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MedWorm: Dyslexia



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Dyslexia category.



Last Build Date: Tue, 22 Mar 2016 08:22:24 +0100

 



The effect of a specialized dyslexia font, OpenDyslexic, on reading rate and accuracy.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Wery JJ, Diliberto JA Abstract A single-subject alternating treatment design was used to investigate the extent to which a specialized dyslexia font, OpenDyslexic, impacted reading rate or accuracy compared to two commonly used fonts when used with elementary students identified as having dyslexia. OpenDyslexic was compared to Arial and Times New Roman in three reading tasks: (a) letter naming, (b) word reading, and (c) nonsense word reading. Data were analyzed through visual analysis and improvement rate difference, a nonparametric measure of nonoverlap for comparing treatments. Results from this alternating treatment experiment show no improvement in reading rate or accuracy for individual students with dyslexia, as well as the group as a whole. While some students comme...

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Altered neural circuits accompany lower performance during narrative comprehension in children with reading difficulties: an fMRI study.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Horowitz-Kraus T, Buck C, Dorrmann D Abstract Narrative comprehension is a linguistic ability that is foundational for future reading ability. The aim of the current study was to examine the neural circuitry of children with reading difficulties (RD) compared to typical readers during a narrative-comprehension task. We hypothesized that due to deficient executive functions, which support narrative comprehension abilities, children with RD would display altered activation and functional connectivity, as well as lower performance on a narrative-comprehension task. Children with RD and typical readers were scanned during a narrative-comprehension task and administered reading behavioral tests. Children with RD scored significantly lower on the narrative-comprehension task tha...



Letter-sound processing deficits in children with developmental dyslexia: An ERP study.

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 17:29:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Deficits in early stages of letter-sound processing influence later more explicit cognitive processes during letter-sound processing. SIGNIFICANCE: Identifying the neurophysiological correlates of letter-sound processing and their relation to reading related skills provides insight into the degree of automaticity during letter-sound processing beyond behavioural measures of letter-sound-knowledge. PMID: 26971481 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical Neurophysiology)



Neural basis of phonological awareness in beginning readers with familial risk of dyslexia—Results from shallow orthography

Sun, 13 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 15 May 2016 Source:NeuroImage, Volume 132 Author(s): Agnieszka Dębska, Magdalena Łuniewska, Katarzyna Chyl, Anna Banaszkiewicz, Agata Żelechowska, Marek Wypych, Artur Marchewka, Kenneth R. Pugh, Katarzyna Jednoróg Phonological processing ability is a key factor in reading acquisition, predicting its later success or causing reading problems when it is weakened. Our aim here was to establish the neural correlates of auditory word rhyming (a standard phonological measure) in 102 young children with (FHD+) and without familial history of dyslexia (FHD−) in a shallow orthography (i.e. Polish). Secondly, in order to gain a deeper understanding on how schooling shapes brain activity to phonological awareness, a comparison was made of children who had had formal...






Executive functions in adults with developmental dyslexia

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions and Implications The findings indicated that dyslexia-related problems have an impact on the daily experience of adults with the condition. Further, EF difficulties are present in adulthood across a range of laboratory-based measures, and, given the nature of the experimental tasks presented, extend beyond difficulties related solely to phonological processing. (Source: Research in Developmental Disabilities)

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Teacher candidates' mastery of phoneme-grapheme correspondence: massed versus distributed practice in teacher education.

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study examined differences between two learning conditions (massed and distributed practice) on teacher candidates' development of phoneme-grapheme correspondence knowledge and skills. An experimental, pretest-posttest-delayed test design was employed with teacher candidates (n = 52) to compare a massed practice condition (one, 60-min session) to a distributed practice condition (four, 15-min sessions distributed over 4 weeks) for learning phonemes associated with letters and letter combinations. Participants in the distributed practice condition significantly outperformed participants in the massed practice condition on their ability to correctly produce phonemes associated with different letters and letter combinations. Implications for teacher preparation are discussed. PM...



What it's REALLY like to read with dyslexia: Simulator reveals how letters and words appear to people with the condition

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 14:40:46 +0100

Swedish web developer Victor Widell came up with the idea of simulating what it is like to read with dyslexia after his friend told him letters seemed to swap in out of place when she looked at the words. (Source: the Mail online | Health)



This is what reading is like if you have dyslexia

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 13:58:25 +0100

One in five people suffer from it and famous figures from Tom Cruise to Richard Branson have spoken at length about how it has affected their lives. (Source: CNN.com - Health)



Relationships between Categorical Perception of Phonemes, Phoneme Awareness, and Visual Attention Span in Developmental Dyslexia

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

by Rachel Zoubrinetzky, Gregory Collet, Willy Serniclaes, Marie-Ange Nguyen-Morel, Sylviane Valdois We tested the hypothesis that the categorical perception deficit of speech sounds in developmental dyslexia is related to phoneme awareness skills, whereas a visual attention (VA) span deficit constitutes an independent deficit. Phoneme awareness tasks, VA span tasks and categorical perception tasks of phoneme identification and discrimination using a d/t voicing continuum were administered to 63 dyslexic children and 63 control children matched on chronological age. Results showed significant differences in categorical perception between the dyslexic and control children. Significant correlations were found between categorical perception skills, phoneme awareness and reading. Although VA s...



Erratum to: Preservice teacher knowledge of basic language constructs in Canada, England, New Zealand, and the USA.

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Washburn EK, Binks-Cantrell ES, Joshi RM, Martin-Chang S, Arrow A PMID: 26951215 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Dyslexia)

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Reading changes in children and adolescents with dyslexia after transcranial direct current stimulation

Sat, 05 Mar 2016 03:36:14 +0100

This study aimed to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on reading and reading-related skills of children and adolescents with dyslexia. Nineteen children and adolescents with dyslexia performed different reading and reading-related tasks (word, nonword, and text reading; lexical decision; phonemic blending; verbal working memory; rapid automatized naming) in a baseline condition without tDCS and after 20 min of exposure to three different tDCS conditions: left anodal/right cathodal tDCS to enhance left lateralization of the parietotemporal region, right anodal/left cathodal tDCS to enhance right lateralization of the parietotemporal region, and sham tDCS. In text reading, results showed a significant reduction in errors after left anodal/right cathod...



ERPs Reveal the Time-Course of Aberrant Visual-Phonological Binding in Developmental Dyslexia

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:07:56 +0100

Manon W. Jones, Jan-Rouke Kuipers, Guillaume Thierry (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)



Reading prosody in Spanish dyslexics.

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Suárez-Coalla P, Álvarez-Cañizo M, Martínez C, García N, Cuetos F Abstract Reading becomes expressive when word and text reading are quick, accurate and automatic. Recent studies have reported that skilled readers use greater pitch changes and fewer irrelevant pauses than poor readers. Given that developmental dyslexics have difficulty acquiring and automating the alphabetic code and developing orthographic representations of words, it is possible that their use of prosody when reading differs from that of typical readers. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the reading prosody of Spanish-speaking dyslexics differs from that of typical Spanish readers. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment involved 36 children (18 with dyslexia), and the s...



A longitudinal investigation of the relationship between crowding and reading: a neurodegenerative approach

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 27 February 2016 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Keir Yong, Kishan Rajdev, Elizabeth Warrington, Jennifer Nicholas, Jason Warren, Sebastian Crutch We have previously documented two patients (FOL and CLA) with posterior cortical atrophy who achieved accurate and rapid reading despite deficits in ten measures of visual processing, with two notable exceptions: 1) a measure of visual acuity, 2) a measure of visual crowding. Subsequent longitudinal investigation of these patients was carried out, involving annual tests of early visual, visuoperceptual and visuospatial processing and assessment of reading ability. Follow-up assessments identified the evolution of a particular early visual processing deficit, excessive visual crowding; this deficit ha...



Cognitive and familial risk evidence converged: A data-driven identification of distinct and homogeneous subtypes within the heterogeneous sample of reading disabled children

Sun, 28 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June–July 2016 Source:Research in Developmental Disabilities, Volumes 53–54 Author(s): Gonny Willems, Bernadette Jansma, Leo Blomert, Anniek Vaessen The evident degree of heterogeneity observed in reading disabled children has puzzled reading researchers for decades. Recent advances in the genetic underpinnings of reading disability have indicated that the heritable, familial risk for dyslexia is a major risk factor. The present data-driven, classification attempt aims to revisit the possibility of identifying distinct cognitive deficit profiles in a large sample of second to fourth grade reading disabled children. In this sample, we investigated whether genetic and environmental risk factors are able to distinguish between poor reader subtypes. In this profile,...

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Dyslexia identified early and persists into adolescence

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 19:35:03 +0100

Ferrer E, Shaywitz BA, Holahan JM, Marchione KE, Michaels R, Shaywitz SE. Achievement Gap in Reading Is Present as Early as First Grade and Persists through Adolescence. J Pediatr. 2015;167:1121-5. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)



To Your Health: NLM update: NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Winter 2016

Wed, 24 Feb 2016 05:16:21 +0100

Listen to the To Your Health: NLM update on NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Winter 2016. The transcript is also available. The new edition of NIH MedlinePlus magazine covers dyslexia, Parkinson's disease, as well as Crohn's disease. (Source: What's New on MedlinePlus)



Evidence for reading improvement following tDCS treatment in children and adolescents with Dyslexia.

Sat, 20 Feb 2016 21:40:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The study shows preliminary evidence of tDCS feasibility and efficacy in improving non-words and low frequency words reading of children and adolescents with dyslexia and it opens new rehabilitative perspectives for the remediation of dyslexia. PMID: 26890096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)



Can vergence training improve reading in dyslexics?

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 02:42:03 +0100

DISCUSSION: Most scientists agree that dyslexia is mainly a phonological impairment. Nevertheless, the results show that vergence treatment might help dyslexics. Larger studies are required to provide guidance in this area. PMID: 25333204 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Strabismus)



Dyslexia and Substance Use in a University Undergraduate Population.

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 13:49:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: These results are interpreted in terms of cognitive deficits within dyslexia and with reference to the cognitive model of substance use. PMID: 26771148 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)

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Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 11:21:33 +0100

Aimé Tiadi, Christophe-Loïc Gérard, Hugo Peyre, Emmanuel Bui-Quoc, Maria Pia Bucci (Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)



Dyscalculia and the Calculating Brain

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Dyscalculia, like dyslexia, affects some 5% of schoolage children but has received much less investigative attention. In two thirds of affected children dyscalculia is associated with another developmental disorder like dyslexia, attention deficit disorder, anxiety disorder, visual/spatial disorder, or cultural deprivation. Infants, primates, some birds, and other animals are born with the innate ability, called subitizing, to tell at a glance whether small sets of scattered dots or other items differ by one or more item. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)



Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS=49; Controls=49) responded to whether the words “GREEN” or “RED” were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors). One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying “GREEN” or “RED” had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no ...



ID 117 – Effective connectivity differences between control and dyslectic children based on DBN modeling

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 06:19:55 +0100

Effective connectivity differences between control and dyslexic children are explored by a modeling approach. Dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN) are used to model dynamic, nonlinear, non-stationary and probabilistic nature of the human brain connectivity. (Source: Clinical Neurophysiology)



Implicit learning deficits among adults with developmental dyslexia.

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Kahta S, Schiff R Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit learning processes among adults with developmental dyslexia (DD) using a visual linguistic artificial grammar learning (AGL) task. Specifically, it was designed to explore whether the intact learning reported in previous studies would also occur under conditions including minimal training and instructions that do not reveal the grammatical nature of the strings. Twenty-nine (14 DD and 15 typical development (TD)) adults were presented with letter sequences in the training phase and were asked to classify the test strings for their grammaticality. The results of the d' measures in the implicit task indicated that learning had occurred for both groups, as the proportion of hits exceeded the p...

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Providing English foreign language teachers with content knowledge to facilitate decoding and spelling acquisition: a longitudinal perspective.

Mon, 08 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Kahn-Horwitz J Abstract This quasi-experimental study adds to the small existing literature on orthographic-related teacher knowledge in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context. The study examined the impact of a course on English orthography on predominantly non-native-speaking EFL preservice and inservice teachers' orthographic content knowledge, and the extent to which these teachers retained orthographic-related content knowledge four months after participating in a semester course on the topic. In addition, the study examined the relationship between participants' acquired orthographic-related content knowledge and EFL spelling. Both groups of teachers that studied in the course improved on overall orthographic-related content knowledge, both immediately follow...



The involvement of long-term serial-order memory in reading development: A longitudinal study

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: May 2016 Source:Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 145 Author(s): Louisa Bogaerts, Arnaud Szmalec, Marjolijn De Maeyer, Mike P.A. Page, Wouter Duyck Recent findings suggest that Hebb repetition learning—a paradigmatic example of long-term serial-order learning—is impaired in adults with dyslexia. The current study further investigated the link between serial-order learning and reading using a longitudinal developmental design. With this aim, verbal and visual Hebb repetition learning performance and reading skills were assessed in 96 Dutch-speaking children who we followed from first through second grade of primary school. We observed a positive association between order learning capacities and reading ability as well as weaker Hebb learning perfo...



Issue Information ‐ Info Page

Wed, 03 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

No abstract is available for this article. (Source: Dyslexia)



Effectiveness of a group-based program for parents of children with dyslexia

Tue, 02 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Parents of children with dyslexia experience more parenting stress and depressive symptoms than other parents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a cognitive-behavioral group-based program for parents of dyslexic children on parenting stress levels, parent–child homework interactions and parental competencies. 39 children with dyslexia and their mothers were randomly assigned either to a cognitive-behavioral-therapy group or a waiting-list control group. The intervention lasted for 3 months. Mothers filled in the Parenting Stress Index and a paper–pencil questionnaire assessing dyslexia specific stress, conflicts in homework situations and competencies in dealing with dyslexia. Assessment took place before, immediately after, and 3 months follo...



Atypical Sulcal Pattern in Children with Developmental Dyslexia and At-Risk Kindergarteners

Tue, 02 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Developmental dyslexia (DD) is highly heritable and previous studies observed reduced cortical volume, white matter integrity, and functional alterations in left posterior brain regions in individuals with DD. The primary sulcal pattern has been hypothesized to relate to optimal organization and connections of cortical functional areas. It is determined during prenatal development and may reflect early, genetically influenced, brain development. We characterize the sulcal pattern using graph-based pattern analysis and investigate whether sulcal patterns in parieto-temporal and occipito-temporal regions are atypical in elementary school-age children with DD and pre-readers/beginning readers (preschoolers/kindergarteners) with a familial risk (elementary school-age children: n [males/females...

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Introduction to the special issue on teacher knowledge from an international perspective.

Tue, 02 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Joshi RM, Washburn EK, Kahn-Horwitz J PMID: 26843378 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Dyslexia)



Issue Information ‐ TOC

Mon, 01 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

No abstract is available for this article. (Source: Dyslexia)



L2 Spelling Errors in Italian Children with Dyslexia

Mon, 01 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The present study aimed to investigate L2 spelling skills in Italian children by administering an English word dictation task to 13 children with dyslexia (CD), 13 control children (comparable in age, gender, schooling and IQ) and a group of 10 children with an English learning difficulty, but no L1 learning disorder. Patterns of difficulties were examined for accuracy and type of errors, in spelling dictated short and long words (i.e. disyllables and three syllables). Notably, CD were poor in spelling English words. Furthermore, their errors were mainly related with phonological representation of words, as they made more ‘phonologically’ implausible errors than controls. In addition, CD errors were more frequent for short than long words. Conversely, the three groups did not differ in...



Genomic sequencing of a dyslexia susceptibility haplotype encompassing ROBO1

Wed, 27 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions The discovered variants may explain the segregation of dyslexia in this family, but the effect appears subtle in the experimental settings. Their impact on the developing human brain remains suggestive based on the association and subtle experimental support. (Source: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders)



Orthographic processing deficits in developmental dyslexia: Beyond the ventral visual stream

Sun, 24 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: March 2016 Source:NeuroImage, Volume 128 Author(s): Marianna Boros, Jean-Luc Anton, Catherine Pech-Georgel, Jonathan Grainger, Marcin Szwed, Johannes C. Ziegler Fast effortless reading has been associated with the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA), a region in the ventral visual stream that specializes in the recognition of letter strings. Several neuroimaging studies of dyslexia revealed an underactivation of this region. However, most of these studies used reading tasks and/or were carried out on adults. Given that fluent reading is severely impaired in dyslexics, any underactivation might simply reflect a well-established reading deficit in impaired readers and could be the consequence rather than the cause of dyslexia. Here, we designed a task that does not rely on...

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Efficacy of phonological intervention program in students at risk for dyslexia

Sat, 23 Jan 2016 02:04:23 +0100

Conclusion: the phonological intervention program was effective for students at risk for dyslexia because it made possible the development of phonological awareness through intervention, assisting in the acquisition of skills necessary for the learning of reading and writing. (Source: Revista CEFAC)



Vocabulary skills are well developed in university students with dyslexia: Evidence from multiple case studies

Sat, 23 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: April–May 2016 Source:Research in Developmental Disabilities, Volumes 51–52 Author(s): Eddy Cavalli, Séverine Casalis, Abdessadek El Ahmadi, Mélody Zira, Florence Poracchia-George, Pascale Colé Most studies in adults with developmental dyslexia have focused on identifying the deficits responsible for their persistent reading difficulties, but little is known on how these readers manage the intensive exposure to written language required to obtain a university degree. The main objective of this study was to identify certain skills, and specifically vocabulary skills, that French university students with dyslexia have developed and that may contribute to their literacy skills. We tested 20 university students with dyslexia and 20 normal readers (matched on ch...



Letter-sound processing deficits in children with developmental dyslexia: an ERP study

Fri, 22 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Learning the associations between letters and sounds and being able to discriminate between different speech-sounds are prerequisites for developing age-appropriate reading and spelling skills. A large body of research has shown that letter-sound knowledge at the beginning of literacy instruction is a strong predictor of later literacy skills across different alphabetic orthographies (Caravolas et al., 2012; Lonigan et al., 2000; Schatschneider et al., 2004). Furthermore, children with a familial risk of developmental dyslexia (DD) take longer learning the mappings between letters and speech-sounds compared to typically developing (TD) controls (Gallagher et al., 2000; Torppa et al., 2006). (Source: Clinical Neurophysiology)



'Harry Potter helped me beat dyslexia' says writer Stephanie Wickens

Wed, 20 Jan 2016 16:32:41 +0100

Stephanie Wickens, 26, from London, says her condition meant she was bullied and humilated at school, so always felt 'stupid'. But the novels helped ignite a love of reading and learning. (Source: the Mail online | Health)



Disrupted white matter connectivity underlying developmental dyslexia: A machine learning approach

Wed, 20 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Developmental dyslexia has been hypothesized to result from multiple causes and exhibit multiple manifestations, implying a distributed multidimensional effect on human brain. The disruption of specific white‐matter (WM) tracts/regions has been observed in dyslexic children. However, it remains unknown if developmental dyslexia affects the human brain WM in a multidimensional manner. Being a natural tool for evaluating this hypothesis, the multivariate machine learning approach was applied in this study to compare 28 school‐aged dyslexic children with 33 age‐matched controls. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired to extract five multitype WM features at a regional level: white matter volume, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusi...

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Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials in Dyslexic versus Normal Children.

Wed, 13 Jan 2016 01:00:03 +0100

CONCLUSION: The sensitivity of PVEP has high validity to detect visual deficits in children with dyslexic problem. However, no significant difference was found between dyslexia and normal children using high contrast stimuli. PMID: 26730313 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research)



Eye Movements and Articulations During a Letter Naming Speed Task: Children With and Without Dyslexia.

Wed, 13 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Al Dahhan NZ, Kirby JR, Brien DC, Munoz DP Abstract Naming speed (NS) refers to how quickly and accurately participants name a set of familiar stimuli (e.g., letters). NS is an established predictor of reading ability, but controversy remains over why it is related to reading. We used three techniques (stimulus manipulations to emphasize phonological and/or visual aspects, decomposition of NS times into pause and articulation components, and analysis of eye movements during task performance) with three groups of participants (children with dyslexia, ages 9-10; chronological-age [CA] controls, ages 9-10; reading-level [RL] controls, ages 6-7) to examine NS and the NS-reading relationship. Results indicated (a) for all groups, increasing visual similarity of the letters decr...



Specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: What are the boundaries? Data from Greek children

Mon, 11 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study examines the significance (between-groups comparisons) and frequency (within-group analyses) of deficits in developmental dyslexia (DD, mainly deficits in decoding and phonemic awareness), specific language impairment (SLI, mainly deficits in listening comprehension), or both (mainly deficits in phonological short-term memory [STM]). Participants included two groups of children who had received a diagnosis of either SLI (N =15) or DD (N =15). For the between-groups comparison, the groups were matched pairwise on nonverbal IQ to 30 chronological age controls (CAC) and 30 reading level controls (RLC). For the within-group analyses, the participants were compared to 91 CACs and 63 RLCs. We developed tasks not used for the diagnoses to assess phonological skills (decoding, phonemic ...



Relationships of Attention and Executive Functions to Oral Language, Reading, and Writing Skills and Systems in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence.

Fri, 08 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Berninger V, Abbott R, Cook CR, Nagy W Abstract Relationships between attention/executive functions and language learning were investigated in students in Grades 4 to 9 (N = 88) with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in multiword syntax in oral and written language (OWL LD), word reading and spelling (dyslexia), and subword letter writing (dysgraphia). Prior attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis was correlated only with impaired handwriting. Parental ratings of inattention, but not hyperactivity, correlated with measures of written language but not oral language. Sustaining switching attention correlated with writing the alphabet from memory in manuscript or by keyboard and fast copying of a sentence with all the letters of the alphabet....



The spelling strategies of francophone dyslexic students

Tue, 05 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study aims to describe the spelling strategies of 32 dyslexic students (DYS) aged from 8 to 12 years and to establish links between spelling strategies and spelling skill. Students had to spell 24 dictated words and provide comments on the strategy employed for each word. The performances of DYS were compared to 25 children of the same chronological age (CA) and of 24 children of the same reading age (RA). The results show that phonological strategies are the most commonly used by all groups of participants. If no particular strategy is related to the spelling skill of DYS, visuo-orthographic strategy generally accounts for the spelling skill results of CA and RA. (Source: Reading and Writing)

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Neuropsychological status of French children with developmental dyslexia and/or developmental coordination disorder: Are both necessarily worse than one?

Mon, 04 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Biotteau M, Albaret JM, Lelong S, Chaix Y Abstract Developmental dyslexia (DD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) co-occur frequently, raising the underlying question of shared etiological bases. We investigated the cognitive profile of children with DD, children with DCD, and children with the dual association (DD + DCD) to determine the inherent characteristics of each disorder and explore the possible additional impact of co-morbidity on intellectual, attentional, and psychosocial functioning. The participants were 8- to 12-year-olds (20 DD, 22 DCD, and 23 DD + DCD). Cognitive abilities were assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and the Continuous Performance Test - Second Edition (CPT-II) and behavioral impairm...



If you start screening sperm donors for dyslexia, where do you stop? | Anne Perkins

Wed, 30 Dec 2015 11:56:09 +0100

News that a London clinic is rejecting dyslexic donors raises questions about the line between avoiding disease and seeking unattainable genetic perfectionIn the last season of The Bridge, the main plot hinged on the actions of the vengeful son of a sperm donor. It raised a host of unsettling questions about the obligations of biological fathers and the rights of their children. Related: Dyslexic donors turned away from largest UK sperm bank Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)



An extension of the FURIA classification algorithm to low quality data through fuzzy rankings and its application to the early diagnosis of dyslexia

Thu, 24 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 2 February 2016 Source:Neurocomputing, Volume 176 Author(s): Ana Palacios, Luciano Sánchez, Inés Couso, Sébastien Destercke An early detection and reeducation of dyslexic children is critical for their integration in the classroom. Parents and instructors can help the psychologist to detect potential cases of dyslexia before the children׳s writing age. Artificial intelligence tools can also assist in this task. Dyslexia symptoms are detected with tests whose results may be vague or ambiguous, thus machine learning techniques for low quality data are advised. In particular, in this paper it is suggested that a new extension to vague datasets of the classification algorithm FURIA (Fuzzy Unordered Rule Induction Algorithm) has advantages over other approaches in bo...



Education Department Issues Dyslexia Guidance

Sat, 19 Dec 2015 02:30:56 +0100

Schools may use the terms dyslexia, dyscalculia and dysgraphia in Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)-related evaluations, eligibility for service determinations, and IEP documents, according to recently released guidance from the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. (Source: The ASHA Leader Online)



Language profiles and literacy outcomes of children with resolving, emerging, or persisting language impairments

Thu, 17 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsChildren with late‐emerging LI are relatively common and are hard to detect in the preschool years. Our findings show that children whose LIs persist to the point of formal literacy instruction frequently experience reading difficulties. (Source: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry)

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Neuroanatomical Anomalies of Dyslexia: Disambiguating the Effects of Disorder, Performance, and Maturation

Wed, 16 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 8 December 2015 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Zhichao Xia, Fumiko Hoeft, Linjun Zhang, Hua Shu An increasing body of studies has revealed neuroanatomical impairments in developmental dyslexia. However, whether these structural anomalies are driven by dyslexia (disorder-specific effects), absolute reading performance (performance-dependent effects), and/or further influenced by age (maturation-sensitive effects) remains elusive. To help disentangle these sources, the current study used a novel disorder (dyslexia vs. control) by maturation (younger vs. older) factorial design in 48 Chinese children who were carefully matched. This design not only allows for direct comparison between dyslexics versus controls matched for chronological age and read...



The Foundations of Literacy Development in Children at Familial Risk of Dyslexia

Thu, 10 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

The development of reading skills is underpinned by oral language abilities: Phonological skills appear to have a causal influence on the development of early word-level literacy skills, and reading-comprehension ability depends, in addition to word-level literacy skills, on broader (semantic and syntactic) language skills. Here, we report a longitudinal study of children at familial risk of dyslexia, children with preschool language difficulties, and typically developing control children. Preschool measures of oral language predicted phoneme awareness and grapheme-phoneme knowledge just before school entry, which in turn predicted word-level literacy skills shortly after school entry. Reading comprehension at 81/2 years was predicted by word-level literacy skills at 51/2 years and by lang...



Diverging receptive and expressive word processing mechanisms in a deep dyslexic reader

Fri, 04 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

We report on KJ, a patient with acquired dyslexia due to cerebral artery infarction. He represents an unusually clear case of an “output” deep dyslexic reader, with a distinct pattern of pure semantic reading. According to current neuropsychological models of reading, the severity of this condition is directly related to the degree of impairment in semantic and phonological representations and the resulting imbalance in the interaction between the two word processing pathways. The present work sought to examine whether an innovative eye movement supported intervention combining lexical and segmental therapy would strengthen phonological processing and lead to an attenuation of the extreme semantic over-involvement in KJ´s word identification process. Reading performance was assessed b...



Preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of language constructs in Finland.

Fri, 04 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Aro M, Björn PM Abstract The aim of the study was to explore the Finnish preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of language constructs relevant for literacy acquisition. A total of 150 preservice teachers and 74 inservice teachers participated in the study by filling out a questionnaire that assessed self-perceived expertise in reading instruction, knowledge of phonology and phonics, and knowledge of morphology. The inservice teachers outperformed the preservice teachers in knowledge of phonology and phonics, as well as morphology. Both groups' knowledge of morphology was markedly lower than their knowledge of phonology and phonics. Because early reading instruction does not focus on the morphological level of language but is phonics-based, this result was expected....



New Tools to Convert PDF Math Contents into Accessible e-Books Efficiently.

Wed, 02 Dec 2015 01:25:24 +0100

Authors: Suzuki M, Terada Y, Kanahori T, Yamaguchi K Abstract New features in our math-OCR software to convert PDF math contents into accessible e-books are shown. A method for recognizing PDF is thoroughly improved. In addition, contents in any selected area including math formulas in a PDF file can be cut and pasted into a document in various accessible formats, which is automatically recognized and converted into texts and accessible math formulas through this process. Combining it with our authoring tool for a technical document, one can easily produce accessible e-books in various formats such as DAISY, accessible EPUB3, DAISY-like HTML5, Microsoft Word with math objects and so on. Those contents are useful for various print-disabled students ranging from the blind to the dysl...

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Time-based prospective memory in adults with developmental dyslexia

Wed, 02 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: February–March 2016 Source:Research in Developmental Disabilities, Volumes 49–50 Author(s): James H. Smith-Spark, Adam P. Zięcik, Christopher Sterling Prospective memory (PM) is memory for delayed intentions. Despite its importance to everyday life, the few studies on PM function in adults with dyslexia which exist have relied on self-report measures. To determine whether self-reported PM deficits can be measured objectively, laboratory-based PM tasks were administered to 24 adults with dyslexia and 25 age- and IQ-matched adults without dyslexia. Self-report data indicated that people with dyslexia felt that time-based PM (TBPM; requiring responses at certain times in the future) was most problematic for them and so this form of PM was the focus of investigation...



Predicting dyslexia using prereading skills: the role of sensorimotor and cognitive abilities

Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsResults are in line with Pennington's () multiple deficits view of dyslexia. They indicate that the causes of poor reading outcome are multiple, interacting and probabilistic, rather than deterministic. (Source: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry)



A systematic review of music and dyslexia

Sat, 28 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: November 2015 Source:The Arts in Psychotherapy, Volume 46 Author(s): Emily J. Rolka, Michael J. Silverman Systematic reviews of research provide valuable information for researchers, clinicians, and educators. A single Cochrane Review reports on music and dyslexia; however, the struct inclusion criteria used in the study required randomized controlled trials (RCT) which resulted in no study being able to be included. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and analyze research on music and dyslexia. Through computer-based searches utilizing specific keywords and the ancestry approach, 23 studies met inclusion criteria. Once identified, each study was reviewed according to participants, age, purpose, independent and dependent variables, and results. A tab...



Washington Vision Therapy Center Treats Symptoms of Dyslexia

Sun, 22 Nov 2015 16:11:36 +0100

(Source: Medical News (via PRIMEZONE))



[Specific learning disabilities - from DSM-IV to DSM-5].

Fri, 20 Nov 2015 11:36:18 +0100

Authors: Schulte-Körne G Abstract The publication of the DSM-5 means changes in the classification and recommendations for diagnosis of specific learning disabilities. Dyslexia and dyscalculia have been reintroduced into the DSM. Three specific learning disorders - impairment in reading, impairment in the written expression, and impairment in mathematics, described by subskills - are now part of the DSM-5. Three subcomponents of the reading disorder are expressly differentiated: word reading accuracy, reading rate, and fluency and reading comprehension. Impaired subskills of the specific learning disorder with impairment in written expression are spelling accuracy, grammar and punctuation accuracy, and clarity and organization of written expression. Four subskills are found in the...

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[From brain imaging to good teaching? implicating from neuroscience for research on learning and instruction].

Fri, 20 Nov 2015 11:36:18 +0100

We present an overview of neuroimaging studies of specific learning disabilities such as developmental dyslexia and developmental dyscalculia, and critically discuss their practical implications for educational and teaching practice, teacher training, early diagnosis as well as prevention and disorder-specific therapy. We conclude that the new interdisciplinary field of neuroeducation cannot be expected to provide direct innovative educational applications (e.g., teaching methods). Rather, the future potential of neuroscience lies in creating a deeper understanding of the underlying cognitive mechanisms and pathomechanisms of learning processes and learning disorders. PMID: 25005903 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Zeitschrift fur Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapi...



[Parent participation in the treatment of dyslexic children - the results of a paper-pencil questionnaire].

Fri, 20 Nov 2015 11:36:18 +0100

This study examined the degree and manner of involving parents in the treatment of dyslexic children. The study also identified therapeutic variables predicting the extent of parent involvement and the reasons for any instances of failed involvement. METHOD: A sample of 53 out of 120 randomly selected German dyslexia therapists (response rate: 44 %) filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire assessing the degree and manner of parent involvement in the treatment of dyslexic children. Furthermore, therapists' attitudes toward parent involvement and their subjective competence when working with parents were assessed. RESULTS: The most common forms of parent involvement occurred during anamnesis and when drawing up recommendations for home exercises. The therapists' attitudes toward worki...



Globular Glial Tauopathy Presenting as Semantic Variant PPA

Mon, 16 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This case report describes a woman in her 60s who presented with progressive anomia with loss of word knowledge, prosopagnosia, and surface dyslexia. (Source: JAMA Neurology)



Spatial attention and reading ability: ERP correlates of flanker and cue-size effects in good and poor adult phonological decoders.

Mon, 09 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Matthews AJ, Martin FH Abstract To investigate facilitatory and inhibitory processes during selective attention among adults with good (n=17) and poor (n=14) phonological decoding skills, a go/nogo flanker task was completed while EEG was recorded. Participants responded to a middle target letter flanked by compatible or incompatible flankers. The target was surrounded by a small or large circular cue which was presented simultaneously or 500ms prior. Poor decoders showed a greater RT cost for incompatible stimuli preceded by large cues and less RT benefit for compatible stimuli. Poor decoders also showed reduced modulation of ERPs by cue-size at left hemisphere posterior sites (N1) and by flanker compatibility at right hemisphere posterior sites (N1) and frontal sites (N2...



List of reviewers

Thu, 05 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: Dyslexia)

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What It's Like to Be Allergic to Water

Tue, 03 Nov 2015 00:45:13 +0100

(Photo-Illustration: Photos: Corbis) By Alexa Tsoulis-Reay In 1963, a 15-year-old girl presented herself to a pair of dermatologists in Pennsylvania complaining that she'd broken out in angry, red lesions after a session of waterskiing. That first mysterious outbreak became a trend: Blotchy, itchy hives would pop up all over her limbs every time she took a bath, went swimming, or perspired heavily. The doctors conducted a series of tests to rule out obvious possible triggers like cold and, using a hand towel soaked in distilled water, identified a condition called aquagenic urticaria: Sufferers are so sensitive to pure water it causes them to erupt in hives within minutes of exposure. The doctors were perplexed, noting in their report that "water is the most trusted compound in the unive...



fNIRS brain imaging investigation of phonological awareness and passage comprehension abilities in adult recipients of Cochlear Implants.

Tue, 03 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: The results demonstrate that CI recipients show an overall neurotypical pattern of activation during auditory language tasks during which individuals with neurodevelopmental language learning impairments, such as dyslexia, tend to show atypical brain activation. These findings suggest that advancements in fNIRS neuroimaging with CI recipients may help shed new light on how varying types of difficulties in language processing impact brain organization for language. PMID: 26535956 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR)



Early intervention in dyslexia can narrow achievement gap

Mon, 02 Nov 2015 23:42:16 +0100

Data demonstrate marked differences already present in first grade between typical and dyslexic readers. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)



Early intervention in dyslexia can narrow achievement gap, UC Davis study says

Mon, 02 Nov 2015 05:00:00 +0100

(University of California - Davis) Data demonstrate marked differences already present in first grade between typical anddyslexic readers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)



Print‐Tuning Lateralization and Handedness: an Event‐Related Potential Study in Dyslexic Higher Education Students

Sun, 01 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Despite their ample reading experience, higher education students with dyslexia still show deficits in reading and reading‐related skills. Lateralized print tuning, the early sensitivity to print of the left parietal cortex signalled by the N1 event‐related potential (ERP) component, differs between beginning dyslexic readers and controls. For adults, the findings are mixed. The present study aims to investigate whether print tuning, as indexed by the N1 component, differs between 24 students with dyslexia and 15 non‐dyslexic controls. Because handedness has been linked to lateralization, first, a separate analysis was conducted including only right‐handed participants (n = 12 in both groups), like in most previous studies. ERPs were measured during a judgement task, requiring ...

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Evaluation of the Bangor Dyslexia Test (BDT) for use with Adults

Sun, 01 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

We examined the psychometric properties of the BDT and evaluated its capacity to discriminate between adults with and without dyslexia. A large archival sample of university students with dyslexia (n = 193) and students with no reported literacy difficulties (n = 40) were compared on the BDT as well as on literacy and cognitive measures. Statistical analyses revealed the BDT to be a reliable (α = .72) and valid dyslexia screening tool with the capacity to effectively identify adults at risk of the disorder with an overall classification rate of 94% (sensitivity 96.4% and specificity 82.5%). In addition, higher indices of dyslexia risk on the BDT were associated with lower scores on standardized measures of literacy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (Source: Dyslex...



Reading Test—Sentence Comprehension: An Adapted Version of Lobrot's Lecture 3 Test for Brazilian Portuguese

Sun, 01 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Our aim was to analyse the linguistic structure of the Lobrot's Lecture 3 (L3) reading test and to describe the procedure for its adaptation to a Brazilian cultural‐linguistic context. The resulting adapted version is called the Reading Test—Sentence Comprehension [Teste de Leitura: Compreensão de Sentenças (TELCS)] and was developed using the European Portuguese adaptation of L3 as a reference. The present study was conducted in seven steps: (1) classification of the response alternatives of L3 test; (2) adaptation of the original sentences into Brazilian Portuguese; (3) back‐translation; (4) adaptation of the distractors from TELCS; (5) configuration of TELCS; (6) pilot study; and (7) validation and standardization. In comparison with L3, TELCS included new linguistic and structu...



An insight of lung cysts with filamin A mutation

Fri, 30 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: We think that these severe lung manifestations may have resulted from FLNA mutation. Extra-neurological features have already been described in patients with X-linked periventricular nodular heterotopia, and lung manifestations may be another expression of this multisystem disorder. The occurrence of emphysema, aortic aneurysm, joint hypermobility, skeletal dysplasia, otopalatodigital spectrum disorders, epilepsia, dyslexia should be considered that FLNA can cause this phenotype. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)



Musical training may give your brain waves more rhythm

Mon, 26 Oct 2015 19:00:00 +0100

Musicians are better than the rest of us at synchronising their brains to slow music. The finding suggests music training could help people with dyslexia (Source: New Scientist - Health)



Auditory processing and morphological anomalies in medial geniculate nucleus of Cntnap2 mutant mice.

Mon, 26 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Genetic epidemiological studies support a role for CNTNAP2 in developmental language disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, specific language impairment, and dyslexia. Atypical language development and function represent a core symptom of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with evidence suggesting that aberrant auditory processing—including impaired spectrotemporal processing and enhanced pitch perception—may both contribute to an anomalous language phenotype. Investigation of gene–brain-behavior relationships in social and repetitive ASD symptomatology have benefited from experimentation on the Cntnap2 knockout (KO) mouse. However, auditory-processing behavior and effects on neural structures within the central auditory pathway have not been assessed in this model. Thus, this stud...

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Decoding Dyslexia RI - Dyslexia Awareness Month Event

Fri, 23 Oct 2015 20:09:49 +0100

Decoding Dyslexia RI announces its collaboration with Rhode Island Advocacy for Children to organize and informative evening with top experts speaking on what challenges the state of Rhode Island faces when it comes to serving students with language based learning differences. This event will be held at: Warwick Public Library, 600 Sandy Lane, in Warwick, RI From: 6:00 - 8:00 PM on Wednesday, October 28, 2015. (Source: Disabled World)



Read my mind

Fri, 23 Oct 2015 16:29:24 +0100

Dyslexia is a difficulty in reading unexpected in relation to intelligence. This language disorder likely is rooted in difficulties processing the sounds of speech and unawareness of phonemes, the smallest elements of sound. Perhaps 1 in 20 (or more) school children suffer from this learning disability; and most are not identified until third grade or later. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)



Implicit learning of non-linguistic and linguistic regularities in children with dyslexia.

Thu, 22 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we examined the abilities of children with dyslexia to implicitly acquire positional regularities embedded in both non-linguistic and linguistic stimuli. In experiment 1, 42 children (21 with dyslexia and 21 typically developing) were exposed to rule-governed shape sequences; whereas in experiment 2, a new group of 42 children were exposed to rule-governed letter strings. Implicit learning was assessed in both experiments via a forced-choice task. Experiments 1 and 2 showed a similar pattern of results. ANOVA analyses revealed no significant differences between the dyslexic and the typically developing group, indicating that children with dyslexia are not impaired in the acquisition of simple positional regularities, regardless of the nature of the stimuli. However, within g...



Facial speech gestures: the relation between visual speech processing, phonological awareness, and developmental dyslexia in 10‐year‐olds

Wed, 21 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Successful communication in everyday life crucially involves the processing of auditory and visual components of speech. Viewing our interlocutor and processing visual components of speech facilitates speech processing by triggering auditory processing. Auditory phoneme processing, analyzed by event‐related brain potentials (ERP), has been shown to be associated with impairments in reading and spelling (i.e. developmental dyslexia), but visual aspects of phoneme processing have not been investigated in individuals with such deficits. The present study analyzed the passive visual Mismatch Response (vMMR) in school children with and without developmental dyslexia in response to video‐recorded mouth movements pronouncing syllables silently. Our results reveal that both groups of ...



Cognitive impairment and spontaneous epilepsy in rats with malformations of cortical development

Sun, 18 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Malformations of cortical development (MCD), which are also known as cortical dysplasia and neuronal migration disorder [1–3], result in greatly heterogeneous brain anatomy alterations and clinical manifestations, and these abnormalities are related to many neurological and psychiatric diseases, including epilepsy, mental retardation, dyslexia, schizophrenia, and autism [1]. MCD has been accepted in recent years as one of the main causes of intractable epilepsy. The use of imaging and pathological and genetic techniques has shown that MCD is one of the causes of cryptogenic and symptomatic epilepsies [4]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)

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Gov. Signs New California Dyslexia Laws

Sat, 17 Oct 2015 12:31:05 +0100

Governor Jerry Brown recently signed important legislation (AB 1369 - Frazier, D - Oakley) aimed at helping dyslexic children in California public schools. This is the first time in over 20 years that dyslexia legislation has been enacted in the State of California. (Source: Disabled World)



Dyslexia—Early Identification and Prevention: Highlights from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia

Fri, 16 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Over two decades of Finnish research, monitoring children born with risk for dyslexia has been carried out in the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia (JLD). Two hundred children, half at risk, have been assessed from birth to puberty on hundreds of measures. The aims were to identify measures of prediction of later reading difficulty and to instigate appropriate and earliest diagnosis and intervention. We can identify at-risk children from newborn electroencephalographic brain recordings (Guttorm et al., J Neural Transm 110:1059–1074, 2003). Predictors are also apparent from late-talking infants who have familial background of dyslexia (Lyytinen and Lyytinen, Appl Psycolinguistics 25:397–411, 2004). The earliest easy-to-use predictive measure to identify childr...



Neurodevelopmental sequelae associated with gray and white matter changes and their cellular basis: A comparison between Autism Spectrum Disorder, ADHD and dyslexia.

Thu, 15 Oct 2015 07:14:05 +0100

Authors: Bennett MR, Lagopoulos J Abstract Many psychiatric diseases, such as major depression and schizophrenia, are accompanied by patterns of gray matter and white matter changes in the cortex that may be due to structural pathologies of synapses and their dendrites in the gray matter on the one hand and to pathologies in myelinating oligodendrocytes on the other. Here the possibility has been briefly examined that such a generalization might also hold for Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Evidence is presented that gray matter changes that accompany ASD may in fact reflect changes in synapses and subsequently of their dendrites, whereas those in the white matter reflect changes in myelination due to pathologies of oligodendrocytes. It is proposed that such structural pathologi...



Speech Perception and Working Memory in Children with Residual Speech Errors: A Case Study Analysis.

Wed, 14 Oct 2015 12:02:04 +0100

This study provides an exploratory investigation into the profiles of three 9-year-old children: one with residual speech errors, one with residual speech errors and dyslexia, and one who demonstrated typical, age-appropriate speech sound production and reading skills. We provide an in-depth examination of their relative abilities in the areas of speech perception, phonological working memory, vocabulary, and word reading. Based on these preliminary explorations, we suggest implications for the assessment and treatment of children with residual speech errors and/or dyslexia. PMID: 26458199 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Seminars in Speech and Language)



Speech Perception and Working Memory in Children with Residual Speech Errors: A Case Study Analysis

Mon, 12 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This study provides an exploratory investigation into the profiles of three 9-year-old children: one with residual speech errors, one with residual speech errors and dyslexia, and one who demonstrated typical, age-appropriate speech sound production and reading skills. We provide an in-depth examination of their relative abilities in the areas of speech perception, phonological working memory, vocabulary, and word reading. Based on these preliminary explorations, we suggest implications for the assessment and treatment of children with residual speech errors and/or dyslexia.[...]Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Speech and Language)

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Genetic variant in DIP2A gene is associated with developmental dyslexia in Chinese population

Fri, 09 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, this study showed that a genetic variant in the DIP2A gene was associated with increased DD risk in China. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics)



Difficulty processing speech may be an effect of dyslexia, not a cause

Thu, 08 Oct 2015 17:10:50 +0100

The cognitive skills used to learn how to ride a bike may be the key to a more accurate understanding of developmental dyslexia. And, they may lead to improved interventions. Scientists investigated how procedural learning how individuals with dyslexia learn speech sound categories. They found that learning complex auditory categories through procedural learning is impaired in dyslexia. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)



The relations between reading and spelling: an examination of subtypes of reading disability.

Thu, 08 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This study set out to examine whether these groups can be found in adults, readers and spellers of Hebrew, which differs from the previously studied orthographies in many aspects. To this end, Hebrew-speaking adults with or without reading disability were administered various literacy and literacy-related tests. Results confirm the existence of the same three groups. While all shared a phonological deficit, subtle differences in phonological decoding ability and in speed of processing distinguished between the groups. The study therefore suggests that the previously reported associations and dissociations between reading and spelling are not restricted to English, German, or French and may not be only developmental in nature. PMID: 26449477 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ...



Preservice teacher knowledge of basic language constructs in Canada, England, New Zealand, and the USA.

Thu, 08 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Washburn EK, Binks-Cantrell ES, Joshi RM, Martin-Chang S, Arrow A Abstract The present study examined preservice teachers' (PSTs) knowledge of basic language constructs across four different English-speaking teacher preparations programs. A standardized survey was administered to participants from Canada (n = 80), England (n = 55), New Zealand (n = 26), and the USA (n = 118). All participants were enrolled in undergraduate university programs that led to teacher certification for general education in the primary grades. Our data reveal that preservice teachers from all four countries show patterns of relative strength in areas that were targeted to be crucial within their national initiatives. Nevertheless, in general, PSTs demonstrated a lack of knowledge ...



Prognosis and Treatment of Visual Field Defects

Tue, 06 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Semin Neurol 2015; 35: 549-556DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1563573Visual field deficits are common in neurologic disease conditions such as cerebrovascular disease, traumatic brain injury, and brain tumors. Loss of visual fields may lead to impairment of reading skills (hemianopic dyslexia) and limitations of daily activities such as driving, which can have a significant impact on an individual's socioeconomic status and quality of life. Moreover, patients with motor deficits from neurologic diseases have a 20% decreased likelihood of achieving independence in ambulation and self-care activities with coexisting hemianopia. Studies on the natural history of homonymous hemianopia have shown that spontaneous improvement of visual fields may occur in less than 40% of individuals early in the disease pr...

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Behavioral and Neuroimaging Research of Reading: a Case of Japanese

Fri, 02 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Behavioral studies showed that AS, an English-Japanese bilingual, was a skilled reader in Japanese but was a phonological dyslexic in English. This behavioral dissociation was accounted for by the Hypothesis of Transparency and Granularity postulated by Wydell and Butterworth. However, a neuroimaging study using magnetoencephalography (MEG) revealed that AS has the same functional deficit in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG). This paper therefore offers an answer to this intriguing discrepancy between the behavioral dissociation and the neural unity in AS by reviewing existing behavioral and neuroimaging studies in alphabetic languages such as English, Finnish, French, and Italian, and nonalphabetic languages such as Japanese and Chinese. (Source: Current Development...



National Health Survey Should Include Dyslexia in Communication Disorder Counts

Thu, 01 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

The August Leader News in Brief article “Almost 8 Percent of U.S. Children Have a Communication or Swallowing Disorder” provided information from the National Health Interview Survey report, which cited communication disorders as speech, language and voice problems, with no mention of dyslexia. Because dyslexia occurs far more often than the reported “3.3 percent language problems,” it could not have been included in that figure. (Source: The ASHA Leader Online)



“Shall We Play a Game?”: Improving Reading Through Action Video Games in Developmental Dyslexia

Mon, 28 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Impaired linguistic-phonological processing is the most accepted explanation of developmental dyslexia (DD). However, growing literature shows that DD is the result of the combination of several neurocognitive causes. Visual attention and magnocellular-dorsal (MD) pathway deficits are now considered causes of DD. Interestingly, a large portion of literature showed that action video games (AVG) are able to improve attentional and perceptual skills in typical readers. Consequently, employing AVG trainings in individuals with DD could improve attention and perception, resulting in better reading skills. The aim of our review is to show the benefits of the AVG training on DD through the changes in the neurocognitive functions at the basis of learning to read. Since visual att...



Resting-State and Task-Based Functional Brain Connectivity in Developmental Dyslexia

Mon, 28 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Reading requires the interaction between multiple cognitive processes situated in distant brain areas. This makes the study of functional brain connectivity highly relevant for understanding developmental dyslexia. We used seed-voxel correlation mapping to analyse connectivity in a left-hemispheric network for task-based and resting-state fMRI data. Our main finding was reduced connectivity in dyslexic readers between left posterior temporal areas (fusiform, inferior temporal, middle temporal, superior temporal) and the left inferior frontal gyrus. Reduced connectivity in these networks was consistently present for 2 reading-related tasks and for the resting state, showing a permanent disruption which is also present in the absence of explicit task demands and potential group differences i...



What automaticity deficit? Activation of lexical information by readers with dyslexia in a rapid automatized naming Stroop-switch task.

Mon, 28 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less “automatized” access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with nondyslexic readers. We combined the RAN task with a Stroop-switch manipulation to test the automaticity of dyslexic and nondyslexic readers’ lexical access directly within a fluency task. Participants named letters in 10 × 4 arrays while eye movements and speech responses were recorded. Upon fixation, specific letter font colors changed from black to a different color, whereupon the participant was required to rapidly switch from naming the letter ...

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Mutation in CEP63 co-segregating with developmental dyslexia in a Swedish family

Wed, 23 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Developmental dyslexia is the most common learning disorder in children. Problems in reading and writing are likely due to a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors, resulting in reduced power of studies of the genetic factors underlying developmental dyslexia. Our approach in the current study was to perform exome sequencing of affected and unaffected individuals within an extended pedigree with a familial form of developmental dyslexia. We identified a two-base mutation, causing a p.R229L amino acid substitution in the centrosomal protein 63 kDa (CEP63), co-segregating with developmental dyslexia in this pedigree. This mutation is novel, and predicted to be highly damaging for the function of the protein. 3D modelling suggested a distinct conformationa...



Too little or too much? Parafoveal preview benefits and parafoveal load costs in dyslexic adults.

Wed, 23 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Silva S, Faísca L, Araújo S, Casaca L, Carvalho L, Petersson KM, Reis A Abstract Two different forms of parafoveal dysfunction have been hypothesized as core deficits of dyslexic individuals: reduced parafoveal preview benefits ("too little parafovea") and increased costs of parafoveal load ("too much parafovea"). We tested both hypotheses in a single eye-tracking experiment using a modified serial rapid automatized naming (RAN) task. Comparisons between dyslexic and non-dyslexic adults showed reduced parafoveal preview benefits in dyslexics, without increased costs of parafoveal load. Reduced parafoveal preview benefits were observed in a naming task, but not in a silent letter-finding task, indicating that the parafoveal dysfunction may be consequent to the overload wi...



Language and reading instruction in early years' classrooms: the knowledge and self-rated ability of Australian teachers.

Wed, 23 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This study sought to investigate the level of knowledge of language constructs in a cohort of Australian teachers and to examine their self-rated ability and confidence in that knowledge. Seventy-eight teachers from schools across the Australian state of Victoria completed a questionnaire which included items from existing measures, as well as newly developed items. Consistent with a number of earlier Australian and international studies, teachers' explicit and implicit knowledge of basic linguistic constructs was limited and highly variable. A statistically significant correlation was found between (1) total self-rated ability and (2) years since qualification and experience teaching the early years of primary school; however, no relationship was found between self-rated ability and overa...



More bilateral, more anterior: Alterations of brain organization in the large-scale structural network in Chinese dyslexia

Sun, 20 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 1 January 2016 Source:NeuroImage, Volume 124, Part A Author(s): Ting Qi, Bin Gu, Guosheng Ding, Gaolang Gong, Chunming Lu, Danling Peng, Jeff G. Malins, Li Liu Abnormalities in large-scale brain networks have been recently reported in dyslexia; however, it remains unclear whether these abnormalities are congenital (due to dyslexia per se) or arise later in development. Here, structural magnetic resonance imaging data of 17 Chinese reading disabled (RD) and 17 age-matched typically developing (TD) children were used to construct cortical thickness (sensitive to postnatal development) and surface area (sensitive to prenatal development) networks. In the thickness network, compared to TD, RD showed reduced nodal network properties (e.g., degree and betweenness) in ...