Polysaccharides mainly accumulated within the pileus and stipe regions, and chitin was mainly observed in the base region. These findings provide insights into carbohydrate function and utilisation during mushroom growth. (Sou...



Intra-population dental morphological variability among the Prehispanic Maya

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology Author(s): A. Cucina The present paper proposes a new approach to the estimation of intra-site variability of dental morphological traits when they are dichotomized into presence vs absence. It rests on the assumption that 1) higher intra-site variability is the expression of intense population dynamics and gene flow; and 2) maximum variability is reached when each trait is expressed in the population with a frequency of 50%. The approach simulates the calculation of frequency of heterozygotes in Mendelian traits (2xiyi), where xi and yi are the frequency of presence and absence of the trait. For every population, the final value corresponds to the average of (2xiyi) calculated from all t...



Turgidity-dependent petiole flexibility enables efficient water use by a tree subjected to water stress

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We present an analytical model coupling petiole mechanics, thermal balance, and xylem hydraulics to investigate the role of petiole flexibility in protecting a tree from water stress. Our model suggests that turgidity-dependent petiole flexibility can significantly attenuate the minimal xylem pressure and thus reduce the risk of cavitation. Moreover, we show that petiole flexibility increases water use efficiency by trees under water stress. (Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology)



Mem-ADSVM: A two-layer multi-label predictor for identifying multi-functional types of membrane proteins

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 7 June 2016 Source:Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 398 Author(s): Shibiao Wan, Man-Wai Mak, Sun-Yuan Kung Identifying membrane proteins and their multi-functional types is an indispensable yet challenging topic in proteomics and bioinformatics. However, most of the existing membrane-protein predictors have the following problems: (1) they do not predict whether a given protein is a membrane protein or not; (2) they are limited to predicting membrane proteins with single-label functional types but ignore those with multi-functional types; and (3) there is still much room for improvement for their performance. To address these problems, this paper proposes a two-layer multi-label predictor, namely Mem-ADSVM, which can identify membrane proteins (Layer I) and the...

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Corrigendum to “Monte Carlo simulations of the secondary neutron ambient and effective dose equivalent rates from surface to suborbital altitudes and low Earth orbit”

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Life Sciences in Space Research Author(s): Samy El-Jaby A recent paper published in Life Sciences in Space Research (El-Jaby and Richardson, 2015) presented estimates of the secondary neutron ambient and effective dose equivalent rates, in air, from surface altitudes up to suborbital altitudes and low Earth orbit. These estimates were based on MCNPX (LANL, 2011) (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) radiation transport simulations of galactic cosmic radiation passing through Earth's atmosphere. During a recent review of the input decks used for these simulations, a systematic error was discovered that is addressed here. After reassessment, the neutron ambient and effective dose equivalent rates estimated are found to be 10 to 15% diffe...



Normalization and integration of large-scale metabolomics data using support vector regression

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion SVR normalization can effectively remove the unwanted intra- and inter-batch variations, and is much better than other common normalization methods. (Source: Metabolomics)



Chaos based crossover and mutation for securing DICOM image

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This paper proposes a novel encryption scheme based on combining multiple chaotic maps to ensure the safe transmission of medical images. The proposed scheme uses three chaotic maps namely logistic, tent and sine maps. To achieve an efficient encryption, the proposed chao-cryptic system employs a bio-inspired crossover and mutation units to confuse and diffuse the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) image pixels. The crossover unit extensively permutes the image pixels row-wise and column-wise based on the chaotic key streams generated from the Combined Logistic-Tent (CLT) system. (Source: Computers in Biology and Medicine)



Segmentation of the spinous process and its acoustic shadow in vertebral ultrasound images

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Spinal ultrasound imaging is emerging as a low-cost, radiation-free alternative to conventional X-ray imaging for the clinical follow-up of patients with scoliosis. Currently, deformity measurement relies almost entirely on manual identification of key vertebral landmarks. However, the interpretation of vertebral ultrasound images is challenging, primarily because acoustic waves are entirely reflected by bone. To alleviate this problem, we propose an algorithm to segment these images into three regions: the spinous process, its acoustic shadow and other tissues. (Source: Computers in Biology and Medicine)

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Correction.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 22:59:02 +0100

Authors: PMID: 27010028 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)



Endothelium.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 22:59:02 +0100

Authors: Boulanger CM PMID: 27010027 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)



Vessels With Cingulin Are Leakproof.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 22:59:02 +0100

Authors: Givens C, Tzima E PMID: 27010026 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)



Aminoacyl-Transfer RNA Synthetases: Connecting Nutrient Status to Angiogenesis Through the Unfolded Protein Response.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 22:59:02 +0100

Authors: Lounsbury KM, Francklyn CS PMID: 27010025 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)



Clarity on the Isoform-Specific Roles of NADPH Oxidases and NADPH Oxidase-4 in Atherosclerosis.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 22:59:02 +0100

Authors: Fulton DJ, Barman SA PMID: 27010024 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)

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What Can The Evolution Of Our Sleep Habits Teach Us?

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 21:20:52 +0100

When Amy Ozski started experiencing insomnia last August, it wasn't due to anything drastic. She recalls a heat wave in the Boston area where she lives, a bit more stress at work, and her schedule being thrown off for a few consecutive days. But the combination was enough to trigger a pattern: Ozski started having trouble falling asleep, and before long the problem snowballed into a chronic issue. Sometimes it would take her hours to fall asleep, or she'd wake up in the middle of the night and struggle to conk out again. Sleep -- and the lack of it -- took over her life. "It was all I thought about during the day," she says. "I was miserable." Ozski tried everything she could think of to fix the problem, from transcendental meditation to acupuncture, but to no avail. Finally, she sought he...



Consider This Before You Sign Up For A HIIT Class

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 21:11:21 +0100

High-intensity workouts are all the rage, and for good reason: They burn more calories than standard cardio, can boost your endurance and and increase the elasticity of your arteries and veins, which is really terrific for your heart. But according to a new study published in Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal, for all of HIIT's benefits, there's a catch: The workout could do more harm than good if you're new to exercise.  (Don't try that at home.) Researchers at the University of British Columbia found that their experiment's non-athlete participants showed signs of stress in their muscle tissues after high-intensity leg and arm cycling workouts, which is normal in any exercise. But then the researchers noticed that these participants had a decreased a...



The Icy Fire Beneath Norway's Seabed

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 20:09:38 +0100

This article originally appeared on Arctic Deeply. For weekly updates about Arctic geopolitics, economy, and ecology, you can sign up to the Arctic Deeply email list. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website. (Source: Science - The Huffington Post)



Thymidylate Synthase Enhancer Region: Novel Allele in Indians.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:39:01 +0100

This study identified a novel single repeat in the TYMS gene which might have an impact on the expression of this gene, which needs to be confirmed by functional studies. PMID: 27009482 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Human Biology)



Biologists discover sophisticated 'alarm' signals in honey bees

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:17:22 +0100

Bees can use sophisticated signals to warn their nestmates about the level of danger from predators attacking foragers or the nest, according to a new study. Biologists found that an Asian species of honey bee can produce different types of vibrational 'stop signals' when attacked by giant Asian hornets. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)



Why Some People Believe In Horoscopes

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 18:06:06 +0100

Many people look forward to their weekly horoscope, using their astrological sign predictions as a guide for what's to come. The genius behind astrology readings is that they are vague enough to be ascribed to virtually any personality and life. An astrological reading is almost like mad libs: It provides the structure, but you fill in the blanks. So no matter how real a horoscope prediction may seem, astrology is not scientific, as the Asap Thought video above explains. That said, research has found that our birth months can affect our biology. (Go ahead, tell someone that they seem like such a "summer baby.")  Are you a believer? Let us know below.  -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used ...

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Evaluation of DNA damage induced by Auger electrons from (137)Cs.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:58:03 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The result supports the existing perception that the biological effects by internal and external exposure by (137)Cs are equivalent. PMID: 27010691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)



Triple targeting of Auger emitters using octreotate conjugated to a DNA-binding ligand and a nuclear localizing signal.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:58:03 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The DNA-binding properties of PNO and its affinity for SSTR suggests that it could potentially be used for tumour-specific delivery of PIH labelled with an Auger emitter in SSTR expressing tumours. PMID: 27010622 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)



Hypoxia-inducible proteins HIF1α and lactate dehydrogenase LDH5, key markers of anaerobic metabolism, relate with stem cell markers and poor post-radiotherapy outcome in bladder cancer.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:58:03 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: HIF1α and LDH5 are markers of poor outcome in patients with bladder cancer treated with radiotherapy. Blockage of anaerobic metabolism may prove of importance in clinical radiotherapy. PMID: 27010533 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)



A stochastic cascade model for Auger-electron emitting radionuclides.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:58:03 +0100

Authors: Lee BQ, Nikjoo H, Ekman J, Jönsson P, Stuchbery AE, Kibédi T Abstract To benchmark a Monte Carlo model of the Auger cascade that has been developed at the Australian National University (ANU) against the literature data. The model is applicable to any Auger-electron emitting radionuclide with nuclear structure data in the format of the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). Schönfeld's algorithms and the BrIcc code were incorporated to obtain initial vacancy distributions due to electron capture (EC) and internal conversion (IC), respectively. Atomic transition probabilities were adopted from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL) for elements with atomic number, Z = 1-100. Atomic transition energies were evaluated using a relativistic Dirac-Fock method. A...



Disruption of the ovarian follicle reservoir of prepubertal rats following prenatal exposure to a continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:58:03 +0100

Authors: Türedi S, Hancı H, Çolakoğlu S, Kaya H, Odacı E Abstract The effects on human health of electromagnetic field (EMF) have begun to be seriously questioned with the entry into daily life of devices establishing EMF, such as cell phones, wireless fidelity, and masts. Recent studies have reported that exposure to EMF, particularly during pregnancy, affects the developing embryo/fetus. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the effects of exposure to continuous 900-Megahertz (MHz) EMF applied in the prenatal period on ovarian follicle development and oocyte differentiation. Six pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were divided equally into a non-exposed control group (CNGr) and a group (EMFGr) exposed to continuous 900-MHz EMF for 1 h daily, at the same time every day, o...

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Tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: current evidence on clinicopathologic features and molecular biology.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Wang X, Cheng W, Liu C, Li J Abstract Tall cell variant (TCV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been recognized for the past few decades as an entity showing aggressive biological behavior; however, there is considerable controversy regarding the definition, clinical and pathological features of TCV because of its rarity and difficult diagnosis. No clinical features can accurately diagnose TCV. Thus, the results of histocytology, immunohistochemistry and molecular genetics tests have important clinical implications for diagnosis. Given the aggressiveness and the increased recurrence and poor survival rates, more aggressive treatment approach and rigorous follow-up is required for patients with TCV. In the present article, we undertook a comprehensive review to summa...



CHIP: A new modulator of human malignant disorders.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Cao Z, Li G, Shao Q, Yang G, Zheng L, Zhang T, Zhao Y Abstract Carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is known as a chaperone-associated E3 for a variety of protein substrates. It acts as a link between molecular chaperones and ubiquitin-proteasome system. Involved in the process of protein clearance, CHIP plays a critical role in maintaining protein homeostasis in diverse conditions. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of our current understanding of CHIP and summarize recent advances in CHIP biology, with a focus on CHIP in the setting of malignancies. PMID: 27007160 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)



Molecular and clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 /bFGF) in malignancies of solid and hematological cancers for personalized therapies.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Akl MR, Nagpal P, Ayoub NM, Tai B, Prabhu SA, Capac CM, Gliksman M, Goy A, Suh KS Abstract Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is essential for normal and cancer biology. Mammalian FGF family members participate in multiple signaling pathways by binding to heparan sulfate and FGF receptors (FGFR) with varying affinities. FGF2 is the prototype member of the FGF family and interacts with its receptor to mediate receptor dimerization, phosphorylation, and activation of signaling pathways, such as Ras-MAPK and PI3K pathways. Excessive mitogenic signaling through the FGF/FGFR axis may induce carcinogenic effects by promoting cancer progression and increasing the angiogenic potential, which can lead to metastatic tumor phenotypes. Dysregulated FGF/FGFR signaling is associat...



Cell line with endogenous EGFRvIII expression is a suitable model for research and drug development purposes.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Stec WJ, Rosiak K, Siejka P, Peciak J, Popeda M, Banaszczyk M, Pawlowska R, Treda C, Hulas-Bigoszewska K, Piaskowski S, Stoczynska-Fidelus E, Rieske P Abstract Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant brain tumor, characterized by high cellular heterogeneity. About 50% of glioblastomas are positive for EGFR amplification, half of which express accompanying EGFR mutation, encoding truncated and constitutively active receptor termed EGFRvIII. Currently, no cell models suitable for development of EGFRvIII-targeting drugs exist, while the available ones lack the intratumoral heterogeneity or extrachromosomal nature of EGFRvIII.The reports regarding the biology of EGFRvIII expressed in the stable cell lines are often contradictory in observations and conclusions. In the pr...



Protein Phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent 1A controls the innate antiviral and antibacterial response of macrophages during HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Sun J, Schaaf K, Duverger A, Wolschendorf F, Speer A, Wagner F, Niederweis M, Kutsch O Abstract Co-infection with HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a major public health issue. While some research has described how each pathogen accelerates the course of infection of the other pathogen by compromising the immune system, very little is known about the molecular biology of HIV-1/Mtb co-infection at the host cell level. This is somewhat surprising, as both pathogens are known to replicate and persist in macrophages. We here identify Protein Phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent 1A (PPM1A) as a molecular link between Mtb infection and increased HIV-1 susceptibility of macrophages. We demonstrate that both Mtb and HIV-1 infection induce the expression of PPM1A in primary...

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CodHonEditor: Spreadsheets for Codon Optimization and Editing of Protein Coding Sequences.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:07:01 +0100

Authors: Takai K Abstract Gene synthesis is getting more important with the growing availability of low-cost commercial services. The coding sequences are often "optimized" as for the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) before synthesis, which is generally included in the commercial services. However, the codon optimization processes are different among different providers and are often hidden from the users. Here, the d'Hondt method, which is widely adopted as a method for determining the number of seats for each party in proportional-representation public elections, is applied to RSCU fitting. This allowed me to make a set of electronic spreadsheets for manual design of protein coding sequences for expression in Escherichia coli, with which users can see the process of codon o...



Nicotinamide Cofactors Suppress Active-Site Labeling of Aldehyde Dehydrogenases

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 14:56:43 +0100

ACS Chemical BiologyDOI: 10.1021/acschembio.5b00784 (Source: ACS Chemical Biology)



Stripped-Down Synthetic Organism Has Smallest Genome Yet

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 14:41:58 +0100

This study is definitely trying to understand a minimal basis of life," said Venter. But the researchers said that even with such a simple organism, that understanding remained elusive. They noted that even though their organism has so few genes, they were still uncertain about the function of nearly a third of them, even after more than five years of work. The researchers predicted their work would yield practical applications in developing new medicines, biochemicals, biofuels and in agriculture. "Our long-term vision has been to design and build synthetic organisms on demand where you can add in specific functions and predict what the outcome is going to be," said Daniel Gibson, vice president for DNA technologies at Synthetic Genomics Inc, the company handling commercial applications f...



Introduction to Cheminformatics.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 14:29:02 +0100

Authors: Wishart DS Abstract Cheminformatics is a field of information technology that focuses on the collection, storage, analysis, and manipulation of chemical data. The chemical data of interest typically includes information on small molecule formulas, structures, properties, spectra, and activities (biological or industrial). Cheminformatics originally emerged as a vehicle to help the drug discovery and development process, however cheminformatics now plays an increasingly important role in many areas of biology, chemistry, and biochemistry. The intent of this unit is to give readers some introduction into the field of cheminformatics and to show how cheminformatics not only shares many similarities with the field of bioinformatics, but also enhances much of what is currently ...



Mar 25 Cardiology News Mar 25 Cardiology News

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 14:27:23 +0100

Broken-heart syndrome, anticoagulation underuse, polypharmacy in the elderly, hematoma after device implants and new findings in HDL biology are reviewed by Dr John Mandrola in this week's podcast. theheart.org on Medscape (Source: Medscape Cardiology Headlines)

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Expressional characterization of mRNA (guanine-7) methyltransferase (rnmt) during early development of Xenopus laevis.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 13:38:02 +0100

Authors: Lokapally A, Metikala S, Hollemann T Abstract Methylation of the guanosine cap structure at the 5' end of mRNA is essential for efficient translation of all eukaryotic cellular mRNAs, gene expression and cell viability and promotes transcription, splicing, polyadenylation and nuclear export of mRNA. In the current study, we present the spatial expression pattern of the Xenopus laevis rnmt homologue. A high percentage of protein sequence similarity, especially within the methyltransferase domain, as well as an increased expression in the cells of the transcriptionally active stages, suggests a conserved RNA cap methylation function. Spatial expression analysis identified expression domains in the brain, the retina, the lens, the otic vesicles and the branchial arches. P...



Evolution of the vertebrate claudin gene family: insights from a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 13:38:02 +0100

Authors: Mukendi C, Dean N, Lala R, Smith J, Bronner ME, Nikitina NV Abstract Claudins are major constituents of tight junctions, contributing both to their intercellular sealing and selective permeability properties. While claudins and claudin-like molecules are present in some invertebrates, the association of claudins with tight junctions has been conclusively documented only in vertebrates. Here we report the sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and comprehensive spatiotemporal expression analysis of the entire claudin gene family in the basal extant vertebrate, the sea lamprey. Our results demonstrate that clear orthologues to about half of all mammalian claudins are present in the lamprey, suggesting that at least one round of whole genome duplication contributed to the diversif...



In Memoriam - Prof. G. Barry Pierce (1925-2015).

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 13:38:02 +0100

Authors: Damjanov I Abstract Gordon Barry Pierce, my great mentor and long-time friend died in November 2015 at the age of 90 years. We will all miss him. What we are left with, however, are reminiscences of moments we spent with him, his jokes and stories to be retold and passed along, titbits of advice, and pearls of his common-sense Canadian wisdom. A vision of a better world to which he contributed so much. Scientific contributions too numerous to list, many of which had major impact on us who were interested in the same problems as he was. Seminal discoveries that impacted the progress in several fields of scientific endeavor. Major new concepts of oncology and developmental biology that opened new vistas and revolutionized our thinking about the crucial problems of biology an...

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Contact Lenses: A Delivery Device for Stem Cells to Treat Corneal Blindness

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 13:22:36 +0100

Worldwide, 45 million people are blind. Corneal blindness is a major cause of visual loss, estimated to affect 10 million. For the most difficult to treat patients, including those with a disease called limbal stem cell deficiency, a donor corneal graft is not a viable option; thus, patients are treated with specialized stem cell grafts, which fail in a significant proportion (30 to 50%) of subjects. This unacceptable failure rate means there is a pressing need to develop minimally invasive, long-lasting, cost-effective therapies to improve patient quality of life and lessen the economic burden. Restoring vision in patients with severe corneal disease is the main focus of our research program; however, to achieve our goals and deliver the best quality stem cell therapy, we must first under...



South Lake Union's surprise: There is more collaboration there than you'd think

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 13:00:06 +0100

When I first moved to Seattle, my office was in South Lake Union. I was next door to Amazon (Nasdaq: AMZN) and down the street from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Juno Therapeutics, the Allen Institute for Brain Science and the Institute for Systems Biology. Stepping into my new role as health care reporter in what has become known as "Cloud City" shortly after President Barack Obama challenged the country to find a cure to cancer, I learned quickly that scientists at all these institutions… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines)



Birds Benefit When Gators Guard

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 13:00:00 +0100

And so do the alligators—they protect bird nests from egg-stealing raccoons and other predators, but they don’t work for free. -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)



Mapping neurogenesis onset in the optic tectum of Xenopus laevis

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:26:06 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Neurobiology)

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Designing an Antibody-Based Chaperoning System through Programming the Binding and Release of the Folding Intermediate

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:00:17 +0100

ACS Chemical BiologyDOI: 10.1021/acschembio.6b00191 (Source: ACS Chemical Biology)



Scientists Want To Turn Guantanamo Bay Into A Research Park

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:20:03 +0100

In the wake of President Barack Obama's historic visit to Cuba, questions remain about America's changing relationship with the island nation. Chief among those: What will happen to Guantanamo Bay? The question has become a sticking point in negotiations between the two countries. For Cuban President Raúl Castro, returning Guantanamo Bay to Cuba is a sine qua non for a full rapprochement.  "In order to move forward towards normalization, it will also be necessary to return the territory illegally occupied by Guantanamo Naval Base," Castro told reporters in a press conference with Obama on Monday, according to Time magazine.  For its part, the U.S. has made it clear that returning Guantanamo is not up for discussion, at least for now. But scientists h...



Role of Growth Factors in Modulation of the Microvasculature in Adult Skeletal Muscle.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:05:03 +0100

Authors: Smythe G Abstract Post-natal skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue that has the capacity to regenerate rapidly following injury, and to undergo significant modification in tissue mass (i.e. atrophy/hypertrophy) in response to global metabolic changes. These processes are reliant largely on soluble factors that directly modulate muscle regeneration and mass. However, skeletal muscle function also depends on an adequate blood supply. Thus muscle regeneration and changes in muscle mass, particularly hypertrophy, also demand rapid changes in the microvasculature. Recent evidence clearly demonstrates a critical role for soluble growth factors in the tight regulation of angiogenic expansion of the muscle microvasculature. Furthermore, exogenous modulation of these factors h...



Adipokines in Healthy Skeletal Muscle and Metabolic Disease.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:05:03 +0100

Authors: Coles CA Abstract Adipose tissue not only functions as a reserve to store energy but has become of major interest as an endocrine organ, releasing signalling molecules termed adipokines which impact on other tissues, such as skeletal muscle. Adipocytes, within skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, secrete adipokines to finely maintain the balance between feed intake and energy expenditure. This book chapter focuses on the three adipokines, adiponectin, leptin and IL-6, which have potent effects on skeletal muscle during rest and exercise. Similarly, adiponectin, leptin and IL-6 enhance glucose uptake and increase fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Fatty acid oxidation is increased through activation of AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signalling) ...



The TGF-β Signalling Network in Muscle Development, Adaptation and Disease.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:05:03 +0100

Authors: Chen JL, Colgan TD, Walton KL, Gregorevic P, Harrison CA Abstract Skeletal muscle possesses remarkable ability to change its size and force-producing capacity in response to physiological stimuli. Impairment of the cellular processes that govern these attributes also affects muscle mass and function in pathological conditions. Myostatin, a member of the TGF-β family, has been identified as a key regulator of muscle development, and adaptation in adulthood. In muscle, myostatin binds to its type I (ALK4/5) and type II (ActRIIA/B) receptors to initiate Smad2/3 signalling and the regulation of target genes that co-ordinate the balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Interestingly, evidence is emerging that other TGF-β proteins act in concert with myostatin to reg...

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Function of Membrane-Associated Proteoglycans in the Regulation of Satellite Cell Growth.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:05:03 +0100

Authors: Song Y Abstract Muscle growth can be divided into embryonic and postnatal periods. During the embryonic period, mesenchymal stem cells proliferate and differentiate to form muscle fibers. Postnatal muscle growth (hypertrophy) is characterized by the enlargement of existing muscle fiber size. Satellite cells (also known as adult myoblasts) are responsible for hypertrophy. The activity of satellite cells can be regulated by their extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM is composed of collagens, proteoglycans, non-collagenous glycoproteins, cytokines and growth factors. Proteoglycans contain a central core protein with covalently attached glycosaminoglycans (GAGs: chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and heparan sulfate) and N- or O-linked glycosylation chains....



The Role of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Growth, Injury and Disease.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:05:03 +0100

This article will discuss the shared and distinct processes that LIFR cytokines regulate in a variety of experimental models with the common theme of skeletal muscle physiology. PMID: 27003396 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)



Cytokine Mediated Control of Muscle Stem Cell Function.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:05:03 +0100

Authors: Joanisse S, Parise G Abstract Skeletal muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SC), are an absolute requirement for muscle regeneration and contribute significantly to post-natal muscle growth. This stem cell population is governed by a network of transcription factors collectively referred to as the myogenic regulatory factors. These factors are responsible for the progression of a SC from the quiescent state through activation, proliferation and terminal differentiation in a process referred to as the myogenic programme. At each stage in this process, cytokines and growth factors have been shown to play a role in directing the myogenic response. The myogenic programme is complex and requires input from a host of factors that provide both stimulatory and inhibitory s...



Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Satellite Cell Activation.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:05:03 +0100

Authors: Anderson JE Abstract Satellite cells are the "currency" for the muscle growth that is critical to meat production in many species, as well as to phenotypic distinctions in development at the level of species or taxa, and for human muscle growth, function and regeneration. Careful research on the activation and behaviour of satellite cells, the stem cells in skeletal muscle, including cross-species comparisons, has potential to reveal the mechanisms underlying pathological conditions in animals and humans, and to anticipate implications of development, evolution and environmental change on muscle function and animal performance. PMID: 27003394 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)



Look, no hands: Steller’s sea cow

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 07:02:10 +0100

The extinct Steller’s sea cow has much to marvel at, including its size, jaws and apparently “fingerless” forelimbsName: Furuhjelm’s sea cowSpecies: Hydrodamalis gigas Dates: Unknown Claim to fame: One of the most complete skeletons of the extinct Stellar’s sea cow Where now: Finnish Museum of Natural History, HelsinkiOne of the most prized specimens at the Finnish Museum of Natural History in Helsinki is a near-complete skeleton of a Steller’s sea cow, a fascinating creature that went extinct around 250 years ago. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)

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Dendritic Cells in the Context of Human Tumors: Biology and Experimental Tools.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 06:32:01 +0100

Authors: Volovitz I, Melzer S, Amar S, Bocsi J, Bloch M, Efroni S, Ram Z, Tárnok A Abstract Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent and versatile antigen-presenting cells (APC) in the immune system. DC have an exceptional ability to comprehend the immune context of a captured antigen based on molecular signals identified from its vicinity. The analyzed information is then conveyed to other immune effector cells. Such capability enables DC to play a pivotal role in mediating either an immunogenic response or immune tolerance towards an acquired antigen. This review summarizes current knowledge on DC in the context of human tumors. It covers the basics of human DC biology, elaborating on the different markers, morphology and function of the different subsets of human DC. Human bloo...



In This Issue: On Biology of Dendritic Cells and B Cells.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 06:32:01 +0100

Authors: Bot A PMID: 27007189 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)



Relaxin deficiency results in increased expression of angiogenesis- and remodelling-related genes in the uterus of early pregnant mice but does not affect endometrial angiogenesis prior to implantation.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:47:03 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Relaxin treatment modulates expression of a variety of angiogenesis-related genes in HES cells. However, despite accelerated uterine gene expression of steroid receptor, progesterone and angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling genes in Rln-/- mice, there was no impact on angiogenesis. We conclude that although relaxin deficiency results in phenotypic changes in the pre-implantation uterus, endogenous relaxin does not play a major role in pre-implantation angiogenesis in the mouse uterus. PMID: 27005936 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reproductive Biology)



Ectopic pregnancy risk factors for ART patients undergoing the GnRH antagonist protocol: a retrospective study.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:47:03 +0100

CONCLUSION: Excessive ovarian response, IVF (as opposed to ICSI), prior Cesarean section and GnRH agonist trigger were found to be independent risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. Caution should be exercised before incorporating the GnRH agonist trigger for indications other than preventing OHSS. When excessive ovarian response leads to utilization of GnRH agonist trigger, strategies for preventing ectopic pregnancy, such as a freeze all policy or blastocyst transfer, should be considered. Further studies should elucidate whether adjusting the luteal support can reduce the ectopic pregnancy risk. PMID: 27005813 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reproductive Biology)



Simulation shows how modern interventions can affect tropical forests and indigenous people

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(Stanford University) A computer simulation shows that carefully designing government interactions with rural indigenous people is critical for protecting the sustainability of people, wildlife and the land. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)

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New insights into human tears could lead to more comfortable contact lenses

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(Stanford University) Chemical engineers at Stanford have discovered mechanical properties of the tear film on the eye's surface that can be used to manufacture contact lenses that more closely mimic the eye. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Micro-sanctuaries key to survival of wildlife in human-dominated landscapes

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(Wildlife Conservation Society) A new study by a team of researchers from the Centre for Ecological Sciences at the Indian Institute of Science, Manipal University, Centre for Wildlife Studies and the Wildlife Conservation Society-India, says that maintaining even the tiniest wildlife sanctuaries will help preserve some biodiversity in increasingly urbanized landscapes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Cells in standby mode

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) During unfavorable conditions, the cytoplasm can solidify and protect the cell from death. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



One atom can make a difference: Hydrogen-bonding pairing helps design better drugs to neutralize gut

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(Baylor College of Medicine) Hydrogen-bonding pairing regulates protein-ligand affinity; helps improve drug design. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



The first 3-D atlas of the extinct dodo

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(Society of Vertebrate Paleontology) For the first time since its extinction, a 3-D atlas of the skeletal anatomy of the dodo has been created, based upon two exceptional dodo skeletons that have remained unstudied for over a century. This atlas, published as the fifteenth Memoir of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, represents the culmination of nearly five years of work and thousands of man-hours of digital investigation on the only two associated, near-complete skeletons of the dodo in existence. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)

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