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MedWorm: Biochemistry



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in Biochemistry



Last Build Date: Mon, 28 Mar 2016 05:08:30 +0100

 



Erratum.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

Authors: Abstract [This corrects the article DOI: 10.3164/jcbn.13-107.]. PMID: 27013785 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition)

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Disorder of autonomic nervous system and its vulnerability to external stimulation in functional dyspepsia.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

Authors: Tominaga K, Fujikawa Y, Tsumoto C, Kadouchi K, Tanaka F, Kamata N, Yamagami H, Tanigawa T, Watanabe T, Fujiwara Y, Arakawa T Abstract To elucidate the role of autonomic nervous system in functional dyspepsia patients, we examined 24-h heart rate variability: the basal levels, responses after lunch, cold pressor and mental arithmetic tests, and the efficacy of an autonomic drug (tofisopam). The high-frequency component (HF: 0.15-0.40 Hz) and the ratio of HF to the low-frequency component (LF: 0.04-0.15 Hz; LF/HF ratio) were used as indicators of parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic nervous system function. The HF component in the 24-h, daytime, and nighttime was low in 86.7%, 97.8%, and 66.7% of patients (n = 45) and the LF/HF ratio was high in 51.1%, 73.3%, and 26...



Pain-reducing anesthesia prevents oxidative stress in human term placenta.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

In this study, we immunohistochemically analyzed two markers for oxidative stress, namely 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins (HNE), using placentas from 21 cases of normal tansvaginal delivery (V group), 20 Caesarean sections (C group), and 17 normal transvaginal deliveries with epidural anesthesia (E group). 8-OHdG staining in the nuclei of trophoblasts lining the chorionic villi was significantly stronger in the V group either compared with the C or E group (p<0.001), without significant differences in the C and E groups (p = 0.792). Moderate to intense staining by HNE of the intravascular serum of chorionic villi vasculature was frequently observed in the placentas from the V group, but less frequently of those in either C or E groups (p&...



Chlorogenic acid from honeysuckle improves hepatic lipid dysregulation and modulates hepatic fatty acid composition in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

In this study, we investigated the effect of chlorogenic acid in rats with chronic endotoxin infusion. The Sprague-Dawley rats with lipid metabolic disorder (LD group) were intraperitoneally injected endotoxin. And the rats of chlorogenic acid-LD group were daily received chlorogenic acid by intragastric administration. In chlorogenic acid-LD group, the area of visceral adipocyte was decreased and liver injury was ameliorated, as compared to LD group. In chlorogenic acid-LD group, serum triglycerides, free fatty acids, hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol were decreased, the proportion of C20:1, C24:1 and C18:3n-6, Δ9-18 and Δ6-desaturase activity index in the liver were decreased, and the proportion of C18:3n-3 acid was increased, compared to the LD group. Moreover, levels of phosphory...



Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6-8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss...



Non-invasive measurement of skin autofluorescence to evaluate diabetic complications.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

This study provides the first evidence that the accumulation of fluorophore in the fingertip increases with an increasing number of microvascular complications, demonstrating that the presence of diabetic microvascular complications may be predicted by measuring the fluorophore concentration in the fingertip. PMID: 27013780 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition)

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Soft-shelled turtle eggs inhibit the formation of AGEs in the serum and skin of diabetic rats.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

This report provides the first evidence that the oral administration of STE reduces the formation of AGEs, suggesting that one of the health effects of STE may be the inhibition of AGEs formation. PMID: 27013779 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition)



Dietary zinc deficiency induces oxidative stress and promotes tumor necrosis factor-α- and interleukin-1β-induced RANKL expression in rat bone.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

Authors: Suzuki T, Katsumata S, Matsuzaki H, Suzuki K Abstract We investigated the effects of dietary zinc deficiency on oxidative stress and bone metabolism. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups for 4 weeks: a zinc-adequate group (30 ppm); a zinc-deficient group (1 ppm); and a pair-fed group (30 ppm) that was pair-fed to the zinc-deficient group. The iron content and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance level in bone were higher in the zinc-deficient group than in the zinc-adequate and pair-fed groups. The mRNA expression level of osteoblastogenesis-related genes such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 and runt-related transcription factor 2 was lower in the zinc-deficient group than in the zinc-adequate and pair-fed groups. In contras...



Tocotrienol improves learning and memory deficit of aged rats.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

Authors: Kaneai N, Sumitani K, Fukui K, Koike T, Takatsu H, Urano S Abstract To define whether tocotrienol (T-3) improves cognitive deficit during aging, effect of T-3 on learning and memory functions of aged rats was assessed. It was found that T-3 markedly counteracts the decline in learning and memory function in aged rats. Quantitative analysis of T-3 content in the rat brain showed that the aged rats fed T-3 mixture-supplemented diet revealed the transport of α- and γ-T-3 to the brain. In contrast, normal young rats fed the same diet did not exhibit brain localization. Furthermore, the T-3 inhibited age-related decreases in the expression of certain blood brain barrier (BBB) proteins, including caludin-5, occludin and junctional adhesion molecule (JAM). It was found that the...



Down-regulation of dihydrofolate reductase inhibits the growth of endothelial EA.hy926 cell through induction of G1 cell cycle arrest via up-regulating p53 and p21(waf1/cip1) expression.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

Authors: Fei Z, Gao Y, Qiu M, Qi X, Dai Y, Wang S, Quan Z, Liu Y, Ou J Abstract Folic acid supplementation may meliorate cardiovascular disease risk by improving vascular endothelial structure and function. However, the underlying mechanisms are still lack of a global understanding. To be used, folic acid must be converted to 7,8-dihydrofolate by dihydrofolate reductase to generate one-carbon derivatives serving as important cellular cofactors in the synthesis of nucleotides and amino acids required for cell growth. Therefore, this study explored the effect of dihydrofolate reductase knockdown on endothelial EA.hy926 cell growth and the mechanism involved. We found that down-regulation of dihydrofolate reductase inhibited EA.hy926 cell proliferation, and induced G1 phase arrest. Me...



Neutrophil myeloperoxidase and its substrates: formation of specific markers and reactive compounds during inflammation.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

Authors: Kato Y Abstract Myeloperoxidase is an inflammatory enzyme that generates reactive hypochlorous acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and chloride ion. However, this enzyme also uses bromide ion or thiocyanate as a substrate to form hypobromous or hypothiocyanous acid, respectively. These species play important roles in host defense against the invasion of microorganisms. In contrast, these enzyme products modify biomolecules in hosts during excess inflammation, indicating that the action of myeloperoxidase is both beneficial and harmful. Myeloperoxidase uses other endogenous compounds, such as serotonin, urate, and l-tyrosine, as substrates. This broad-range specificity may have some biological implications. Target molecules of this enzyme and its products vary, includ...

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Redox signaling regulated by electrophiles and reactive sulfur species.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

Authors: Nishida M, Kumagai Y, Ihara H, Fujii S, Motohashi H, Akaike T Abstract Redox signaling is a key modulator of oxidative stress induced by nonspecific insults of biological molecules generated by reactive oxygen species. Current redox biology is revisiting the traditional concept of oxidative stress, such that toxic effects of reactive oxygen species are protected by diverse antioxidant systems upregulated by oxidative stress responses that are physiologically mediated by redox-dependent cell signaling pathways. Redox signaling is thus precisely regulated by endogenous electrophilic substances that are generated from reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and its derivative reactive species during stress responses. Among electrophiles formed endogenously, 8-nitroguanosine ...



Climate change may alter genetic diversity of Duchesnea indica, a clonal plant species

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Volume 66 Author(s): Ji-Zhong Wan, Chun-Jing Wang, Chun-Xiang Liu, Hong-Li Li Climate change may alter the genetic diversity of plants. However, the relationship between genetic diversity in clonal plant species and climate change is unclear. To address this, we examined a representative clonal plant species, Duchesnea indica. We used microsatellite markers to analyze the genetic diversity of the species and used a correlation analysis to infer the relationship between climatic suitability and genetic diversity by using Maxent modeling. Then, we used a geographical information system approach to evaluate the change in genetic diversity of D. indica under climate change scenarios. There was a significantly negativ...



Peptide-incorporated 3D porous alginate scaffolds with enhanced osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 1 July 2016 Source:Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 143 Author(s): Zuyuan Luo, Yue Yang, Yi Deng, Yuhua Sun, Hongtao Yang, Shicheng Wei Good bioactivity and osteogenesis of three-dimensional porous alginate scaffolds (PAS) are critical for bone tissue engineering. In this work, alginate and bone-forming peptide-1 (BFP-1), derived from bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7), have been combined together (without carbodiimide chemistry treatment) to develop peptide-incorporated PAS (p-PAS) for promoting bone repairing ability. The mechanical properties and SEM images show no difference between pure PAS and p-PAS. The release kinetics of the labeled peptide with 6-carboxy tetramethyl rhodamine from the PAS matrix suggests that the peptide is released in a ...



Optimization and characterization of a homogeneous carboxylic surface functionalization for silicon-based biosensing

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 1 July 2016 Source:Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 143 Author(s): Alessandro Chiadò, Gianluca Palmara, Serena Ricciardi, Francesca Frascella, Micaela Castellino, Mauro Tortello, Carlo Ricciardi, Paola Rivolo A well-organized immobilization of bio-receptors is a crucial goal in biosensing, especially to achieve high reproducibility, sensitivity and specificity. These requirements are usually attained with a controlled chemical/biochemical functionalization that creates a stable layer on a sensor surface. In this work, a chemical modification protocol for silicon-based surfaces to be applied in biosensing devices is presented. An anhydrous silanization step through 3-aminopropylsilane (APTES), followed by a further derivatization with succinic anhy...



Codelivery of doxorubicin-containing thermosensitive hydrogels incorporated with docetaxel-loaded mixed micelles enhances local cancer therapy

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, our in situ injectable DOX and DOC TSH is a potential dual drug delivery system, which can enhance the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy with minimal side effects and reduced chemoresistance. Graphical abstract (Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces)

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Graphene oxide-wrapped PEGylated liquid crystalline nanoparticles for effective chemo-photothermal therapy of metastatic prostate cancer cells

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 1 July 2016 Source:Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 143 Author(s): Raj Kumar Thapa, Yu Seok Youn, Jee-Heon Jeong, Han-Gon Choi, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim Here, we report the preparation of PEGylated liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCN) loaded with docetaxel (DTX) and wrapped with graphene oxide (GO), called PEG-GO/LCN/DTX, for effective chemo-photothermal therapy of metastatic prostate cancer cells. The prepared formulation exhibited a small particle size (<250 nm), high drug loading capacity (∼15%), and efficient near infrared (NIR) light-induced thermal heat. Importantly, PEG-GO/LCN/DTX successfully accumulated in prostate cancer cells and exhibited potent apoptotic and antimigration effects, mediated by the combination of the anticanc...



Chitosan-modified lipid nanovesicles for efficient systemic delivery of l-asparaginase

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 1 July 2016 Source:Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 143 Author(s): Shengli Wan, Dan He, Yuming Yuan, Zijun Yan, Xue Zhang, Jingqing Zhang The goal of this study was to evaluate the enhanced catalytic activity, increased stability, in vitro anti-cancer effects on H446 cells and in vivo bioavailability of novel enzyme delivery nanovesicles (l-asparaginase containing chitosan modified lipid nanovesicles, ACLNs) when administered intravenously. It was the first time for the chitosan-modified lipid nanovesicles to be fabricated to deliver l-asparaginase (ASP, a therapeutic enzyme) efficiently. It was indicated that ACLNs markedly increased the enzymatic activity, improved the temperature/acid-base/proteolytic stabilities and favorably changed the in vivo ...



One-pot construction of boronate ester based pH-responsive micelle for combined cancer therapy

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study, one-pot strategy for the construction of micelles loaded with two types of anticancer drugs (i.e., doxorubicin and methotrexate) together is reported. On the basis of the reaction between boronic acid and 1,2-diol to form boronate ester, the formation of amphiphiles, their self-assembly into micelles and drug encapsulation occurs simultaneously under simple dialysis at the appropriate pH condition. In the one-pot strategy, the micelle yield is high (78.2%) and the drug encapsulation efficiency of the two drugs is improved compared with that of the traditional method. The micelles can selectively increase the drug release ratio at acidic pH, showing the pH-responsive behavior inherited from the property of boronate ester. By combining doxorubicin and methotrexate, the half-ma...



Increased resistance to detachment of adherent microspheres and Bacillus spores subjected to a drying step

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study, we investigated the consequences of a drying step on the further ability of adherent bacterial spores to resist detachment. An initial series of experiment was set up with latex microspheres as a model. A microsphere suspension was deposited on a glass slide and incubated at 25, 35 and 50°C for times ranging from 1h to 48h. By subjecting the dried slides to increasing water flow rates, we showed that both time and temperature affected the ease of microsphere detachment. Similar observations were made for three Bacillus spores despite differences in their surface properties, especially regarding their surface physicochemistry. The differences in ease of adherent spore detachment could not be clearly linked to the minor changes in spore morphology, observed after drying in va...



Inhalable polymer-glycerosomes as safe and effective carriers for rifampicin delivery to the lungs

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 1 July 2016 Source:Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 143 Author(s): Virginia Melis, Maria Letizia Manca, Enrica Bullita, Elena Tamburini, Ines Castangia, Maria Cristina Cardia, Donatella Valenti, Anna Maria Fadda, José E. Peris, Maria Manconi Rifampicin loaded glycerosomes, vesicles composed of phospholipids, glycerol and water, were combined with trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) to prepare TMC-glycerosomes or, alternatively, with sodium hyaluronate (HY) to obtain HY-glycerosomes. These new hybrid nanovesicles were tested as carriers for pulmonary delivery of rifampicin. Glycerosomes without polymers were also prepared and characterized. All vesicles were similar: they were spherical, multilamellar and able to incorporate good amount of rifampic...

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Influence of protein bulk properties on membrane surface coverage during immobilization

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 1 July 2016 Source:Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 143 Author(s): Francesca Militano, Teresa Poerio, Rosalinda Mazzei, Emma Piacentini, Annarosa Gugliuzza, Lidietta Giorno Biomolecules immobilization is a key factor for many biotechnological applications. For this purpose, the covalent immobilization of bovine serum albumin (BSA), lipase from Candida rugosa and protein G on differently functionalized regenerated cellulose membranes was investigated. Dynamic light scattering and electrophoresis measurements carried out on biomolecules in solution indicated the presence of monomers, dimers and trimers for both BSA and protein G, while large aggregates were observed for lipase. The immobilization rate and the surface coverage on functionalized regenera...



Plant plasma membrane aquaporins in natural vesicles as potential stabilizers and carriers of glucosinolates

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 1 July 2016 Source:Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 143 Author(s): Maria del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, Horacio Pérez-Sánchez, Diego A. Moreno, Micaela Carvajal Their biodegradable nature and ability to target cells make biological vesicles potential nanocarriers for bioactives delivery. In this work, the interaction between proteoliposomes enriched in aquaporins derived from broccoli plants and the glucosinolates was evaluated. The vesicles were stored at different temperatures and their integrity was studied. Determination of glucosinolates, showed that indolic glucosinolates were more sensitive to degradation in aqueous solution than aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucoraphanin was stabilized by leaf and root proteoliposomes at 25°C through their inte...



A comparative study of curcumin-loaded lipid-based nanocarriers in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 1 July 2016 Source:Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 143 Author(s): Ana Beloqui, Patrick B. Memvanga, Régis Coco, Sonia Reimondez-Troitiño, Mireille Alhouayek, Giulio G. Muccioli, María José Alonso, Noemi Csaba, María de la Fuente, Véronique Préat Selective drug delivery to inflamed tissues is of widespread interest for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Because a lack of physiological lipids has been described in patients suffering IBD, and some lipids present immunomodulatory properties, we hypothesize that the combination of lipids and anti-inflammatory drugs together within a nanocarrier may be a valuable strategy for overcoming IBD. In the present study, we investigated and compared the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of ...



Development of intranasal nanovehicles of itraconazole and their immunological activities for the therapy of rhinovirus infection

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 1 July 2016 Source:Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 143 Author(s): Jeong-Jun Lee, Aeri Shim, Jae Young Jeong, Song Yi Lee, Hyun-Jeong Ko, Hyun-Jong Cho Itraconazole (ITZ)-loaded microemulsion (ME) systems for intranasal (IN) delivery were developed for the treatment of human rhinovirus serotype 1B (HRV1B) infection. ITZ was incorporated into the oil-in-water (o/w) ME formulation composed of benzyl alcohol (oil), Cremophor EL (surfactant), Solutol HS15 (cosurfactant), and water. The optimized composition of ME was determined by constructing pseudo-ternary phase diagram. ITZ ME formulation with about 150nm mean diameter and spherical shape was prepared and the solubility of ITZ in blank ME was markedly improved (up to 13.9mg/mL). The initial value of d...






pH-responsive targeted and controlled doxorubicin delivery using hyaluronic acid nanocarriers

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 1 July 2016 Source:Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 143 Author(s): Deepanjali D. Gurav, Anuja S. Kulkarni, Ayesha Khan, Vaishali S. Shinde Biocompatible nanogels were prepared using thiol modified hyaluronic acid and diacrylated pluronic F127 polymer. A simple Michael type addition reaction of activated thiol groups on acrylate moiety lead to the formation of these nanogels, which were further effectively fabricated with an anticancer drug for evaluating sustained drug release approach. Nanogels prepared were of 150nm in diameter with a narrow size distribution pattern. DOX released from these nanogels showed a slow and sustained release at acidic pH 5.0 as compared to minimal release at physiological pH 7.4. Cytotoxicity data revealed the higher effic...



Silicone-stabilized liposomes as a possible novel nanostructural drug carrier

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 1 July 2016 Source:Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 143 Author(s): Joanna Lewandowska-Łańcucka, Katarzyna Mystek, Adriana Gilarska, Kamil Kamiński, Marek Romek, Bogdan Sulikowski, Maria Nowakowska Development of silicone stabilized liposomes which can serve as novel drug nanocarriers is presented. Silicone precursor 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4 H) was introduced into the bilayer of the cationic liposomes prepared from egg yolk phosphatidylocholine (PC) and double-tailed dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DODAB). The silicone material was created inside of the liposomal bilayer in the base-catalyzed polycondensation process of the D4 H what was confirmed employing 29Si solid-state MAS NMR and FTIR measurements. Surfactant lysis expe...



Whey protein concentrate doped electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) fibers for antibiotic release improvement

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 1 July 2016 Source:Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 143 Author(s): Said Mahmoud Ahmed, Hanaa Ahmed, Chang Tian, Qin Tu, Yadan Guo, Jinyi Wang Design and fabrication of scaffolds using appropriate biomaterials are a key step for the creation of functionally engineered tissues and their clinical applications. Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), a biodegradable and biocompatible material with negligible cytotoxicity, is widely used to fabricate nanofiber scaffolds by electrospinning for the applications of pharmaceutical products and wound dressings. However, the use of PCL as such in tissue engineering is limited due to its poor bioregulatory activity, high hydrophobicity, lack of functional groups and neutral charge. With the attempt to found nanofiber ...



ALD mediated heparin grafting on nitinol for self-expanded carotid stents

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study, atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology was applied to deposit a layer (10nm) of Al2O3 on Nitinol surface as an intermediate functional layer. The alumina covered surface was then modified with a coupling agent 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) and heparin sequentially in order to improve the hemocompatibility of Nitinol stents. The successful graft of APS and heparin onto Nitinol was proven by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the predicted improvement in the biocompatibilities of modified Nitinol was confirmed by water contact angle measurement, protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and plasma recalcification time determination. The results of hemolysis assay, cell proliferation and cytotoxicity tests revealed that the grafting of heparin on NiTi kept the o...



Role of cyclic alkyl group in conformational instability of Tannase

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic Author(s): Guangjun Nie, Rui Zhao, Wuyue Sun, Yu Gao, Xiangxiang Zhu, Zhiming Zheng, Wenjin Yue The conformational stability of enzyme has a crucial effect on its catalytic performance. The effects of six organic solvents with different structures on the conformational stability of tannase were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in this work. This results indicated that the cyclic structure of organic solvent plays a negative role in the conformational stability of tannase. The alkyl group of organic solvent has an interaction with the groups of oxygen and nitrogen of tannase, and the interaction goes against the conformational stability. The findings potentially ...

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Exploring the conformational and binding properties of unphosphorylated/phosphorylated monomeric and trimeric Bcl‐2 through docking and molecular dynamics simulations

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 13:34:18 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Biopolymers)



Crystal structure of human dendritic cell inhibitory receptor (DCIR) C‐type lectin domain reveals the binding mode with N‐glycan

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: FEBS Letters)



Impact of [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and feeding status on hypothalamic ghrelin-induced stress activation

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Peptides Author(s): Emma T. Brockway, Katherine R. Davis, Joaquín A. Selva, Shelby E.R. Wauson, Paul J. Currie Ghrelin administration directly into hypothalamic nuclei, including the arcuate nucleus (ArcN) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), alters the expression of stress-related behaviors. In the present study we investigated the effect of feeding status on the ability of ghrelin to induce stress and anxiogenesis. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with guide cannula targeting either the ArcN or PVN. In the first experiment we confirmed that ArcN and PVN ghrelin treatment produced anxiety-like behavior as measured using the elevated plus maze (EPM) paradigm. Ghrelin was administered during the early dark cycle....



Adropin reduces paracellular permeability of rat brain endothelial cells exposed to ischemia-like conditions

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:Peptides Author(s): Changjun Yang, Kelly M. DeMars, Kimberly E. Hawkins, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil Adropin is a peptide encoded by the energy homeostasis associated gene (Enho) and plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and endothelial function. Little is known of the effects of adropin in the brain and whether this peptide modulates ischemia-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury. Here, we used an in vitro BBB model of rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBE4) and hypothesized that adropin would reduce endothelial permeability during ischemic conditions. To mimic ischemic conditions in vitro, RBE4 cell monolayers were subjected to 16h hypoxia/low glucose (HLG). This resulted in...



Brain-specific natriuretic peptide receptor-B deletion attenuates high-fat diet-induced visceral and hepatic lipid deposition in mice

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:Peptides Author(s): Yui Yamashita, Nobuko Yamada-Goto, Goro Katsuura, Yukari Ochi, Yugo Kanai, Yuri Miyazaki, Koichiro Kuwahara, Naotetsu Kanamoto, Masako Miura, Akihiro Yasoda, Kousaku Ohinata, Nobuya Inagaki, Kazuwa Nakao C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and its receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPR-B), are abundantly distributed in the hypothalamus. To explore the role of central CNP/NPR-B signaling in energy regulation, we generated mice with brain-specific NPR-B deletion (BND mice) by crossing Nestin-Cre transgenic mice and mice with a loxP-flanked NPR-B locus. Brain-specific NPR-B deletion prevented body weight gain induced by a high-fat diet (HFD), and the mesenteric fat and liver weights were significant...

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Incretin Hormone Receptors are Required for Normal Beta Cell Development and Function in Female Mice

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, a loss of the action of both incretin hormones results in direct impairment of beta cell function both in vivo and in vitro in a process that appears to be independent of the intestinally secreted incretin hormones. We therefore conclude that the incretin hormones together significantly impact both beta-cell function and beta-cell development. (Source: Peptides)



Neuroprotective Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning via Modulating the Expression of Adropin and Oxidative Markers against Transient Cerebral Ischemia in Diabetic Rats

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion The study results supported the neuroprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning in MCA infarcts correlated with the level of oxidative damage markers and adropin. (Source: Peptides)



iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis reveals the mechanisms of silicon-mediated cadmium tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) cells

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: July 2016 Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 104 Author(s): Jie Ma, Huachun Sheng, Xiuli Li, Lijun Wang Silicon (Si) can alleviate cadmium (Cd) stress in rice (Oryza sativa) plants, however, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the single-cell level remains limited. To address these questions, we investigated suspension cells of rice cultured in the dark environment in the absence and presence of Si with either short- (12 h) or long-term (5 d) Cd treatments using a combination of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ), fluorescent staining, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). We identified 100 proteins differentially regulated by Si under the short- or long-term Cd stress. 70% of these proteins...



Phenolic compounds as indicators of drought resistance in shrubs from Patagonian shrublands (Argentina)

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: July 2016 Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 104 Author(s): M. Celeste Varela, Idris Arslan, Mariana A. Reginato, Ana M. Cenzano, M. Virginia Luna Summary Plants exposed to drought stress, as usually occurs in Patagonian shrublands, have developed different strategies to avoid or tolerate the lack of water during their development. Production of phenolic compounds (or polyphenols) is one of the strategies used by some native species of adverse environments to avoid the oxidative damage caused by drought. In the present study the relationship between phenolic compounds content, water availability and oxidative damage were evaluated in two native shrubs: Larrea divaricata (evergreen) and Lycium chilense (deciduous) of Patagonian shrublands by their mean...

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Seasonal dynamic of morpho-physiological properties and the lipid composition of Plantago media (Plantaginaceae) in the Middle Volga region

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: July 2016 Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 104 Author(s): Olga Rozentsvet, Tatyana Grebenkina, Viktor Nesterov, Elena Bogdanova The changes in morpho-physiological properties and lipid composition have been studied in the leaves of the plant Plantago media collected from two different places in the Middle Volga region during the summer of 2010. The plants gathered from the first plot (P1 plants) grew on plain ground in the midst of typical meadow-steppe perennial plants. The plants of the second group (P2 plants) grew on a flat slope of the South–West exposition, in the grass community. The leaves of the plants Р1 had lower specific area densities but larger areas and masses; they accumulated more levels lipid peroxide products. The changes in lip...



ION EXCHANGE Of β-GALACTOSIDASE. THE EFFECT OF THE IMMOBILIZATION pH ON ENZYME STABILITY

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Process Biochemistry Author(s): Tiago L. de Albuquerque, Sara Peirce, Nazzoly Rueda, Antonio Marzocchella, Luciana R.B. Gonçalves, Maria Valderez Ponte Rocha, Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryze has been immobilized at pH 5, 7 and 9 on an aminated support using 5mM buffer. The immobilization was total in 30minutes, maintaining 75-80% of activity. These preparations were inactivated at different pH values and in the presence of 50% ethanol. The stability of the enzyme immobilized at pH 9 was much lower than that of the enzyme immobilized at pH 5 under all studied conditions but the differences decreased as the ionic strength of the inactivation solution increased. The likeliest explanation to th...



Evaluation of backwash strategies on biologically active carbon filters by using chloroacetic acids as indicator chemicals

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study was conducted to investigate the impact of different backwashing strategies on the biodegradation and adsorption performance of and attached biomass concentration in BAC filters. The biodegradation performance was evaluated using the three chloroacetic acids (CAAs) as indicator chemicals. Results showed that both free chlorine- and chloramines-enhanced backwashes could significantly increase the removal efficiency of attached biomass, but they also impaired the CAA degradation in BAC filters. The deterioration of CAA degradation could not be correlated with the removed attached biomass. Use of CAAs was a feasible approach to evaluate the biodegradation performance of BAC filters either during operation or after backwash. Chloramines-enhanced backwash is suggested to be employed ...



Heterologous production, characterization and dye decolorization ability of a novel thermostable laccase isoenzyme from Trametes trogii BAFC 463

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:Process Biochemistry Author(s): Paula A Campos, Laura N Levin, Sonia A Wirth Laccases are multicopper polyphenol oxidases that are able to catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of phenolic compounds with the simultaneous reduction of O2 to H2O. Despite their promising industrial uses, feasible incorporation of laccases in harsh processes requires the bioprospecting and/or engineering of enzymes to be stable and active in acidic or alkaline pHs, high temperatures, oxidative conditions and tolerant to high salinity and/or organic solvents. Here we used a PCR-based screening to clone two novel laccase coding sequences from the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes trogii. Recombinant expression of lcc3 gene in Komagataella (=Pichia) pas...



Mitochondrial dysfunctions in 7-ketocholesterol-treated 158N oligodendrocytes without or with α-tocopherol: Impacts on the cellular profil of tricarboxylic cycle-associated fatty acids, long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, oxysterols, cholesterol and cholesterol precursors

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Author(s): Valerio Leoni, Thomas Nury, Anne Vejux, Amira Zarrouk, Claudio Caccia, Meryam Debbabi, Agnès Fromont, Randa Sghaier, Thibault Moreau, Gérard Lizard In multiple sclerosis (MS) a process of white matter degradation leading to demyelination is observed. Oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, necrosis and/or autophagy result together into a progressive loss of oligodendrocytes. 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), found increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients, triggers a rupture of RedOx homeostasis associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions, aptoptosis and autophagy (oxiapoptophagy) in cultured murine oligodendrocytes (158N). α-tocopherol is able to m...

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Soil microbial carbon use efficiency and biomass turnover in a long-term fertilization experiment in a temperate grassland

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, the study shows that N availability can control soil C cycling by affecting microbial CUE, while plant community-mediated changes in organic matter inputs and P and K availability played no important role for C partitioning of the microbial community in this temperate grassland. (Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry)



Flavonoids induce the expression of acetylcholinesterase in cultured osteoblasts

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Chemico-Biological Interactions Author(s): Miranda L. Xu, Cathy W.C. Bi, Ava Y.Y. Kong, Tina T.X. Dong, Yung H. Wong, Karl W.K. Tsim Flavonoids, a group of natural compounds mainly derived from plants, are known to possess osteogenic effects in bone cells. Here, we aimed to test if flavonoid could induce a cholinergic enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as well as bone differentiation. In cultured rat osteoblasts, twenty flavonoids, deriving from Chinese herbs and having known induction of alkaline phosphatase (ALP1) expression, were tested for its induction activity on AChE expression. Eleven flavonoids showed the induction, and five of them had robust activation of AChE expression, including baicalin, calycosin, genistin, h...



Homotropic allostery of nucleotidase activity of human prostatic acid phosphatase

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic Author(s): Ewa Luchter-Wasylewska, Magdalena Górny, Tetyana Usachova, Valentyn Usachov The steady-state kinetics of hydrolysis of four purine ribonucleotides: 3′-AMP, 5′-AMP, 5′-GMP and 5′-IMP catalysed by human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP; EC 3.1.3.2) in vitro was examined in this study. It has been shown for the first time that nucleotidase activity of PAP exhibits positive cooperativity, or homotropic allostery, in binding the purine ribonucleotides. Therefore, these substrates are homotropic positive effectors, or homotropic allosteric activators, of PAP-catalysed reaction. Enzyme-substrate saturation curves described by Hill equation are sigmoidal and the values of Hi...



The Icy Fire Beneath Norway's Seabed

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 20:09:38 +0100

This article originally appeared on Arctic Deeply. For weekly updates about Arctic geopolitics, economy, and ecology, you can sign up to the Arctic Deeply email list. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website. (Source: Science - The Huffington Post)

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Real‐Time GFP Intravital Imaging of the Difference in Cellular and Angiogenic Behavior of Subcutaneous and Orthotopic Nude‐Mouse Models of Human PC‐3 Prostate Cancer

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 18:25:22 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry)



Callyazepin and (3R)-Methylazacyclodecane, Nitrogenous Macrocycles from a Callyspongia sp. Sponge

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:39:31 +0100

Journal of Natural ProductsDOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b01078 (Source: Journal of Natural Products)



Correction to Hydroxylated Daphniphyllum Alkaloids from Daphniphyllum himalense

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:31:09 +0100

Journal of Natural ProductsDOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b00248 (Source: Journal of Natural Products)



CodHonEditor: Spreadsheets for Codon Optimization and Editing of Protein Coding Sequences.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:07:01 +0100

Authors: Takai K Abstract Gene synthesis is getting more important with the growing availability of low-cost commercial services. The coding sequences are often "optimized" as for the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) before synthesis, which is generally included in the commercial services. However, the codon optimization processes are different among different providers and are often hidden from the users. Here, the d'Hondt method, which is widely adopted as a method for determining the number of seats for each party in proportional-representation public elections, is applied to RSCU fitting. This allowed me to make a set of electronic spreadsheets for manual design of protein coding sequences for expression in Escherichia coli, with which users can see the process of codon o...

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Macrolides from a Marine-Derived Fungus, Penicillium meleagrinum var. viridiflavum, Showing Synergistic Effects with Fluconazole against Azole-Resistant Candida albicans

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 14:31:13 +0100

Journal of Natural ProductsDOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b00019 (Source: Journal of Natural Products)



Introduction to Cheminformatics.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 14:29:02 +0100

Authors: Wishart DS Abstract Cheminformatics is a field of information technology that focuses on the collection, storage, analysis, and manipulation of chemical data. The chemical data of interest typically includes information on small molecule formulas, structures, properties, spectra, and activities (biological or industrial). Cheminformatics originally emerged as a vehicle to help the drug discovery and development process, however cheminformatics now plays an increasingly important role in many areas of biology, chemistry, and biochemistry. The intent of this unit is to give readers some introduction into the field of cheminformatics and to show how cheminformatics not only shares many similarities with the field of bioinformatics, but also enhances much of what is currently ...



Effects of 2,3-Dehydrosilybin and Its Galloyl Ester and Methyl Ether Derivatives on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 14:12:06 +0100

Journal of Natural ProductsDOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00905 (Source: Journal of Natural Products)



MALDI TOF/TOF-Based Approach for the Identification of d- Amino Acids in Biologically Active Peptides and Proteins

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 14:10:49 +0100

Journal of Proteome ResearchDOI: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b01067 (Source: Journal of Proteome Research)



Discovering novel enzymes by Functional screening of plurigenomic libraries from alga-associated Flavobacteriia and Gammaproteobacteria

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Microbiological Research Author(s): Marjolaine Martin, Marie Vandermies, Coline Joyeux, Renée Martin, Tristan Barbeyron, Gurvan Michel, Micheline Vandenbol Alga-associated microorganisms, in the context of their numerous interactions with the host and the complexity of the marine environment, are known to produce diverse hydrolytic enzymes with original biochemistry. We recently isolated several macroalgal-polysaccharide-degrading bacteria from the surface of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. These active isolates belong to two classes: the Flavobacteriia and the Gammaproteobacteria. In the present study, we constructed two “plurigenomic” (with multiple bacterial genomes) libraries with the 5 most interesting isolates ...

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Cover image

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Protein Science)



Issue information ‐ Copyright and Table of Contents

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Protein Science)



In this Issue

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Protein Science)



The Novel NF‐κB Inhibitor, MTI‐II Peptide Anti‐Inflammatory Drug, Suppresses Inflammatory Responses in Odontoblast‐Like Cells

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry)



HMGB1 Osteo‐Modulatory Action on Osteosarcoma SaOS‐2 Cell Line: An Integrated Study from Biochemical and ‐Omics Approaches

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry)



Differential Regulation of in vivo T‐cell dependent and T‐cell independent Antibody Responses through Arginine Methyltransferase PRMT1

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: FEBS Letters)



Hypoxia‐induced Endothelial‐Mesenchymal Transition is associated with RASAL1 promoter hypermethylation in human coronary endothelial cells

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: FEBS Letters)



Multi-locus genomic analysis reveals the genetic diversity and population structure of the rock carp (Procypris rabaudi) in the upper Yangtze River

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Volume 66 Author(s): Jun Song, Lijuan Chang, Dong Wang Rock carp [Procypris rabaudi (Tchang)] is an endemic species widely distributed throughout the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and its tributaries. Recently, the wild genetic resources of this species have markedly declined and it has been listed as vulnerable in China. Thus, conservation policies for this species are required urgently. However, information supporting decision-making on the conservation of this species is insufficient, especially at the genetic level. In this work, eight populations covering the entire natural range of the species were investigated using amplified fragments length polymorphism markers to determine the genetic diversity and ...

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Chemical constituents from Lindera nacusua (D. Don) Merr

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Volume 66 Author(s): Guo-Qing Wei, Jia-Sui Zhang, Jie-Ping Lei, Chao-Ying Ma, Yan Tong, He-Zhong Jiang This first phytochemical investigation on the roots of Lindera nacusua (D. Don) Merr led to the isolation of nine compounds, including demethylmacrosporine I (1), emodin-6-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside (2), (−)-litsenolide D1 (3), (−)-(2Z,3R,4S)-2-(dodec-11-ynylidene)-3-hydroxy-4-methyilbu- tanolide (4), 1-O-3,4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxyphenyl-(6-O-3,5-dimethoxygalloyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), 1-O-3,4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxyphenyl-(6-O-va-nilloyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (6), (E)-feruloyltyra- mine (7), Z-N-feruloyltyramine (8), and 1-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(2S,3R,4E,8Z)-2-[2’(R)-hydroxyhex- adecanoyl-amino]-4,8-octadeca...



Evidence of incomplete lineage sorting or restricted secondary contact in Lateolabrax japonicus complex (Actinopterygii: Moronidae) based on morphological and molecular traits

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Volume 66 Author(s): Seung Eun Bae, Jin-Koo Kim, Jun Hyung Kim To clarify the taxonomic delimitation of the Lateolabrax japonicus complex, we conducted morphological and molecular analyses of 79 individuals collected from 10 localities in Korea. Assignment of individuals into three types (sea bass [SB], spotted sea bass [SSB] and intermediate sea bass [ISB]) was performed according to the presence/absence of black spots, and the distribution of black spots if present. Results of a canonical discriminant analysis showed that SB and ISB are closely related, but SSB is distinct from SB + ISB. Based on mitochondrial DNA COI sequences (507 bp), SB and ISB clustered together, and this cluster was distinct from that of...



Novel polymorphic microsatellite loci for a new target species, the sea cucumber Holothuria mammata

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We report the development of 9 novel polymorphic microsatellites markers for Holothuria mammata and characterized them by testing in three different sample locations. All nine microsatellites revealed high polymorphism and diversity, with high number of alleles, ranged from 11 to 22 and expected heterozygosity, between 0.52 and 0.92. Significant genetic differentiation was found between populations. These microsatellites are providing valuable information which could be applied to fisheries management including, identification of stocks, assessment of their genetic diversity, estimation of gene flow and monitoring the fishery effects on exploited populations. (Source: Biochemical Systematics and Ecology)



Alanine scan and 2H NMR analysis of the membrane-active peptide BP100 point to a distinct carpet mechanism of action

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes, Volume 1858, Issue 6 Author(s): Héctor Zamora-Carreras, Erik Strandberg, Philipp Mühlhäuser, Jochen Bürck, Parvesh Wadhwani, M. Ángeles Jiménez, Marta Bruix, Anne S. Ulrich The short membrane-active peptide BP100 [KKLFKKILKYL-NH2] is known as an effective antimicrobial and cell penetrating agent. For a functional alanine scan each of the 11 amino acids was replaced with deuterated Ala-d3, one at a time. MIC assays showed that a substitution of Lys did not affect the antimicrobial activity, but it decreased when a hydrophobic residue was replaced. In most cases, a reduction in hydrophobicity led to a decrease in hemolysis, and some peptide analogues had an improved therapeutic index. Circu...



Small angle X-ray scattering as a high-throughput method to classify antimicrobial modes of action

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. Graphical abstract (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Biomembranes)

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Hit 'em where it hurts: The growing and structurally diverse family of peptides that target lipid-II

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Biomembranes)



Molecular mechanisms of membrane targeting antibiotics

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Biomembranes)



Branched phospholipids render lipid vesicles more susceptible to membrane-active peptides

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Biomembranes)



Controlling bacterial infections by inhibiting proton-dependent processes

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Biomembranes)



Recombinant expression, antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action of tritrpticin analogs containing fluoro-tryptophan residues

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. Graphical abstract (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Biomembranes)

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Synthetic antibiofilm peptides

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. Graphical abstract (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Biomembranes)



Polyacrylic acid attenuates ethylene glycol induced hyperoxaluric damage and prevents crystal aggregation in vitro and in vivo

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Chemico-Biological Interactions Author(s): Badrinathan Sridharan, Rajesh Nachiappa Ganesh, Pragasam Viswanathan The study explores calcium oxalate crystal inhibiting characteristic of polyacrylic acid (pAA), an anionic polymer in in vitro and in vivo. Animals were divided into 5 groups where group 1 served as control, group 2 were made hyperoxaluric by supplementing with Ethylene glycol (EG) 0.75% (v/v) for 30 days. Group 3, 4 & 5 were also given with EG and treated simultaneously with 2.5, 5 & 10 mg of pAA/kg of body weight, respectively. Urine, serum and tissue analyses along with histological studies were performed at the end of the 30 days study. In vitro crystallization was significantly inhibited by pAA and ...



Confirmed versus suspected: The social significance of a genetic or non-genetic diagnosis of mitochondrial disease

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study assessed attitudes and beliefs regarding the importance of a genetic versus non-genetic diagnosis within the mitochondrial disease community. Survey respondents were categorized into two groups — those with a genetic diagnosis, and those with a non-genetic diagnosis of mitochondrial disease. We found that while both groups perceive problems with the support available to adult mitochondrial disease patients, the non-genetic group experiences less medical and social support due to lack of a definitive diagnosis. Understanding the efficacy of existing resources for mitochondrial disease sub-groups will allow for the development or improvement of resources designed to meet patient needs. (Source: Mitochondrion)



3697G>A in MT-ND1 is a causative mutation in mitochondrial disease

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We report a two and a half year old girl with clinical symptoms compatible with Leigh disease but with no definitive diagnosis. Using next generation sequencing we found that mutation 3697G>A was responsible for the patient's clinical symptoms. Corroboration was performed via segregation analysis in mother and sister and by evolutionary analysis that showed that the mutation is located in a highly conserved region across a wide range of species. Functional analyses corroborated the mutation effect and indicated that the pathophysiological alterations were partially restored by Coenzyme Q10. In addition, we proposed that the presence of the mutation at high frequencies causes the phenotype in the patient, while other family members with intermediate levels of heteroplasmy are symptom...



Newly identified allatostatin Bs and their receptor in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Peptides Author(s): Yusuke Tsukamoto, Shinji Nagata A cDNA encoding allatostatin Bs (ASTBs) containing the W(X)6W motif was identified using a database generated by a next generation sequencer (NGS) in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. The contig sequence revealed the presence of five novel putative ASTBs (GbASTBs) in addition to GbASTBs previously identified in G. bimaculatus. MALDI-TOF MS analyses revealed the presence of these novel and previously identified GbASTBs with three missing GbASTBs. We also identified a cDNA encoding G. bimaculatus GbASTB receptor (GbASTBR) in the NGS data. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this receptor was highly conserved with other insect ASTBRs, including the sex peptide recept...

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Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Ameliorates Renal Fibrosis by Blocking the Activation of mTOR/ERK Signaling in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Peptides Author(s): Lai-Jiang Chen, Ying-Le Xu, Bei Song, Hui-Min Yu, Gavin Y. Oudit, Ran Xu, Zhen-Zhou Zhang, Hai-Yan Jin, Qing Chang, Ding-Liang Zhu, Jiu-Chang Zhong Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been shown to prevent atherosclerotic lesions and renal inflammation. However, little was elucidated upon the effects and mechanisms of ACE2 in atherosclerotic kidney fibrosis progression. Here, we examined regulatory roles of ACE2 in renal fibrosis in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout (KO) mice. The ApoEKO mice were randomized to daily deliver either angiotensin (Ang) II (1.5mg/kg) and/or human recombinant ACE2 (rhACE2; 2mg/kg) for 2 weeks. Downregulation of ACE2 and upregulation of phosphorylated Akt, mTOR and...



Anxiety-related behavioral responses of pentylenetetrazole-treated zebrafish larvae to light-dark transitions

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study suggests that PTZ increases the susceptibility by activating the neuron, which perhaps makes light change easier to influence the anxiety level of larvae. We provide useful evidence for putative anti-anxiety drug screening. (Source: Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior)



Bacterial and fungal growth in burnt acid soils amended with different high C/N mulch materials

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 97 Author(s): A. Barreiro, E. Bååth, M. Díaz-Raviña Wildfire has become a major disturbance agent in Mediterranean area, with Galicia in the north-west of Spain having the most frequent fires. In order to combat soil erosion, different post-fire stabilization treatments can be applied, like adding different mulch materials. In a laboratory experiment we evaluated the effect of adding plant residues, commonly used in post-fire rehabilitation (wheat straw, coconut fibre, Eucalyptus bark and wood chips), at two different rates on the microbial response (respiration, bacterial and fungal growth, using leucine and acetate-in-ergosterol incorporation, and biomass and community structure by means of phospholipids fa...



Predicting nitrous oxide emissions from manure properties and soil moisture: An incubation experiment

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 97 Author(s): Khagendra R. Baral, Emmanuel Arthur, Jørgen E. Olesen, Søren O. Petersen Field-applied manure is a source of essential plant nutrients, but benefits may be partly offset by high rates of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, as modified by manure characteristics and soil properties. In a 28-d incubation experiment we quantified short-term emissions of N2O from a sandy loam soil amended with digestate (DI), pig slurry (PS) or cattle slurry (CS), and unamended soil (Ctrl), when incubated at 60, 70 and 80% water-filled pore space (WFPS). The soil was amended with 15N-labelled nitrate to distinguish sources of N2O. Emissions of N2O were not related to N input and corresponded to between 0.04 and 2.42% of ma...

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Temperature the dominant control on the enzyme-latch across a range of temperate peatland types

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We report the spatiotemporal patterns for phenol oxidases, phenolics, and a suite of five key hydrolase enzymes at two depths in two ombrotrophic bogs, mineral poor and rich fens, and a forested basin swamp over the growing season. Results obtained using linear fixed and mixed effect models suggest that phenol oxidase activity varies significantly with temperature and, to a lesser extent pH, leading to a breakdown of inhibitory phenolics and increased hydrolase enzyme activity across all peatland types. Overall, enzyme activity decreased significantly with depth and showed significant variation over the course of the growing season with a minimum in the spring and a maximum in the summer and fall. Enzyme activities were generally greatest in the rich fen and lowest in the forested basin sw...



Soil food web stability in response to grazing in a semi-arid prairie: The importance of soil textural heterogeneity

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 97 Author(s): Pilar Andrés, John C. Moore, Rodney T. Simpson, Greg Selby, Francesca Cotrufo, Karolien Denef, Michelle L. Haddix, E. Ashley Shaw, Cecilia Milano de Tomasel, Roberto Molowny-Horas, Diana H. Wall Grazing of grasslands by large herbivores is a form of land use intensification that affects not only plant communities but also soil biota and the ecosystem services that it provides. While grassland ecosystem responses to grazing have been extensively studied, few studies have focused on the effects of aboveground herbivores on belowground diversity and functions. In this work, we quantified effects of grazing on the structure, function and dynamic stability of soil food webs. We sampled a long-te...



Responses of methanogenic and methanotrophic communities to warming in varying moisture regimes of two boreal fens

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study took place in two boreal fens three years after experimental warming in un-manipulated wet and drier regimes, thus simulating future climate scenarios. We determined active methanogen and MOB communities as transcripts of mcrA and pmoA genes, along with the abundance of these genes, CH4 production and oxidation potentials, and in situ CH4 fluxes. Methanogenic community remained similar, although methanogen abundance decreased after warming. In the wet regime, this decrease resulted in a small but significant reduction on the potential CH4 production in such peat layers where the average production potential was high. Drying alone, however, reduced the potential CH4 production more than warming, and this impact was strong enough to mask the small warming impact in the drier regim...



Long-term effects of elevated CO2 on carbon and nitrogen functional capacity of microbial communities in three contrasting soils

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study examined whether these plant-mediated processes indirectly influence the structure and function of soil microbial communities and soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. Surface soils (0–5 and 5–10 cm) of Calcarosol, Chromosol and Vertosol were sampled after 5 years' exposure to either ambient CO2 (aCO2; 390 ppm) or eCO2 (550 ppm) using free-air CO2 enrichment (SoilFACE). Changes in microbial community structure were not detected using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analyses (ARISA). However, quantitative PCR of targeted organic C decomposition (cu, cbh), N mineralisation (apr, npr), nitrification (amoB, amoA, norA) and denitrification (nirK, narG, nosZ) genes showed that eCO2 reduced the abundance of half of the functional genes in the Chromosol and Vertosol and...



Autotaxin, Pruritus and Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC)

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Ying Sun, Weici Zhang, Jilly F. Evans, Annarosa Floreani, Zhengsheng Zou, Yukiko Nishio, Ruizhao Qi, Patrick S.C. Leung, Christopher L. Bowlus, M. Eric Gershwin Autotaxin (ATX) is a 125-kD type II ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (ENPP2 or NPP2) originally discovered as an unknown “autocrine motility factor” in human melanoma cells. In addition to its pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase activities ATX has lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, catalyzing the conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX is the only ENPP family member with lysoPLD activity and it produces most of the LPA in circulation. In support of this, ATX heterozygou...

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Hyaluronic acid hydrogels formed in situ by transglutaminase-catalyzed reaction.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Ranga A, Lutolf MP, Hilborn J, Ossipov DA Abstract Enzymatically cross-linked hydrogels can be formed in situ and permit highly versatile and selective tethering of bioactive molecules, thereby allowing for a wealth of applications in cell biology and tissue engineering. While a number of studies have reported the bioconjugation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and peptides into such matrices, the site-specific incorporation of biologically highly relevant polysaccharides such as hyaluronic acid (HA) has thus far not been reported, limiting our ability to reconstruct this key feature of the in vivo ECM. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy for transglutaminase-mediated covalent linking of HA moieties to a synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) macromer resulting in t...



Frankincense Revisited, Part II: Volatiles in Rare Boswellia Species and Hybrids.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 27012302 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chemistry and Biodiversity)



Frankincense Revisited, Part I: Comparative Analysis of Volatiles in Commercially Relevant Boswellia Species.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 27012219 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chemistry and Biodiversity)



Efficient Synthesis of Nicotinamide-1-15N for Ultrafast NMR Hyperpolarization Using Parahydrogen

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 20:19:13 +0100

Bioconjugate ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.6b00148 (Source: Bioconjugate Chemistry)



Systematic Investigation of EDC/sNHS-Mediated Bioconjugation Reactions for Carboxylated Peptide Substrates

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 20:18:14 +0100

Bioconjugate ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.6b00043 (Source: Bioconjugate Chemistry)

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The Use of Minipigs for Preclinical Safety Assessment by the Pharmaceutical Industry: Results of an IQ DruSafe Minipig Survey.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 19:34:01 +0100

Conclusions of this survey indicate that minipig is an acceptable nonrodent species largely limited to studies using small molecules, primarily dermal products, and results are comparable to those reported 5 years ago. PMID: 27006130 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Toxicologic Pathology)



Total Synthesis of Denbinobin

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 19:29:34 +0100

Journal of Natural ProductsDOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00959 (Source: Journal of Natural Products)



Fragrant Sesquiterpene Ketones as Trace Constituents in Frankincense Volatile Oil of Boswellia sacra

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 18:54:15 +0100

Journal of Natural ProductsDOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00836 (Source: Journal of Natural Products)



Inhibition of Gene Expression and Cancer Cell Migration by CD44v3/6-Targeted Polyion Complexes

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 18:47:18 +0100

Bioconjugate ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.6b00020 (Source: Bioconjugate Chemistry)



Landmark as lab creates synthetic cell with minimum genes needed for life

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 18:00:35 +0100

With 473 genes Syn3.0 is the simplest self-replicating cell known and could be basis for new organisms designed to make new antibiotics, fuels and drugsGeneticists have established the minimum needed for life. They have designed and created a synthetic cell which can survive and replicate with just 473 genes. Humans and fruit flies have more than 20,000 genes each. The finding is a landmark in biological understanding. It could illuminate the mysterious story of life’s evolution in the primal oceans more than three billion years ago. It could provide the basis for a new generation of made-to-order organisms designed specifically to produce new antibiotics, new fuels and new drugs. And it is the climax of decades of theory and experiment. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Sc...

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